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Cardiac Toxicity

Fei Wang, Brian Iskra, Eugenie Kleinerman, Claudia Alvarez-Florez, Thomas Andrews, Angela Shaw, Joya Chandra, Keri Schadler, Gregory J Aune
We report the cardioprotective effects of moderate aerobic exercise from parallel pediatric murine models of doxorubicin (Doxo) exposure in non-tumor-bearing immune competent (NTB-IC) mice and tumor-bearing nude mice (TB-NM). In both models, animals at 4 weeks of age underwent Doxo treatment with or without 2 weeks of simultaneous exercise. In sedentary NTB-IC or TB-NM mice, Doxo treatment resulted in a statistically significant decrease in ejection fraction and fractional shortening compared with control animals...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Miran Brvar, Ming Yin Chan, Andrew H Dawson, Richard R Ribchester, Michael Eddleston
INTRODUCTION: Treatment of acute organophosphorus or carbamate insecticide self-poisoning is often ineffective, with tens of thousands of deaths occurring every year. Researchers have recommended the addition of magnesium sulfate or calcium channel blocking drugs to standard care to reduce acetylcholine release at cholinergic synapses. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to review systematically the evidence from preclinical studies in animals exposed to organophosphorus or carbamate insecticides concerning the efficacy of magnesium sulfate and calcium channel blocking drugs as therapy compared with placebo in reducing mortality or clinical features of poisoning...
March 20, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
Johan Spetz, Javid Moslehi, Kristopher Sarosiek
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ionizing radiation is a highly effective treatment for a wide range of malignancies, yet the cardiovascular (CV) toxicity that can result from chest radiotherapy impairs the long-term health of cancer survivors and can be a limiting factor for its use. Despite over 100 years of successful clinical use, the mechanisms by which high-energy photons damage critical components within cells of the heart's myocardium, pericardium, vasculature, and valves remain unclear. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies exploring the acute and chronic effects of radiation therapy on cardiac and vascular tissue have provided new insights into the development and progression of heart disease, including the identification and understanding of age- and complication-associated risk factors...
March 20, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
Shuyi Wang, Jun Ren
Alcoholism is accompanied with a high incidence of cardiac morbidity and mortality due to the development of alcoholic cardiomyopathy, manifested as dilation of one or both ventricles, reduced ventricular wall thickness, myofibrillary disarray, interstitial fibrosis, hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction. Several theories have been postulated for the etiology of alcoholic cardiomyopathy including ethanol/acetaldehyde toxicity, mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species, oxidative injury, apoptosis, impaired myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity and protein synthesis, altered fatty acid extraction and deposition, as well as accelerated protein catabolism...
March 16, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Gonzalo J Diaz, Yandy Aguillón, Amparo Cortés
A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding salinomycin at the recommended prophylactic level, and at 2 and 3 times this level, to finishing male broilers (d 21 to 38). Four treatment groups were given the experimental diets containing 0, 60, 120, or 180 parts per million (ppm) salinomycin from d 21 to 38. Performance, relative organ weights, selected serum enzymes, and salinomycin residues in liver, muscle, and serum were determined. Salinomycin supplementation had no effect on body weight, feed intake, or feed conversion, and caused no overt signs of toxicity...
March 15, 2018: Poultry Science
Kathrin Strasser-Weippl, Michaela J Higgins, Judith-Anne W Chapman, James N Ingle, George W Sledge, George T Budd, Matthew J Ellis, Kathleen I Pritchard, Mark J Clemons, Tanja Badovinac-Crnjevic, Lei Han, Karen A Gelmon, Manuela Rabaglio, Catherine Elliott, Lois E Shepherd, Paul E Goss
Background: Celecoxib and low-dose aspirin might decrease risk of breast cancer recurrence. Methods: In the Canadian Cancer Trials Group MA.27, postmenopausal hormone receptor-positive breast cancer patients were randomly assigned (2 × 2) to adjuvant exemestane or anastrozole, and celecoxib or placebo. Low-dose aspirin of 81 mg or less was a stratification factor. Due to concerns about cardiac toxicity, celecoxib use was stopped in December 2004, while stratification by aspirin use was removed through protocol amendment...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Vineeta Tanwar, Aashish Katapadi, Jeremy M Adelstein, Jacob A Grimmer, Loren E Wold
Purpose: Environmental stressors are disturbing our ecosystem at an accelerating rate. An increasingly relevant stressor are air pollutants, whose levels are increasing worldwide with threats to human health. These air pollutants are associated with increased mortality and morbidity from cardiovascular diseases. In this review we discuss environmental stressors focusing mainly on the various types of air pollutants, their short-term and long-term cardiovascular effects, and providing the epidemiological evidence associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Physiology
Chen Xiong, Yan-Zhao Wu, Yu Zhang, Zi-Xiao Wu, Xue-Yan Chen, Ping Jiang, Hui-Cai Guo, Ke-Rang Xie, Ke-Xin Wang, Su-Wen Su
Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent and broad-spectrum anthracycline chemotherapeutic agent, but dose-dependent cardiotoxic side effects limit its clinical application. This toxicity is closely associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) radical during DOX metabolism. The present study investigated the effects of Berberine (Ber) on DOX-induced acute cardiac injury in a rat model and analysed its mechanism in cardiomyocytes in vitro . Serum creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly increased in the DOX group compared with the control group...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Connor M Pettem, Jennifer M Briens, David M Janz, Lynn P Weber
Selenium (Se) is considered an essential trace element, involved in important physiological and metabolic functions for all vertebrate species. Fish require dietary concentrations of 0.1-0.5 μg Se/g dry mass (d.m.) to maintain normal physiological and selenoprotein function, however concentrations exceeding 3 μg/g d.m. have been shown to cause toxicity. As Se is reported to have a narrow margin between essentiality and toxicity, there is growing concern surrounding the adverse effects of elevated Se exposure caused by anthropogenic activities...
March 8, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Ilaria Depetris, Donatella Marino, Alessandro Bonzano, Celeste Cagnazzo, Roberto Filippi, Massimo Aglietta, Francesco Leone
Fluoropyrimidines (5-fluorouracil and capecitabine) are antimetabolite drugs, widely used for the treatment of a variety of cancers, both in adjuvant and in metastatic setting. Although the most common toxicities of these drugs have been extensively studied, robust data and comprehensive characterization still lack concerning fluoropyrimidine-induced cardiotoxicity (FIC), an infrequent but potentially life-threatening toxicity. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of FIC with special regard to proposed pathogenetic models (coronary vasospasm, endothelium and cardiomyocytes damage, toxic metabolites, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency); risk and predictive factors; efficacy and usefulness in detection of laboratory markers, electrocardiographic changes and cardiac imaging; and specific treatment, including a novel agent, uridine triacetate...
April 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
Naira F Z Schneider, Claudia Cerella, Jin-Young Lee, Aloran Mazumder, Kyung Rok Kim, Annelise de Carvalho, Jennifer Munkert, Rodrigo M Pádua, Wolfgang Kreis, Kyu-Won Kim, Christo Christov, Mario Dicato, Hyun-Jung Kim, Byung Woo Han, Fernão C Braga, Cláudia M O Simões, Marc Diederich
Cardiac glycosides (CGs) are natural compounds used traditionally to treat congestive heart diseases. Recent investigations repositioned CGs as potential anticancer agents. To discover novel cytotoxic CG scaffolds, we selected the cardenolide glucoevatromonoside (GEV) out of 46 CGs for its low nanomolar anti-lung cancer activity. GEV presented reduced toxicity toward non-cancerous cell types (lung MRC-5 and PBMC) and high-affinity binding to the Na+ /K+ -ATPase α subunit, assessed by computational docking...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Yeonsik Noh, Hugo F Posada-Quintero, Yan Bai, Joseph White, John P Florian, Peter R Brink, Ki H Chon
Prolonged and high pressure diving may lead to various physiological changes including significant alterations of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity that may be associated with altered physical performance, decompression sickness, or central nervous system oxygen toxicity. Ideally, researchers could elucidate ANS function before, during, and after dives that are most associated with altered function and adverse outcomes. However, we have a limited understanding of the activities of the ANS especially during deeper prolonged SCUBA diving because there has never been a convenient way to collect physiological data during deep dives...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Jessica M Scott, Tormod S Nilsen, Dipti Gupta, Lee W Jones
Cardio-oncology is an emerging discipline focused predominantly on the detection and management of cancer treatment-induced cardiac dysfunction (cardiotoxicity), which predisposes to development of overt heart failure or coronary artery disease. The direct adverse consequences, as well as those secondary to anticancer therapeutics, extend beyond the heart, however, to affect the entire cardiovascular-skeletal muscle axis (ie, whole-organism cardiovascular toxicity). The global nature of impairment creates a strong rationale for treatment strategies that augment or preserve global cardiovascular reserve capacity...
March 13, 2018: Circulation
Yoshito Kamijo, Michiko Takai, Yuji Fujita, Kiyotaka Usui
Objective We conducted a retrospective study on the epidemiological and clinical features of patients with acute caffeine poisoning in Japan. Methods Letters requesting participation were sent to 264 emergency departments of hospitals, and questionnaires were mailed to those that agreed to participate. Patients Participants were patients transported to emergency departments of hospitals between April 2011 and March 2016 after consuming large or massive amounts of caffeinated supplements and/or energy drinks (caffeine dose ≥1...
March 9, 2018: Internal Medicine
Brandon Bacon, Natalie Silverton, Micah Katz, Elise Heath, David A Bull, Jason Harig, Joseph E Tonna
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2018: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Wesley Hayes, Fabio Paglialonga
Dysregulation of intravascular fluid leads to chronic volume overload in children with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Sequelae include left ventricular hypertrophy and remodeling and impaired cardiac function. As a result, cardiovascular complications are the commonest cause of mortality in the pediatric dialysis population. The clinical need to optimize intravascular volume in children with ESKD is clear; however, its assessment and management is the most challenging aspect of the pediatric dialysis prescription...
March 9, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Joshua I Hardt, Joel S Perlmutter, Christopher J Smith, Kevin L Quick, Ling Wei, Subhasish K Chakraborty, Laura L Dugan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Fullerene-based compounds are a novel class of molecules being developed for a variety of biomedical applications, with nearly 1000 publications in this area in the last 4 years alone. One such compound, the e,e,e-methanofullerene(60)-63-tris malonic acid (designated C3 ), is a potent catalytic superoxide dismutase mimetic which has shown neuroprotective efficacy in a number of animal models of neurologic disease, including Parkinsonian Macaca fascicularis monkeys...
March 8, 2018: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Suparna C Clasen, Joyce W Wald
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We aim to summarize the effect of cancer therapy-related cardiotoxicity on the development of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. RECENT FINDINGS: We discuss commonly used cancer therapeutics that have the potential for both acute and delayed cardiotoxicity. LV dysfunction from cancer therapies may be found by routine cardiac imaging prior to clinical manifestations of heart failure (HF) and we discuss the current multi-modality approaches for early detection of toxicity with the use of advanced echocardiographic parameters including strain techniques...
March 8, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
Noora Al-Hammadi, Palmira Caparrotti, Carole Naim, Jillian Hayes, Katherine Rebecca Benson, Ana Vasic, Hissa Al-Abdulla, Rabih Hammoud, Saju Divakar, Primoz Petric
Background: During radiotherapy of left-sided breast cancer, parts of the heart are irradiated, which may lead to late toxicity. We report on the experience of single institution with cardiac-sparing radiotherapy using voluntary deep inspiration breath hold (V-DIBH) and compare its dosimetric outcome with free breathing (FB) technique. Patients and methods: Left-sided breast cancer patients, treated at our department with postoperative radiotherapy of breast/chest wall +/- regional lymph nodes between May 2015 and January 2017, were considered for inclusion...
March 2018: Radiology and Oncology
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