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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892276/acclimation-and-institutionalization-of-the-mouse-microbiota-following-transportation
#1
Dan R Montonye, Aaron C Ericsson, Susheel B Busi, Cathleen Lutz, Keegan Wardwell, Craig L Franklin
Using animal models, the gut microbiota has been shown to play a critical role in the health and disease of many organ systems. Unfortunately, animal model studies often lack reproducibility when performed at different institutions. Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that the gut microbiota of mice can vary with a number of husbandry factors leading us to speculate that differing environments may alter gut microbiota, which in turn may influence animal model phenotypes. As an extension of these studies, we hypothesized that the shipping of mice from a mouse producer to an institution will result in changes in the type, relative abundance, and functional composition of the gut microbiota...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29880492/vegf-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-induces-nrp1-neuropilin-1-cleavage-via-adams-a-disintegrin-and-metalloproteinase-9-and-10-to-generate-novel-carboxy-terminal-nrp1-fragments-that-regulate-angiogenic-signaling
#2
Vedanta Mehta, Laura Fields, Ian M Evans, Maiko Yamaji, Caroline Pellet-Many, Timothy Jones, Marwa Mahmoud, Ian Zachary
OBJECTIVE: NRP1(neuropilin-1) acts as a coreceptor for VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) with an essential role in angiogenesis. Recent findings suggest that posttranslational proteolytic cleavage of VEGF receptors may be an important mechanism for regulating angiogenesis, but the role of NRP1 proteolysis and the NRP1 species generated by cleavage in endothelial cells is not known. To characterize NRP1 proteolytic cleavage in endothelial cells, determine the mechanism, and investigate the role of NRP1 cleavage in regulation of endothelial cell function...
June 7, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741677/genetic-parameters-of-methane-emissions-determined-using-portable-accumulation-chambers-in-lambs-and-ewes-grazing-pasture-and-genetic-correlations-with-emissions-determined-in-respiration-chambers
#3
A Jonker, S M Hickey, S J Rowe, P H Janssen, G Shackell, S Elmes, W E Bain, J Wing, G J Greer, B Bryson, S MacLean, K G Dodds, C S Pinares-Patiño, E A Young, K Knowler, N K Pickering, J C McEwan
Methane (CH4) emission traits were previously found to be heritable and repeatable in sheep fed alfalfa pellets in respiration chambers (RC). More rapid screening methods are, however, required to increase genetic progress and to provide a cost effective method to the farming industry for maintaining the generation of breeding values in the future. The objective of the current study was to determine CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions using several one-hour portable accumulation chamber (PAC) measurements from lambs and again as ewes, while grazing ryegrass based pasture...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693584/understanding-the-thermal-properties-of-precursor-ionomers-to-optimize-fabrication-processes-for-ionic-polymer-metal-composites-ipmcs
#4
Sarah Trabia, Kisuk Choi, Zakai Olsen, Taeseon Hwang, Jae-Do Nam, Kwang J Kim
Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) are one of many smart materials and have ionomer bases with a noble metal plated on the surface. The ionomer is usually Nafion, but recently Aquivion has been shown to be a promising alternative. Ionomers are available in the form of precursor pellets. This is an un-activated form that is able to melt, unlike the activated form. However, there is little study on the thermal characteristics of these precursor ionomers. This lack of knowledge causes issues when trying to fabricate ionomer shapes using methods such as extrusion, hot-pressing, and more recently, injection molding and 3D printing...
April 25, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543760/receptor-tyrosine-kinase-ubiquitination-and-de-ubiquitination-in-signal-transduction-and-receptor-trafficking
#5
REVIEW
William R Critchley, Caroline Pellet-Many, Benjamin Ringham-Terry, Michael A Harrison, Ian C Zachary, Sreenivasan Ponnambalam
Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are membrane-based sensors that enable rapid communication between cells and their environment. Evidence is now emerging that interdependent regulatory mechanisms, such as membrane trafficking, ubiquitination, proteolysis and gene expression, have substantial effects on RTK signal transduction and cellular responses. Different RTKs exhibit both basal and ligand-stimulated ubiquitination, linked to trafficking through different intracellular compartments including the secretory pathway, plasma membrane, endosomes and lysosomes...
March 15, 2018: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515377/whisker-and-nose-tactile-sense-guide-rat-behavior-in-a-skilled-reaching-task
#6
Pierantonio Parmiani, Cristina Lucchetti, Gianfranco Franchi
Skilled reaching is a complex movement in which a forelimb is extended to grasp food for eating. Video-recordings analysis of control rats enables us to distinguish several components of skilled reaching: Orient, approaching the front wall of the reaching box and poking the nose into the slot to locate the food pellet; Transport, advancing the forelimb through the slot to reach-grasp the pellet; and Withdrawal of the grasped food to eat. Although food location and skilled reaching is guided by olfaction, the importance of whisker/nose tactile sense in rats suggests that this too could play a role in reaching behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466712/dihydrolipoamide-dehydrogenase-from-leishmania-donovani-new-insights-through-biochemical-characterization
#7
Adarsh Kumar Chiranjivi, Vikash Kumar Dubey
Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLDH) regulates many crucial metabolic pathways as a multi-enzyme complex. Leishmania donovani dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (LdDLDH) has two variants present on two different chromosomes with very less sequence similarities. In the current study, we cloned both the variants in pET28a (+) vector and expressed in Rosetta-gami (DE3) E. coli strain. Expressed proteins were finally purified from pellets using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. Purified enzymes were biochemically characterized and different kinetic parameters were studied...
June 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108773/asiatic-acid-abridges-pre-neoplastic-lesions-inflammation-cell-proliferation-and-induces-apoptosis-in-a-rat-model-of-colon-carcinogenesis
#8
Aktarul Islam Siddique, Vijay Mani, Senbagarani Renganathan, Rajagopal Ayyanar, Ananthi Nagappan, Nalini Namasivayam
The utmost aim of this present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative and proapoptotic potential of Asiatic acid (AA) on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis in experimental rats. Rats were divided into six groups and received modified pellet diet for 32 weeks. Group 1 served as control rats. Group 2 received AA (4 mg/kg b.w. p.o.). Group 3-6 rats received 15 DMH (20 mg/kg b.w., s.c.) injections once a week starting from the 4th week. Besides DMH, rats received AA (4 mg/kg b...
December 25, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051809/impact-of-expansion-and-redifferentiation-under-hypothermia-on-chondrogenic-capacity-of-cultured-human-septal-chondrocytes
#9
Achim von Bomhard, Joseph Faust, Alexander F Elsaesser, Silke Schwarz, Katharina Pippich, Nicole Rotter
A critical limitation in the cultivation of cartilage for tissue engineering is the dedifferentiation in chondrocytes, mainly during in vitro amplification. Despite many previous studies investigating the influence of various conditions, no data exist concerning the effects of hypothermia. Our aim has been to influence chondrocyte dedifferentiation in vitro by hypothermic conditions. Chondrocytes were isolated from cartilage biopsies and seeded in monolayer and in three-dimensional pellet-cultures. Each cell culture was either performed at 32...
January 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037400/effect-of-chronic-low-body-temperature-on-feeding-and-gut-passage-in-a-plethodontid-salamander
#10
Glenn A Marvin, Richard Bryan, James Hardwick
Although feeding in some plethodontid salamander species, such as Dusky Salamanders (Desmognathus, family Plethodontidae), occurs at short-term (acute) low temperature below 5°C, it is unknown whether feeding, digestion, and gut passage continue to occur during periods of long-term (chronic) low temperature. We performed a controlled laboratory experiment to examine the effect of several chronic low environmental temperatures on both feeding and gut passage in semiaquatic Spotted Dusky Salamanders (D. conanti)...
October 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854268/apparent-climate-mediated-loss-and-fragmentation-of-core-habitat-of-the-american-pika-in-the-northern-sierra-nevada-california-usa
#11
Joseph A E Stewart, David H Wright, Katherine A Heckman
Contemporary climate change has been widely documented as the apparent cause of range contraction at the edge of many species distributions but documentation of climate change as a cause of extirpation and fragmentation of the interior of a species' core habitat has been lacking. Here, we report the extirpation of the American pika (Ochotona princeps), a temperature-sensitive small mammal, from a 165-km2 area located within its core habitat in California's Sierra Nevada mountains. While sites surrounding the area still maintain pikas, radiocarbon analyses of pika fecal pellets recovered within this area indicate that former patch occupancy ranges from before 1955, the beginning of the atmospheric spike in radiocarbon associated with above ground atomic bomb testing, to c...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811021/quantitative-analysis-of-major-and-trace-elements-in-nh-4-hf-2-modified-silicate-rock-powders-by-laser-ablation-inductively-coupled-plasma-mass-spectrometry
#12
Wen Zhang, Zhaochu Hu, Yongsheng Liu, Wenwu Yang, Haihong Chen, Shenghong Hu, Hongyan Xiao
In this paper, we described a NH4 HF2 digestion method as sample preparation for the rapid determination of major and trace elements in silicate rocks using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Sample powders digested by NH4 HF2 at 230 °C for 3 h form ultrafine powders with a typical grain size d80  < 8.5 μm, and various silicate rocks have a consistent grain morphology and size, allowing us to produce pressed powder pellets that have excellent cohesion and homogeneity suitable for laser ablation micro-analysis without the addition of binder...
August 29, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717136/association-of-plasma-and-urinary-mutant-dna-with-clinical-outcomes-in-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#13
K M Patel, K E van der Vos, C G Smith, F Mouliere, D Tsui, J Morris, D Chandrananda, F Marass, D van den Broek, D E Neal, V J Gnanapragasam, T Forshew, B W van Rhijn, C E Massie, N Rosenfeld, M S van der Heijden
Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer (MIBC) has a poor prognosis. Whilst patients can achieve a 6% improvement in overall survival with Neo-Adjuvant Chemotherapy (NAC), many do not respond. Body fluid mutant DNA (mutDNA) may allow non-invasive identification of treatment failure. We collected 248 liquid biopsy samples including plasma, cell pellet (UCP) and supernatant (USN) from spun urine, from 17 patients undergoing NAC. We assessed single nucleotide variants and copy number alterations in mutDNA using Tagged-Amplicon- and shallow Whole Genome- Sequencing...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636919/monitoring-quantitative-ultrasound-parameter-changes-in-a-cell-pellet-model-of-cell-starvation
#14
Lauren A Wirtzfeld, Elizabeth S L Berndl, Gregory J Czarnota, Michael C Kolios
Although it has previously been shown that the spectral analysis of ultrasound backscatter data is sensitive to the cellular changes caused by apoptosis, the sensitivity of spectral analysis to oncosis or ischemic cell death had not previously been studied. Whereas many anticancer treatments induce apoptosis, others induce cell starvation, or oncosis. HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells were formed into pellets and covered in phosphate-buffered saline at room temperature for 56 h. The pellets were imaged every 8 h with high-frequency (55 MHz) ultrasound and the raw radio-frequency data processed...
June 20, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595972/17%C3%AE-ethynylestradiol-alters-the-peritoneal-immune-response-of-gilthead-seabream
#15
N E Gómez González, I Cabas, M C Rodenas, M Arizcun, V Mulero, A García Ayala
17α-Ethynylestradiol (EE2 ), a synthetic estrogen used in most oral contraceptives pills and hormone replacement therapies, is found in many water bodies, where it can modulate the fish immune response. EE2 acts as an endocrine disruptor in gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata L., a marine teleost fish of great economic value in Mediterranean aquaculture, as it induces hepatic vitellogenin gene (vtg) expression. Moreover, EE2 also alters the capacity of gilthead seabream to appropriately respond to infection although it does not behave as an immunosuppressor...
November 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500602/a-new-mouse-model-for-introduction-of-aortic-aneurysm-by-implantation-of-deoxycorticosterone-acetate-pellets-or-aldosterone-infusion-in-the-presence-of-high-salt
#16
Shu Liu, Ming C Gong, Zhenheng Guo
Dysfunction of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) has been implicated in the etiologies of many cardiovascular diseases, including aortic aneurysm. In particular, the infusion of angiotensin II (Ang II) in the apolipoprotein E-deficient mice (apoE-/-) and low density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice (LDLR-/-) to induce aortic aneurysm has been extensively used in the field. In contrast, whether aldosterone (Aldo), an essential component of RAAS and a downstream effector of Ang II, is involved in aortic aneurysm is largely unknown...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488006/ingestion-of-a-single-2-3-mm-lead-pellet-by-laying-roller-pigeon-hens-reduces-egg-size-and-adversely-affects-f1-generation-hatchlings
#17
Robert J Williams, Lawrence V Tannenbaum, Susan M Williams, Steven D Holladay, Richard C Tuckfield, Ajay Sharma, Danny Joe Humphrey, Robert M Gogal
Many aquatic and terrestrial avian species inadvertently ingest lead (Pb) in the form of spent or fragmented ammunition, mistaking it for food or grit. Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that ingestion of even a single 45-mg pellet can significantly increase blood-Pb levels and significantly inhibit the enzyme delta aminolevulinic-acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) for a period of greater than 4 weeks. In the current study, proven breeder pairs of domestic Roller pigeons were housed in individual cages...
November 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388309/a-comprehensive-assessment-of-exposures-to-respirable-dust-and-silica-in-the-taconite-mining-industry
#18
Jooyeon Hwang, Gurumurthy Ramachandran, Peter C Raynor, Bruce H Alexander, Jeffrey H Mandel
This study assessed the present-day levels (year 2010-2011) of exposure to respirable dust (RD) and respirable silica (RS) in taconite mines and evaluated how the mining process influences exposure concentrations. Personal samples (n = 679) were collected to assess exposure levels of workers to RD and RS at six mines in the Mesabi Iron Range of Minnesota. The RD and RS concentrations were measured using the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) 0600 and NIOSH 7500, respectively. Between-mine, between-SEG (similar exposure groups), within-SEG, and within-worker components of variability for RD and RS exposures were estimated using a two- or three-way nested random-effects ANOVA model...
May 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333983/alterations-in-amino-acid-status-in-cats-with-feline-dysautonomia
#19
Bruce C McGorum, Herb W Symonds, Clare Knottenbelt, Tom A Cave, Susan J MacDonald, Joanna Stratton, Irene Leon, Judith A Turner, R Scott Pirie
Feline dysautonomia (FD) is a multiple system neuropathy of unknown aetiology. An apparently identical disease occurs in horses (equine grass sickness, EGS), dogs, rabbits, hares, sheep, alpacas and llamas. Horses with acute EGS have a marked reduction in plasma concentrations of the sulphur amino acids (SAA) cyst(e)ine and methionine, which may reflect exposure to a neurotoxic xenobiotic. The aim of this study was to determine whether FD cats have alterations in amino acid profiles similar to those of EGS horses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194448/divergent-relationships-between-fecal-microbiota-and-metabolome-following-distinct-antibiotic-induced-disruptions
#20
Jocelyn M Choo, Tokuwa Kanno, Nur Masirah Mohd Zain, Lex E X Leong, Guy C J Abell, Julie E Keeble, Kenneth D Bruce, A James Mason, Geraint B Rogers
The intestinal microbiome plays an essential role in regulating many aspects of host physiology, and its disruption through antibiotic exposure has been implicated in the development of a range of serious pathologies. The complex metabolic relationships that exist between members of the intestinal microbiota and the potential redundancy in functional pathways mean that an integrative analysis of changes in both structure and function are needed to understand the impact of antibiotic exposure. We used a combination of next-generation sequencing and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics to characterize the effects of two clinically important antibiotic treatments, ciprofloxacin and vancomycin-imipenem, on the intestinal microbiomes of female C57BL/6 mice...
January 2017: MSphere
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