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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538147/structural-and-functional-investigations-of-the-n-terminal-ubiquitin-binding-region-of-usp25
#1
Yuanyuan Yang, Li Shi, Yiluan Ding, Yanhong Shi, Hong-Yu Hu, Yi Wen, Naixia Zhang
Ubiquitin-specific protease 25 (Usp25) is a deubiquitinase that is involved in multiple biological processes. The N-terminal ubiquitin-binding region (UBR) of Usp25 contains one ubiquitin-associated domain, one small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-interacting motif and two ubiquitin-interacting motifs. Previous studies suggest that the covalent sumoylation in the UBR of Usp25 impairs its enzymatic activity. Here, we raise the hypothesis that non-covalent binding of SUMO, a prerequisite for efficient sumoylation, will impair Usp25's catalytic activity as well...
May 23, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538095/high-resolution-structures-of-the-amyloid-%C3%AE-1-42-dimers-from-the-comparison-of-four-atomistic-force-fields
#2
Viet Hoang Man, Phuong Hoang Nguyen, Philippe Derreumaux
The dimer of the amyloid-beta peptide Aβ of 42 residues is the smallest toxic species in Alzheimer's disease, but its equilibrium structures are unknown. Here we determined the equilibrium ensembles generated by the four atomistic OPLS-AA, CHARMM22*, AMBER99sb-ildn and AMBERsb14 force fields with the TIP3P water model. Based on 144 microsecond replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations (with 750 ns per replica), we find that the four force fields lead to random coil ensembles with calculated cross-collision sections, hydrodynamics properties and small-angle X-ray scattering profiles independent on the force field...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537914/epigenomic-study-identifies-a-novel-mesenchyme-homeobox2-gli1-transcription-axis-involved-in-cancer-drug-resistance-overall-survival-and-therapy-prognosis-in-lung-cancer-patients
#3
Leonel Armas-López, Patricia Piña-Sánchez, Oscar Arrieta, Enrique Guzman de Alba, Blanca Ortiz-Quintero, Patricio Santillán-Doherty, David C Christiani, Joaquín Zúñiga, Federico Ávila-Moreno
Several homeobox-related gene (HOX) transcription factors such as mesenchyme HOX-2 (MEOX2) have previously been associated with cancer drug resistance, malignant progression and/or clinical prognostic responses in lung cancer patients; however, the mechanisms involved in these responses have yet to be elucidated. Here, an epigenomic strategy was implemented to identify novel MEOX2 gene promoter transcription targets and propose a new molecular mechanism underlying lung cancer drug resistance and poor clinical prognosis...
May 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537876/activation-of-perk-branch-of-er-stress-mediates-homocysteine-induced-bkca%C3%A2-channel-dysfunction-in-coronary-artery-via-foxo3a-dependent-regulation-of-atrogin-1
#4
Wen-Tao Sun, Xiang-Chong Wang, Shiu-Kwong Mak, Guo-Wei He, Xiao-Cheng Liu, Malcolm John Underwood, Qin Yang
The molecular mechanism of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in vascular pathophysiology remains inadequately understood. We studied the role of ER stress in homocysteine-induced impairment of coronary dilator function, with uncovering the molecular basis of the effect of ER stress on smooth muscle large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BKCa) channels. The vasodilatory function of BKCa channels was studied in a myograph using endothelium-denuded porcine small coronary arteries. Primary cultured porcine coronary artery smooth muscle cells were used for mRNA and protein measurements and current recording of BKCa channels...
May 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537734/can-simple-interaction-models-explain-sequence-dependent-effects-in-peptide-homodimerization
#5
David J Smith, M Scott Shell
The development of rapid methods to explain and predict peptide interactions, aggregation, and self-assembly has become important to understanding amyloid disease pathology, the shelf stability of peptide therapeutics, and the design of novel peptide materials. While experimental aggregation databases have been used to develop correlative and statistical models, molecular simulations offer atomic-level details that potentially provide greater physical insight and allow one to single out the most explanatory simple models...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535511/capn4-enhances-osteopontin-expression-through-activation-of-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-to-promote-epithelial-ovarian-carcinoma-metastasis
#6
Xiaoming Yang, Jing Sun, Dandan Xia, Xupei Can, Lei Liu, Jing Zhang, Huali Xu, Na Du, Wenxue Liu, Fangqian Shen, Zhenbo Zhang, Yunyan Sun, Xiaowei Xi
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Increasing evidence shows that the calpain regulatory subunit Capn4 can modulate the proliferation and metastasis of cancer cells, and plays an important role in the development of malignant tumors. However, there is no information on the clinical significance of Capn4 in epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) or the molecular mechanisms by which Capn4 promotes the growth and metastasis of EOC. Therefore, the aim of this study was to clarify the role of Capn4 in EOC. METHODS: We evaluated Capn4 and osteopontin (OPN) expression in EOC cell lines and tissues from patients with ovarian cancer by western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis...
May 25, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535342/diffusion-under-confinement-hydrodynamic-finite-size-effects-in-simulation
#7
Pauline Simonnin, Benoit Noetinger, Carlos Nieto Draghi, Virginie Marry, Benjamin Rotenberg
We investigate finite-size effects on diffusion in confined fluids using molecular dynamics simulations and hydrodynamic calculations. Specifically, we consider a Lennard-Jones fluid in slit pores without slip at the interface and show that the use of periodic boundary conditions in the directions along the surfaces results in dramatic finite-size effects, in addition to that of the physically relevant confining length. As in the simulation of bulk fluids, these effects arise from spurious hydrodynamic interactions between periodic images and from the constraint of total momentum conservation...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535032/applying-thienyl-side-chains-and-different-%C3%AF-bridge-to-aromatic-side-chain-substituted-indacenodithiophene-based-small-molecule-donors-for-high-performance-organic-solar-cells
#8
Jin-Liang Wang, Kai-Kai Liu, Sha Liu, Feng Liu, Hongbin Wu, Yong Cao, Thomas P Russell
A pair of linear tetrafluorinated small molecular donors, named as ThIDTTh4F and ThIDTSe4F, which are with tetrathienyl-substituted IDT as electron-rich central core, electron-deficient difluorobenzothiadiazole as acceptor units, and donor end-capping groups, but having differences in the π-bridge (thiophene and selenophene), were successfully synthesized and evaluated as donor materials in organic solar cells. Such π-bridge and core units in these small molecules play a decisive role in the formation of the nanoscale separation of the blend films, which were systematically investigated through absorption spectra, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction pattern, transmission electron microscopy images, resonant soft X-ray scattering profiles, and charge mobility measurement...
May 23, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534687/role-of-molecular-markers-in-thyroid-nodule-management-then-and-now
#9
Yuri E Nikiforov
OBJECTIVE: To describe the evolution and clinical utility of molecular testing for thyroid nodules and cancer achieved over the last two decades. METHODS: Scientific reports on thyroid cancer genetics and molecular diagnostics in thyroid nodules. RESULTS: Over the last two decades, our understanding of the genetic mechanisms of thyroid cancer has dramatically expanded, such that most thyroid cancers now have known gene driver events. This knowledge provides the basis for establishing and further improving molecular tests for thyroid nodules and cancer and for the introduction of new entities such as non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP)...
May 23, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534676/applications-of-raman-spectroscopy-in-biopharmaceutical-manufacturing-a-short-review
#10
Kevin Buckley, Alan G Ryder
The production of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) is currently undergoing its biggest transformation in a century. The changes are based on the rapid and dramatic introduction of protein- and macromolecule-based drugs (collectively known as biopharmaceuticals) and can be traced back to the huge investment in biomedical science (in particular in genomics and proteomics) that has been ongoing since the 1970s. Biopharmaceuticals (or biologics) are manufactured using biological-expression systems (such as mammalian, bacterial, insect cells, etc...
June 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534628/exafs-ab-initio-molecular-dynamics-and-nicis-spectroscopy-studies-on-an-organic-dye-model-at-the-dye-sensitized-solar-cell-photoelectrode-interface
#11
Peng Liu, Viktor Johansson, Herri Trilaksana, Jan Rosdahl, Gunther G Andersson, Lars Kloo
The organization of dye molecules in the dye layer adsorbed on the semiconductor substrate in dye-sensitized solar cell has been studied using a combination of theoretical methods and experimental techniques. The model system is based on the simple D--A dye L0, which has been chemically modified to replace the acceptor group -CN by -Br (L0Br) in order to offer better X-ray contrast. Experimental EXAFS data based on the Br K-edge backscattering show no obvious difference between dye-sensitised titania powder and titania film samples, thus allowing model systems to be based on powder slurrys...
May 23, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534368/study-on-the-molecular-mechanism-of-rac3-on-regulating-autophagy-in-human-lung-cancer-cells
#12
Xuyang Xiao, Gebang Wang, Hongxu Liu
PURPOSE: Rac3 plays an important role in regulating tumorigenesis. Autophagy plays a vital role in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. The relationship between the two remains unclear. The objective of the present study was to determine the specific molecular mechanism of intracellular Rac3 in regulating autophagy and reveal the relationship between tumor cell autophagy and apoptosis. METHODS: A laser confocal microscope was used to photograph the accumulated EGFP-MAP1LC3 spots for investigating the relationship between Rac3 and autophagy at the cellular level...
March 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534317/wt1-alternative-splicing-role-of-its-isoforms-in-neuroblastoma
#13
REVIEW
Daniela Maria Rasà, Agata Grazia D'Amico, Grazia Maugeri, Sebastiano Cavallaro, Velia D'Agata
Wilms tumor 1 (WT1), a tumor suppressor gene, was originally identified in the homonymous renal neoplasm but is also involved in other cancers. Its function is still unclear, since it acts both as a pro- and an anti-oncogene. At least 14 WT1 transcriptional variants have been described; yet most investigations have focused on a small number of isoforms. We describe their structural features and review the evidence of their involvement in cancer with emphasis on neuroblastoma. In future, full characterization of all WT1 isoforms is expected to identify new molecular tumor markers and/or therapeutic targets...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534251/sequencing-of-alk-inhibitors-in-alk-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Shirish M Gadgeel
Major therapeutic advances have occurred over the last several years in the management of advanced ALK+ NSCLC patients. Crizotinib was the first agent approved for the management of ALK+ NSCLC patients after it demonstrated significantly greater clinical benefit compared to chemotherapy. Several next generation ALK inhibitors have demonstrated clinical benefit in patients with crizotinib refractory NSCLC patients including in the CNS. Based on available data, therapy with a next generation ALK inhibitor can be initiated following therapy with crizotinib without any assessment of the molecular mechanisms of resistance...
June 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534152/cerebrospinal-fluid-dissemination-of-high-grade-gliomas-following-boron-neutron-capture-therapy-occurs-more-frequently-in-the-small-cell-subtype-of-idh1-r132h-mutation-negative-glioblastoma
#15
Natsuko Kondo, Rolf F Barth, Shin-Ichi Miyatake, Shinji Kawabata, Minoru Suzuki, Koji Ono, Norman L Lehman
We have used boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) to treat patients in Japan with newly diagnosed or recurrent high-grade gliomas and have observed a significant increase in median survival time following BNCT. Although cerebrospinal fluid dissemination (CSFD) is not usually seen with the current standard therapy of patients with glioblastoma (GBM), here we report that subarachnoid or intraventricular CSFD was the most frequent cause of death for a cohort of our patients with high-grade gliomas who had been treated with BNCT...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534101/evaluation-of-alk-gene-rearrangement-in-central-nervous-system-metastases-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-using-two-step-rt-pcr-technique
#16
M Nicoś, P Krawczyk, K Wojas-Krawczyk, A Bożyk, B Jarosz, M Sawicki, T Trojanowski, J Milanowski
PURPOSE: RT-PCR technique has showed a promising value as pre-screening method for detection of mRNA containing abnormal ALK sequences, but its sensitivity and specificity is still discussable. Previously, we determined the incidence of ALK rearrangement in CNS metastases of NSCLC using IHC and FISH methods. MATERIALS: We evaluated ALK gene rearrangement using two-step RT-PCR method with EML4-ALK Fusion Gene Detection Kit (Entrogen, USA). The studied group included 145 patients (45 females, 100 males) with CNS metastases of NSCLC and was heterogeneous in terms of histology and smoking status...
May 22, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534000/improving-therapeutic-ratios-with-the-oncotype-dx%C3%A2-ductal-carcinoma-in-situ-dcis-score
#17
Nafisha Lalani, Eileen Rakovitch
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a non-invasive breast cancer comprising nearly 25% of breast cancer diagnoses in the mammographic era. Current guidelines recommend breast-conserving surgery followed by adjuvant radiotherapy; however, controversy exists regarding the appropriateness of these recommendations. Some women with DCIS will never recur, which raises the concern of over-treatment. Conversely, a small number of women will develop invasive recurrences, raising concerns of under-treatment. Currently, several clinical and pathologic factors have been identified as prognostic markers for recurrence; however, these variables alone have been unable to identify low-risk and high-risk subgroups...
April 21, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533786/high-density-linkage-map-construction-and-mapping-of-yield-trait-qtls-in-maize-zea-mays-using-the-genotyping-by-sequencing-gbs-technology
#18
Chengfu Su, Wei Wang, Shunliang Gong, Jinghui Zuo, Shujiang Li, Shizhong Xu
Increasing grain yield is the ultimate goal for maize breeding. High resolution quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping can help us understand the molecular basis of phenotypic variation of yield and thus facilitate marker assisted breeding. The aim of this study is to use genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) for large-scale SNP discovery and simultaneous genotyping of all F2 individuals from a cross between two varieties of maize that are in clear contrast in yield and related traits. A set of 199 F2 progeny derived from the cross of varieties SG-5 and SG-7 were generated and genotyped by GBS...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533544/sex-specific-metabolic-profiles-of-androgens-and-its-main-binding-protein-shbg-in-a-middle-aged-population-without-diabetes
#19
Uwe Piontek, Henri Wallaschofski, Gabi Kastenmüller, Karsten Suhre, Henry Völzke, Kieu Trinh Do, Anna Artati, Matthias Nauck, Jerzy Adamski, Nele Friedrich, Maik Pietzner
The role of androgens in metabolism with respect to sex-specific disease associations is poorly understood. Therefore, we aimed to provide molecular signatures in plasma and urine of androgen action in a sex-specific manner using state-of-the-art metabolomics techniques. Our study population consisted of 430 men and 343 women, aged 20-80 years, who were recruited for the cross-sectional population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND), Germany. We used linear regression models to identify associations between testosterone, androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS) as well as sex hormone-binding globulin and plasma or urine metabolites measured by mass spectrometry...
May 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533440/identification-and-characterization-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-rnai-inheritance-machinery
#20
George Spracklin, Brandon Fields, Gang Wan, Diveena Vijayendran, Ashley Wallig, Aditi Shukla, Scott Kennedy
Gene silencing mediated by dsRNA (RNAi) can persist for multiple generations in Caenorhabditis elegans (termed RNAi inheritance). Here we describe the results of a forward genetic screen in C. elegans that has identified six factors required for RNAi inheritance: GLH-1/VASA, PUP-1/CDE-1, MORC-1, SET-32, and two novel nematode specific factors that we term here (heritable RNAi defective) HRDE-2 and HRDE-4. The new RNAi inheritance factors exhibit mortal germline (Mrt) phenotypes, which we show is likely caused by epigenetic deregulation in germ cells...
May 22, 2017: Genetics
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