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Cardiac Toxicity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149136/mapk-pathway-targeted-therapies-care-and-management-of-unique-toxicities-in-patients-with-advanced-melanoma%C3%A2
#1
Krista M Rubin
BACKGROUND: Agents targeting the MAPK pathway, including inhibitors of BRAF and MEK, have dramatically transformed the treatment landscape for patients with BRAF-mutant metastatic melanoma. Although generally well tolerated, targeted agents were associated with unique toxicities.
. OBJECTIVES: This article aims to provide nurses with an overview of the key toxicities and associated management strategies of the characteristic adverse event (AE) profile associated with agents targeting the MAPK pathway...
December 1, 2017: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145932/lipid-emulsion-more-than-reversing-bupivacaine-cardiotoxicity-potential-organ-protection
#2
Negar Motayagheni, Sheshanna Phan, Ala Nozari, Anthony Atala
Efforts to develop a treatment for bupivacaine cardiotoxicity led to the discovery that Intralipid, a popular brand of intravenous lipid emulsion, could be used not only as an effective treatment for anesthetic-induced cardiac arrest, but also as a means of reversing many other toxicities. Contradictory data exist regarding the mechanism of action of lipid emulsion, a combination of fatty acids traditionally used in parenteral nutrition. Some researchers attribute the effects to lipophilicity and the individual characteristics of the lipids, while other data demonstrate a direct empowering mechanism through cellular upstream and downstream pathways...
2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142197/proteotoxicity-in-cardiac-amyloidosis-amyloidogenic-light-chains-affect-the-levels-of-intracellular-proteins-in-human-heart-cells
#3
Esther Imperlini, Massimiliano Gnecchi, Paola Rognoni, Eduard Sabidò, Maria Chiara Ciuffreda, Giovanni Palladini, Guadalupe Espadas, Francesco Mattia Mancuso, Margherita Bozzola, Giuseppe Malpasso, Veronica Valentini, Giuseppina Palladini, Stefania Orrù, Giovanni Ferraro, Paolo Milani, Stefano Perlini, Francesco Salvatore, Giampaolo Merlini, Francesca Lavatelli
AL amyloidosis is characterized by widespread deposition of immunoglobulin light chains (LCs) as amyloid fibrils. Cardiac involvement is frequent and leads to life-threatening cardiomyopathy. Besides the tissue alteration caused by fibrils, clinical and experimental evidence indicates that cardiac damage is also caused by proteotoxicity of prefibrillar amyloidogenic species. As in other amyloidoses, the damage mechanisms at cellular level are complex and largely undefined. We have characterized the molecular changes in primary human cardiac fibroblasts (hCFs) exposed in vitro to soluble amyloidogenic cardiotoxic LCs from AL cardiomyopathy patients...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141695/methylxanthines-induce-structural-and-functional-alterations-of-the-cardiac-system-in-zebrafish-embryos
#4
Ram Manohar Basnet, Daniela Zizioli, Michela Guarienti, Dario Finazzi, Maurizio Memo
BACKGROUND: Zebrafish embryos are emerging as a model for pharmacological and toxicological studies. We used zebrafish embryos to study the general toxicity and cardiovascular effects of eight methylxanthines: aminophylline, caffeine, diprophylline, doxofylline, etophylline, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), pentoxifylline and theophylline. METHODS: Microinjections of the eight methylxanthines were performed in 1-2 cell stage zebrafish embryos and the general toxicity and cardiovascular effects were analyzed at different time points...
November 15, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138834/mechanism-of-free-radical-generation-in-platelets-and-primary-hepatocytes-a-novel-electron-spin-resonance-study
#5
Chiun-Lang Wang, Po-Sheng Yang, Jeng-Ting Tsao, Thanasekaran Jayakumar, Meng-Jiy Wang, Joen-Rong Sheu, Duen-Suey Chou
Oxygen free radicals have been implicated in the pathogenesis of toxic liver injury and are thought to be involved in cardiac dysfunction in the cirrhotic heart. Therefore, direct evidence for the electron spin resonance (ESR) detection of how D‑galactosamine (GalN), an established experimental hepatotoxic substance, induced free radicals formation in platelets and primary hepatocytes is presented in the present study. ESR results demonstrated that GalN induced hydroxyl radicals (OH•) in a resting human platelet suspension; however, radicals were not produced in a cell free Fenton reaction system...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137383/oral-administration-of-ginsenoside-rg1-prevents-cardiac-toxicity-induced-by-doxorubicin-in-mice-through-anti-apoptosis
#6
Chen Zhu, Yi Wang, Hua Liu, Haiman Mu, Yue Lu, Jiayi Zhang, Jianhua Huang
Although Ginsenoside Rg1 has been reported to have protective cardiac effects, its effects on cardiac toxicity induced by doxorubicin needs to be studied. The present study investigated the effects of oral administration of Rg1 on the heart in mice treated with doxorubicin and found improved fractional shortening and ejection fraction of the heart and decreased cardiac apoptosis in mice treated with doxorubicin. The underlying mechanisms include increased phosphorylation of Akt and Erk by Rg1, increased ratio of Bcl-2 and Bax, and decreased release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, thereby protecting the heart from doxorubicin-induced apoptosis...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133662/a-tiny-tick-can-cause-a-big-health-problem
#7
Manuel John, M Raman, Keith Ryan
Ticks are tiny crawling bugs in the spider family that feed by sucking blood from animals. They are second only to mosquitoes as vectors of human disease, both infectious and toxic. Infected ticks spread over a hundred diseases, some of which are fatal if undetected. They spread the spirochete (which multiplies in the insect's gut) with a subsequent bite to the next host. We describe the only reported cases of peri ocular tick bite from India that presented to us within a span of 3 days and its management. Due suspicion and magnification of the lesions revealed the ticks which otherwise masqueraded as small skin tags/moles on gross examination...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133340/effects-of-hawthorn-crataegus-pentagyna-leaf-extract-on-electrophysiologic-properties-of-cardiomyocytes-derived-from-human-cardiac-arrhythmia-specific-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#8
Sara Pahlavan, Marziyeh Shalchi Tousi, Mahdi Ayyari, Abolfazl Alirezalu, Hassan Ansari, Tomo Saric, Hossein Baharvand
Cardiac arrhythmias are major life-threatening conditions. The landmark discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells has provided a promising in vitro system for modeling hereditary cardiac arrhythmias as well as drug development and toxicity testing. Nowadays, nutraceuticals are frequently used as supplements for cardiovascular therapy. Here we studied the cardiac effects of hawthorn (Crataegus pentagyna) leaf extract using cardiomyocytes (CMs) differentiated from healthy human embryonic stem cells, long QT syndrome type 2 (LQTS2), and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia type 1 (CPVT1) patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells...
November 13, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133306/quaking-inhibits-doxorubicin-mediated-cardiotoxicity-through-regulation-of-cardiac-circular-rna-expression
#9
Shashi K Gupta, Ankita Garg, Christian Bär, Shambhabi Chatterjee, Ariana Foinquinos, Hendrik Milting, Katrin Streckfuss-Bömeke, Jan Fiedler, Thomas Thum
Rationale: RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have been described to be expressed and regulated in various organs including the heart. Little is known about the role of RBPs in heart failure induced by the chemotherapy drug doxorubicin and their interaction with circular RNAs. Objective: We aimed to identify key RBPs involved in doxorubicin-mediated heart failure and to elucidate their function. Methods and Results: Global transcriptome profiling from murine myocardium exposed to doxorubicin identified five differentially expressed RBPs...
November 13, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132212/oil-exposure-impairs-in-situ-cardiac-function-in-response-to-%C3%AE-adrenergic-stimulation-in-cobia-rachycentron-canadum
#10
Georgina Kimberly Cox, Dane A Crossley, John D Stieglitz, Rachael M Heuer, Daniel D Benetti, Martin Grosell
Aqueous crude oil spills expose fish to varying concentrations of dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which can have lethal and sub-lethal effects. The heart is particularly vulnerable in early life stages, as PAH toxicity causes developmental cardiac abnormalities and impaired cardiovascular function. However, cardiac responses of juvenile and adult fish to acute oil exposure remain poorly understood. We sought to assess cardiac function in a pelagic fish species, the cobia (Rachycentron canadum), following acute (24 hr) exposure to two ecologically relevant levels of dissolved PAH's...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130832/developmental-toxicity-assay-for-food-additive-tartrazine-using-zebrafish-danio-rerio-embryo-cultures
#11
Vani Joshi, Pancharatna Katti
Tartrazine (TTZ) is an azo dye used as a colorant in food products, drugs, and cosmetics. The present study evaluates the impacts of TTZ on embryonic development of zebrafish ( Danio rerio). Laboratory-raised D. rerio embryos (n = 20/concentration) were exposed to graded dilutions of TTZ (0, 0.1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 75, and 100 mM) from gastrulation stage (5.25 hours postfertilization [hpf]) until hatching and developmental trajectory was traced up to day 7. The no observed effect concentration (NOEC), median lethal concentration (LC50), median effective concentration (EC50), and teratogenic index (TI) were calculated...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129433/nanoparticulate-specific-effects-of-silver-on-teleost-cardiac-contractility
#12
Neal Ingraham Callaghan, Kenneth Javier Williams, J Craig Bennett, Tyson James MacCormack
Silver nanoparticles (nAg), due to their biocidal properties, are common in medical applications and are used in more consumer products than any other engineered nanomaterial. This growing abundance, combined with their ability to translocate across the epithelium and bioaccumulate, suggests that internalized nAg may present a risk of toxicity to many organisms in the future. However, little experimentation has been devoted to cardiac responses to acute nAg exposure, even though nAg is known to disrupt ion channels even when ionic Ag(+) does not...
November 9, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123931/rapid-ascending-sensorimotor-paralysis-hearing-loss-and-fatal-arrhythmia-in-a-multimorbid-patient-due-to-an-accidental-overdose-of-fluoxetine
#13
Matthew Herrmann, Prissilla Xu, Antonio Liu
Background: Common side effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) include tachycardia, drowsiness, tremor, nausea, and vomiting. Although SSRIs have less toxic side effects compared to more traditional antidepressants, serious and life threatening cases of SSRI overdose have been reported. We describe a 24-year-old multimorbid female who presented to the emergency department with rapid onset ascending sensorimotor paralysis, complicated by respiratory and cardiac arrest, found to have fatal levels of fluoxetine by toxicological analysis, not taken in a suicidal act...
2017: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123887/two-cases-of-life-threatening-arrhythmia-induced-by-risperidone-evaluation-of-risperidone-and-9-hydroxy-risperidone-concentrations
#14
Asami Ito, Tomoyuki Enokiya, Eiji Kawamoto, Yoshiaki Iwashita, Taichi Takeda, Kenji Ikemura, Masahiro Okuda, Hiroshi Imai
Cases: Case 1: A 20-year-old woman suffering a suspected overdose was transported to the hospital. She presented bradycardia with wide QRS waves and QT prolongation, followed by cardiac arrest. Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation was implemented, improving circulation. Risperidone and 9OH-RIS levels were 9.6 ng/mL and 127.6 ng/mL, respectively. Case 2: A 54-year-old woman was hospitalized for femoral fracture and underwent surgery. Her electrocardiogram showed bradycardia and complete AV block...
July 2017: Acute Medicine & Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123854/local-anesthetic-toxicity-acute-and-chronic-management
#15
REVIEW
Kenichi Sekimoto, Masaru Tobe, Shigeru Saito
Local anesthetics are commonly used medicines in clinical settings. They are used for pain management during minor interventional treatments, and for postoperative care after major surgeries. Cocaine is the well-known origin of local anesthetics, and the drug and related derivatives have long history of clinical usage for more than several centuries. Although illegal use of cocaine and its abuse are social problem in some countries, other local anesthetics are safely and effectively used in clinics and hospitals all over the world...
April 2017: Acute Medicine & Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123561/mortality-prediction-in-status-epilepticus-with-the-apache-ii-score
#16
Jocelyn Y Cheng
A retrospective study was performed of adults admitted to the intensive care unit in order to determine the utility of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score in predicting in-hospital mortality in intensive care unit patients with non-cardiac status epilepticus. The cohort consisted of 104 subjects, 50 (48.1%) male, 39 (37.5%) aged ≥65 years, with a mean APACHE II score of 17.88. Four models of the APACHE II system were assessed: numerical score, adjusted score mortality, category, and category mortality...
November 2017: J Intensive Care Soc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116540/long-term-safety-of-long-acting-octreotide-in-patients-with-diabetic-retinopathy-results-of-pooled-data-from-2-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-phase-3-studies
#17
Rosario Pivonello, Giovanna Muscogiuri, Geoffrey Holder, Michaela Paul, Severine Sarp, Anastasia Lesogor, Pierre Jordaan, Johannes Eisinger, Annamaria Colao
PURPOSE: Octreotide (OCT) has been successfully used for treatment of acromegaly and neuroendocrine tumors for more than 30 years. However, long-term safety of OCT has not been documented in placebo-controlled setting. This present analysis pooled safety data from two similarly-designed, randomized, and placebo-controlled studies to evaluate long-term safety of long-acting OCT (20, 30 mg); targeted post-hoc analyzes focused on cardiac, hepatic, and renal safety. METHODS: Two studies (NCT00131144, NCT001308450) were conducted in patients with diabetic retinopathy (OCT20 = 191, OCT30 = 348, placebo = 347)...
November 7, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113416/internal-mammary-lymph-nodes-radiotherapy-of-breast-cancer-in-the-era-of-individualized-medicine
#18
REVIEW
Bin-Bin Cong, Xiao-Shan Cao, Lu Cao, Hui Zhu, Yi-Shan Yu, Jin-Ming Yu, Yong-Sheng Wang
Inclusion internal mammary lymph nodes as a part of regional nodal irradiation have a potential to reduce local recurrence, distant recurrence, and improve survival in breast cancer. However, the increased risk of cardiac toxicity and lungs injure associated with internal mammary lymph nodes irradiation has drew more and more attention. Estimating risk of metastasis in internal mammary lymph nodes based on axillary lymph nodes metastasis status is not always reliable: low-risk do not always mean negative in internal mammary lymph nodes and high-risk do not always indicate positive in internal mammary lymph nodes...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112106/mechanisms-of-toxicity-and-modulation-of-hemoglobin-based-oxygen-carriers-hbocs
#19
Abdu I Alayash
Several adverse events have been associated with the infusion of hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) including transient hypertension, gastrointestinal, pancreatic/liver enzyme elevation, and cardiac/renal injury in humans. Although several mechanisms have been suggested, the basis of HBOC toxicity is still poorly understood. Scavenging of vascular endothelial nitric oxide (NO) and heme-mediated oxidative side reactions are thought to be the major causes of toxicity. However, based on more recent preclinical studies, oxidative pathways (driven by the heme prosthetic group) appear to play a more prominent role in the overall toxicity of free Hb or HBOCs...
November 3, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111402/monitoring-both-procalcitonin-and-c-reactive-protein-in-the-early-period-after-tetralogy-of-fallot-correction-in-children-promotes-rational-antibiotic-use
#20
Radoslaw Jaworski, Ireneusz Haponiuk, Ninela Irga-Jaworska, Mariusz Steffens, Maciej Chojnicki, Konrad Paczkowski, Jacek Zielinski
PURPOSE: This retrospective cohort study aimed to identify the early postoperative kinetics of C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) in children undergoing tetralogy of Fallot (ToF) correction. The ability of these inflammatory markers to guide rational antibiotic usage was also determined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All consecutive children who underwent ToF correction in 2009-2016 in our referral pediatric cardiac surgery clinic in Gdansk, Poland and did not exhibit infection signs on early postoperative days (POD) were identified...
October 27, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
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