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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823142/oncogenes-mitochondrial-metabolism-and-quality-control-in-differentiated-thyroid-cancer
#1
Hyon-Seung Yi, Joon Young Chang, Koon Soon Kim, Minho Shong
Thyroid cancer is one of the most common malignancies of endocrine organs, and its incidence rate has increased steadily over the past several decades. Most differentiated thyroid tumors derived from thyroid epithelial cells exhibit slow-growing cancers, and patients with these tumors can achieve a good prognosis with surgical removal and radioiodine treatment. However, a small proportion of patients present with advanced thyroid cancer and are unusually resistant to current drug treatment modalities. Thyroid tumorigenesis is a complex process that is regulated by the activation of oncogenes, inactivation of tumor suppressors, and alterations in programmed cell death...
August 22, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823038/ultrastructural-morphology-and-phylogeny-of-henneguya-gilbert-n-sp-myxozoa-infecting-the-teleostean-cyphocharax-gilbert-characiformes-curimatidae-from-brazil
#2
Graça Casal, Sérgio C São Clemente, Leila Lopes, Sónia Rocha, Nilza Felizardo, Elsa Oliveira, Saleh Al-Quraishy, Carlos Azevedo
This paper describes light and ultrastructural observations and molecular analysis of a fish-infecting myxosporean, Henneguya gilbert n. sp., which was found infecting the gill epithelium of the commercially important freshwater teleost fish Cyphocharax gilbert (Curimatidae) collected in the estuarine region of Guandu River, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The parasite occurs in the gills, forming whitish spherical to ellipsoidal polysporic cysts measuring up to ~ 750 μm, and displaying asynchronous development...
August 19, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822908/pseudophyllomitus-vesiculosus-larsen-and-patterson-1990-lee-2002-a-poorly-studied-phagotrophic-biflagellate-is-the-first-characterized-member-of-stramenopile-environmental-clade-mast-6
#3
Takashi Shiratori, Rabindra Thakur, Ken-Ichiro Ishida
There are many eukaryotic lineages that are exclusively composed of environmental sequences and lack information about which species are included. Regarding stramenopiles, at least 18 environmental lineages, known as marine stramenopiles (MAST), have been recognized. Since each MAST lineage forms deep branches in the stramenopiles, the characterization of MAST members is key to understanding the diversity and evolution of stramenopiles. In this study, we established a culture of Pseudophyllomitus vesiculosus, which is a poorly studied phagotrophic flagellate of uncertain taxonomic position...
July 6, 2017: Protist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822887/the-changing-diagnostic-pathway-for-lung-cancer-patients-in-shanghai-china
#4
REVIEW
Tao Jiang, Shengxiang Ren, Xuefei Li, Chunxia Su, Caicun Zhou, Mary O'Brien
Accumulating evidence suggest that patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and specific genomic alterations including epidermal growth factor receptor and microtubule-associated protein-like 4 anaplastic lymphoma kinase could significantly benefit from molecular-targeted therapies compared with chemotherapy. Recently, immunotherapy based on programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1) blockade prolong survival in patients with advanced NSCLC, especially in those patients with positive expression of PD-L1 and when used in the first-line setting...
August 17, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822839/decreased-surface-expression-of-the-%C3%AE-subunit-of-the-gabaa-receptor-contributes-to-reduced-tonic-inhibition-in-dentate-granule-cells-in-a-mouse-model-of-fragile-x-syndrome
#5
Nianhui Zhang, Zechun Peng, Xiaoping Tong, A Kerstin Lindemeyer, Yliana Cetina, Christine S Huang, Richard W Olsen, Thomas S Otis, Carolyn R Houser
While numerous changes in the GABA system have been identified in models of Fragile X Syndrome (FXS), alterations in subunits of the GABAA receptors (GABAARs) that mediate tonic inhibition are particularly intriguing. Considering the key role of tonic inhibition in controlling neuronal excitability, reduced tonic inhibition could contribute to FXS-associated disorders such as hyperactivity, hypersensitivity, and increased seizure susceptibility. The current study has focused on the expression and function of the δ subunit of the GABAAR, a major subunit involved in tonic inhibition, in granule cells of the dentate gyrus in the Fmr1 knockout (KO) mouse model of FXS...
August 16, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822768/functional-dissection-and-transport-mechanism-of-magnesium-in-plants
#6
REVIEW
Zhi Chang Chen, Wen Ting Peng, Jian Li, Hong Liao
Magnesium (Mg) is the second most abundant cation in plants, and, as such, is involved in numerous physiological and biochemical processes, including photosynthesis, enzyme activation, and synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins. Due to its relatively small ionic radius and large hydrated radius, Mg binds weakly to soil and root surfaces, and thereby is easily leached from soil. Mg deficiency not only affects crop productivity and quality, but also contributes to numerous chronic human diseases. Therefore, Mg nutrition in plants is an important issue in nutrition and food security...
August 16, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822354/3d-brain-organoids-derived-from-pluripotent-stem-cells-promising-experimental-models-for-brain-development-and-neurodegenerative-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Chun-Ting Lee, Raphael M Bendriem, Wells W Wu, Rong-Fong Shen
Three-dimensional (3D) brain organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), appear to recapitulate the brain's 3D cytoarchitectural arrangement and provide new opportunities to explore disease pathogenesis in the human brain. Human iPSC (hiPSC) reprogramming methods, combined with 3D brain organoid tools, may allow patient-derived organoids to serve as a preclinical platform to bridge the translational gap between animal models and human clinical trials...
August 20, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822291/highly-absorbing-multispectral-near-infrared-polymer-nanoparticles-from-one-conjugated-backbone-for-photoacoustic-imaging-and-photothermal-therapy
#8
Haobin Chen, Jian Zhang, Kaiwen Chang, Xiaoju Men, Xiaofeng Fang, Libo Zhou, Dongliang Li, Duyang Gao, Shengyan Yin, Xuanjun Zhang, Zhen Yuan, Changfeng Wu
Semiconducting polymers with specific absorption are useful in various applications, including organic optoelectronics, optical imaging, and nanomedicine. However, the optical absorption of a semiconducting polymer with a determined structure is hardly tunable when compared with that of inorganic semiconductors. In this work, we show that the optical absorption of polymer nanoparticles from one conjugated backbone can be effectively tuned through judicious design of the particle morphology and the persistence length of polymers...
August 12, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822050/nuances-of-morphology-in-myelodysplastic-diseases-in-the-age-of-molecular-diagnostics
#9
REVIEW
Aaron C Shaver, Adam C Seegmiller
Morphologic dysplasia is an important factor in diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). However, the role of dysplasia is changing as new molecular genetic and genomic technologies take a more prominent place in diagnosis. This review discusses the role of morphology in the diagnosis of MDS and its interactions with cytogenetic and molecular testing. Recent changes in diagnostic criteria have attempted to standardize approaches to morphologic diagnosis of MDS, recognizing significant inter-observer variability in assessment of dysplasia...
August 18, 2017: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821793/molecular-mechanisms-of-atlastin-mediated-er-membrane-fusion-revealed-by-a-fret-based-single-vesicle-fusion-assay
#10
Kyung Tae Kim, Yeojin Moon, Yunsu Jang, Kang Taek Lee, Changwook Lee, Youngsoo Jun, Sanghwa Lee
Homotypic fusion of endoplasmic reticulum membranes is driven by atlastin GTPases; however, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, using a FRET-based single-vesicle fusion assay with liposomes bearing the yeast atlastin Sey1p, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of atlastin-mediated membrane tethering and fusion. Although Sey1p-bearing proteoliposomes frequently underwent membrane tethering in a GTP hydrolysis-dependent manner as reported in studies using bulk assays, only a small fraction of the tethered liposomes proceeded to fusion...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821187/genetic-dissection-of-seedling-stage-salinity-tolerance-in-rice-using-introgression-lines-of-a-salt-tolerant-landrace-nona-bokra
#11
Venkata Ramana Rao Puram, John Ontoy, Steven Linscombe, Prasanta K Subudhi
Salinity is an important abiotic stress affecting rice production worldwide. Development of salt tolerant varieties is the most feasible approach for improving rice productivity in salt affected soils. In rice, seedling stage salinity tolerance is crucial for better crop establishment. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping using introgression lines (ILs) is useful for identification and simultaneous transfer of desirable alleles into elite genetic background. In the present study, 138 ILs derived from the cross between a high yielding elite salt susceptible japonica rice cultivar Jupiter and a salt tolerant indica landrace Nona Bokra were evaluated for salt tolerance at seedling stage in a hydroponics experiment and were genotyped using 126 simple sequence repeat markers...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821151/flexibility-of-backbone-fibrils-in-%C3%AE-chitin-crystals-with-different-degree-of-acetylation
#12
Zechuan Yu, Denvid Lau
Acetyl groups are backbone outreaches that enhance inter-fibril connection in chitin and chitosan fibril bundle. Removal of acetyl groups affects flexibility of chitosan fibril bundle, thereby affecting mechanical strength of chitosan-based products. Understandings of relationship between degree of acetylation and flexibility of chitin fibril bundle conduce to optimization of synthetic chitin materials. Here, the relationship is examined by performing molecular dynamics simulations. Coiling of chitin and chitosan fibril bundle with different degree of acetylation is observed and flexibility of fibrils is measured...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821107/relationship-between-multi-scale-structures-and-properties-of-photophobic-films-based-on-hydroxypropyl-methylcellulose-and-monosodium-phosphate
#13
Liang Zhang, Yan Zhao, Jian-Ya Qian, Shan Jiang, Jun Liu, Xiao-Long He
Photophobic (white) films were prepared with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and monosodium phosphate (NaH2PO4) to overcome the redox reaction induced by titanium dioxide photocatalysis of HPMC/TiO2 white film. What's more, HPMC/NaH2PO4 white film could overcome the drying temperature dependent property of white films based on HPMC and calcium salts. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, wide angel X-ray diffraction, small angle X-ray scattering, scanning electron microscope and texture analyzer were used to investigate the effect of NaH2PO4 on the short-range, supra-molecular structures and properties of HPMC film...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820886/circulating-mirnas-in-sepsis-a-network-under-attack-an-in-silico-prediction-of-the-potential-existence-of-mirna-sponges-in-sepsis
#14
Catalin Vasilescu, Mihnea Dragomir, Mihai Tanase, Dana Giza, Raluca Purnichescu-Purtan, Meng Chen, Sai-Ching Jim Yeung, George A Calin
Biomarkers based on the molecular mechanism of sepsis are important for timely diagnosis and treatment. A large panel of small non-coding microRNAs was reported to modulate the immune response in sepsis but have not been tested in clinical practice. Large-scale identification of microRNA networks in sepsis might reveal a new biological mechanism that can be also targeted by gene therapy. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to perform a comparison of the miRNA network between septic patients and healthy controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820528/deciphering-the-photosensitization-mechanisms-of-hypericin-towards-biological-membranes
#15
Hugo Gattuso, Marco Marazzi, François Dehez, Antonio Monari
Resorting to state-of-the art molecular modeling and simulation techniques we provide full characterization of the photophysical properties of the naturally occurring hypericin chromophore, currently used in photodynamic therapy. In particular, we reveal the different photophysical pathways leading to intersystem-crossing and hence, triplet manifold population that is necessary for the subsequent production of singlet oxygen. In particular we identify an extended region of quasi-degeneracy between the first singlet excited state and three triplet state surfaces...
August 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820433/targeting-persistent-human-papillomavirus-infection
#16
REVIEW
Srinidhi Shanmugasundaram, Jianxin You
While the majority of Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are transient and cleared within a couple of years following exposure, 10-20% of infections persist latently, leading to disease progression and, ultimately, various forms of invasive cancer. Despite the clinical efficiency of recently developed multivalent prophylactic HPV vaccines, these preventive measures are not effective against pre-existing infection. Additionally, considering that the burden associated with HPV is greatest in regions with limited access to preventative vaccination, the development of effective therapies targeting persistent infection remains imperative...
August 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820325/small-alarmone-synthetases-as-novel-bacterial-rna-binding-proteins
#17
Vasili Hauryliuk, Gemma C Atkinson
The alarmone nucleotides guanosine pentaphosphate (pppGpp) and tetraphosphate (ppGpp), collectively referred to as (p)ppGpp, are key regulators of bacterial growth, stress adaptation, antibiotic tolerance and pathogenicity. We have recently shown that the Small Alarmone Synthetase (SAS) RelQ from the Gram-positive pathogen Enterococcus faecalis has an RNA-binding activity (Beljantseva et al. 2017). RelQ's activities as an enzyme and as a RNA-binding protein are mutually incompatible: binding of single-stranded RNA potently inhibits (p)ppGpp synthesis in a sequence-specific manner, and RelQ's enzymatic activity destabilizes the RNA:RelQ complex...
August 18, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819856/fiber-optic-array-scanning-technology-fast-for-detection-and-molecular-characterization-of-circulating-tumor-cells
#18
Zheng Ao, Xiaohe Liu
Circulating tumor cell (CTC) as an important component in "liquid biopsy" holds crucial clinical relevance in cancer prognosis, treatment efficiency evaluation, prediction and potentially early detection. Here, we present a Fiber-optic Array Scanning Technology (FAST) that enables antigen-agnostic, size-agnostic detection of CTC. By immunofluorescence staining detection of a combination of a panel of markers, FAST technology can be applied to detect rare CTC in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) setting with high sensitivity and specificity...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819840/microfluidic-based-enrichment-and-retrieval-of-circulating-tumor-cells-for-rt-pcr-analysis
#19
Priya Gogoi, Saedeh Sepehri, Will Chow, Kalyan Handique, Yixin Wang
Molecular analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is hindered by low sensitivity and high level of background leukocytes of currently available CTC enrichment technologies. We have developed a novel device to enrich and retrieve CTCs from blood samples by using a microfluidic chip. The Celsee PREP100 device captures CTCs with high sensitivity and allows the captured CTCs to be retrieved for molecular analysis. It uses the microfluidic chip which has approximately 56,320 capture chambers. Based on differences in cell size and deformability, each chamber ensures that small blood escape while larger CTCs of varying sizes are trapped and isolated in the chambers...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819808/mir398-and-mir395-are-involved-in-response-to-so2-stress-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#20
Lihong Li, Huilan Yi, Meizhao Xue, Min Yi
Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a common air pollutant that has adverse effects on plants. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA that play critical roles in plant development and stress response. In this study, we found that two miRNAs, miR398 and miR395, were differentially expressed in Arabidopsis shoots under SO2 stress. The expression of miR398 was down-regulated, and the transcript levels of its target genes, Cu/Zn superoxide dismutases (CSD1 and CSD2), were increased during SO2 exposure. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), one of the major antioxidant enzymes, was enhanced with the increase in the CSD transcript level, suggesting an important role of miR398 in response to SO2-induced oxidative stress...
August 17, 2017: Ecotoxicology
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