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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342325/the-neuromuscular-complications-of-immune-checkpoint-inhibitor-therapy
#1
REVIEW
Noah A Kolb, Christopher R Trevino, Waqar Waheed, Fatemeh Sobhani, Kara K Landry, Alissa A Thomas, Mike Hehir
Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICPI) therapy unleashes the body's natural immune system to fight cancer. ICPIs improve overall cancer survival, however the unbridling of the immune system may induce a variety of immune related adverse events. Neuromuscular immune complications are rare but they can be severe. Myasthenia gravis and inflammatory neuropathy are the most common neuromuscular adverse events but a variety of others including inflammatory myopathy are reported. The pathophysiologic mechanism of these autoimmune disorders may differ from that of non-ICPI related immune diseases...
January 17, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341524/-what-s-new-in-ambulatory-general-internal-medicine%C3%A2
#2
Annick Gerber, Camille Buffle Genecand, Thierry Mach, David Schrumpf, Ana Rita Forte Marques, Jean Dupraz, Thomas Schmid
Many treatments are used every day in general medicine without any evidence of their efficacy. This last year, three randomised studies tried to prove the clinical utility of chondroitin/glucosamine in arthritis, cranberry in urinary infections, and acupuncture in migraine. Screening and management of prostate cancer are still controversial. Two recent studies help us advising our patients on this difficult topic. Muscle side effects from statins are well known and have been widely relayed by the press these last years, although myopathies are rare in clinical trials...
January 17, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341266/merkel-cell-carcinoma-in-france-a-registries-based-comprehensive-epidemiological-survey
#3
M Fondain, O Dereure, Z Uhry, A V Guizard, A S Woronoff, M Colonna, F Molinie, S Bara, M Velten, E Marrer, P Grosclaude, B Lapôtre-Ledoux, B Tretarre, B Guillot
BACKGROUND: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare primary cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma. Owing to its low incidence, epidemiological data are scarce and have never been analysed in France to identify the main epidemiological trends. METHODS: Data from MCC patients diagnosed between 1998 and 2010 were obtained from 11 French cancer registries in the FRANCIM network. The main epidemiological characteristics of MCC were investigated between 2006 and 2010 because comprehensive data were only available for this period...
January 16, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341116/rare-missense-mutations-in-recql-and-polg-associate-with-inherited-predisposition-to-breast-cancer
#4
Anna Tervasmäki, Tuomo Mantere, Jaana M Hartikainen, Saila Kauppila, Hang-Mao Lee, Susanna Koivuluoma, Mervi Grip, Peeter Karihtala, Arja Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arto Mannermaa, Robert Winqvist, Katri Pylkäs
Several known breast cancer susceptibility genes with moderate-to-high risk alleles encode proteins involved in DNA damage response (DDR). As these explain less than half of the hereditary breast cancer cases, additional predisposing alleles are likely to be discovered. Many of the previous studies utilizing massive parallel sequencing have focused on the protein-truncating variants, and the role of rare missense mutations has remained poorly addressed. In order to identify novel susceptibility factors, we have systematically analyzed the data from our parallel sequencing of 796 DDR genes in 189 Northern Finnish hereditary breast cancer patients for rare missense variants, predicted as deleterious...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341035/when-an-unexpected-diagnosis-occurs-a-vaginal-premenopausal-sarcoma
#5
Pedro Marcos-Figueiredo, Diana de Sousa da Costa Moreira, Manuel Gonçalves Morim, Júlia Leite Pereira, Lurdes Silva Salgado
Vaginal cancer is a rare entity. The evidence on its management resides mostly in clinical cases or small case series. Of the histological types, the most frequent is the squamous cell carcinoma, followed by adenocarcinoma. But what to do when identifying an even more infrequent sarcoma in a premenopausal woman? In this study, we describe the case of a 53-year-old woman presenting with metrorrhagia for two months, who was evaluated after an intense episode. A necrotic and ulcerative vaginal swelling was documented and then submitted to biopsy, which revealed a vaginal sarcoma...
January 2018: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340169/autoimmune-retinopathy-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Aristófanes Mendonça Canamary, Walter Yukihiko Takahashi, Juliana Maria Ferraz Sallum
Autoimmune retinopathy (AIR) is a rare and still poorly understood immune-mediated disease that may cause inflammation from circulating autoantibodies against the retina. It may be related to history of autoimmune disease in the patient or in a family member or the presence of neoplastic disease in the individual. The disease may be subdivided into paraneoplastic and non-paraneoplastic AIR. When related to melanoma, it is referred to as MAR, and when related to other cancers, it is called CAR. The exact prevalence of AIR is unknown...
2018: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340167/subcutaneous-glucagon-infusion-and-continuous-glucose-monitoring-enable-effective-management-of-hypoglycemia-in-a-patient-with-igf-2-producing-hemangiopericytoma
#7
Eric D Buras, Emily Weatherup, Jennifer Wyckoff
Background: Ectopic insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-2 production is a rare complication of an array of epithelial and mesenchymal tumors, and can clinically manifest as life-threatening hypoglycemia. Case presentation: A 49-year-old woman with 13-year history of metastatic hemangiopericytoma, previously treated with multiple rounds of chemotherapy and palliative radiation, presented to the emergency department after a hypoglycemic seizure. On arrival, glucose was 18 mg/dL (1...
2018: Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340086/up-regulation-of-lncrna-snhg1-indicates-poor-prognosis-and-promotes-cell-proliferation-and-metastasis-of-colorectal-cancer-by-activation-of-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway
#8
Yuping Zhu, Bo Li, Zhuo Liu, Lai Jiang, Gang Wang, Min Lv, Dechuan Li
Recently, the lncRNA small nucleolar RNA host gene (SNHG1) has been exhibited to be upregulated, which plays a crucial role in the development and prognosis of several cancers. However, the role of the biology and clinical significance of SNHG1 in the tumorigenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC) has rarely been reported. In this work, we firstly found that SNHG1 expression levels were upregulated aberrantly in colorectal cancer tissues and colorectal cancer cell lines. By Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, patients with high SNHG1 expression level had poorer overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) than those with low SNHG1 expression...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340063/a-molecular-signature-of-dormancy-in-cd34-cd38-acute-myeloid-leukaemia-cells
#9
Mazin Gh Al-Asadi, Grace Brindle, Marcos Castellanos, Sean T May, Ken I Mills, Nigel H Russell, Claire H Seedhouse, Monica Pallis
Dormant leukaemia initiating cells in the bone marrow niche are a crucial therapeutic target for total eradication of acute myeloid leukaemia. To study this cellular subset we created and validated an in vitro model employing the cell line TF-1a, treated with Transforming Growth Factor β1 (TGFβ1) and a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor. The treated cells showed decreases in total RNA, Ki-67 and CD71, increased aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, forkhead box 03A (FOX03A) nuclear translocation and growth inhibition, with no evidence of apoptosis or differentiation...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339979/brca1-and-brca2-mutation-spectrum-an-update-on-mutation-distribution-in-a-large-cancer-genetics-clinic-in-norway
#10
Cecilie Heramb, Teresia Wangensteen, Eli Marie Grindedal, Sarah Louise Ariansen, Sheba Lothe, Ketil Riddervold Heimdal, Lovise Mæhle
Background: Founder mutations in the two breast cancer genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, have been described in many populations, among these are Ashkenazi-Jewish, Polish, Norwegian and Icelandic. Founder mutation testing in patients with relevant ancestry has been a cost-efficient approach in such populations. Four Norwegian BRCA1 founder mutations were defined by haplotyping in 2001, and accounted for 68% of BRCA1 mutation carriers at the time. After 15 more years of genetic testing, updated knowledge on the mutation spectrum of both BRCA1 and BRCA2 in Norway is needed...
2018: Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339376/tumor-immunity-and-survival-as-a-function-of-alternative-neopeptides-in-human-cancer
#11
Andrew J Rech, David Balli, Alejandro Mantero, Hemant Ishwaran, Katherine L Nathanson, Ben Z Stanger, Robert H Vonderheide
The immune system exerts antitumor activity via T cell-dependent recognition of tumor-specific antigens. Although the number of tumor neopeptides - peptides derived from somatic mutations - often correlates with immune activity and survival, most classically defined high-affinity neopeptides (CDNs) are not immunogenic, and only rare CDNs have been linked to tumor rejection. Thus, the rules of tumor antigen recognition remain incompletely understood. Here, we analyzed neopeptides, immune activity, and clinical outcome from 6,324 patients across 27 tumor types...
January 16, 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339080/prostate-cancer-disseminated-tumor-cells-are-rarely-detected-in-the-bone-marrow-of-localized-patients-undergoing-radical-prostatectomy-across-multiple-rare-cell-detection-platforms
#12
Heather J Chalfin, Stephanie A Glavaris, Paymaneh D Malihi, Jamie M Sperger, Michael A Gorin, Changxue Lu, C Rory Goodwin, Yan Chen, Emily A Caruso, Ruth Dumpit, Peter Kuhn, Joshua M Lang, Peter S Nelson, Jun Luo, Kenneth J Pienta
PURPOSE: Prostate circulating tumor cells escape into the peripheral blood and enter the bone marrow as disseminated tumor cells, representing an early step before conventionally detectable metastasis. It is unclear how frequently this occurs in localized disease, and existing detection methods rely on epithelial markers with low specificity and sensitivity. Here we employed multiple methodologies of disseminated tumor cell detection in bone marrow harvested at radical prostatectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bone marrow was harvested from 208 clinically localized patients, 16 controls, and 5 metastatic patients, with peripheral blood from 37 metastatic patients...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338741/knowledge-and-practices-of-general-practitioners-at-district-hospitals-towards-cervical-cancer-prevention-in-burundi-2015-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
Zacharie Ndizeye, Davy Vanden Broeck, Heleen Vermandere, John Paul Bogers, Jean-Pierre Van Geertruyden
BACKGROUND: Well-organized screening and treatment programmes are effective to prevent Invasive Cervical Cancer (ICC) in LMICs. To achieve this, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the involvement of existing health personnel in casu doctors, nurses, midwives in ICC prevention. A necessary precondition is that health personnel have appropriate knowledge about ICC. Therefore, to inform policy makers and training institutions in Burundi, we documented the knowledge and practices of general practitioners (GPs) at district hospital level towards ICC control...
January 16, 2018: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337772/salvage-surgery-for-locoregional-failure-in-anal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#14
Glen R Guerra, Joseph C Kong, Maria-Pia Bernardi, Robert G Ramsay, Wayne A Phillips, Satish K Warrier, A Craig Lynch, Samuel Y Ngan, Alexander G Heriot
BACKGROUND: Anal squamous cell carcinoma is a rare cancer with a high cure rate, making research into the treatment of locoregional failure difficult. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine factors related to local treatment failure and determine the outcomes of patients undergoing local salvage resection. DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study. SETTING: This study was conducted at a quaternary referral center...
February 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337413/participation-of-relatives-in-the-care-of-cancer-patients-in-hospital-a-scoping-review
#15
REVIEW
E Partanen, T Lemetti, E Haavisto
The purpose of the review was to describe what kind of research has been conducted concerning relatives' participation in the care of cancer patients in hospital and how relatives have participated in the care. Data (n = 9) were identified through a manual search and by searching the electronic databases (n = 8) Cinahl, PubMed and Cochrane Library and analysed with deductive content analysis. According to the review, participation in the concrete care appeared as taking care of comprehensive care and the quality of care, helping with daily activities and helping the healthcare professionals...
January 16, 2018: European Journal of Cancer Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336666/educational-needs-of-health-professionals-caring-for-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-cancer
#16
Natalie K Bradford, Rebecca Greenslade, Rachel M Edwards, Rebekah Orford, Jane Roach, Roslyn Henney
BACKGROUND: Young people with cancer have distinct clinical and psychosocial needs during and after cancer treatment. However, as adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer is rare, and only recently recognized as specialty, health professionals may not have the skills, competence, and confidence to meet the needs of the young patient with cancer. The aim of this study was to identify the learning needs of health professionals providing cancer care to adolescents and young adults before and following the introduction of a state-wide AYA cancer education program...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336139/smart-self-assembled-nanosystem-based-on-water-soluble-pillararene-and-rare-earth-doped-upconversion-nanoparticles-for-ph-responsive-drug-delivery
#17
Haihong Li, Ruoyan Wei, Guihua Yan, Ji Sun, Chunju Li, Haifang Wang, Liyi Shi, John A Capobianco, Lining Sun
Exploring novel drug delivery systems (DDSs) with good stability and new structure to integrate pillararene and upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) into one system continues to be an important challenge. Herein we report the novel preparation of a supramolecular upconversion nanosystem via the host-guest complexation based on carboxylate-based pillar[5]arene (WP5) and 15-carboxy-N,N,N-trialkylpentadecan-1-ammonium bromides (1) functionalized UCNPs to produce WP5⊃1-UCNPs that can be loaded with the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (DOX)...
January 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335925/germline-deleterious-mutations-in-genes-other-than-brca2-are-infrequent-in-male-breast-cancer
#18
Florentia Fostira, Emmanouil Saloustros, Paraskevi Apostolou, Andromahi Vagena, Despoina Kalfakakou, Davide Mauri, Dimitrios Tryfonopoulos, Vassileios Georgoulias, Drakoulis Yannoukakos, Georgios Fountzilas, Irene Konstantopoulou
PURPOSE: Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare cancer entity, with mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes accounting for ~ 10% of patients. Multiple-gene sequencing has already entered clinical practice for female breast cancer, whereas the performance of panel testing in MBC has not been studied extensively. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of panel testing for MBC, by the largest gene panel used so far, through investigation of patients deriving from a population with known founder effects...
January 15, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335762/targeting-psma-by-radioligands-in-non-prostate-disease-current-status-and-future-perspectives
#19
REVIEW
Philipp Backhaus, Benjamin Noto, Nemanja Avramovic, Lena Sophie Grubert, Sebastian Huss, Martin Bögemann, Lars Stegger, Matthias Weckesser, Michael Schäfers, Kambiz Rahbar
BACKGROUND: Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is the up-and-coming target for molecular imaging of prostate cancer. Despite its name, non-prostate-related PSMA expression in physiologic tissue as well as in benign and malignant disease has been reported in various publications. Unlike in prostate cancer, PSMA expression is only rarely observed in non-prostate tumor cells. Instead, expression occurs in endothelial cells of tumor-associated neovasculature, although no endothelial expression is observed under physiologic conditions...
January 15, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334543/seminoma-metastatic-to-the-orbit
#20
Jonathan J Dutton, Alan D Proia
PURPOSE: Seminomas are solid tumors in young men, but which rarely metastasize to the orbit. The authors review the known literature on seminoma metastatic to the orbit, and describe an additional case in a 33-year-old man. METHODS: A literature search was performed on the MEDLINE database using keywords "seminoma," "testicular germ-cell tumors," "testicular cancer," "testicular neoplasm," "orbital metastasis," and "germ-cell neoplasms." RESULTS: Malignant neoplasms of the testis account for only 1% of cancers in men...
January 12, 2018: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
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