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Cardiac Toxicity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933303/cardioprotective-potential-of-iron-chelators-and-prochelators
#1
Hana Jansova, Tomas Simunek
Heart is a particularly sensitive organ to iron overload and cardiomyopathy due to the excessive cardiac iron deposition causes most deaths in disorders such as beta-thalassemia major. Free or loosely bound iron ions readily cycle between ferrous and ferric states and catalyze Haber-Weiss reaction that yields highly reactive and toxic hydroxyl radicals. Treatment with iron chelators (desferrioxamine, deferiprone, and deferasirox) substantially improved cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in iron overloaded patients...
September 20, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931213/a-review-on-the-efficacy-and-toxicity-of-different-doxorubicin-nanoparticles-for-targeted-therapy-in-metastatic-breast-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Ayman Shafei, Wesam El-Bakly, Ahmed Sobhy, Omar Wagdy, Ahmed Reda, Omar Aboelenin, Amr Marzouk, Khalil El Habak, Randa Mostafa, Mahmoud A Ali, Mahmoud Ellithy
In metastatic breast cancer (MBC), the conventional doxorubicin (DOX) has various problems due to lack of selectivity with subsequent therapeutic failure and adverse effects. DOX- induced cardiotoxicity is a major problem that necessitates the presence of new forms to decrease the risk of associated morbidity. Nanoparticles (NPs) are considered an important approach to selectively increase drug accumulation inside tumor cells and thus decreasing the associated side effects. Tumor cells develop resistance to chemotherapeutic agents through multiple mechanisms, one of which is over expression of efflux transporters...
September 16, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929660/-establishment-of-biological-assess-for-quality-control-of-fuzi-based-on-determination-of-premature-ventricular-contractions-in-rats
#3
Zhi-Hao Zhao, Ding-Kun Zhang, Ming-Quan Wu, Chun-Yu Li, Li-Juan Cao, Ping Zhang, Cui-Zhe Liu, Jia-Bo Wang, Xiao-He Xiao
Aconiti Lateralis Radix (Fuzi) is a toxic traditional Chinese medicine with definite efficacy. In order to improve the quality control of its different prepared products and ensure the security in clinic, it is significant to establish a method of quality evaluation related to clinic adverse effects. Aiming at the important biological marker of early cardiac toxicity reaction, there was no method to detect it. In this manuscript, a novel approach for measuring the minimal toxic dose (MTD) of premature ventricular contractions (PVC) poisoning of rats was established...
October 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929270/mode-of-treatment-governs-curcumin-response-on-doxorubicin-induced-toxicity-in-cardiomyoblasts
#4
Aditi Jain, Vibha Rani
Doxorubicin (Dox) is an effective anti-cancer drug with severe reported cardiotoxicity. Cardiovascular risks associated with present cancer therapeutics demand urgent attention. There has been a growing interest in naturally occurring compounds to improve the therapeutic index as well as prevent non-tumour tissues from sustaining chemotherapy-induced damages. In the present study, the effects of curcumin, a polyphenol isolated from Curcuma longa and well known for its anti-oxidative, anti-cancerous and anti-inflammatory properties, was studied in relation to the Dox-induced cardiotoxicity...
September 19, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924048/a-mutant-of-the-bmk-antitumor-analgesic-peptide-exhibits-reduced-inhibition-to-hnav1-4-and-hnav1-5-channels-while-retaining-analgesic-activity
#5
Yijia Xu, Xiangxue Meng, Xue Hou, Jianfang Sun, Xiaohua Kong, Yuqi Sun, Zeyu Liu, Yuanyuan Ma, Ye Niu, Yongbo Song, Yong Cui, Mingyi Zhao, Jinghai Zhang
Scorpion toxins can kill other animals by inducing paralysis and arrhythmia, which limits the potential applications of these agents in the clinical management of diseases. Antitumor-analgesic peptide (AGAP), purified from Buthus martensii Karsch (BmK), has been proved to possess analgesic and antitumor activities. Trp38, a conserved aromatic residue of AGAP, might play an important role in mediating AGAP activities according to the sequence and homology modeling analyses. Therefore, an AGAP mutant W38G was generated, and effects of both AGAP and the mutant W38G were examine by whole-cell patch clamp techniques on the sodium channels hNav1...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923539/efficient-vegf-targeting-delivery-of-dox-using-bevacizumab-conjugated-sio2-ldh-for-anti-neuroblastoma-therapy
#6
Rongrong Zhu, Zhaoqi Wang, Peng Liang, Xiaolie He, Xizhen Zhuang, Ruiqi Huang, Mei Wang, Qigang Wang, Yechang Qian, Shilong Wang
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in angiogenesis and is highly expressed in carcinoma, which make it an important target for tumor targeting therapy. Neuroblastoma is the main cause for cancer-related death in children. Like most solid tumors, it is also accompanied with the overexpression of VEGF. Doxorubicin Hydrochloride (DOX), a typical chemotherapeutic agent, exhibits efficient anticancer activities for various cancers. However, DOX, without targeting ability, usually causes severe damage to normal tissues...
September 15, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923249/akap-lbc-mediates-protection-against-doxorubicin-induced-cardiomyocyte-toxicity
#7
Stefania Caso, Darko Maric, Miroslav Arambasic, Susanna Cotecchia, Dario Diviani
Doxorubicin (DOX) is a chemotherapic agent that is widely used to treat hematological and solid tumors. Despite its efficacy, DOX displays significant cardiac toxicity associated with cardiomyocytes death and heart failure. Cardiac toxicity is mainly associated with the ability of DOX to alter mitochondrial function. The current lack of treatments to efficiently prevent DOX cardiotoxicity underscores the need of new therapeutic approaches. Our current findings show that stimulation of cardiomyocytes with the α1-adrenergic receptor (AR) agonist phenylephrine (PE) significantly inhibits the apoptotic effect of DOX...
September 16, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922986/attenuation-of-doxorubicin-induced-cardiotoxicity-and-genotoxicity-by-an-indole-based-natural-compound-3-3-diindolylmethane-dim-through-activation-of-nrf2-are-signaling-pathways-and-inhibiting-apoptosis
#8
Subhadip Hajra, Abhishek Basu, Somnath Singha Roy, Arup Ranjan Patra, Sudin Bhattacharya
The most crucial complication related to doxorubicin (DOX) therapy is nonspecific cytotoxic effect on healthy normal cells. The clinical use of this broad-spectrum chemotherapeutic agent is restricted due to development of severe form of cardiotoxicity, myelosuppression and genotoxicity which interfere with therapeutic schedule, compromise treatment outcome and may lead to secondary malignancy. 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) is a naturally occurring plant alkaloid formed by the hydrolysis of indolylmethyl glucosinolate (glucobrassicin)...
September 18, 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920564/intentional-overdose-of-the-novel-anti-epileptic-drug-eslicarbazepine-presenting-with-recurrent-seizures-and-ventricular-dysrhythmias
#9
Jesse Thompson, James D Powell, Daniel H Ovakim
Eslicarbazepine is a novel anti-epileptic agent indicated for the treatment of partial-onset seizures. We present the case of an 18 year old female that presented to the Emergency Department four hours after a reported intentional ingestion of an estimated 5600 mg of eslicarbazepine. Although initially hemodynamically stable and neurologically normal, shortly after arrival she developed confusion, rigidity and clonus, followed by recurrent seizures, hypoxemia and cardiac arrest which responded to cardiopulmonary resuscitation and wide complex tachycardia requiring defibrillation...
September 18, 2017: CJEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917061/use-of-lipid-emulsion-therapy-in-local-anesthetic-overdose
#10
Ozgur Karcioglu
The use of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) therapy as antidote in systemic toxicity of certain agents has gained widespread support. There are increasing data suggesting use of ILE in reversing from local anesthetic-induced systemic toxicity severe, life-threatening cardiotoxicity, although findings are contradictory. Efficiency of ILE was demonstrated in animal studies in the treatment of severe impairment of cardiac functions, via a mechanism for trapping lipophilic drugs in an expanded plasma lipid compartment ("lipid sink")...
October 2017: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917022/epidemiology-pathogenesis-and-management-of-takotsubo-syndrome
#11
REVIEW
Shams Y-Hassan, Per Tornvall
Takotsubo syndrome is a recently recognized acute cardiac disease entity with a clinical presentation resembling that of an acute coronary syndrome. The typical takotsubo syndrome patient has a unique circumferential left (bi-) ventricular contraction abnormality profile that extends beyond a coronary artery supply territory and appears to follow the anatomical cardiac sympathetic innervation. The syndrome predominantly affects postmenopausal women and is often preceded by emotional or physical stress. Patients with predisposing factors such as malignancy and other chronic comorbidities are more prone to suffer from takotsubo syndrome...
September 15, 2017: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914153/cardiotoxicity-with-carfilzomib-at-doses-greater-than-27%C3%A2-mg-m-2-a-case-series
#12
Gee Youn Kim, Tania Ahuja, John Papadopoulos, Frank Cirrone
Carfilzomib is a second-generation proteasome inhibitor that irreversibly inhibits chymotrypsin-like (CT-L) activities of the proteasome, and is indicated for relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. Cardiotoxicity is a well-established adverse effect of carfilzomib. The extent of cardiac toxicity in the literature spans anywhere from palpitations to cardiac arrest, with the most commonly reported manifestation being new-onset or worsening heart failure. A pre-clinical study of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of carfilzomib given via intravenous bolus or 30-minute infusion in rats showed that carfilzomib can strongly induce apoptosis and potently damage cardiac myocytes at clinically relevant concentrations...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913397/cardiac-transplant-due-to-metal-toxicity-associated-with-hip-arthroplasty
#13
Sheldon Moniz, Sean Hodgkinson, Piers Yates
Concerns regarding metal-on-metal (MoM) bearing couples in total hip arthroplasty are well documented in the literature with cobalt (Co) and chromium (Cr) toxicity causing a range of both local and systemic adverse reactions. We describe the case of a patient undergoing cardiac transplantation as a direct result of Co and Cr toxicity following a MoM hip replacement. Poor implant positioning led to catastrophic wear generating abundant wear particles leading to Co and Cr toxicity, metallosis, bony destruction, elevated metal ion levels, and adverse biological responses...
September 2017: Arthroplasty Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902176/pharmacokinetic-and-toxicodynamic-characterization-of-a-novel-doxorubicin-derivative
#14
Samaa Alrushaid, Casey L Sayre, Jaime A Yáñez, M Laird Forrest, Sanjeewa N Senadheera, Frank J Burczynski, Raimar Löbenberg, Neal M Davies
Doxorubicin (Dox) is an effective anti-cancer medication with poor oral bioavailability and systemic toxicities. DoxQ was developed by conjugating Dox to the lymphatically absorbed antioxidant quercetin to improve Dox's bioavailability and tolerability. The purpose of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics and safety of Dox after intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) administration of DoxQ or Dox (10 mg/kg) and investigate the intestinal lymphatic delivery of Dox after PO DoxQ administration in male Sprague-Dawley rats...
September 13, 2017: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900318/normal-tissue-complications-following-hypofractionated-chest-wall-radiotherapy-in-breast-cancer-patients-and-their-correlation-with-patient-tumor-and-treatment-characteristics
#15
Mohsin Khan, Shahid A Siddiqui, Manoj K Gupta, Rajeev K Seam, Manish Gupta
INTRODUCTION: Normal tissue complications following chest wall radiotherapy (RT) are inevitable, and the long-term data on hypofractionation are still limited. To quantify the late effects of hypofractionated RT on cardiac, pulmonary, brachial plexus, and regional lymphatics and their correlation with patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics is the main objective of this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred and sixteen breast cancer patients following mastectomy were treated with hypofractionated schedules either 40 Gy in 15 fractions or 42...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894627/mangifera-indica-l-leaf-extract-alleviates-doxorubicin-induced-cardiac-stress
#16
Laxit Bhatt, Viraj Joshi
AIM: The study was undertaken to evaluate the cardioprotective effect of the alcoholic leaf extract of Mangifera indica L. against cardiac stress caused by doxorubicin (DOX). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were treated with 100 mg/kg of M. indica leaf extract (MILE) in alone and interactive groups for 21 days. Apart from the normal and MILE control groups, all the groups were subjected to DOX (15 mg/kg, i.p.) toxicity for 21 days and effects of different treatments were analyzed by changes in serum biomarkers, tissue antioxidant levels, electrocardiographic parameters, lipid profile, and histopathological evaluation...
July 2017: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893740/an-unusual-presentation-of-chronic-cyanide-toxicity-from-self-prescribed-apricot-kernel-extract
#17
Alex Konstantatos, Malini Shiv Kumar, Aidan Burrell, Joel Smith
Hypoxia under general anaesthesia is a potentially life-threatening condition. A seemingly well 67-year-old man appeared hypoxic with peripheral pulse oximetric measurement during routine anaesthesia. Postoperatively, the patient admitted to daily self-prescription of apricot kernel extract for a period of 5 years. Apricot kernel is a commonly taken extract used for a range of ailments, and is associated with cyanide toxicity, which was confirmed through blood analysis. Our explanation for the hypoxic measurement was the presence of free cyanide interfering with functioning of the peripheral pulse oximeter...
September 11, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893436/death-after-25c-nbome-and-25h-nbome-consumption
#18
Luca Morini, Marzia Bernini, Sara Vezzoli, Mario Restori, Matteo Moretti, Stefano Crenna, Pietro Papa, Carlo Locatelli, Antonio Marco Maria Osculati, Claudia Vignali, Angelo Groppi
A teenager male was found dead in a waterway after he was spotted jumping off into the water stream. The boy looked agitated and confused after a party with friends. At the gathering place, investigators seized packages of blotter papers. A complete autopsy and a histological evaluation of the main tissues were performed; although the death occurred by drowning, the prosecutor requested toxicological exams, in order to evaluate the potential role of drugs of abuse in the episode. Blood (both peripheral and central) and urine samples as well as seized blotter papers were collected and analyzed as follows...
September 5, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892929/connective-tissue-growth-factor-transgenic-mouse-develops-cardiac-hypertrophy-lean-body-mass-and-alopecia
#19
Edem Nuglozeh
INTRODUCTION: Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF/CCN2) is one of the six members of cysteine-rich, heparin-binding proteins, secreted as modular protein and recognised to play a major function in cell processes such as adhesion, migration, proliferation and differentiation as well as chondrogenesis, skeletogenesis, angiogenesis and wound healing. The capacity of CTGF to interact with different growth factors lends an important role during early and late development, especially in the anterior region of the embryo...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890382/in-vitro-genotoxicity-and-in-vivo-subchronic-evaluation-of-the-anti-inflammatory-pyrazole-compound-lqfm021
#20
Soraia Santa de Moura, Renato Ivan de Ávila, Lara Barroso Brito, Rhaul de Oliveira, Gisele Augusto Rodrigues de Oliveira, Francine Pazini, Ricardo Menegatti, Aline Carvalho Batista, Cesar Koppe Grisolia, Marize Campos Valadares
Scientific evidences have highlighted 5-(1-(3-fluorophenyl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-2H-tetrazole (LQFM021) as a promising anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antinociceptive agent due to its effects on peripheral opioid receptors associated with activation of the nitric oxide/cGMP/KATP pathway. Despite these important pharmacological findings, toxicity data of LQFM021 are scarce. Thus, this study investigated the in vitro genotoxicity of LQFM021 through cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (OECD Nº 487/2014). Moreover, zebrafish model was used to assess the embryotoxicity potential of LQFM021 using fish embryo toxicity test (OECD Nº 236/2013) with extended exposure to evaluate subchronic larval development...
September 7, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
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