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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928111/pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-linezolid-in-plasma-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-patients-with-cerebral-hemorrhage-after-lateral-ventricular-drainage-by-monte-carlo-simulation
#1
Xiaofei Wu, Yan Tang, Xiaohua Zhang, Chenchen Wu, Lingti Kong
Objective: We investigated the pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) parameters of linezolid in patients who had suffered cerebral hemorrhage after lateral ventricular drainage. Materials and methods: Ten patients with cerebral hemorrhage after lateral ventricular drainage with stroke-associated pneumonia who were given linezolid were enrolled. Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were taken at appropriate intervals after the first administration of linezolid and assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927988/factors-affecting-serum-concentration-of-vancomycin-in-critically-ill-oliguric-pediatric-patients-receiving-continuous-venovenous-hemodiafiltration
#2
Bongjin Lee, Soo Jung Kim, June Dong Park, Jiun Park, Ae Hee Jung, Sun Hoi Jung, Yu Hyeon Choi, Hee Gyung Kang, Il Soo Ha, Hae Il Cheong
Vancomycin is known to be unintentionally eliminated by continuous renal replacement therapy, and the protein bound fraction of vancomycin is also known to be different in adults and children. However, there are only a few studies investigating the relationship between the dose of continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) parameters and serum concentration of vancomycin in pediatric patients. The aim of this study was to determine clinical and demographic parameters that significantly affect serum vancomycin concentrations...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927879/no-requirement-for-targeted-theophylline-levels-for-diuretic-effect-of-aminophylline-in-critically-ill-children
#3
Katie Park, Lindsay C Trout, Cong Xu, Ming Wang, Robert F Tamburro, E Scott Halstead
OBJECTIVES: To determine the relationship between theophylline trough levels and urine output in critically ill children administered aminophylline as adjunctive diuretic therapy. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: The PICU of a tertiary care children's hospital. PATIENTS: A mixed population of medical/surgical including postoperative cardiothoracic surgery patients less than 18 years old. INTERVENTIONS: Electronic medical records of all PICU patients admitted from July 2010 to June 2015 were reviewed, and patients who received aminophylline as diuretic therapy were identified...
June 20, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927833/critical-ischemia-time-perfusion-and-drainage-function-of-vascularized-lymph-nodes
#4
Chin-Yu Yang, Olivia A Ho, Ming-Huei Cheng, Hui-Yi Hsiao
BACKGROUND: Vascularized lymph node transfer is a promising surgical treatment for lymphedema. This study investigates the effect of ischemia on the lymphatic drainage efficiency of vascularized lymph node flaps and the critical ischemia time of lymph nodes. METHODS: Twenty-four lymph nodes containing groin flaps in twelve Sprague-Dawley rats were dissected. Clamping of the vascular pedicle was performed for 0, 1, 3, 5, 6, 7 hours, then each allowed to re-perfuse via the vascular pedicle for one hour...
June 12, 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927776/critical-care-management-of-anti-n-methyl-d-asparate-receptor-encephalitis
#5
Ron R Neyens, George E Gaskill, Julio A Chalela
OBJECTIVES: Anti-N-methyl-D-asparate receptor encephalitis is considered an immune-mediated form of encephalitis with paraneoplastic and nonparaneoplastic forms. Delay in recognition is common and patients typically present to the ICU without a diagnosis or with complications following a delayed diagnosis. The aim of this review is to provide a focused overview for the ICU clinician regarding presentation, diagnosis, and critical care management. DATA SOURCES, STUDY SELECTION, AND DATA EXTRACTION: PubMed database search with manual review of articles involving anti-N-methyl-D-asparate receptor encephalitis...
June 20, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926230/estimating-mean-circulatory-filling-pressure-in-clinical-practice-a-systematic-review-comparing-three-bedside-methods-in-the-critically-ill
#6
REVIEW
Marije Wijnberge, Daniko P Sindhunata, Michael R Pinsky, Alexander P Vlaar, Else Ouweneel, Jos R Jansen, Denise P Veelo, Bart F Geerts
The bedside hemodynamic assessment of the critically ill remains challenging since blood volume, arterial-venous interaction and compliance are not measured directly. Mean circulatory filling pressure (Pmcf ) is the blood pressure throughout the vascular system at zero flow. Animal studies have shown Pmcf provides information on vascular compliance, volume responsiveness and enables the calculation of stressed volume. It is now possible to measure Pmcf at the bedside. We performed a systematic review of the current Pmcf measurement techniques and compared their clinical applicability, precision, accuracy and limitations...
June 20, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925241/gel-phase-membrane-retards-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide-1-42-fibrillation-by-restricting-slaved-diffusion-of-peptides-on-lipid-bilayers
#7
Mengting Yang, Kang Wang, Jiake Lin, Liqun Wang, Feng Wei, Jin-Tao Zhu, Wanquan Zheng, Lei Shen
Plasma membranes in the human brain can interact with amyloid β-peptide (1-42) (Aβ42) and induce Aβ42 fibrillation, which is considered to be a crucial process underlying the neurotoxicity of Aβ42 and the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanism of membrane-mediated Aβ42 fibrillation at the molecular level remains elusive. Here we study the role of adsorbed Aβ42 peptides on membrane-mediated fibrillation using supported lipid bilayers of varying phase structures (gel and fluid)...
June 20, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925237/peripheral-protein-unfolding-drives-membrane-bending
#8
Hew Ming Helen Siaw, Gokul Raghunath, R Brian Dyer
Dynamic modulation of lipid membrane curvature can be achieved by a number of peripheral protein binding mechanisms such as hy-drophobic insertion of amphipathic helices and membrane scaffolding. Recently, an alternative mechanism was proposed in which crowding of peripherally bound proteins induces membrane curvature through steric pressure generated by lateral collisions. This effect was enhanced using intrinsically disordered proteins that possess high hydrodynamic radii, prompting us to explore whether membrane bending can be triggered by the folding-unfolding transition of surface-bound proteins...
June 20, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925131/-a-survey-of-fluid-therapy-in-2-intensive-care-units
#9
H Liu, F Gong, Y H Ai, M L Ai, Q Feng, S Y Deng, Z Y Liu, L N Zhang
To explore the present status of fluid therapy and clinical outcome in critically ill patients in intensive care units (ICU). ICU patients consecutively admitted to our ICU were prospectively enrolled. Patients' demographics, laboratory data, fluid record and clinical outcome were collected. Fluid intake quantity of all patients was at peak on the fifth day which was 2 806 (1 997, 3 582) ml. From the fourth day in ICU, fluid balance started to benegative as -84 (-1 127, 612) ml and gradually increased. Crystalloid solution was the main components...
June 1, 2018: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925069/vasopressin-and-diabetic-kidney-disease
#10
Ray El Boustany
BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy has become the most common cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Despite the progress accomplished in therapy, the prevalence of renal disorders remains high. Some modifiable factors driving the increase in incidence of CKD, in diabetes and other settings, might have been overlooked. Consistent evidence supports a role for vasopressin, hydration state, and urine concentration in kidney health. SUMMARY: Plasma vasopressin is elevated in diabetes, even if metabolic control is good...
2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922678/stem-cell-cytoskeletal-responses-to-pulsatile-flow-in-heart-valve-tissue-engineering-studies
#11
Glenda Castellanos, Sana Nasim, Denise M Almora, Sasmita Rath, Sharan Ramaswamy
Heart valve replacement options remain exceedingly limited for pediatric patients because they cannot accommodate somatic growth. To overcome this shortcoming, heart valve tissue engineering using human bone marrow stem cells (HBMSCs) has been considered a potential solution to the treatment of critical congenital valvular defects. The mechanical environments during in vitro culture are key regulators of progenitor cell fate. Here, we report on alterations in HBMSCs, specifically in their actin cytoskeleton and their nucleus under fluid-induced shear stresses of relevance to heart valves...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920191/itaconic-acid-mediates-crosstalk-between-macrophage-metabolism-and-peritoneal-tumors
#12
Jonathan M Weiss, Luke C Davies, Megan Karwan, Lilia Ileva, Michelle K Ozaki, Robert Ys Cheng, Lisa A Ridnour, Christina M Annunziata, David A Wink, Daniel W McVicar
Control of cellular metabolism is critical for efficient cell function, although little is known about the interplay between cell subset-specific metabolites in situ, especially in the tumor setting. Here, we determine how a macrophage-specific metabolite, itaconic acid, can regulate tumor progression in the peritoneum. We show peritoneal tumors (B16 melanoma or ID8 ovarian carcinoma) elicited a fatty acid oxidation-mediated increase in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and glycolysis in peritoneal tissue-resident macrophages (pResMφ)...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916053/crystallization-from-supersaturated-solutions-role-of-lecithin-and-composite-simulated-intestinal-fluid
#13
Anura S Indulkar, Yi Gao, Shweta A Raina, Geoff G Z Zhang, Lynne S Taylor
PURPOSE: The overall purpose of this study was to understand the impact of different biorelevant media types on solubility and crystallization from supersaturated solutions of model compounds (atazanavir, ritonavir, tacrolimus and cilnidipine). The first aim was to understand the influence of the lecithin content in FaSSIF. As the human intestinal fluids (HIFs) contain a variety of bile salts in addition to sodium taurocholate (STC), the second aim was to understand the role of these bile salts (in the presence of lecithin) on solubility and crystallization from supersaturated solutions, METHODS: To study the impact of lecithin, media with 3 mM STC concentration but varying lecithin concentration were prepared...
June 18, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915967/mechanical-stimuli-in-the-local-in-vivo-environment-in-bone-computational-approaches-linking-organ-scale-loads-to-cellular-signals
#14
REVIEW
Graeme R Paul, Angad Malhotra, Ralph Müller
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Connecting organ-scale loads to cellular signals in their local in vivo environment is a current challenge in the field of bone (re)modelling. Understanding this critical missing link would greatly improve our ability to anticipate mechanotransduction during different modes of stimuli and the resultant cellular responses. This review characterises computational approaches that could enable coupling links across the multiple scales of bone. RECENT FINDINGS: Current approaches using strain and fluid shear stress concepts have begun to link organ-scale loads to cellular signals; however, these approaches fail to capture localised micro-structural heterogeneities...
June 18, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915268/low-circulating-chemerin-levels-correlate-with-hepatic-dysfunction-and-increased-mortality-in-decompensated-liver-cirrhosis
#15
Paul Horn, Christian von Loeffelholz, Franziska Forkert, Sven Stengel, Philipp Reuken, René Aschenbach, Andreas Stallmach, Tony Bruns
Nutritional status, infections, inflammation and extrahepatic organ dysfunction are critical factors for the progression of chronic liver disease. Chemerin is an immune-metabolically and chemotactically active adipokine and we hypothesized that it is associated with disease severity and prognosis in patients with advanced decompensated cirrhosis. Therefore, we measured serum concentrations of chemerin in a prospectively characterized cohort of 80 patients with decompensated cirrhosis and ascites and assessed the associations with markers of disease severity and short-term outcome at 28 days...
June 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914554/prehospital-point-of-care-emergency-ultrasound-a-cohort-study
#16
Maximilian Scharonow, Christian Weilbach
BACKGROUND: In the prehospital situation, the diagnostic armamentarium available to the rescue physician is limited. Emergency ultrasound has proven to be a useful diagnostic tool, providing crucial information for the management of critically ill and injured patients. The proportion of performed ultrasound scans in all patients attended to by the rescue service team, the quality of the findings and the ultrasound-related changes in management approach and patient transport were evaluated...
June 18, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911716/non-monotonic-variations-of-the-nucleation-free-energy-in-a-glass-forming-ultra-soft-particles-fluid
#17
Caroline Desgranges, Jerome Delhommelle
Using molecular dynamics simulation, we study the impact of the degree of supercooling on the crystal nucleation of ultra-soft particles, modeled with the Gaussian core potential. Focusing on systems with a high number density, our simulations reveal dramatically different behaviors as the degree of supercooling is varied. In the moderate supercooling regime, crystal nucleation proceeds as expected from classical nucleation theory, with a decrease in the free energy of nucleation, as well as in the size of the critical nucleus, as supercooling is increased...
June 18, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911381/sheathless-focusing-and-separation-of-microparticles-using-tilted-angle-travelling-surface-acoustic-waves
#18
Husnain Ahmed, Ghulam Destgeer, Jinsoo Park, Muhammad Afzal, Hyung Jin Sung
The sheathless focusing and separation of microparticles is an important pre-processing step in various biochemical assays in which enriched sample isolation is critical. Most previous microfluidic particle separation techniques have used a sheath flow to achieve efficient sample focusing. The sheath flow diluted the analyte, and required additional microchannels and accurate flow control. We demonstrated a tilted angle travelling surface acoustic wave (taTSAW)-based sheathless focusing and separation of particles in a continuous flow...
June 18, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908165/consequences-of-tuning-network-function-by-tonic-and-phasic-locus-coeruleus-output-and-stress-regulating-detection-and-discrimination-of-peripheral-stimuli
#19
David M Devilbiss
Flexible and adaptive behaviors have evolved with increasing complexity and numbers of neuromodulator systems. The neuromodulatory locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system is central to regulating cognitive function in a behaviorally-relevant and arousal-dependent manner. Through its nearly ubiquitous efferent projections, the LC-NE system acts to modulate neuron function on a cell-by-cell basis and exert a spectrum of actions across different brain regions to optimize target circuit function. As LC neuron activity, NE signaling, and arousal level increases, cognitive performance improves over an inverted-U shaped curve...
June 13, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906820/uniform-phases-in-fluids-of-hard-isosceles-triangles-one-component-fluid-and-binary-mixtures
#20
Yuri Martínez-Ratón, Ariel Díaz-De Armas, Enrique Velasco
We formulate the scaled particle theory for a general mixture of hard isosceles triangles and calculate different phase diagrams for the one-component fluid and for certain binary mixtures. The fluid of hard triangles exhibits a complex phase behavior: (i) the presence of a triatic phase with sixfold symmetry, (ii) the isotropic-uniaxial nematic transition is of first order for certain ranges of aspect ratios, and (iii) the one-component system exhibits nematic-nematic transitions ending in critical points...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
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