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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807590/mitochondrial-haplogroups-as-a-risk-factor-for-herpes-zoster
#1
Rebecca T Levinson, Todd Hulgan, Spyros A Kalams, Joshua P Fessel, David C Samuels
Background.  Herpes zoster, or shingles, is a common, painful reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus infection. Understanding host factors that predispose to herpes zoster may permit development of more effective prevention strategies. Our objective was to examine mitochondrial haplogroups as a potential host factor related to herpes zoster incidence. Methods.  Study participants were drawn from BioVU, a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) biobank connected to deidentified electronic medical records (EMRs) from Vanderbilt University Medical Center...
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795427/the-glycoprotein-b-cytoplasmic-domain-lysine-cluster-is-critical-for-varicella-zoster-virus-cell-cell-fusion-regulation-and-infection
#2
Edward Yang, Ann M Arvin, Stefan L Oliver
: The conserved glycoproteins gB and gH-gL are essential for herpesvirus entry and cell-cell fusion induced syncytia formation, a characteristic of Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) pathology in skin and sensory ganglion. VZV syncytia formation, which has been implicated in the painful condition of postherpetic neuralgia, is regulated by the cytoplasmic domains of gB (gBcyt) via an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif (ITIM) and gH (gHcyt). A lysine cluster (K894, K897, K898, and K900) in the VZV gBcyt was identified by sequence alignment to be conserved among alphaherpesviruses suggesting a functional role...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795423/dysregulated-glycoprotein-b-mediated-cell-cell-fusion-disrupts-varicella-zoster-virus-and-host-gene-transcription-during-infection
#3
Stefan L Oliver, Edward Yang, Ann M Arvin
: The highly conserved herpesvirus glycoprotein complex, gB/gH-gL, mediates membrane fusion during virion entry and cell-cell fusion. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) characteristically forms multi-nucleated cells, or syncytia, during the infection of human tissues but little is known about this process. The cytoplasmic domain of VZV gB (gBcyt) has been implicated in cell-cell fusion regulation because a gB[Y881F] substitution causes hyperfusion. The gBcyt regulation is necessary for VZV pathogenesis as the hyperfusogenic mutant gB[Y881F] is severely attenuated in human skin xenografts...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720342/national-and-state-specific-shingles-vaccination-among-adults-aged-%C3%A2-60-years
#4
Peng-Jun Lu, Alissa O'Halloran, Walter W Williams, Rafael Harpaz
INTRODUCTION: Shingles (herpes zoster) causes substantial morbidity, especially among older adults. The shingles vaccine has been recommended for people aged ≥60 years since 2006. This study assessed recent shingles vaccination at national and state levels among adults aged ≥60 years. METHODS: The 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data were analyzed in 2015 to assess shingles vaccination coverage among adults aged ≥60 years at national and state levels...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703368/postherpetic-neuralgia-epidemiology-pathophysiology-and-pain-management-pharmacology
#5
Theresa Mallick-Searle, Brett Snodgrass, Jeannine M Brant
Herpes zoster, also known as shingles, is a distinctive clinical condition caused by the reactivation of latent varicella zoster (chickenpox) virus following an initial infection. Approximately 1 million cases of herpes zoster occur annually in the US, and one in every three people develops herpes zoster during their lifetime. Postherpetic neuralgia is a neuropathic pain syndrome characterized by pain that persists for months to years after resolution of the herpes zoster rash. It stems from damage to peripheral and central neurons that may be a byproduct of the immune/inflammatory response accompanying varicella zoster virus reactivation...
2016: Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671850/shedding-light-on-shingles-the-power-of-prevention
#6
Lawrence Herman, Myron J Levin, Susan Rehm
Shingles, or herpes zoster (HZ), is a common secondary infection caused by a reactivated varicella zoster virus (VZV). More than 95% of immunocompetent individuals aged at least 50 years are seropositive for VZV and are therefore at risk for developing HZ. Age-related increased incidence of HZ and its complications are thought to be related to the decline in cell-mediated immunity. Complications of HZ, which create a significant patient and economic burden, may be neurological, ophthalmological, dermatological, or visceral...
October 2016: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598743/management-and-prevention-of-herpes-zoster-in-the-immunocompromised-inflammatory-bowel-disease-patient-a-clinical-quandary
#7
Justin Côté-Daigneault, Farhad Peerani, Eithne MacMahon, Emmanuel Delaporte, Jean-François Rahier, Jean-Frédéric Colombel
Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), the 2 main clinical phenotypes of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), are diseases that result from a dysregulated immune response to gut microbiota in genetically susceptible hosts. This aberrant immune response may intrinsically predispose IBD patients to infectious complications. Moreover, immunosuppressive medications used to treat IBD including corticosteroids, thiopurines, methotrexate, calcineurin inhibitors, anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) agents and other biologics, further increase patients' susceptibility to opportunistic infections...
October 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583212/adult-immunization-need-of-the-hour
#8
REVIEW
P Srinivas Chakravarthi, Avani Ganta, Vivekanand S Kattimani, Rahul V C Tiwari
Immunization is the process or the act of making individuals immune, which is usually done during childhood. Everyone is aware about immunization during childhood, however, very few know about adult immunization. This led us to review the adult immunization literature for the preventive strategies through various vaccination protocols. Adults do require vaccination protocols with booster doses for hepatitis B, Shingles, communicable diseases, traveler's diseases, etc. In this context, this article revises much of the available adult immunization literature and presents comprehensive guidelines...
July 2016: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563537/microbiology-laboratory-and-the-management-of-mother-child-varicella-zoster-virus-infection
#9
REVIEW
Massimo De Paschale, Pierangelo Clerici
Varicella-zoster virus, which is responsible for varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (shingles), is ubiquitous and causes an acute infection among children, especially those aged less than six years. As 90% of adults have had varicella in childhood, it is unusual to encounter an infected pregnant woman but, if the disease does appear, it can lead to complications for both the mother and fetus or newborn. The major maternal complications include pneumonia, which can lead to death if not treated. If the virus passes to the fetus, congenital varicella syndrome, neonatal varicella (particularly serious if maternal rash appears in the days immediately before or after childbirth) or herpes zoster in the early years of life may occur depending on the time of infection...
August 12, 2016: World Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27440893/varicella-zoster-virus-activates-creb-and-inhibition-of-the-pcreb-p300-cbp-interaction-inhibits-viral-replication-in-vitro-and-skin-pathogenesis-in-vivo
#10
Sylvie François, Nandini Sen, Bryan Mitton, Xiangshu Xiao, Kathleen M Sakamoto, Ann Arvin
UNLABELLED: Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is an alphaherpesvirus that causes varicella upon primary infection and zoster upon reactivation from latency in sensory ganglion neurons. The replication of herpesviruses requires manipulation of cell signaling pathways. Notably, CREB, a factor involved in the regulation of several cellular processes, is activated upon infection of T cells with VZV. Here, we report that VZV infection also induced CREB phosphorylation in fibroblasts and that XX-650-23, a newly identified inhibitor of the phosphorylated-CREB (pCREB) interaction with p300/CBP, restricted cell-cell spread of VZV in vitro CREB phosphorylation did not require the viral open reading frame 47 (ORF47) and ORF66 kinases encoded by VZV...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27440875/deep-sequencing-of-distinct-preparations-of-the-live-attenuated-varicella-zoster-virus-vaccine-reveals-a-conserved-core-of-attenuating-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms
#11
Daniel P Depledge, Koichi Yamanishi, Yasuyuki Gomi, Anne A Gershon, Judith Breuer
UNLABELLED: The continued success of the live attenuated varicella-zoster virus vaccine in preventing varicella-zoster and herpes zoster is well documented, as are many of the mutations that contribute to the attenuation of the vOka virus for replication in skin. At least three different preparations of vOka are marketed. Here, we show using deep sequencing of seven batches of vOka vaccine (including ZostaVax, VariVax, VarilRix, and the Oka/Biken working seed) from three different manufacturers (VariVax, GSK, and Biken) that 137 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutations are present in all vaccine batches...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27440857/severe-perianal-shingles-during-azathioprine-and-budesonide-treatment-for-crohn-s-disease-preventable-with-zoster-vaccine
#12
Timothy Ross Elliott, Charles Miller, Finlay A Macrae
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), particularly those on immunosuppressive medications, suffer a high incidence of, and worse clinical outcomes relating to, herpes zoster (HZ) reactivation. We report on the presentation and management of a patient with Crohn's disease who developed severe perianal HZ after starting azathioprine and oral budesonide treatment. The zoster vaccine may prevent such zoster reactivation in patients with IBD. The zoster vaccine is effective in decreasing the risk of HZ in older adults but its role in younger adults and those with IBD has not been tested prospectively...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27348287/budget-impact-analysis-of-alternative-herpes-zoster-vaccine-strategies-a-u-s-hmo-perspective
#13
Jonathan Graham, Josephine Mauskopf, Kosuke Kawai, Kelly D Johnson, Ruifeng Xu, Camilo J Acosta
BACKGROUND: A herpes zoster vaccine has been approved by the FDA for use in prevention of herpes zoster in individuals who are aged 50 years or older. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends vaccination only in individuals who are aged 60 years and older. OBJECTIVES: To (a) estimate the overall budget and health impact of either the introduction of a new vaccination strategy (individuals over the age of 50 years vs. individuals over the age of 60 years) within a hypothetical health plan or simply an increase in coverage within the population aged 60 years and over and (b) discern what effect copayments and changes to copayments have on the health plan's budget...
July 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27295930/-manifestation-of-zoster-in-the-oral-cavity
#14
M Vered, A Zlotogorski-Hurvitz
Zoster (shingles) is assumed to affect 10-20% of the individuals who have been exposed to the varicella zoster virus (VZV). It is expected to develop among the elderly, usually on the background of a weakened immune system. In those cases that the trigeminal branches are involved by zoster, unilateral mucosal and cutaneous vesiculo-ulcerative lesions will develop. Intense pain usually precedes the overt lesions of zoster, which sometimes might mimic acute pain of dental origin. Careful anamnesis and thorough clinical examination should lead to a correct diagnosis...
January 2016: Journal of the Israel Dental Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27279620/role-for-the-%C3%AE-v-integrin-subunit-in-varicella-zoster-virus-mediated-fusion-and-infection
#15
Edward Yang, Ann M Arvin, Stefan L Oliver
UNLABELLED: Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is an alphaherpesvirus that causes varicella and herpes zoster. Membrane fusion is essential for VZV entry and the distinctive syncytium formation in VZV-infected skin and neuronal tissue. Herpesvirus fusion is mediated by a complex of glycoproteins gB and gH-gL, which are necessary and sufficient for VZV to induce membrane fusion. However, the cellular requirements of fusion are poorly understood. Integrins have been implicated to facilitate entry of several human herpesviruses, but their role in VZV entry has not yet been explored...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27202493/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-a-shingles-vaccination-program-to-prevent-herpes-zoster-and-post-herpetic-neuralgia-in-the-spanish-setting
#16
M J Álvarez Pasquín, R Cisterna, A Gil de Miguel, J L López-Belmonte, E Préaud, A Trejo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2014: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27189459/shingles-herpes-zoster-vaccine-zostavax-%C3%A2-a-review-in-the-prevention-of-herpes-zoster-and-postherpetic-neuralgia
#17
Gillian M Keating
Zostavax(®) is a live attenuated shingles (herpes zoster) vaccine approved in the EU for the prevention of herpes zoster (HZ) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) in adults aged ≥50 years. Zoster vaccine protected against HZ in adults aged 50-59 years (ZEST trial) and ≥60 years [Shingles Prevention Study (SPS)], and also reduced the burden of illness associated with HZ and the risk of PHN in adults aged ≥60 years (SPS). A large amount of real-world data also supports the efficacy of zoster vaccine. Results of the SPS Short- and Long-Term Persistence Substudies and real-world studies indicate that zoster vaccine provided continued benefit in the longer term, albeit with a gradual decline in vaccine efficacy over time; long-term effectiveness studies are ongoing...
June 2016: BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27188665/varicella-zoster-virus-infection
#18
Anne A Gershon, Judith Breuer, Jeffrey I Cohen, Randall J Cohrs, Michael D Gershon, Don Gilden, Charles Grose, Sophie Hambleton, Peter G E Kennedy, Michael N Oxman, Jane F Seward, Koichi Yamanishi
Infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes varicella (chickenpox), which can be severe in immunocompromised individuals, infants and adults. Primary infection is followed by latency in ganglionic neurons. During this period, no virus particles are produced and no obvious neuronal damage occurs. Reactivation of the virus leads to virus replication, which causes zoster (shingles) in tissues innervated by the involved neurons, inflammation and cell death - a process that can lead to persistent radicular pain (postherpetic neuralgia)...
July 2, 2015: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27172098/non-clinical-safety-assessment-of-single-and-repeated-administration-of-ge-as01-zoster-vaccine-in-rabbits
#19
Giulia Giordano, Lawrence Segal, Menk Prinsen, Marcel V W Wijnands, Nathalie Garçon, Eric Destexhe
HZ/su is an investigational recombinant subunit vaccine for the prevention of shingles, a disease resulting from the reactivation of varicella zoster virus. The vaccine is composed of recombinant varicella zoster virus glycoprotein E (gE), and liposome-based Adjuvant System AS01. To evaluate the potential local and systemic effects of this vaccine, three studies were performed in rabbits. In the first two studies, rabbits received a single intramuscular (IM; study 1) or subcutaneous (SC; study 2) dose of gE/AS01, AS01 alone (in study 2 only) or saline, and the local tolerance was evaluated up to 3 days after administration...
May 12, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27164323/herpes-zoster-and-the-search-for-an-effective-vaccine
#20
N Arnold, I Messaoudi
Primary infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV), an exclusively human neurotrophic alphaherpsesvirus, results in varicella, known more commonly as chickenpox. Like other alphaherpesviruses, VZV establishes latency in the sensory ganglia and can reactivate to cause herpes zoster (also known as shingles), a painful and debilitating disease, especially in elderly and immunocompromised individuals. The overall incidence of herpes zoster in Europe and the United States is three per 1000 people, but increases sharply after 60 years of age to 10 per 1000 people...
May 10, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
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