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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232612/aliphatic-hydrocarbons-recovered-in-vegetables-from-soils-based-on-their-in-situ-distribution-in-various-soil-humus-fractions-using-a-successive-extraction-method
#1
Juan Zhang, Shu-Kai Fan, Ming-Hua Zhang, Michael L Grieneisen, Jian-Feng Zhang
Aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs) are major petroleum contaminants in the environment. In this study, the AHs bound to various soil endogenetic humus fractions were separated through successive extraction. Most of the AHs (46.1%) in soils were adsorbed onto/into humic acids (HA) and a small quantity of AHs (9.6%) were organic solvent extractable. AHs in B. chinensis were also analyzed since their potential risks to the residents through ingestion. AHs from C21 to C34, so called high molecular weight AHs (HMWAHs), were dominant AHs in B...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232147/-incorporation-of-mrna-in-lamellar-lipid-matrices-for-parenteral-administration
#2
Antje Ziller, Sara S Nogueira, Eva Huehn, Sergio S Funari, Gerald Brezesinski, Hermann Hartmann, Ugur Sahin, Heinrich Haas, Peter Langguth
Insertion of high molecular weight messenger RNA (mRNA) into lyotropic lipid phases as model systems for controlled release formulations for the mRNA was investigated. Low fractions of 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) were used as an anchor to load the mRNA into a lamellar lipid matrix. Dispersions of zwitterionic lipid in the aqueous phase in the presence of increasing fractions of mRNA and cationic lipid were prepared, and the molecular organization was investigated as a function of mRNA and cationic lipid fraction...
December 12, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231789/a-redescription-of-serrasentis-sagittifer-rhadinorhynchidae-serrasentinae-from-rachycentron-canadum-rachycentridae-with-comments-on-its-biology-and-its-relationship-to-other-species-of-serrasentis
#3
Di Barton, Lesley Smales, Jessica Morgan
Adult and cystacanth forms of the acanthocephalan Serrasentis sagittifer from Australian coastal waters are redescribed and verified as the same species using both molecular and morphological data. This study provides the baseline 18S rDNA, 28S rDNA and cox1 sequence data to now genetically barcode S. sagittifer. The validity of the currently recognised species of Serrasentis is discussed, with most previously described species determined as junior synonyms of either Serrasentis nadakali or S. sagittifer; a number of species are also determined as species inquirenda...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231715/nanoscale-structure-property-relationships-of-polyacrylonitrile-cnt-composites-as-a-function-of-polymer-crystallinity-and-cnt-diameter
#4
Jacob R Gissinger, Chandrani Pramanik, Bradley Newcomb, Satish Kumar, Hendrik Heinz
Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/carbon nanotube (CNT) composites are used as a precursor for ultrastrong and lightweight carbon fibers. However, the mechanisms of formation and relationships of the nanoscale structure to mechanical and thermal properties have remained uncertain. This study reports on the impact of different degrees of PAN pre-orientation and CNT diameter on the composite properties using molecular dynamics simulation with accurate potentials and comparisons to experimental data. Relationships between the atomically resolved structure, thermal, and mechanical properties are derived...
December 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231270/profiling-and-characterization-of-micrornas-responding-to-sodium-butyrate-treatment-in-a549-cells
#5
Xiaoqiang Xiao, Yingjie Cao, Haoyu Chen
Butyrate inhibits growth of lung cancer. However, the molecular mechanism is still unclear. Here we profiled miRNAs that responded to sodium butyrate(NaB) stimulation in A549 cells, a non-small cell lung cancer cell line, using microarray. We found 33 up-regulated microRNAs and 22 down-regulated microRNAs (log2≥1.5 folds, P-value<0.05). The expression of miR-3935, miR-574-3p and miR-494-3p was confirmed by realtime qPCR. Then,we explored their potential targets of miR-574-3p and miR-494-3p using long noncoding RNA(LncRNA) microarray...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230909/histatins-wound-healing-and-cell-migration
#6
Pedro Torres, Martín Castro, Montserrat Reyes, Vicente A Torres
Wounds in the oral mucosa heal faster and more efficiently than those in the skin, although the mechanisms underlying these differences are not completely clear. In the last 10 years, a group of salivary peptides, the histatins, have gained attention on behalf of their ability to improve several phases of the wound healing process. In addition to their roles as antimicrobial agents and in enamel maintenance, histatins elicit other biological effects, namely by promoting the migration of different cell types contained in the oral mucosa and in non-oral tissues...
December 12, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230702/quantitative-pet-imaging-in-drug-development-estimation-of-target-occupancy
#7
Mika Naganawa, Jean-Dominique Gallezot, Samantha Rossano, Richard E Carson
Positron emission tomography, an imaging tool using radiolabeled tracers in humans and preclinical species, has been widely used in recent years in drug development, particularly in the central nervous system. One important goal of PET in drug development is assessing the occupancy of various molecular targets (e.g., receptors, transporters, enzymes) by exogenous drugs. The current linear mathematical approaches used to determine occupancy using PET imaging experiments are presented. These algorithms use results from multiple regions with different target content in two scans, a baseline (pre-drug) scan and a post-drug scan...
December 11, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230451/energy-transfer-and-charge-separation-dynamics-in-photoexcited-pyrene-bodipy-molecular-dyads
#8
M Fakis, J S Beckwith, K Seintis, E Martinou, C Nançoz, N Karakostas, I Petsalakis, G Pistolis, E Vauthey
The photophysical properties of two pyrene-bodipy molecular dyads, composed of a phenyl-pyrene (Py-Ph) linked to the meso position of a bodipy (BD) molecule with either H-atoms (BD1) or ethyl groups (BD2) at the 2,6 positions, are investigated by stationary, nanosecond and femtosecond spectroscopy. The properties of these dyads (Py-Ph-BD1 and Py-Ph-BD2) are compared to those of their constituent chromophores in two solvents namely 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) and acetonitrile (ACN). Stationary spectroscopy reveals a weak coupling among the subunits in both dyads...
December 12, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230216/metabolism-controls-the-balance-of-th17-t-regulatory-cells
#9
REVIEW
Licheng Sun, Jinrong Fu, Yufeng Zhou
Accumulating evidence indicates that metabolism reprogramming is critically important to T cell differentiation, and manipulating metabolic pathways in T cells can shape their fate and function. During T cell differentiation, metabolism provides T cells with energy as well as precursors for various biological processes. Some key metabolic reactions, such as glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid oxidation, are also considered to play important roles in T cell activation and differentiation. In this review, we will explain why cellular metabolism is important for the Th17/T-regulatory (Treg) cell balance and how metabolism reprogramming impacts this balance...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230200/from-genes-to-ecosystems-in-microbiology-modeling-approaches-and-the-importance-of-individuality
#10
REVIEW
Jan-Ulrich Kreft, Caroline M Plugge, Clara Prats, Johan H J Leveau, Weiwen Zhang, Ferdi L Hellweger
Models are important tools in microbial ecology. They can be used to advance understanding by helping to interpret observations and test hypotheses, and to predict the effects of ecosystem management actions or a different climate. Over the past decades, biological knowledge and ecosystem observations have advanced to the molecular and in particular gene level. However, microbial ecology models have changed less and a current challenge is to make them utilize the knowledge and observations at the genetic level...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230123/molecular-targets-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Ryan Griffin, Robert A Ramirez
Background: Lung cancer is the second most common cancer in the United States among men and women, and it is the most common cause of cancer-related death. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents approximately 85% of all lung cancer cases. Historically, patients with metastatic NSCLC received similar cytotoxic chemotherapy regimens. Genotyping studies have revealed genetic/molecular abnormalities in lung cancer. These driver mutations render a cancer dependent on that specific mutation's biochemical pathway for its growth and survival...
2017: Ochsner Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230121/leptomeningeal-disease-and-the-evolving-role-of-molecular-targeted-therapy-and-immunotherapy
#12
REVIEW
Katharine Hall Thomas, Robert A Ramirez
Background: Leptomeningeal disease (LMD) is a complication that results from solid tumor metastasis. Prognosis is extremely poor. As therapeutic options for solid tumors improve, the rate of LMD continues to increase. Until recently, treatment has been limited to radiation therapy, intrathecal chemotherapy, and systemic chemotherapy, with an overall survival of 2-3 months. Targeted molecular therapy and immunotherapies are promising new options for increasing overall survival and clinical improvement; however, optimal clinical management remains unknown...
2017: Ochsner Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230049/insights-into-substrate-binding-of-ferulic-acid-esterases-by-arabinose-and-methyl-hydroxycinnamate-esters-and-molecular-docking
#13
Cameron J Hunt, Io Antonopoulou, Akshat Tanksale, Ulrika Rova, Paul Christakopoulos, Victoria S Haritos
Ferulic acid esterases (FAE, EC 3.1.1.73) cleave the arabinose hydroxycinnamate ester in plant hemicellulose and other related substrates. FAE are commonly categorised as type A-D based on catalytic activities towards model, short alkyl chain esters of hydroxycinnamates. However, this system correlates poorly with sequence and structural features of the enzymes. In this study, we investigated the basis of the type A categorisation of an FAE from Aspergillus niger, AnFaeA, by comparing its activity toward methyl and arabinose hydroxycinnamate esters...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230023/pharmacogenetics-predictors-of-methylphenidate-efficacy-in-childhood-adhd
#14
N M Myer, J R Boland, S V Faraone
Stimulant medication has long been effective in treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and is currently the first-line pharmacological treatment for children. Both methylphenidate and amphetamine modulate extracellular catecholamine levels through interaction with dopaminergic, adrenergic and serotonergic system components; it is therefore likely that catecholaminergic molecular components influence the effects of ADHD treatment. Using meta-analysis, we sought to identify predictors of pharmacotherapy to further the clinical implementation of personalized medicine...
December 12, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230006/platinum-sensitivity-in-metastatic-prostate-cancer-does-histology-matter
#15
Michael S Humeniuk, Rajan T Gupta, Patrick Healy, Megan McNamara, Sundhar Ramalingam, Michael Harrison, Daniel George, Tian Zhang, Yuan Wu, Andrew J Armstrong
BACKGROUND: Platinum-based chemotherapy is effective in men with neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC), but it is unclear whether histology (adenocarcinoma vs. non-adenocarcinoma NEPC variants) is predictive of platinum sensitivity. Given that NEPC exists as a spectrum, there may be men with adenocarcinoma who might benefit from platinum chemotherapy, particularly those men with DNA repair defects. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of all of the men seen at Duke University since 2005 who had metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) and were treated with a platinum agent...
December 11, 2017: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229945/molecular-thresholds-of-its2-and-their-implications-for-molecular-evolution-and-species-identification-in-seed-plants
#16
Ying Qin, Meihui Li, Yong Cao, Ya Gao, Wei Zhang
Although molecular data have revealed huge amounts of plant diversity, interpreting genetic diversity into entities corresponding to species is still challenging. Taxonomic ranking based on genetic distance has been used extensively, but the results have been open to dispute, while the application of the strategy to plants has been restricted to a small number of cases. Here, levels of internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequence variation were examined from 17,203 sequences, representing 5,439 species in 113 genera of seed plants, to ascertain the association between species status and their molecular divergence...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229879/small-phosphatidate-phosphatase-ttpah2-of-tetrahymena-complements-respiratory-function-and-not-membrane-biogenesis-function-of-yeast-pah1
#17
Anoop Narayana Pillai, Sushmita Shukla, Sudhanshu Gautam, Abdur Rahaman
Phosphatidate phosphatases (PAH) play a central role in lipid metabolism and intracellular signaling. Herein, we report the presence of a low-molecular-weight PAH homolog in the single-celled ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. In vitro phosphatase assay showed that TtPAH2 belongs to the magnesium-dependent phosphatidate phosphatase (PAP1) family. Loss of function of TtPAH2 did not affect the growth of Tetrahymena. Unlike other known PAH homologs, TtPAH2 did not regulate lipid droplet number and ER morphology...
December 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229862/a-small-molecule-activator-of-kinesin-1-drives-remodeling-of-the-microtubule-network
#18
Thomas S Randall, Yan Y Yip, Daynea J Wallock-Richards, Karin Pfisterer, Anneri Sanger, Weronika Ficek, Roberto A Steiner, Andrew J Beavil, Maddy Parsons, Mark P Dodding
The microtubule motor kinesin-1 interacts via its cargo-binding domain with both microtubules and organelles, and hence plays an important role in controlling organelle transport and microtubule dynamics. In the absence of cargo, kinesin-1 is found in an autoinhibited conformation. The molecular basis of how cargo engagement affects the balance between kinesin-1's active and inactive conformations and roles in microtubule dynamics and organelle transport is not well understood. Here we describe the discovery of kinesore, a small molecule that in vitro inhibits kinesin-1 interactions with short linear peptide motifs found in organelle-specific cargo adaptors, yet activates kinesin-1's function of controlling microtubule dynamics in cells, demonstrating that these functions are mechanistically coupled...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229826/identification-of-cancer-genes-that-are-independent-of-dominant-proliferation-and-lineage-programs
#19
Laura M Selfors, Daniel G Stover, Isaac S Harris, Joan S Brugge, Jonathan L Coloff
Large, multidimensional cancer datasets provide a resource that can be mined to identify candidate therapeutic targets for specific subgroups of tumors. Here, we analyzed human breast cancer data to identify transcriptional programs associated with tumors bearing specific genetic driver alterations. Using an unbiased approach, we identified thousands of genes whose expression was enriched in tumors with specific genetic alterations. However, expression of the vast majority of these genes was not enriched if associations were analyzed within individual breast tumor molecular subtypes, across multiple tumor types, or after gene expression was normalized to account for differences in proliferation or tumor lineage...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229777/crystal-structure-of-the-flif-flig-complex-from-helicobacter-pylori-yields-insight-into-the-assembly-of-the-motor-ms-c-ring-in-the-bacterial-flagellum
#20
Chaolun Xue, Kwok Ho Lam, Huawei Zhang, Kailei Sun, Sai Hang Lee, Xin Chen, Shannon Wing Ngor Au
The bacterial flagellar motor is a self-assembling supramolecular nanodevice. Its spontaneous biosynthesis is initiated by the insertion of the MS ring protein FliF into the inner membrane, followed by attachment of the switch protein FliG. Assembly of this multiprotein complex is tightly regulated to avoid nonspecific aggregation, but the molecular mechanisms governing flagellar assembly are unclear. Here, we present the crystal structure of the cytoplasmic domain of FliF complexed with the N-terminal domain of FliG (FliFC-FliGN) from the bacterium Helicobacter pylori Within this complex, FliFC interacted with FliGN through extensive hydrophobic contacts similar to those observed in the FliFC-FliGN structure from the thermophile Thermotoga maritima, indicating conservation of the FliFC-FliGN interaction across bacterial species...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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