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Shingles vaccine

Peng-Jun Lu, Alissa O'Halloran, Walter W Williams, Rafael Harpaz
INTRODUCTION: Shingles (herpes zoster) causes substantial morbidity, especially among older adults. The shingles vaccine has been recommended for people aged ≥60 years since 2006. This study assessed recent shingles vaccination at national and state levels among adults aged ≥60 years. METHODS: The 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data were analyzed in 2015 to assess shingles vaccination coverage among adults aged ≥60 years at national and state levels...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Theresa Mallick-Searle, Brett Snodgrass, Jeannine M Brant
Herpes zoster, also known as shingles, is a distinctive clinical condition caused by the reactivation of latent varicella zoster (chickenpox) virus following an initial infection. Approximately 1 million cases of herpes zoster occur annually in the US, and one in every three people develops herpes zoster during their lifetime. Postherpetic neuralgia is a neuropathic pain syndrome characterized by pain that persists for months to years after resolution of the herpes zoster rash. It stems from damage to peripheral and central neurons that may be a byproduct of the immune/inflammatory response accompanying varicella zoster virus reactivation...
2016: Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare
Lawrence Herman, Myron J Levin, Susan Rehm
Shingles, or herpes zoster (HZ), is a common secondary infection caused by a reactivated varicella zoster virus (VZV). More than 95% of immunocompetent individuals aged at least 50 years are seropositive for VZV and are therefore at risk for developing HZ. Age-related increased incidence of HZ and its complications are thought to be related to the decline in cell-mediated immunity. Complications of HZ, which create a significant patient and economic burden, may be neurological, ophthalmological, dermatological, or visceral...
October 2016: American Journal of Medicine
Justin Côté-Daigneault, Farhad Peerani, Eithne MacMahon, Emmanuel Delaporte, Jean-François Rahier, Jean-Frédéric Colombel
Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), the 2 main clinical phenotypes of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), are diseases that result from a dysregulated immune response to gut microbiota in genetically susceptible hosts. This aberrant immune response may intrinsically predispose IBD patients to infectious complications. Moreover, immunosuppressive medications used to treat IBD including corticosteroids, thiopurines, methotrexate, calcineurin inhibitors, anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) agents and other biologics, further increase patients' susceptibility to opportunistic infections...
October 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
P Srinivas Chakravarthi, Avani Ganta, Vivekanand S Kattimani, Rahul V C Tiwari
Immunization is the process or the act of making individuals immune, which is usually done during childhood. Everyone is aware about immunization during childhood, however, very few know about adult immunization. This led us to review the adult immunization literature for the preventive strategies through various vaccination protocols. Adults do require vaccination protocols with booster doses for hepatitis B, Shingles, communicable diseases, traveler's diseases, etc. In this context, this article revises much of the available adult immunization literature and presents comprehensive guidelines...
July 2016: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
Massimo De Paschale, Pierangelo Clerici
Varicella-zoster virus, which is responsible for varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (shingles), is ubiquitous and causes an acute infection among children, especially those aged less than six years. As 90% of adults have had varicella in childhood, it is unusual to encounter an infected pregnant woman but, if the disease does appear, it can lead to complications for both the mother and fetus or newborn. The major maternal complications include pneumonia, which can lead to death if not treated. If the virus passes to the fetus, congenital varicella syndrome, neonatal varicella (particularly serious if maternal rash appears in the days immediately before or after childbirth) or herpes zoster in the early years of life may occur depending on the time of infection...
August 12, 2016: World Journal of Virology
Sylvie François, Nandini Sen, Bryan Mitton, Xiangshu Xiao, Kathleen M Sakamoto, Ann Arvin
UNLABELLED: Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is an alphaherpesvirus that causes varicella upon primary infection and zoster upon reactivation from latency in sensory ganglion neurons. The replication of herpesviruses requires manipulation of cell signaling pathways. Notably, CREB, a factor involved in the regulation of several cellular processes, is activated upon infection of T cells with VZV. Here, we report that VZV infection also induced CREB phosphorylation in fibroblasts and that XX-650-23, a newly identified inhibitor of the phosphorylated-CREB (pCREB) interaction with p300/CBP, restricted cell-cell spread of VZV in vitro CREB phosphorylation did not require the viral open reading frame 47 (ORF47) and ORF66 kinases encoded by VZV...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
Daniel P Depledge, Koichi Yamanishi, Yasuyuki Gomi, Anne A Gershon, Judith Breuer
UNLABELLED: The continued success of the live attenuated varicella-zoster virus vaccine in preventing varicella-zoster and herpes zoster is well documented, as are many of the mutations that contribute to the attenuation of the vOka virus for replication in skin. At least three different preparations of vOka are marketed. Here, we show using deep sequencing of seven batches of vOka vaccine (including ZostaVax, VariVax, VarilRix, and the Oka/Biken working seed) from three different manufacturers (VariVax, GSK, and Biken) that 137 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutations are present in all vaccine batches...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
Timothy Ross Elliott, Charles Miller, Finlay A Macrae
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), particularly those on immunosuppressive medications, suffer a high incidence of, and worse clinical outcomes relating to, herpes zoster (HZ) reactivation. We report on the presentation and management of a patient with Crohn's disease who developed severe perianal HZ after starting azathioprine and oral budesonide treatment. The zoster vaccine may prevent such zoster reactivation in patients with IBD. The zoster vaccine is effective in decreasing the risk of HZ in older adults but its role in younger adults and those with IBD has not been tested prospectively...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Jonathan Graham, Josephine Mauskopf, Kosuke Kawai, Kelly D Johnson, Ruifeng Xu, Camilo J Acosta
BACKGROUND: A herpes zoster vaccine has been approved by the FDA for use in prevention of herpes zoster in individuals who are aged 50 years or older. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends vaccination only in individuals who are aged 60 years and older. OBJECTIVES: To (a) estimate the overall budget and health impact of either the introduction of a new vaccination strategy (individuals over the age of 50 years vs. individuals over the age of 60 years) within a hypothetical health plan or simply an increase in coverage within the population aged 60 years and over and (b) discern what effect copayments and changes to copayments have on the health plan's budget...
July 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
M Vered, A Zlotogorski-Hurvitz
Zoster (shingles) is assumed to affect 10-20% of the individuals who have been exposed to the varicella zoster virus (VZV). It is expected to develop among the elderly, usually on the background of a weakened immune system. In those cases that the trigeminal branches are involved by zoster, unilateral mucosal and cutaneous vesiculo-ulcerative lesions will develop. Intense pain usually precedes the overt lesions of zoster, which sometimes might mimic acute pain of dental origin. Careful anamnesis and thorough clinical examination should lead to a correct diagnosis...
January 2016: Journal of the Israel Dental Association
Edward Yang, Ann M Arvin, Stefan L Oliver
UNLABELLED: Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is an alphaherpesvirus that causes varicella and herpes zoster. Membrane fusion is essential for VZV entry and the distinctive syncytium formation in VZV-infected skin and neuronal tissue. Herpesvirus fusion is mediated by a complex of glycoproteins gB and gH-gL, which are necessary and sufficient for VZV to induce membrane fusion. However, the cellular requirements of fusion are poorly understood. Integrins have been implicated to facilitate entry of several human herpesviruses, but their role in VZV entry has not yet been explored...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Virology
M J Álvarez Pasquín, R Cisterna, A Gil de Miguel, J L López-Belmonte, E Préaud, A Trejo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2014: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
Gillian M Keating
Zostavax(®) is a live attenuated shingles (herpes zoster) vaccine approved in the EU for the prevention of herpes zoster (HZ) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) in adults aged ≥50 years. Zoster vaccine protected against HZ in adults aged 50-59 years (ZEST trial) and ≥60 years [Shingles Prevention Study (SPS)], and also reduced the burden of illness associated with HZ and the risk of PHN in adults aged ≥60 years (SPS). A large amount of real-world data also supports the efficacy of zoster vaccine. Results of the SPS Short- and Long-Term Persistence Substudies and real-world studies indicate that zoster vaccine provided continued benefit in the longer term, albeit with a gradual decline in vaccine efficacy over time; long-term effectiveness studies are ongoing...
June 2016: BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy
Anne A Gershon, Judith Breuer, Jeffrey I Cohen, Randall J Cohrs, Michael D Gershon, Don Gilden, Charles Grose, Sophie Hambleton, Peter G E Kennedy, Michael N Oxman, Jane F Seward, Koichi Yamanishi
Infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes varicella (chickenpox), which can be severe in immunocompromised individuals, infants and adults. Primary infection is followed by latency in ganglionic neurons. During this period, no virus particles are produced and no obvious neuronal damage occurs. Reactivation of the virus leads to virus replication, which causes zoster (shingles) in tissues innervated by the involved neurons, inflammation and cell death - a process that can lead to persistent radicular pain (postherpetic neuralgia)...
2015: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
Giulia Giordano, Lawrence Segal, Menk Prinsen, Marcel V W Wijnands, Nathalie Garçon, Eric Destexhe
HZ/su is an investigational recombinant subunit vaccine for the prevention of shingles, a disease resulting from the reactivation of varicella zoster virus. The vaccine is composed of recombinant varicella zoster virus glycoprotein E (gE), and liposome-based Adjuvant System AS01. To evaluate the potential local and systemic effects of this vaccine, three studies were performed in rabbits. In the first two studies, rabbits received a single intramuscular (IM; study 1) or subcutaneous (SC; study 2) dose of gE/AS01, AS01 alone (in study 2 only) or saline, and the local tolerance was evaluated up to 3 days after administration...
May 12, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
N Arnold, I Messaoudi
Primary infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV), an exclusively human neurotrophic alphaherpsesvirus, results in varicella, known more commonly as chickenpox. Like other alphaherpesviruses, VZV establishes latency in the sensory ganglia and can reactivate to cause herpes zoster (also known as shingles), a painful and debilitating disease, especially in elderly and immunocompromised individuals. The overall incidence of herpes zoster in Europe and the United States is three per 1000 people, but increases sharply after 60 years of age to 10 per 1000 people...
May 10, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
E Costa, J Buxton, J Brown, K E Templeton, J Breuer, I Johannessen
A 79-year-old man with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia presented with fever and a widespread vesicular rash on 19 November 2014. The patient had not been under immunosuppressive regime for 6 months. He had received a shingles vaccine on 14th October and developed flu-like symptoms after 2 weeks. Intravenous antimicrobial therapy including aciclovir was started. He remained stable with no evidence of systemic involvement. On day 5, he developed respiratory and renal failure that required transfer to intensive care unit...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Piotr Albrecht, Marian Patrzałek, Paweł Goryński
BACKGROUND: Incidence of shingles in different regions of the world ranged from 300 to 500/100,000 persons, and in the population older than 80 years of age reaches more than 1000/100,000. In the age group 50+ the incidence is enough high to be a serious medical and economic burden. Lack of details about the incidence and frequency of complications in Polish population let us too made an attempt to assess the scale of the problem, among others to the purpose of the evaluation of the legitimacy of implementing vaccination in the 50+ population...
2015: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
Catherine Amlie-Lefond, Don Gilden
BACKGROUND: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a neurotropic, exclusively human herpesvirus. Primary infection causes varicella (chickenpox), after which the virus becomes latent in ganglionic neurons along the entire neuraxis. As cell-mediated immunity to VZV declines with advancing age and immunosuppression, VZV reactivates to produce zoster (shingles). One of the most serious complications of zoster is VZV vasculopathy. METHODS: We reviewed recent studies of stroke associated with varicella and zoster, how VZV vasculopathy is verified virologically, vaccination to prevent varicella and immunization to prevent zoster, and VZV in giant cell arteritis (GCA)...
July 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
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