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Thomas Bertero, William M Oldham, Katherine A Cottrill, Sabrina Pisano, Rebecca R Vanderpool, Qiujun Yu, Jingsi Zhao, Yiyin Tai, Ying Tang, Ying-Yi Zhang, Sofiya Rehman, Masataka Sugahara, Zhi Qi, John Gorcsan, Sara O Vargas, Rajan Saggar, Rajeev Saggar, W Dean Wallace, David J Ross, Kathleen J Haley, Aaron B Waxman, Victoria N Parikh, Teresa De Marco, Priscilla Y Hsue, Alison Morris, Marc A Simon, Karen A Norris, Cedric Gaggioli, Joseph Loscalzo, Joshua Fessel, Stephen Y Chan
Dysregulation of vascular stiffness and cellular metabolism occurs early in pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, the mechanisms by which biophysical properties of the vascular extracellular matrix (ECM) relate to metabolic processes important in PH remain undefined. In this work, we examined cultured pulmonary vascular cells and various types of PH-diseased lung tissue and determined that ECM stiffening resulted in mechanoactivation of the transcriptional coactivators YAP and TAZ (WWTR1). YAP/TAZ activation modulated metabolic enzymes, including glutaminase (GLS1), to coordinate glutaminolysis and glycolysis...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Zeynep Sener, Fritjof H Cederkvist, Roman Volchenkov, Halvor L Holen, Bjørn S Skålhegg
Immune responses often take place where nutrients and O2 availability are limited. This has an impact on T cell metabolism and influences activation and effector functions. T cell proliferation and expansion are associated with increased consumption of glutamine which is needed in a number of metabolic pathways and regulate various physiological processes. The first step in endogenous glutamine metabolism is reversible and is regulated by glutaminase (GLS1 and GLS2) and glutamine synthase (GLUL). There are two isoforms of GLS1, Kidney type glutaminase (KGA) and Glutaminase C (GAC)...
2016: PloS One
Yaqing Li, Xiaoran Li, Xiaoli Li, Yali Zhong, Yasai Ji, Dandan Yu, Mingzhi Zhang, Jian-Guo Wen, Hongquan Zhang, Mariusz Adam Goscinski, Jahn M Nesland, Zhenhe Suo
Alternative pathways of metabolism endowed cancer cells with metabolic stress. Inhibiting the related compensatory pathways might achieve synergistic anticancer results. This study demonstrated that pyruvate dehydrogenase E1α gene knockout (PDHA1 KO) resulted in alterations in tumor cell metabolism by rendering the cells with increased expression of glutaminase1 (GLS1) and glutamate dehydrogenase1 (GLUD1), leading to an increase in glutamine-dependent cell survival. Deprivation of glutamine induced cell growth inhibition, increased reactive oxygen species and decreased ATP production...
July 22, 2016: Oncotarget
Hye Min Kim, Yu Kyung Lee, Ja Seung Koo
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the expression of glutamine metabolism-related protein in tumor and stromal compartments among the histologic subtypes of thyroid cancer. RESULTS: GLS1 and GDH expression in tumor and stromal compartments were the highest in AC than in other subtypes. Tumoral ASCT2 expression was higher in MC but lower in FC (p < 0.001). In PTC, tumoral GLS1 and tumoral GDH expression was higher in the conventional type than in the follicular variant (p = 0...
July 18, 2016: Oncotarget
Dan-Dan Li, Bin-Wu Zhong, Hai-Xia Zhang, Hong-Yan Zhou, Jie Luo, Yang Liu, Gui-Chun Xu, Chun-Sheng Luan, Jun Fang
The degeneration of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells in the sub retinal pigment epithelial space and choroid is an initial pathological characteristic for the age-related macular degeneration which is the leading cause of severe vision loss in old people. Moreover, oxidative stress is implicated as a major inducer of RPE cell death. Here, we assessed the correlation between the H2O2-induced RPE cell death and glutamine metabolism. We found under low glutamine supply (20 %), the ARPE-19 cells were more susceptive to H2O2-induced apoptosis...
October 2016: Molecular Biology Reports
Jae-Seon Lee, Joon H Kang, Seon-Hyeong Lee, Chang-Hun Lee, Jaekyoung Son, Soo-Youl Kim
We found that non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is remarkably sensitive to the regulation of glutamine supply by testing the metabolic dependency of 11 cancer cell lines against regulation of glycolysis, autophagy, fatty acid synthesis, and glutamine supply. Glutamine is known as a key supplement of cancer cell growth that is converted to α-ketoglutarate for anabolic biogenesis via glutamate by glutaminase 1 (GLS1). GLS1 inhibition using 10 μM of bis-2-(5-phenylacetamido-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)ethyl sulfide (BPTES) showed about 50% cell growth arrest by SRB assay...
August 26, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Marina Bolzoni, Martina Chiu, Fabrizio Accardi, Rosanna Vescovini, Irma Airoldi, Paola Storti, Katia Todoerti, Luca Agnelli, Gabriele Missale, Roberta Andreoli, Massimiliano G Bianchi, Manfredi Allegri, Amelia Barilli, Francesco Nicolini, Albertina Cavalli, Federica Costa, Valentina Marchica, Denise Toscani, Cristina Mancini, Eugenia Martella, Valeria Dall'Asta, Gaetano Donofrio, Franco Aversa, Ovidio Bussolati, Nicola Giuliani
The importance of glutamine (Gln) metabolism in multiple myeloma (MM) cells and its potential role as a therapeutic target are still unknown, although it has been reported that human myeloma cell lines (HMCLs) are highly sensitive to Gln depletion. In this study, we found that both HMCLs and primary bone marrow (BM) CD138(+) cells produced large amounts of ammonium in the presence of Gln. MM patients have lower BM plasma Gln with higher ammonium and glutamate than patients with indolent monoclonal gammopathies...
August 4, 2016: Blood
Tanim Jabid Hossain, Yoichiro Harada, Hiroto Hirayama, Haruna Tomotake, Akira Seko, Tadashi Suzuki
Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces two different α-glucosidases, Glucosidase 1 (Gls1) and Glucosidase 2 (Gls2), which are responsible for the removal of the glucose molecules from N-glycans (Glc3Man9GlcNAc2) of glycoproteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. Whether any additional α-glucosidases playing a role in catabolizing the glucosylated N-glycans are produced by this yeast, however, remains unknown. We report herein on a search for additional α-glucosidases in S. cerevisiae. To this end, the precise structures of cytosolic free N-glycans (FNGs), mainly derived from the peptide:N-glycanase (Png1) mediated deglycosylation of N-glycoproteins were analyzed in the endoplasmic reticulum α-glucosidase-deficient mutants...
2016: PloS One
Ahmed F Abdel-Magid
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 10, 2016: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Lili Guo, Bo Zhou, Zhengqing Liu, Ying Xu, Hao Lu, Meng Xia, Ensong Guo, Wanying Shan, Gang Chen, Changyu Wang
The PI3K/Akt/mTOR axis in ovarian cancer is frequently activated and implicated in tumorigenesis. Specific targeting of this pathway is therefore an attractive therapeutic approach for ovarian cancer. However, ovarian cancer cells are resistant to PP242, a dual inhibitor of mTORC1 and mTORC2. Interestingly, blockage of GLS1 with a selective inhibitor, CB839, or siRNA dramatically sensitized the PP242-induced cell death, as evident from increased PARP cleavage. The anti-cancer activity of CB-839 and PP242 was abrogated by the addition of the TCA cycle product α-ketoglutarate, indicating the critical function of GLS1 in ovarian cancer cell survival...
August 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1005726.].
January 2016: PLoS Genetics
Susana Mingote, Justine Masson, Celia Gellman, Gretchen M Thomsen, Chyuan-Sheng Lin, Robert J Merker, Inna Gaisler-Salomon, Yvonne Wang, Rachel Ernst, René Hen, Stephen Rayport
Genetic pharmacotherapy is an early drug development strategy for the identification of novel CNS targets in mouse models prior to the development of specific ligands. Here for the first time, we have implemented this strategy to address the potential therapeutic value of a glutamate-based pharmacotherapy for schizophrenia involving inhibition of the glutamate recycling enzyme phosphate-activated glutaminase. Mice constitutively heterozygous for GLS1, the gene encoding glutaminase, manifest a schizophrenia resilience phenotype, a key dimension of which is an attenuated locomotor response to propsychotic amphetamine challenge...
2015: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Su Yeon Lee, Hyun Min Jeon, Min Kyung Ju, Eui Kyong Jeong, Cho Hee Kim, Hye Gyeong Park, Song Iy Han, Ho Sung Kang
Most cancer cells depend on enhanced glucose and glutamine (Gln) metabolism for growth and survival. Oncogenic metabolism provides biosynthetic precursors for nucleotides, lipids, and amino acids; however, its specific roles in tumor progression are largely unknown. We previously showed that distal-less homeobox-2 (Dlx-2), a homeodomain transcription factor involved in embryonic and tumor development, induces glycolytic switch and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by inducing Snail expression. Here we show that Dlx-2 also induces the expression of the crucial Gln metabolism enzyme glutaminase (GLS1), which converts Gln to glutamate...
February 16, 2016: Oncotarget
Cen Zhang, Juan Liu, Yuhan Zhao, Xuetian Yue, Yu Zhu, Xiaolong Wang, Hao Wu, Felix Blanco, Shaohua Li, Gyan Bhanot, Bruce G Haffty, Wenwei Hu, Zhaohui Feng
Glutaminase (GLS) isoenzymes GLS1 and GLS2 are key enzymes for glutamine metabolism. Interestingly, GLS1 and GLS2 display contrasting functions in tumorigenesis with elusive mechanism; GLS1 promotes tumorigenesis, whereas GLS2 exhibits a tumor-suppressive function. In this study, we found that GLS2 but not GLS1 binds to small GTPase Rac1 and inhibits its interaction with Rac1 activators guanine-nucleotide exchange factors, which in turn inhibits Rac1 to suppress cancer metastasis. This function of GLS2 is independent of GLS2 glutaminase activity...
2016: ELife
Yunxia Ge, Xiaodan Yan, Yiguang Jin, Xinyu Yang, Xiang Yu, Liqing Zhou, Sichong Han, Qipeng Yuan, Ming Yang
Accumulated evidence demonstrated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a pivotal role in tumorigenesis. However, it is still largely unknown how these lncRNAs were regulated by small ncRNAs, such as microRNAs (miRNAs), at the post-transcriptional level. We here use lncRNA HOTTIP as an example to study how miRNAs impact lncRNAs expression and its biological significance in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). LncRNA HOTTIP is a vital oncogene in HCC, one of the deadliest cancers worldwide. In the current study, we identified miR-192 and miR-204 as two microRNAs (miRNAs) suppressing HOTTIP expression via the Argonaute 2 (AGO2)-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) pathway in HCC...
December 2015: PLoS Genetics
Jhudit Pérez-Escuredo, Rajesh K Dadhich, Suveera Dhup, Andrea Cacace, Vincent F Van Hée, Christophe J De Saedeleer, Martina Sboarina, Fabien Rodriguez, Marie-Joséphine Fontenille, Lucie Brisson, Paolo E Porporato, Pierre Sonveaux
Oxygenated cancer cells have a high metabolic plasticity as they can use glucose, glutamine and lactate as main substrates to support their bioenergetic and biosynthetic activities. Metabolic optimization requires integration. While glycolysis and glutaminolysis can cooperate to support cellular proliferation, oxidative lactate metabolism opposes glycolysis in oxidative cancer cells engaged in a symbiotic relation with their hypoxic/glycolytic neighbors. However, little is known concerning the relationship between oxidative lactate metabolism and glutamine metabolism...
2016: Cell Cycle
Rance Nault, Kelly A Fader, Mathew P Kirby, Shaimaa Ahmed, Jason Matthews, A Daniel Jones, Sophia Y Lunt, Timothy R Zacharewski
The environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) elicits dose-dependent hepatotoxicity that includes fat accumulation, inflammation, and fibrosis that may progress to hepatocellular carcinoma. To further investigate these effects, RNA-Seq data were integrated with computationally identified putative dioxin response elements, and complementary targeted metabolomic and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ChIP-Seq data from female C57BL/6 mice gavaged with TCDD every 4 days for 28 days. Data integration using CytoKEGG with manual curation identified dose-dependent alterations in central carbon and amino acid metabolism...
February 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Daibiao Xiao, Ping Ren, Hexiu Su, Ming Yue, Ruijuan Xiu, Yufeng Hu, Hudan Liu, Guoliang Qing
Deamidation of glutamine to glutamate by glutaminase 1 (GLS1, also called GLS) and GLS2 is an essential step in both glutaminolysis and glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis. However, mechanisms whereby cancer cells regulate glutamine catabolism remains largely unknown. We report here that N-Myc, an essential Myc family member, promotes conversion of glutamine to glutamate in MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cells by directly activating GLS2, but not GLS1, transcription. Abrogation of GLS2 function profoundly inhibited glutaminolysis, which resulted in feedback inhibition of aerobic glycolysis likely due to thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) activation, dramatically decreasing cell proliferation and survival in vitro and in vivo...
December 1, 2015: Oncotarget
Gaurab Chakrabarti, Zachary R Moore, Xiuquan Luo, Mariya Ilcheva, Aktar Ali, Mahesh Padanad, Yunyun Zhou, Yang Xie, Sandeep Burma, Pier P Scaglioni, Lewis C Cantley, Ralph J DeBerardinis, Alec C Kimmelman, Costas A Lyssiotis, David A Boothman
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDA) activate a glutamine-dependent pathway of cytosolic nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) production to maintain redox homeostasis and support proliferation. Enzymes involved in this pathway (GLS1 (mitochondrial glutaminase 1), GOT1 (cytoplasmic glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase 1), and GOT2 (mitochondrial glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase 2)) are highly upregulated in PDA, and among these, inhibitors of GLS1 were recently deployed in clinical trials to target anabolic glutamine metabolism...
2015: Cancer & Metabolism
Haitang Wang, Wei Liu, Yehua Cai, Lulu Ma, Chao Ma, Ailun Luo, Yuguang Huang
Chronic post-surgical pain (CPSP) is a normal and significant symptom in clinical surgery, such as breast operation, biliary tract operation, cesarean operation, uterectomy and thoracic operation. Severe chronic post-surgical pain could increase post-surgical complications, including myocardial ischemia, respiratory insufficiency, pneumonia and thromboembolism. However, the underlying mechanism is still unknown. Herein, a rat CPSP model was produced via thoracotomy. After surgery, in an initial study, 5 out of 12 rats after surgery showed a significant decrease in mechanical withdrawal threshold and/or increase in the number of acetone-evoked responses, and therefore classified as the CPSP group...
February 2016: Amino Acids
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