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pancreatitis treatment

Clement Chung
PURPOSE: Current strategies for managing neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) in adult patients are reviewed, with a focus on medication safety concerns. SUMMARY: NETs usually originate in the gastrointestinal or bronchopulmonary tract. Symptoms due to hormonal hypersecretion often occur in patients with foregut or midgut NETs or liver metastases. Surgical resection is recommended for most localized NETs, while systemic cytotoxic chemotherapy is typically used for high-grade and pancreatic tumors...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
Jing Xue, Qinglan Zhao, Vishal Sharma, Linh P Nguyen, Yvonne N Lee, Kim L Pham, Mouad Edderkaoui, Stephen J Pandol, Walter Park, Aida Habtezion
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Cigarette smoke has been identified as an independent risk factor for chronic pancreatitis (CP). Little is known about the mechanisms by which smoking promotes development of CP. We assessed the effects of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands found in cigarette smoke on immune cell activation in humans and pancreatic fibrosis in animal models of CP. METHODS: We obtained serum samples from patients with CP treated at Stanford University hospital and healthy individuals (controls) and isolated CD4+ T cells; levels of interleukin-22 (IL22) were measured by ELISA and smoking histories were collected...
October 18, 2016: Gastroenterology
Arndt Vogel, Josefine Römmler-Zehrer, Jack Shiansong Li, Desmond McGovern, Alfredo Romano, Michael Stahl
BACKGROUND: The phase 3 MPACT trial in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer demonstrated superior efficacy of nab-paclitaxel (nab-P) + gemcitabine (Gem) vs Gem monotherapy for all endpoints examined including overall survival, the primary endpoint. In the MPACT trial, patients were treated until progressive disease (PD) or unacceptable toxicity. The current exploratory analysis investigated outcomes of patients from the MPACT trial who were treated until PD, in order to understand how to maximize treatment benefit from nab-P + Gem...
October 21, 2016: BMC Cancer
Kathrin Fielitz, Kristina Althoff, Katleen De Preter, Julie Nonnekens, Jasmin Ohli, Sandra Elges, Wolfgang Hartmann, Günter Klöppel, Thomas Knösel, Marc Schulte, Ludger Klein-Hitpass, Daniela Beisser, Henning Reis, Annette Eyking, Elke Cario, Johannes H Schulte, Alexander Schramm, Ulrich Schüller
Amplification or overexpression of MYCN is involved in development and maintenance of multiple malignancies. A subset of these tumors originates from neural precursors, including the most aggressive forms of the childhood tumors, neuroblastoma and medulloblastoma. In order to model the spectrum of MYCN-driven neoplasms in mice, we transgenically overexpressed MYCN under the control of the human GFAP-promoter that, among other targets, drives expression in neural progenitor cells. However, LSL-MYCN;hGFAP-Cre double transgenic mice did neither develop neural crest tumors nor tumors of the central nervous system, but presented with neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas and, less frequently, the pituitary gland...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Ersin Özaslan, Halit Karaca, Sinan Koca, Alper Sevinç, Bekir Hacioğlu, Metin Özkan, Melike Özçelik, Ayşe O Duran, İlhan Hacibekiroğlu, Yaşar Yildiz, Özgür Tanriverdi, Serkan Menekşe, Asude Aksoy, Oktay Bozkurt, Semiha Urvay, Mükremin Uysal, Hacer Demir, Aydin Çiltaş, Faysal Dane
The objectives of this study were to compare progression-free survival (PFS) with somatostatin analog (SSA) versus chemotherapy (CTx) in first-line therapy and to determine the patient group in which these treatments were more effective in neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) with a Ki-67 index of 20% or less. Patients who received SSA or CTx and had unresectable locally advanced and metastatic NETs with a Ki-67 index of 20% or less were retrospectively selected from 13 centers in the Turkish database between 2000 and 2015...
October 20, 2016: Anti-cancer Drugs
Ashton A Connor, Robert E Denroche, Gun Ho Jang, Lee Timms, Sangeetha N Kalimuthu, Iris Selander, Treasa McPherson, Gavin W Wilson, Michelle A Chan-Seng-Yue, Ivan Borozan, Vincent Ferretti, Robert C Grant, Ilinca M Lungu, Eithne Costello, William Greenhalf, Daniel Palmer, Paula Ghaneh, John P Neoptolemos, Markus Buchler, Gloria Petersen, Sarah Thayer, Michael A Hollingsworth, Alana Sherker, Daniel Durocher, Neesha Dhani, David Hedley, Stefano Serra, Aaron Pollett, Michael H A Roehrl, Prashant Bavi, John M S Bartlett, Sean Cleary, Julie M Wilson, Ludmil B Alexandrov, Malcolm Moore, Bradly G Wouters, John D McPherson, Faiyaz Notta, Lincoln D Stein, Steven Gallinger
Importance: Outcomes for patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remain poor. Advances in next-generation sequencing provide a route to therapeutic approaches, and integrating DNA and RNA analysis with clinicopathologic data may be a crucial step toward personalized treatment strategies for this disease. Objective: To classify PDAC according to distinct mutational processes, and explore their clinical significance. Design, Setting, and Participants: We performed a retrospective cohort study of resected PDAC, using cases collected between 2008 and 2015 as part of the International Cancer Genome Consortium...
October 20, 2016: JAMA Oncology
Christian Lehmann, Nicholas B Fisher, Barna Tugwell, Anna Szczesniak, Mel Kelly, Juan Zhou
BACKGROUND: Destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells in type 1 diabetes (T1D) is induced by invasion of immune cells causing pancreatic inflammation. Cannabidiol (CBD), a phytocannabinoid, derived from the plant, Cannabis sativa, was shown to lower the incidence of diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, an animal model of spontaneous T1D development. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of experimental CBD treatment on early pancreatic inflammation in T1D by intravital microscopy (IVM) in NOD mice...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Chen Luo, Lu-Ting Yu, Meng-Qi Yang, Xiang Li, Zhi-Yuan Zhang, Martin O Alfred, Jun-Li Liu, Min Wang
Regenerating genes (Reg) have been found during the search for factors involved in pancreatic islet regeneration. Our recent study discovered that pancreatic β-cell-specific overexpression of Reg3β protects against streptozotocin (Stz) -induced diabetes in mice. To investigate its potential roles in the treatment of diabetes, we produced a recombinant Reg3β protein and provided evidence that it is active in promoting islet β-cell survival against Stz- triggered cell death. Though ineffective in alleviating preexisting diabetes, pretreatment of recombinant Reg3β was capable of minimizing the Stz-induced hyperglycemia and weight loss, by preserving serum and pancreatic insulin levels, and islet β-cell mass...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
A Kautzky-Willer, S Thurner, P Klimek
AIM: There is firm evidence of a relation between type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and increased risks of cancer at various sites, but it is still unclear how different antihyperglycaemic therapies modify site-specific cancer risks. The aim of this study was to provide a complete characterization of all possible associations between individual T2DM therapies, statin use and site-specific cancers in the Austrian population. METHODS: Medical claims data of 1 847 051 patients with hospital stays during 2006-2007 were used to estimate age- and sex-dependent co-occurrences of site-specific cancer diagnoses and treatment with specific glucose-lowering drugs and statins...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
Yong Lin, Xin Ge, Yiyang Wen, Zhu-Mei Shi, Qiu-Dan Chen, Min Wang, Ling-Zhi Liu, Bing-Hua Jiang, Yuan Lu
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is one of the most leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Although recent advances provide various treatment options, pancreatic adenocarcinoma has poor prognosis due to its late diagnosis and ineffective therapeutic multimodality. Gemcitabine is the effective first-line drug in pancreatic adenocarcinoma treatment. However, gemcitabine chemoresistance of pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells has been a major obstacle for limiting its treatment effect. Our study found that p70S6K1 plays an important role in gemcitabine chemoresistence...
September 27, 2016: Oncotarget
Julien Péron, Pascal Roy, Thierry Conroy, Françoise Desseigne, Marc Ychou, Sophie Gourgou-Bourgade, Trevor Stanbury, Laurent Roche, Brice Ozenne, Marc Buyse
BACKGROUND: We sought to assess the benefit-risk balance of FOLFIRINOX versus gemcitabine in patients with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma. METHODS: We used generalized pairwise comparisons. This statistical method permits the simultaneous analysis of several prioritized outcome measures. The first priority outcome was survival time (OS). Differences in OS that exceeded two months were considered clinically relevant. The second priority outcome was toxicity...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Khaldoun Almhanna, Gopi K Prithviraj, Petter Veiby, Thea Kalebic
Antibody-directed cancer chemotherapy in the form of antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) may improve the therapeutic index with the potential to enhance efficacy and decrease systemic toxicity. ADCs consist of three key components including an antibody that specifically binds to the target, a toxic agent and a linker which releases the toxic agent inside tumor cells. A novel ADC, MLN0264 (TAK-264) was recently investigated in patients with gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies. TAK-264 is an anti- guanylyl cyclase C (GCC) antibody conjugated via a protease-cleavable linker to the potent anti-microtubule agent monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) (linker and toxin licensed from Seattle Genetics)...
October 17, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Rica Capistrano I, Christel Vangestel, Hanne Vanpachtenbeke, Erik Fransen, Steven Staelens, Sandra Apers, Luc Pieters
BACKGROUND: Gloriosa superba L. (glory lily, Colchicaceae) contains colchicine, and related alkaloids such as 3-O-demethylcolchicine and its glycoside colchicoside. Previously the in vivo efficacy of a crude extract and a colchicine-poor / colchicoside-rich extract of G. superba seeds was shown in a murine model of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: The efficacy can be improved without obvious signs of toxicity by increasing the treatment dose; the efficacy of gemcitabine can be improved by coadministration of a Gloriosa superba extract...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Si Yeol Song, Kyu-Pyo Kim, Seong-Yun Jeong, Jin Park, Jaesook Park, Joohee Jung, Hye Kyung Chung, Sa-Won Lee, Min Hyo Seo, Jung-Shin Lee, Kyung Hae Jung, Eun Kyung Choi
We assessed the efficacy of the polymeric nanoparticle containing docetaxel (PNP-DTX) in preclinical mouse models and determined the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) through clinical study. Subcutaneous and orthotopic mouse models were dedicated. Tumor growth delay in orthotopic model and quantification of in vivo imaging in orthotopic model were evaluated. Phase I clinical study was a single-center, prospective, open-label trial in advanced solid tumors. PNP-DTX was injected intravenously and the starting dose was 20 mg/m2 escalated to 35 mg/m2, 45 mg/m2, 60 mg/m2 and 75 mg/m2...
October 14, 2016: Oncotarget
Zhu Zeng, Rui Yu, Fanglei Zuo, Bo Zhang, Deju Peng, Huiqin Ma, Shangwu Chen
Exendin-4, a glucagon-like protein-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, is an excellent therapeutic peptide drug for type 2 diabetes due to longer lasting biological activity compared to GLP-1. This study explored the feasibility of using probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei as an oral vector for recombinant exendin-4 peptide delivery, an alternative to costly chemical synthesis and inconvenient administration by injection. L. paracasei transformed with a plasmid encoding the exendin-4 gene (L. paracasei L14/pMG76e-exendin-4) with a constitutive promotor was successfully constructed and showed efficient secretion of exendin-4...
2016: PloS One
Emmanuel Jouglar, Antoine Wagner, Grégory Delpon, Loïc Campion, Philippe Meingan, Valérie Bernier, Charlotte Demoor-Goldschmidt, Marc-André Mahé, Thomas Lacornerie, Stéphane Supiot
OBJECTIVES: Late abdominal irradiation toxicity during childhood included renal damage, hepatic toxicity and secondary diabetes mellitus. We compared the potential of conformal radiotherapy (CRT), helical tomotherapy (HT) and proton beam therapy (PBT) to spare the abdominal organs at risk (pancreas, kidneys and liver- OAR) in children undergoing abdominal irradiation. METHODS: We selected children with abdominal tumors who received more than 10 Gy to the abdomen...
2016: PloS One
Yang Li, Hebin Wang, Kai Wang, Qinglian Hu, Qi Yao, Youqing Shen, Guocan Yu, Guping Tang
A new type of tumor-targeted nanovehicle peptide-conjugated PSPG (PSPGP) is successfully synthesized for co-delivery of paclitaxel (PTX) and TR3 small interfering RNA (siRNA). In vitro and in vivo investigations demonstrate that the redox-responsive PSPGP exhibit enhanced endosomal escape and intracellular degradation, which facilitate PTX and TR3 siRNA release, effectively improving the antitumor efficacy.
October 20, 2016: Small
Preeti Rawat, Lokesh M Saroj, Anil Kumar, Tryambak D Singh, S K Tewari, Mahesh Pal
BACKGROUND: The plant Launaea procumbens belongs to the family Asteraceae and traditionally used in the treatment rheumatism, kidney, liver dysfunctions and eye diseases. In the present study Phytochemical analysis and fractions of methanolic extract of L. procumbens leaves were tested in vitro for their cytotoxicity. OBJECTIVES: Phytochemical analysis and cytotoxic activity of methanolic extract and fractions of Launaea procumbens against four cancer cell lines K562, HeLa, MIA-Pa-Ca-2 and MCF-2 by SRB assay...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Yoichi Kato
We assessed the efficacy of WT1 class I peptide and WT1 class II peptide pulsed dendritic cell(DC)therapy for a wide range of advanced cancers. This retrospective study included 60 advanced cancer patients who were vaccinated 5times or more in this clinic between September 2013 and December 2015. The clinical response was examined. This treatment was approved by the ethics panel at this institution. Sixty patients were injected an average of 6.15times with dendritic cells(DCs) (2.6×10 / 7 cells/injection)...
October 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Yuki Homma, Goro Honda, Katsunori Sakamoto, Masanao Kurata, Masahiko Honjo, Yoshihiro Hirata, Satoshi Shinya
BACKGROUND: Although surgical resection is the only curative strategy for pancreatic cancer, the prognosis of patients with pancreatic cancer remains poor. Recently, neoadjuvant treatment has been frequently employed as a promising treatment. Here, the mid-term results of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy(NACRT)using S-1, which has been performed in our hospital since 2008, are reported. METHODS: Seventy-nine patients with resectable or borderline resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, who had been intended to undergo NACRT treatment using S-1, were enrolled...
October 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
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