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Neonatal. Premature, neonate, term baby, extremely low birth weight infants

Mark F Cotton, Sandi Holgate, Aurelie Nelson, Helena Rabie, Catherine Wedderburn, Mark Mirochnick
INTRODUCTION: There is new emphasis on identifying and treating HIV in the first days of life and also an appreciation that low birth weight (LBW) and preterm delivery (PTD) frequently accompany HIV-related pregnancy. Even in the absence of HIV, PTD and LBW contribute substantially to neonatal and infant mortality. HIV-exposed and -infected infants with these characteristics have received little attention thus far. As HIV programs expand to meet the 90-90-90 target for ending the HIV pandemic, attention should focus on newborn infants, including those delivered preterm or of LBW...
2015: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Silvia Orlandi, Carlos Alberto Reyes Garcia, Andrea Bandini, Gianpaolo Donzelli, Claudia Manfredi
OBJECTIVES: Scientific and clinical advances in perinatology and neonatology have enhanced the chances of survival of preterm and very low weight neonates. Infant cry analysis is a suitable noninvasive complementary tool to assess the neurologic state of infants particularly important in the case of preterm neonates. This article aims at exploiting differences between full-term and preterm infant cry with robust automatic acoustical analysis and data mining techniques. STUDY DESIGN: Twenty-two acoustical parameters are estimated in more than 3000 cry units from cry recordings of 28 full-term and 10 preterm newborns...
October 13, 2015: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
Anna Karin Ahlsén, Elinor Spong, Nomsa Kafumba, Francis Kamwendo, Kerstin Wolff
OBJECTIVE: Malawi has the highest estimated preterm birth rate in the world. The survival rate of these babies is not known. The main objective of this study was to demonstrate the short-term survival of infants with birth weight below 2500 g nursed in Bwaila Hospital, a district hospital, and the tertiary level Kamuzu Central Hospital (KCH) in Lilongwe. The specific objectives were to calculate birth weight specific survival rates, compare the two hospitals regarding the chances of survival and review the use of antenatal corticosteroids...
March 2015: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
M Todorova-Christova, R Vacheva, A Decheva, A Nikolov, B Slancheva, D Stoichkova, E Christova, E Shopova, S Hitrova, A Masseva, N Yarakova, I Kraleva, T S Takova, N Dimitrova, A Dobreva
This study examines neonatal group B streptococcal (GBS) colonization and its relation to early-onset GBS disease (EOGBSD), based upon the experience of leading obstetrics and gynecology centers in Bulgaria. The objectives of the study were to update neonatal colonization rates and to assess relationships between clinically differentiated cases (culture-proven GBS newborns) and risk factors inherent to the infant and mother, using a computerized file. The neonatal GBS colonization rate ranged from 5.48 to 12...
September 2014: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Francesca Agostini, Erica Neri, Sara Dellabartola, Augusto Biasini, Fiorella Monti
The study evaluated the quality of preterm infant-mother interactions, considering severity of birth weight (ELBW and VLBW) and maternal depression, compared to full term babies. 69 preterm infants (29 ELBW and 40 VLBW) and 80 full-term (FT) infants and their mothers were recruited. At 3 months of corrected age, the quality of mother-infant interaction was evaluated through Global Rating Scales; moreover, infant level of development and maternal depression were assessed through Griffith Development Mental Scales and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale...
February 2014: Infant Behavior & Development
Lucy K Smith, Elizabeth S Draper, David Field
This article focuses on the survival rates of the most immature babies considered viable from around the world. It discusses the various factors in terms of definition, inclusion criteria and policy which can result in marked differences in the apparent rates of delivery (all births), live birth, admission to neonatal intensive care and ultimately survival seen between otherwise similar countries, different regions of the same country, and even adjacent hospitals. Such variation in approach can result in major differences in reported survival and consequentially have large effects on apparent rates of adverse long-term outcome...
April 2014: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
A Scoppa, A Casani, F Cocca, C Coletta, M G De Luca, G Di Manso, L Grappone, N Pozzi, L Orfeo
Over the last decade, the survival of premature babies has improved dramatically. Such infants, especially those with extremely low birth weight, are still affected by dangerous complications occurring during the neonatal period that often cause brain damage. Intraventricular-intraparenchymal haemorrhage (IVH-IPH), periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), seizures, meningitis and hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy are the most common complications. Such problems require more specialized monitoring of brain function during this critical period...
October 2012: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Lloyd Tooke, Alan R Horn, Michael C Harrison
BACKGROUND: Prematurity increases the perinatal HIV transmission rate compared with term infants. There is sparse literature documenting the risk of transmission of HIV to extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk of perinatal transmission of HIV to ELBW infants in a tertiary neonatal unit in South Africa. METHODS: A prospective database was maintained on all inborn ELBW infants over a 1-year period from March 2010 to February 2011...
January 2013: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Robin K Whyte
Late and moderate preterm infants form the majority of admissions for prematurity to special care neonatal nurseries. Although at risk for acute disorders of prematurity, they do not suffer the serious long term risks and chronic illnesses of the extremely premature. The special challenges addressed here are of transition and of thermal adaptation, nutritional compensation for postnatal growth restriction, the establishment of early feeding, and the avoidance of post-discharge jaundice or apnea. These 'healthy' premature infants provide challenges for discharge planning, in that opportunities may be available for discharge well before the expected date of delivery, which should be pursued...
June 2012: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Daynia E Ballot, Joanne Potterton, Tobias Chirwa, Nicole Hilburn, Peter A Cooper
BACKGROUND: Advances in neonatal care allow survival of extremely premature infants, who are at risk of handicap. Neurodevelopmental follow up of these infants is an essential part of ongoing evaluation of neonatal care. The neonatal care in resource limited developing countries is very different to that in first world settings. Follow up data from developing countries is essential; it is not appropriate to extrapolate data from units in developed countries. This study provides follow up data on a population of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants in Johannesburg, South Africa...
2012: BMC Pediatrics
Maria Katarzyna Kornacka, Katarzyna Kufel
Cesarean section is the most commonly performed procedure all over the world. Both American and European data reveal constant and steady increase of pregnancies resolved by a cesarean section. The reasons include: growing number of medical indications or requests of the pregnant women. Regardless of the fact that elective cesarean section decreases the risk of intrauterine hypoxia, meconium aspiration and injury during labor it remains a significant risk factor for respiratory failure in the course of transient tachypnea of the newborn, infant respiratory distress syndrome and pulmonary hypertension, both for term and late preterm infants...
August 2011: Ginekologia Polska
Carl A Kuschel, Alison Kent
With improvements in neonatal intensive care over the past five decades, the limits of viability have reduced to around 24 weeks' gestation. While increasing survival has been the predominant driver leading to lowering the gestation at which care can be provided, these infants remain at significant risk of adverse long-term outcomes including neuro-developmental disability. Decisions about commencing and continuing intensive care are determined in partnership with parents, considering the best interests of the baby and the family...
September 2011: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Kristin Tanney, Jonathan Davis, Henry L Halliday, David G Sweet
BACKGROUND: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a major respiratory complication of extreme prematurity. Dexamethasone is effective in reducing ventilation requirements in babies with BPD, but follow-up studies have raised concerns about long-term neurological sequelae. Few studies have investigated the lowest dose effective for weaning from mechanical ventilation. OBJECTIVES: Between January 2004 and December 2008 the practice in a tertiary neonatal unit was to use extremely low doses of dexamethasone for severe BPD, commencing at 0...
2011: Neonatology
Maria K Kornacka, Ewa Musialik-Swietlińska, Janusz Swietliński, Janusz Ksiazyk, Marek Migdał, Grzegorz Brozek, Jan Zejda
INTRODUCTION: The paper discusses the reliability of the Apgar score for evaluating newborns, particularly its usefulness in assessing the state of preterm or full term newborns born with hypoxia. AIM: The paper provides a sum-up of the opinions on usefulness and reliability of the Apgar score given by doctors from 255 NICUs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data for the analysis were gathered by means of a questionnaire opinion poll sent to 158 primary referral centers, 71 secondary referral centers and 26 tertiary referral centers...
January 2011: Ginekologia Polska
Justyna Tołłoczko, Maria K Kornacka, Anna Sonczyk, Łukasz Zapała
BACKGROUND: The survival rate and quality of life of extremely low birthweight infants remain to be one of the main challenges of modern neonatology. Therefore, pre-term children born after 32 weeks of gestation with more normal birthweight, have become a relatively minor medical problem in comparison. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the following work was to compare the frequency of complications occurring in neonatal period in groups of late preterms and full-term neonates...
September 2010: Ginekologia Polska
G Moriette, S Rameix, E Azria, A Fournié, P Andrini, L Caeymaex, C Dageville, F Gold, P Kuhn, L Storme, U Siméoni et al.
With very preterm deliveries, the decision to institute intensive care, or, alternatively, to start palliative care and let the baby die, is extremely difficult, and involves complex ethical issues. The introduction of intensive care may result in long-term survival of many infants without severe disabilities, but it may also result in the survival of severely disabled infants. Conversely, the decision to withhold resuscitation and/or intensive care at birth, which is an option at the margin of viability, implies allowing babies to die, although some of them would have developed normally if they had received resuscitation and/or intensive care...
May 2010: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Gth Ellison, Lm Richter, T de Wet, He Harris, Rd Griesel, Ja McIntyre
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy of birth notification data collected during Birth to Ten, a longitudinal birth cohort study based in the Soweto-Johannesburg Metropole. Photocopies of birth notification forms were obtained from three local health authorities (Soweto, Diepmeadow and Johannesburg) for 5 448 of the 5 460 singleton births that occurred during seven weeks between April and June 1990, to women resident in Soweto-Johannesburg. By comparing the data recorded on the three different types of notification forms used by delivery centres within the Metropole, it was possible to assess the consistency of data collected during birth notification...
1997: Southern African Journal of Epidemiology & Infection
Nathalie Bednarek, Ahmad Akhavi, Christine Pietrement, François Mesmin, Gauthier Loron, Patrice Morville
Cerebellum injury is a severe and underestimated complication in very low birth-weight infants. Six cases of extreme premature babies are reported: 3 of them died during the neonatal period; the other 3 survived with severe neurological disabilities. Microcephaly, strabismus, and severe developmental delay without major motor handicap are very peculiar for the preterm in the long-term outcome. Easy diagnosis is possible by specific ultrasound windows and early diagnosis is required regarding the possible severe prognosis and to organize precisely the follow-up...
August 2008: Journal of Child Neurology
A Mukhopadhyay, R Keriakos
The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the obstetric management and perinatal outcome of extreme prematurity (22-27 weeks) in a busy teaching hospital between April 2004 and March 2005. A total of 57 babies were delivered in 49 women representing 0.9% of total births. A total of 67% of babies were transferred to the NICU and the survival rate for those who were admitted to the NICU was 47%. The overall survival rate for all births at hospital discharge was 32%. Caesarean section was carried out in 32% of the 49 mothers...
February 2008: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Pierre-Henri Jarreau
Recent advances in perinatology allow to take care routinely of extremely preterm babies. Medical problems as well as ethical questions raised by initiation and withdrawal of intensive care of these infants are discussed here. Successively are considered what population is concerned by the so-called limits of viability, the long-term results of the medical interventions and the ethical questions resulting of them.
January 15, 2008: La Revue du Praticien
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