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Amphetamine and heart

Kamal Ali, Thomas Rosser, Ravindra Bhat, Kim Wolff, Simon Hannam, Gerrard F Rafferty, Anne Greenough
OBJECTIVES: To determine at the peak age for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) the ventilatory response to hypoxia of infants whose mothers substance misused in pregnancy (SM infants), or smoked during pregnancy (S mothers) and controls whose mothers neither substance misused or smoked. In addition, we compared the ventilatory response to hypoxia during the neonatal period and peak age of SIDS. WORKING HYPOTHESIS: Infants of S or SM mothers compared to control infants would have a poorer ventilatory response to hypoxia at the peak age of SIDS...
October 10, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Timur Mazitov, Aleksandr Bregin, Mari-Anne Philips, Jürgen Innos, Eero Vasar
Neurotrimin (Ntm) belongs to the IgLON family of cell adhesion molecules with Lsamp, Obcam and kilon that regulate the outgrowth of neurites mostly by forming heterodimers. IgLONs have been associated with psychiatric disorders, intelligence, body weight, heart disease and tumours. This study provides an initial behavioural and pharmacological characterization of the phenotype of Ntm-deficient mice. We expected to see at least some overlap with the phenotype of Lsamp-deficient mice as Ntm and Lsamp are the main interaction partners in the IgLON family and are colocalized in some brain regions...
September 28, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
A Sinha, O Lewis, R Kumar, S L H Yeruva, B H Curry
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurobiological disorder exhibited by difficulty maintaining attention, as well as hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. Central nervous system (CNS) stimulants are the first line of treatment for ADHD. With the increase in number of adults on CNS stimulants, the question that arises is how well do we understand the long-term cardiovascular effects of these drugs. There has been increasing concern that adults with ADHD are at greater risk for developing adverse cardiovascular events such as sudden death, myocardial infarction, and stroke as compared to pediatric population...
2016: Case Reports in Cardiology
Julio Perez-Downes, Abdulwahab Hritani, Candice Baldeo, Patrick Antoun
Weight loss is one of the most researched and marketed topics in American society. Dietary regimens, medications that claim to boost the metabolism, and the constant pressure to fit into society all play a role in our patient's choices regarding new dietary products. One of the products that are well known to suppress appetite and cause weight loss is amphetamines. While these medications suppress appetite, most people are not aware of the detrimental side effects of amphetamines, including hypertension, tachycardia, arrhythmias, and in certain instances acute myocardial infarction...
2016: Case Reports in Cardiology
Shaw-Hua Anthony Kueh, Ruvin S Gabriel, Mayanna Lund, Tim Sutton, Joshua Bradley, Andrew J Kerr, Jen-Li Looi
BACKGROUND: Amphetamine-associated cardiomyopathy (AAC) is becoming an increasingly recognised entity. The characteristics and outcomes of these patients are poorly understood. METHODS: Thirty patients admitted with heart failure and echocardiographic evidence of cardiomyopathy between 2005 and 2014 and who had a documented history of amphetamine abuse that was considered an important factor in the causation of their cardiomyopathy were retrospectively identified...
April 20, 2016: Heart, Lung & Circulation
Mowaffaq Awad Sallam, Kamaludin Ahmed Sheikh, Ronald Baxendale, Mohammad Nurul Azam, Maged El-Setouhy
BACKGROUND: Khat (Catha Edulis Forsk) is a natural psychoactive substance that contains addictive substances such as Cathine and Cathinone which have similar structure and action to amphetamine. This substance has been suggested that it can decrease perceived exertion and thus improve performance. There is no study in the literature regarding the effect of khat on exercise performance. Therefore, the aim of this study is to find out whether khat leaves can decrease perceived exertion in humans...
2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
A Smędra, S Szustowski, J Berent
Myocardial infarction is an infrequent condition in young adults. In most cases, it occurs due to causes other than atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries, including blood hypercoagulability, congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries, their inflammation or spasm induced by amphetamine or cocaine use. Amphetamine and its derivatives, via increasing the levels of epinephrine, serotonin and dopamine in the central nervous system, exert their effect also on the cardiovascular system, causing coronary spasm, enhancing platelet aggregation and inducing tachyarrhythmias...
2015: Archiwum Medycyny Sa̧dowej i Kryminologii
Archana Sinha, O'Dene Lewis, Rajan Kumar, Sri Lakshmi Hyndavi Yeruva, Bryan H Curry
Amphetamine abuse is a global problem. The cardiotoxic manifestations like acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure, or arrhythmia related to misuse of amphetamine and its synthetic derivatives have been documented but are rather rare. Amphetamine-related AMI is even rarer. We report two cases of men who came to emergency department (ED) with chest pain, palpitation, or seizure and were subsequently found to have myocardial infarction associated with the use of amphetamines. It is crucial that, with increase in amphetamine abuse, clinicians are aware of this potentially dire complication...
2016: Case Reports in Cardiology
L Booij, K Welfeld, M Leyton, A Dagher, I Boileau, I Sibon, G B Baker, M Diksic, J-P Soucy, J C Pruessner, E Cawley-Fiset, K F Casey, C Benkelfat
Dysregulation of the stress response system is a potential etiological factor in the development of and relapse to multiple neuropsychiatric disorders. Previously we reported that repeated intermittent d-amphetamine administration can lead to progressively greater dopamine release, thereby providing evidence of drug-induced neurochemical sensitization. Here, we test the hypothesis that repeated exposure to d-amphetamine increases dopaminergic responses to stress; that is, produces cross-sensitization. Using positron emission tomography, we measured in 17 healthy male volunteers (mean ± s...
2016: Translational Psychiatry
Christopher T Smith, Jessica Weafer, Ronald L Cowan, Robert M Kessler, Abraham A Palmer, Harriet de Wit, David H Zald
Rate of delivery of psychostimulants has been associated with their positive euphoric effects and potential addiction liability. However, information on individual differences in onset of d-amphetamine's effects remains scarce. We examined individual differences in the time to peak subjective and physiological effects and the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of oral d-amphetamine. We considered two independent studies that used different dosing regimens where subjects completed the drug effects questionnaire at multiple time points post d-amphetamine...
April 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Oda Bratland Østerdal, Pirjo-Riitta Salminen, Stina Jordal, Haakon Sjursen, Øystein Wendelbo, Rune Haaverstad
OBJECTIVES: Intravenous drug users have a high risk of infective endocarditis and reduced survival. Cardiac surgery may be recommended for these patients, but redo surgery is controversial. This study describes the characteristics and outcomes of intravenous drug users accepted for surgery during a 12-year period. METHODS: This retrospective study included 29 injecting drug users treated with valve surgery for endocarditis between January 2001 and December 2013 at a tertiary academic centre...
May 2016: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Rui Chen, Bin Wang, Ling Chen, Dunpeng Cai, Bing Li, Chuanxiang Chen, Enping Huang, Chao Liu, Zhoumeng Lin, Wei-Bing Xie, Huijun Wang
Methamphetamine (METH) is an amphetamine-like psychostimulant that is commonly abused. Previous studies have shown that METH can induce damages to the nervous system and recent studies suggest that METH can also cause adverse and potentially lethal effects on the cardiovascular system. Recently, we demonstrated that DNA damage-inducible transcript 4 (DDIT4) regulates METH-induced neurotoxicity. However, the role of DDIT4 in METH-induced cardiotoxicity remains unknown. We hypothesized that DDIT4 may mediate METH-induced autophagy and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes...
March 15, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
David K Grandy, Gregory M Miller, Jun-Xu Li
BACKGROUND: In keeping with the free-thinking tradition San Antonians are known for, the Scientific Program Committee of the Behavior, Biology and Chemistry: Translational Research in Addiction Conference chose trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) as the focus of the plenary symposium for its 7th annual meeting held at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio on March 14 and 15, 2015. The timing of the meeting's plenary session on TAAR1 coincided with the Ides of March, an apt concurrence given the long association of this date with the overthrow of the status quo...
February 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
(no author information available yet)
Several amphetamine-like appetite suppressants are known to have cardiovascular adverse effects, in particular pulmonary arterial hypertension and cardiac valve disease. Is this also the case with methylphenidate, an amphetamine-like psychostimulant used in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (especially in children) and also in narcolepsy? Cases of pulmonary hypertension and heart valve disease have been reported with methylphenidate, including in children. The risk appears to be low, but epidemiological studies are needed to estimate the incidence...
June 2015: Prescrire International
Rajesh Janardhanan, Arun Kannan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: American Journal of Medicine
Martin Zack, Isabelle Boileau, Doris Payer, Bindiya Chugani, Daniela S Lobo, Sylvain Houle, Alan A Wilson, Jerry J Warsh, Stephen J Kish
Cardiovascular and hypothalamic pituitary axis (HPA) disturbances have been observed in individuals who are pathological gamblers (PGs). These may partly derive from chronic exposure to gambling. Response to amphetamine (AMPH) may reveal such disturbances while controlling for differential conditioned responses to gambling in PGs vs healthy controls (HCs). This study assessed heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and plasma cortisol following oral AMPH (0.4 mg/kg) in male PGs (n=12) and HCs (n=11) who underwent a positron emission tomography (PET) scan...
September 2015: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Marc E Mooney, David V Herin, Sheila Specker, David Babb, Frances R Levin, John Grabowski
BACKGROUND: Amphetamine analogs have been demonstrated to have some efficacy in reducing use in cocaine dependent individuals. However, these agents also have potential for abuse. Lisdexamfetamine (LDX), a lysine+dextroamphetamine formulation, has been approved for the treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and as a prodrug, has less abuse potential. OBJECTIVE: This pilot study sought to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of LDX as a candidate treatment for cocaine dependence...
August 1, 2015: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
M A Hieger, S R Rose, K L Cumpston, P E Stromberg, S Miller, B K Wills
Significant toxicity from amphetamine and cathinone derivatives is being increasingly reported. We describe a series of self-reported exposures to 2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine (25-I-NBOME or 25-I), a novel amphetamine derivative. Ten patients with an average age of 17 years presented to local emergency departments (EDs) in our community after ingestion and/or insufflation of a drug referred to as "25-I." Of 10 patients, 6 reported taking 25-I alone; other substances included ethanol; 2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethylphenethylamine; marijuana; and ketamine...
December 2015: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Ayman El-Menyar, Ahammed Mekkodathil, Hassan Al-Thani, Ahmed Al-Motarreb
Recent reports suggest that 20 million people worldwide are regularly using khat as a stimulant, even though the habit of chewing khat is known to cause serious health issues. Historical evidence suggests khat use has existed since the 13th century in Ethiopia and the southwestern Arabian regions even before the cultivation and use of coffee. In the past three decades, its availability and use spread all over the world including the United States and Europe. Most of the consumers in the Western world are immigrant groups from Eastern Africa or the Middle East...
March 2015: Oman Medical Journal
Hadeel A Alsufyani, James R Docherty
The stimulants cathinone (from Khat leaves) and methylenedioxymeth-amphetamine (MDMA) produce adrenoceptor mediated tachycardia and vasopressor actions that may be the result of direct receptor stimulation, actions on the noradrenaline transporter, and/or displacement of noradrenaline from nerve terminals. Effects of cathinone or MDMA were compared with those of the indirect sympathomimetic tyramine. Male Wistar rats were anaesthetized with pentobarbitone for blood pressure and heart rate recording. Some rats were sympathectomised by treatment with 6-hydroxydopamine...
July 5, 2015: European Journal of Pharmacology
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