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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437539/safety-and-efficacy-of-antiviral-therapy-for-prevention-of-cytomegalovirus-reactivation-in-immunocompetent-critically-ill-patients-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#1
Nicholas J Cowley, Andrew Owen, Sarah C Shiels, Joanne Millar, Rebecca Woolley, Natalie Ives, Husam Osman, Paul Moss, Julian F Bion
Importance: Latent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is present in more than half the adult population, and a viral reactivation (ie, when the virus becomes measurable in body fluids such as blood) can occur in up to one-third of these individuals during episodes of critical illness. Objective: To determine whether antiviral therapy is safe and effective for preventing CMV reactivation in a general population of critically ill patients. Design, Setting, and Participants: A single-center, open-label, randomized, controlled clinical trial recruited 124 CMV-seropositive patients undergoing mechanical ventilation for at least 24 hours in the intensive care unit between January 1, 2012, and January 31, 2014...
April 24, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437375/both-positive-and-negative-fluid-balance-may-be-associated-with-reduced-long-term-survival-in-the-critically-ill
#2
Vikram Balakumar, Raghavan Murugan, Florentina E Sileanu, Paul Palevsky, Gilles Clermont, John A Kellum
OBJECTIVES: Among critically ill patients with acute kidney injury, exposure to positive fluid balance, compared with negative fluid balance, has been associated with mortality and impaired renal recovery. However, it is unclear whether positive and negative fluid balances are associated with poor outcome compared to patients with even fluid balance (euvolemia). In this study, we examined the association between exposure to positive or negative fluid balance, compared with even fluid balance, on 1-year mortality and renal recovery...
April 21, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431428/computational-and-in-vitro-experimental-investigation-of-intrathecal-drug-distribution-parametric-study-of-the-effect-of-injection-volume-cerebrospinal-fluid-pulsatility-and-drug-uptake
#3
Kevin M Tangen, Roxanne Leval, Ankit I Mehta, Andreas A Linninger
BACKGROUND: Intrathecal drug delivery is an attractive option to circumvent the blood-brain barrier for pain management through its increased efficacy of pain relief, reduction in adverse side effects, and cost-effectiveness. Unfortunately, there are limited guidelines for physicians to choose infusion or drug pump settings to administer therapeutic doses to specific regions of the spine or the brain. Although empiric trialing of intrathecal drugs is critical to determine the sustained side effects, currently there is no inexpensive in vitro method to guide the selection of spinal drug delivery parameters...
May 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430676/a-biomimetic-alternative-to-synthetic-hydroxyapatite-boron-containing-bone-like-hydroxyapatite-precipitated-from-simulated-body-fluid
#4
Mert Calis, Tugrul Tolga Demirtas, Alper Vatansever, Gulseren Irmak, Ahmet Hamdi Sakarya, Pergin Atilla, Figen Ozgur, Menemse Gumusderelioglu
BACKGROUND: Biological hydroxyapatite (HA), has several mechanical and physical advantages over the commercially available synthetic apatite (CAP-HA). The aim of this in vivo study was to investigate the effect of osteoinductive "bone-like hydroxyapatite" obtained from simulated body fluid (SBF) combined with osteoinductive "boron" (B) on bone healing. MATERIALS: Bone like nanohydroxyapatite (SBF-HA) was precipitated from 10× simulated body fluid (10×SBF). Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 experimental groups (n = 6 each)...
April 20, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430110/viscosity-of-a-sheared-correlated-near-critical-model-fluid-in-confinement
#5
Christian Rohwer, Andrea Gambassi, Matthias Kruger
Second-order phase transitions are characterized by a divergence of the spatial correlation length of the order parameter fluctuations. For confined systems, this is known to lead to remarkable equilibrium physical phenomena, including finite-size effects and critical Casimir forces. We explore here some non-equilibrium aspects of these effects in the stationary state resulting from the action of external forces: by analyzing a model of a correlated fluid under shear, spatially confined by two parallel plates, we study the resulting viscosity within the setting of (Gaussian) Landau-Ginzburg theory...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429271/bisection-method-for-accurate-modeling-and-simulation-of-fouling-in-hollow-fiber-membrane-system
#6
Shuang Liang, Yubo Zhao, Jian Zhang, Lianfa Song
Accurate description and modeling of fouling on hollow fibers imposes a serious challenge to more effective fouling mitigation and performance optimization of the membrane system. Although the governing equations for membrane fouling can be constructed based on the known theories from membrane filtration and fluid dynamics, they are unsolvable analytically due to the complex spatially and temporally varying nature of fouling on hollow fibers. The current available numerical solutions for the governing equations are either unreliable or inconvenient to use because of the uses of unfounded assumptions or cumbersome calculation methods...
April 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426649/the-importance-of-appropriate-initial-bacterial-colonization-of-the-intestine-in-newborn-child-and-adult-health
#7
REVIEW
W Allan Walker
The fetus does not reside in a sterile intrauterine environment and is exposed to commensal bacteria from the maternal gut/blood stream which crosses the placenta and enters the amniotic fluid. This intestinal exposure to colonizing bacteria continues at birth and during the first year of life and has a profound influence on lifelong health. Why is this important? Intestinal crosstalk with colonizing bacteria in the developing intestine affects the infant's adaptation to extrauterine life (immune homeostasis) and provides protection against disease expression (allergy, autoimmune disease, obesity, etc...
April 20, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422408/prevention-of-the-osmotic-demyelination-syndrome-after-liver-transplantation-a-multidisciplinary-perspective
#8
J F Crismale, K A Meliambro, S DeMaria, D B Bronster, S Florman, T D Schiano
The osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) is a serious neurologic condition that occurs in the setting of rapid correction of hyponatremia. It presents with protean manifestations, from encephalopathy to the "locked-in" syndrome. ODS can complicate liver transplantation (LT), and its incidence may increase with the inclusion of serum sodium as a factor in the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. A comprehensive understanding of risk factors for the development of ODS in the setting of LT, along with recommendations to mitigate the risk of ODS, are necessary...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420950/metallothionein-copper-and-alpha-synuclein-in-alpha-synucleinopathies
#9
REVIEW
Yuho Okita, Alexandre N Rcom-H'cheo-Gauthier, Michael Goulding, Roger S Chung, Peter Faller, Dean L Pountney
Metallothioneins (MTs) are proteins that function by metal exchange to regulate the bioavailability of metals, such as zinc and copper. Copper functions in the brain to regulate mitochondria, neurotransmitter production, and cell signaling. Inappropriate copper binding can result in loss of protein function and Cu(I)/(II) redox cycling can generate reactive oxygen species. Copper accumulates in the brain with aging and has been shown to bind alpha-synuclein and initiate its aggregation, the primary aetiological factor in Parkinson's disease (PD), and other alpha-synucleinopathies...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420598/1-5-t-augmented-reality-navigated-interventional-mri-paravertebral-sympathetic-plexus-injections
#10
David R Marker, Paweena U Thainual, Tamas Ungi, Aaron J Flammang, Gabor Fichtinger, Iulian I Iordachita, John A Carrino, Jan Fritz
PURPOSE: The high contrast resolution and absent ionizing radiation of interventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be advantageous for paravertebral sympathetic nerve plexus injections. We assessed the feasibility and technical performance of MRI-guided paravertebral sympathetic injections utilizing augmented reality navigation and 1.5 T MRI scanner. METHODS: A total of 23 bilateral injections of the thoracic (8/23, 35%), lumbar (8/23, 35%) and hypogastric (7/23, 30%) paravertebral sympathetic plexus were prospectively planned in twelve human cadavers using a 1...
April 18, 2017: Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology: Official Journal of the Turkish Society of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420103/electrochemical-genosensing-of-circulating-biomarkers
#11
REVIEW
Susana Campuzano, Paloma Yáñez-Sedeño, José Manuel Pingarrón
Management and prognosis of diseases requires the measurement in non- or minimally invasively collected samples of specific circulating biomarkers, consisting of any measurable or observable factors in patients that indicate normal or disease-related biological processes or responses to therapy. Therefore, on-site, fast and accurate determination of these low abundance circulating biomarkers in scarcely treated body fluids is of great interest for health monitoring and biological applications. In this field, electrochemical DNA sensors (or genosensors) have demonstrated to be interesting alternatives to more complex conventional strategies...
April 14, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418422/a-disease-model-of-diabetic-nephropathy-in-a-glomerulus-on-a-chip-microdevice
#12
Li Wang, Tingting Tao, Wentao Su, Hao Yu, Yue Yu, Jianhua Qin
Diabetic nephropathy is a major chronic renal complication of diabetes mellitus, and is the leading cause of end-stage kidney diseases. Establishing a disease model of diabetic nephropathy in vitro can accelerate the understanding of its mechanisms and pharmaceutical development. We provide the proof-of-principle for using a glomerulus-on-a-chip microdevice that reconstitutes organ-level kidney functions to create a human disease model of early stage diabetic nephropathy on chip. The microfluidic device, which recapitulates the glomerular microenvironment, consists of parallel channels lined by isolated primary glomerular microtissues that experience fluid flow to mimic the glomerular filtration barrier (GFB), including glomerular endothelial cells, 3D basement membrane and podocytes...
April 18, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417585/speckle-variance-optical-coherence-tomography-of-blood-flow-in-the-beating-mouse-embryonic-heart
#13
Olga A Grishina, Shang Wang, Irina V Larina
Efficient separation of blood and cardiac wall in the beating embryonic heart is essential and critical for experiment-based computational modelling and analysis of early-stage cardiac biomechanics. Although speckle variance optical coherence tomography (SV-OCT) relying on calculation of intensity variance over consecutively acquired frames is a powerful approach for segmentation of fluid flow from static tissue, application of this method in the beating embryonic heart remains challenging because moving structures generate SV signal indistinguishable from the blood...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416172/epidemiology-of-ebolavirus-disease-evd-and-occupational-evd-in-health-care-workers-in-sub-saharan-africa-need-for-strengthened-public-health-preparedness
#14
REVIEW
Nlandu Roger Ngatu, Ntumba Jean-Marie Kayembe, Elayne Kornblatt Phillips, Joa Okech-Ojony, Masika Patou-Musumari, Mukunda Gaspard-Kibukusa, Ndona Madone-Mandina, Mabasi Godefroid-Mayala, Lubogo Mutaawe, Casimir Manzengo, Dimosi Roger-Wumba, Sayumi Nojima
Ebolavirus disease (EVD) is a severe contagious disease in humans, and health care workers (HCW) are at risk of infection when caring for EVD patients. This paper highlights the epidemiologic profile of EVD and its impact on the health care workforce in Africa. A documentary study was conducted which consisted of a review of available literature regarding the epidemiology of EVD, occupational EVD (OEVD), and work safety issues in Sub-Saharan Africa; the literature findings are enriched by field experiences from the authors...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415312/nonlinear-effects-in-the-bounded-dust-vortex-flow-in-plasma
#15
Modhuchandra Laishram, Devendra Sharma, Prabal K Chattopdhyay, Predhiman K Kaw
The vortex structures in a cloud of electrically suspended dust in a streaming plasma constitutes a driven system with a rich nonlinear flow regime. Experimentally recovered toroidal formations of this system have motivated study of its volumetrically driven-dissipative vortex flow dynamics using two-dimensional hydrodynamics in the incompressible Navier-Stokes regime. Nonlinear equilibrium solutions are obtained for this system where a nonuniformly driven two-dimensional dust flow exhibits distinct regions of localized accelerations and strong friction caused by stationary fluids at the confining boundaries resisting the dust flow...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415250/compressible-cell-gas-models-for-asymmetric-fluid-criticality
#16
Claudio A Cerdeiriña, Gerassimos Orkoulas
We thoroughly describe a class of models recently presented by Fisher and coworkers [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 040601 (2016)]PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.116.040601. The crucial feature of such models, termed compressible cell gases (CCGs), is that the individual cell volumes of a lattice gas are allowed to fluctuate. They are studied via the seldom-used (μ, p, T) ensemble, which leads to their exact mapping onto the Ising model. Remarkably, CCGs obey complete scaling, a formulation for the thermodynamic behavior of fluids near the gas-liquid critical point that accommodates features inherent to the asymmetric nature of this phase transition like the Yang-Yang (YY) and singular coexistence-curve diameter anomalies...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415194/migration-of-a-droplet-in-a-cylindrical-tube-in-the-creeping-flow-regime
#17
Binita Nath, Gautam Biswas, Amaresh Dalal, Kirti Chandra Sahu
The migration of a neutrally buoyant droplet in a tube containing another immiscible liquid is investigated numerically in the creeping flow regime. A fully developed velocity profile is imposed at the inlet of the tube. The interface between the two immiscible fluids is captured using a coupled level-set and volume-of-fluid approach. The deformation and breakup dynamics of the droplet are investigated in terms of three dimensionless parameters, namely, the ratio between the radius of the undeformed droplet and the radius of the capillary tube, the viscosity ratio between the dispersed and the continuous phases, and the capillary number that measures the relative importance of the viscous force over the surface tension force...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414665/a-case-of-early-neurosyphilis
#18
M Walker, R Wisler, J Simmons, A Johnson
INTRODUCTION: Neurosyphilis is an infection of the central nervous system by Treponema pallidum, which can occur after the initial syphilis infection. Although commonly associated with late stage disease, patients with early neurosyphilis may present with acute syphilitic meningitis, meningovascular syphilis, or uveitis. CASE: A 28 year old man with a past medical history of HIV (CD4 364);, and recent diagnosis of uveitis presented to the Emergency Department with a positive RPR result...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414140/shear-stress-inhibits-il-17a-mediated-induction-of-osteoclastogenesis-via-osteocyte-pathways
#19
Chongshan Liao, Tianfan Cheng, Shuai Wang, Chengfei Zhang, Lijian Jin, Yanqi Yang
Interleukin (IL)-17 is crucial to osteoclast differentiation and activation. Osteocytes support osteoclast formation and are thought to orchestrate bone remodeling in response to fluid flow. The contribution of IL-17 to osteocyte-related bone resorption remains unclear. Here, we used the osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cell line to examine the role of IL-17 and fluid flow in osteoclastogenesis. It was the first time to demonstrate that IL-17A promoted MLO-Y4 cell proliferation, enhanced expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and induced osteoclastogenesis when MLO-Y4 cells were co-cultured with bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMM) cells...
April 14, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414135/gastrointestinal-behavior-of-itraconazole-in-humans-part-1-supersaturation-from-a-solid-dispersion-and-a-cyclodextrin-based-solution
#20
Joachim Brouwers, Sophie Geboers, Raf Mols, Jan Tack, Patrick Augustijns
This study evaluated the fasted state gastrointestinal behavior of the lipophilic drug itraconazole, orally administered to healthy volunteers as either a solid dispersion (Sporanox(®) capsules) or a cyclodextrin-based solution (Sporanox(®) solution). Following intake of the drug products, gastric and duodenal fluids were aspirated and analyzed for itraconazole concentration, total content and solubilizing capacity. Release of itraconazole from the solid dispersion generated high and metastable supersaturated levels in the stomach, but the dissolved fraction in the duodenum remained extremely low (median 2...
April 13, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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