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Jocelyn M Choo, Tokuwa Kanno, Nur Masirah Mohd Zain, Lex E X Leong, Guy C J Abell, Julie E Keeble, Kenneth D Bruce, A James Mason, Geraint B Rogers
The intestinal microbiome plays an essential role in regulating many aspects of host physiology, and its disruption through antibiotic exposure has been implicated in the development of a range of serious pathologies. The complex metabolic relationships that exist between members of the intestinal microbiota and the potential redundancy in functional pathways mean that an integrative analysis of changes in both structure and function are needed to understand the impact of antibiotic exposure. We used a combination of next-generation sequencing and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics to characterize the effects of two clinically important antibiotic treatments, ciprofloxacin and vancomycin-imipenem, on the intestinal microbiomes of female C57BL/6 mice...
January 2017: MSphere
Navya Nair, Olga Camacho-Vanegas, Dmitry Rykunov, Matthew Dashkoff, Sandra Catalina Camacho, Cassie A Schumacher, Jonathan C Irish, Timothy T Harkins, Elijah Freeman, Isaac Garcia, Elena Pereira, Sviatoslav Kendall, Rachel Belfer, Tamara Kalir, Robert Sebra, Boris Reva, Peter Dottino, John A Martignetti
BACKGROUND: Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy, and its incidence and associated mortality are increasing. Despite the immediate need to detect these cancers at an earlier stage, there is no effective screening methodology or protocol for endometrial cancer. The comprehensive, genomics-based analysis of endometrial cancer by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) revealed many of the molecular defects that define this cancer. Based on these cancer genome results, and in a prospective study, we hypothesized that the use of ultra-deep, targeted gene sequencing could detect somatic mutations in uterine lavage fluid obtained from women undergoing hysteroscopy as a means of molecular screening and diagnosis...
December 2016: PLoS Medicine
J Pega, S Rizzo, C D Pérez, L Rossetti, G Díaz, S M Ruzal, M Nanni, A M Descalzo
The quality of functional food products designed for the prevention of degenerative diseases can be affected by the incorporation of bioactive compounds. In many types of cheese, the performance of starter microorganisms is critical for optimal elaboration and for providing potential probiotic benefits. Phytosterols are plant lipophilic triterpenes that have been used for the design of functional dairy products because of their ability to lower serum cholesterol levels in humans. However, their effect on the starter culture behavior during cheesemaking has not yet been studied...
September 2, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
A Islam, A K Hansen, C Mennan, I Martinez-Zubiaurre
Many researchers world over are currently investigating the suitability of stromal cells harvested from foetal tissues for allogeneic cell transplantation therapies or for tissue engineering purposes. In this study, we have investigated the chondrogenic potential of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) isolated from whole sections of human umbilical cord or mixed cord (UCSCs-MC), and compared them with cells isolated from synovial membrane (SMSCs), Hoffa's fat pad (HFPSCs) and cartilage. All MSCs were positive for surface markers including CD73, CD90, CD105, CD44, CD146 and CD166, but negative for CD11b, CD19, CD34, CD45 and HLA-DR in addition to CD106 and CD271...
2016: European Cells & Materials
Olga V Bocharova, Anatoly S Urban, Kirill D Nadezhdin, Eduard V Bocharov, Alexander S Arseniev
Structural investigations need ready supply of the isotope labeled proteins with inserted mutations n the quantities sufficient for the heteronuclear NMR. Though cell-free expression system has been widely used in the past years, high startup cost and complex compound composition prevent many researches from the developing this technique, especially for membrane protein production. Here we demonstrate the utility of a robust, cost-optimized cell-free expression technique for production of the physiologically important transmembrane fragment of amyloid precursor protein, APP686-726, containing Alzheimer's disease mutations in the juxtamembrane (E693G, Arctic form) and the transmembrane parts (V717G, London form, or L723P, Australian form)...
July 2016: Protein Expression and Purification
Shichen Shen, Xiaosheng Jiang, Jun Li, Robert M Straubinger, Mauricio Suarez, Chengjian Tu, Xiaotao Duan, Alexis C Thompson, Jun Qu
Given the tremendous detriments of cocaine dependence, effective diagnosis and patient stratification are critical for successful intervention yet difficult to achieve due to the largely unknown molecular mechanisms involved. To obtain new insights into cocaine dependence and withdrawal, we employed a reproducible, reliable, and large-scale proteomics approach to investigate the striatal proteomes of rats (n = 40, 10 per group) subjected to chronic cocaine exposure, followed by either short- (WD1) or long- (WD22) term withdrawal...
May 6, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
M Gharsallah, F Serrano-Sánchez, J Bermúdez, N M Nemes, J L Martínez, F Elhalouani, J A Alonso
Thermoelectric materials constitute an alternative source of sustainable energy, harvested from waste heat. Bi2Te3 is the most utilized thermoelectric alloy. We show that it can be readily prepared in nanostructured form by arc-melting synthesis, yielding mechanically robust pellets of highly oriented polycrystals. This material has been characterized by neutron powder diffraction (NPD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electronic and thermal transport measurements. A microscopic analysis from NPD data demonstrates a near-perfect stoichiometry of Bi2Te3 and a fair amount of anharmonicity of the chemical bonds...
December 2016: Nanoscale Research Letters
Laurivette Mosquera, Luz Shepherd, Aranza I Torrado, Yvonne M Torres-Diaz, Jorge D Miranda, Annabell C Segarra
Fluctuating sex steroids during the estrous or menstrual cycle of mammalian females make it difficult to determine their role on behaviors and physiology. To avoid this, many investigators ovariectomize their animals and administer progesterone, estradiol or a combination of both. Several different strategies are used to administer estradiol, which confounds interpretation of results. This study compared two methods of estradiol replacement implants: Silastic tubes filled with crystalline estradiol benzoate (E2) and commercially available estradiol benzoate pellets...
November 30, 2015: Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology
Caroline Pellet-Many, Vedanta Mehta, Laura Fields, Marwa Mahmoud, Vanessa Lowe, Ian Evans, Jorge Ruivo, Ian Zachary
AIMS: Neuropilins 1 and 2 (NRP1 and NRP2) play crucial roles in endothelial cell migration contributing to angiogenesis and vascular development. Both NRPs are also expressed by cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and are implicated in VSMC migration stimulated by PDGF-BB, but it is unknown whether NRPs are relevant for VSMC function in vivo. We investigated the role of NRPs in the rat carotid balloon injury model, in which endothelial denudation and arterial stretch induce neointimal hyperplasia involving VSMC migration and proliferation...
November 1, 2015: Cardiovascular Research
Enrique N García, María V Aguirre, Eduardo J Gimeno, Elvio E Rios, Ofelia C Acosta, Luciana A Cholich
Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (Convolvulaceae) causes poisoning of goats, sheep and cattle in many tropical and subtropical countries. The pathophysiology of this poisoning mainly involves an abnormal glycoprotein metabolism. The aim of this study was to describe the potential toxicity of I. carnea in a guinea pig model through its effect on hematopoiesis in a time course study of 40 days. Experimental poisoning was achieved by feeding animals with "small balls" prepared with milled leaves of I. carnea mixed with commercial crushed pellets for rodents...
October 2015: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
Ilana B Ressler, Bernadette E Grayson, Yvonne M Ulrich-Lai, Randy J Seeley
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy affecting women of reproductive age. Although a comorbidity of PCOS is obesity, many are lean. We hypothesized that increased saturated fat consumption and obesity would exacerbate metabolic and stress indices in a rodent model of PCOS. Female rats were implanted with the nonaromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or placebo pellets prior to puberty. Half of each group was maintained ad libitum on either a high-fat diet (HFD; 40% butter fat calories) or nutrient-matched low-fat diet (LFD)...
June 15, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
C Nagelreiter, H Kotisch, T Heuser, C Valenta
Nanosized particles are frequently used in many different applications, especially TiO2 nanoparticles as physical filters in sunscreens to protect the skin from UV radiation. However, concerns have arisen about possible health issues caused by nanoparticles and therefore, the assessment of the occurrence of nanoparticles is important in pharmaceutical and cosmetic formulations. In a previous work of our group, a method was presented to extract nanoparticles from O/W emulsions. But to respond to the needs of dry and sensitive skin, sunscreens of the water-in-oil emulsion type are available...
July 5, 2015: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Theodor F Griggs, Yury A Bochkov, Kazuyuki Nakagome, Ann C Palmenberg, James E Gern
The rhinovirus C (RV-C) were discovered in 2006 and these agents are an important cause of respiratory morbidity. Little is known about their biology. RV-C15 (C15) can be produced by transfection of recombinant viral RNA into cells and subsequent purification over a 30% sucrose cushion, even though yields and infectivity of other RV-C genotypes with this protocol are low. The goal of this study was to determine whether poor RV-C yields were due to capsid instability, and moreover, to develop a robust protocol suitable for the purification of many RV-C types...
June 1, 2015: Journal of Virological Methods
T Chenier, M Diel de Amorim, R A Foster, A Hill, T Hayes, E Scholtz, C J Gartley
Prolonged endometritis is the most common cause of infertility in mares causing great economic impact. Many mares fail to be diagnosed with endometritis despite the availability of different diagnostic tests. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare endometrial swab, low-volume lavage (LVL) and endometrial biopsy as diagnostic methods for endometritis and to report the prevalence of this disease in a referral practice population. Fifty-one mares presenting for routine breeding or infertility work-up were examined by transrectal ultrasonography, before collecting samples for endometrial culture and cytology...
December 2014: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
C Gonzales, M M Zaleska, D R Riddell, K P Atchison, A Robshaw, H Zhou, S J Sukoff Rizzo
Development of novel therapeutic agents aimed at treating neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases require chronic and preferentially oral dosing in appropriate preclinical rodent models. Since many of these disease models involve transgenic mice that are frequently aged and fragile, the commonly used oro-gastric gavage method of drug administration often confounds measured outcomes due to repeated stress and high attrition rates caused by esophageal complications. We employed a novel drug formulation in a peanut butter (PB) pellet readily consumed by mice and compared the stress response as measured by plasma corticosterone levels relative to oral administration via traditional gavage...
November 2014: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Angela Barrett, Ian M Evans, Antonina Frolov, Gary Britton, Caroline Pellet-Many, Maiko Yamaji, Vedanta Mehta, Rina Bandopadhyay, Ningning Li, Sebastian Brandner, Ian C Zachary, Paul Frankel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2014: Journal of Cell Science
Bahar Dasgeb, Aleksandr V Smirnov, Yasaman Ardeshirpour, Dan L Sackett, Jay R Knutson, Darius Mehregan, Amir Gandjbakhche, Allan C Halpern
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most common cancer in humans, appears macroscopically and microscopically similar to many other skin lesions, which makes differential diagnosis difficult. We are developing an approach for quantitative molecular imaging of BerEP4, a transmembrane biomarker for BCC, with the goal of increasing the precision and accuracy of diagnosis. This pilot study was conducted to assess the affinity and selectivity of BerEp4 antibody and assess its possible use in designing theranostic probes for BCC...
2014: Molecular Imaging
Sarah C Schock, Hamidreza Edrissi, Dylan Burger, Robert Cadonic, Antoine Hakim, Charlie Thompson
Circulating microparticles (MPs) are involved in many physiological processes and numbers are increased in a variety of cardiovascular disorders. The present aims were to characterize levels of MPs in a rodent model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) and to determine their signaling properties. MPs were isolated from the plasma of rats exposed to CCH and quantified by flow cytometry. When MPs were added to cultured endothelial cells or normal rat kidney cells they induced cell death in a time and dose dependent manner...
July 18, 2014: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Steven G Grinnell, Susruta Majumdar, Ankita Narayan, Valerie Le Rouzic, Michael Ansonoff, John E Pintar, Gavril W Pasternak
IBNtxA (3'-iodobenzoyl-6β-naltrexamide) is a potent analgesic in mice lacking many traditional opioid side effects. In mice, it displays no respiratory depression, does not produce physical dependence with chronic administration, and shows no cross-tolerance to morphine. It has limited effects on gastrointestinal transit and shows no reward behavior. Biochemical studies indicate its actions are mediated through a set of μ-opioid receptor clone MOR-1 splice variants associated with exon 11 that lack exon 1 and contain only six transmembrane domains...
September 2014: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Helen M Jopling, Adam F Odell, Caroline Pellet-Many, Antony M Latham, Paul Frankel, Asipu Sivaprasadarao, John H Walker, Ian C Zachary, Sreenivasan Ponnambalam
Rab GTPases are implicated in endosome-to-plasma membrane recycling, but how such membrane traffic regulators control vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2/KDR) dynamics and function are not well understood. Here, we evaluated two different recycling Rab GTPases, Rab4a and Rab11a, in regulating endothelial VEGFR2 trafficking and signalling with implications for endothelial cell migration, proliferation and angiogenesis. In primary endothelial cells, VEGFR2 displays co-localisation with Rab4a, but not Rab11a GTPase, on early endosomes...
April 29, 2014: Cells
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