keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

neuronal circuits

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918515/oligodendrocyte-neuron-interactions-impact-on-myelination-and-brain-function
#1
Takeshi Shimizu, Yasuyuki Osanai, Kazuhiro Ikenaka
In the past, glial cells were considered to be 'glue' cells whose primary role was thought to be merely filling gaps in neural circuits. However, a growing number of reports have indicated the role of glial cells in higher brain function through their interaction with neurons. Myelin was originally thought to be just a sheath structure surrounding neuronal axons, but recently it has been shown that myelin exerts effects on the conduction velocity of neuronal axons even after myelin formation. Therefore, the investigation of glial cell properties and the neuron-glial interactions is important for understanding higher brain function...
September 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918435/infant-avoidance-training-alters-cellular-activation-patterns-in-prefronto-limbic-circuits-during-adult-avoidance-learning-ii-cellular-imaging-of-neurons-expressing-the-activity-regulated-cytoskeleton-associated-protein-arc-arg3-1
#2
Nicole Gröger, Anja Mannewitz, Jörg Bock, Susann Becker, Katja Guttmann, Gerd Poeggel, Katharina Braun
Positive and negative feedback learning is essential to optimize behavioral performance. We used the two-way active avoidance (TWA) task as an experimental paradigm for negative feedback learning with the aim to test the hypothesis that neuronal ensembles activate the activity-regulated cytoskeletal (Arc/Arg3.1) protein during different phases of avoidance learning and during retrieval. A variety of studies in humans and other animals revealed that the ability of aversive feedback learning emerges postnatally...
September 16, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918262/circuit-changes-in-motor-cortex-during-motor-skill-learning
#3
Andrew E Papale, Bryan M Hooks
Motor cortex is important for motor skill learning, particularly the dexterous skills necessary for our favorite sports and careers. We are especially interested in understanding how plasticity in motor cortex contributes to skill learning. Although human studies have been helpful in understanding the importance of motor cortex in learning skilled tasks, animal models are necessary for achieving a detailed understanding of the circuitry underlying these behaviors and the changes that occur during training. We review data from these models to try to identify sites of plasticity in motor cortex, focusing on rodents as a model system...
September 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918081/developmental-alcohol-exposure-impairs-synaptic-plasticity-without-overtly-altering-microglial-function-in-mouse-visual-cortex
#4
Elissa L Wong, Nina M Lutz, Victoria A Hogan, Cassandra E Lamantia, Helene R McMurray, Jason R Myers, John M Ashton, Ania K Majewska
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), caused by gestational ethanol (EtOH) exposure, is one of the most common causes of non-heritable and life-long mental disability worldwide, with no standard treatment or therapy available. While EtOH exposure can alter the function of both neurons and glia, it is still unclear how EtOH influences brain development to cause deficits in sensory and cognitive processing later in life. Microglia play an important role in shaping synaptic function and plasticity during neural circuit development and have been shown to mount an acute immunological response to EtOH exposure in certain brain regions...
September 13, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917658/multiple-events-of-gene-manipulation-via-in-pouch-electroporation-in-a-marsupial-model-of-mammalian-forebrain-development
#5
Annalisa Paolino, Laura R Fenlon, Peter Kozulin, Linda J Richards, Rodrigo Suárez
BACKGROUND: The technique of in utero electroporation has been widely used in eutherians, such as mice and rats, to investigate brain development by selectively manipulating gene expression in specific neuronal populations. A major challenge, however, is that surgery is required to access the embryos, affecting animal survival and limiting the number of times it can be performed within the same litter. New method: Marsupials are born at an early stage of brain development as compared to eutherians...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916788/a-v0-core-neuronal-circuit-for-inspiration
#6
Jinjin Wu, Paolo Capelli, Julien Bouvier, Martyn Goulding, Silvia Arber, Gilles Fortin
Breathing in mammals relies on permanent rhythmic and bilaterally synchronized contractions of inspiratory pump muscles. These motor drives emerge from interactions between critical sets of brainstem neurons whose origins and synaptic ordered organization remain obscure. Here, we show, using a virus-based transsynaptic tracing strategy from the diaphragm muscle in the mouse, that the principal inspiratory premotor neurons share V0 identity with, and are connected by, neurons of the preBötzinger complex that paces inspiration...
September 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916470/receptive-field-properties-of-cat-perigeniculate-neurons-correlate-with-excitatory-and-inhibitory-connectivity-to-lgn-relay-neurons
#7
Hironobu Osaki, Tomoyuki Naito, Shogo Soma, Hiromichi Sato
The cat perigeniculate nucleus (PGN) is a visual sector of the thalamic reticular nucleus that consists of GABAergic neurons. It receives excitatory axon-collateral input from relay neurons of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) to which it provides inhibitory input. Thus, it is usually argued that the PGN works as feedback inhibition to the LGN. At the single neuron level, however, this circuit can also provide lateral inhibition. Which inhibition dominates in the visual circuit of the thalamus has yet to be well characterized...
September 12, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916300/distinct-neuronal-populations-in-the-basolateral-and-central-amygdala-are-activated-with-acute-pain-conditioned-fear-and-fear-conditioned-analgesia
#8
Ryan K Butler, Sarah Ehling, Megan Barbar, Jess Thomas, Mary A Hughes, Charles E Smith, Vladimir M Pogorelov, Dipendra K Aryal, William C Wetsel, B Duncan X Lascelles
Fear-conditioned analgesia (FCA) is modulated by brain areas involved in the descending inhibitory pain pathway such as the basolateral (BLA) and central amygdala (CEA). The BLA contains Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and parvalbumin (PV) neurons. CEA neurons are primarily inhibitory (GABAergic) that comprise enkephalin (ENK) interneurons and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) - neurons that project to the periaqueductal grey. The purpose of our experiment was to determine the pattern of activation of CaMKII/PV and ENK/CRF neurons following the expression of acute pain, conditioned fear, and FCA...
September 12, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916130/stress-and-seizures-space-time-and-hippocampal-circuits
#9
REVIEW
B G Gunn, T Z Baram
Stress is a major trigger of seizures in people with epilepsy. Exposure to stress results in the release of several stress mediators throughout the brain, including the hippocampus, a region sensitive to stress and prone to seizures. Stress mediators interact with their respective receptors to produce distinct effects on the excitability of hippocampal neurons and networks. Crucially, these stress mediators and their actions exhibit unique spatiotemporal profiles, generating a complex combinatorial output with time- and space-dependent effects on hippocampal network excitability and seizure generation...
September 12, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915325/brown-and-beige-adipose-tissues-in-health-and-disease
#10
Liangyou Rui
Brown and beige adipocytes arise from distinct developmental origins. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) develops embryonically from precursors that also give to skeletal muscle. Beige fat develops postnatally and is highly inducible. Beige fat recruitment is mediated by multiple mechanisms, including de novo beige adipogenesis and white-to-brown adipocyte transdifferentiaiton. Beige precursors reside around vasculatures, and proliferate and differentiate into beige adipocytes. PDGFRα+Ebf2+ precursors are restricted to beige lineage cells, while another PDGFRα+ subset gives rise to beige adipocytes, white adipocytes, or fibrogenic cells...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912551/the-antipsychotic-drugs-olanzapine-and-haloperidol-modify-network-connectivity-and-spontaneous-activity-of-neural-networks-in-vitro
#11
Egor Dzyubenko, Georg Juckel, Andreas Faissner
Impaired neural synchronization is a hallmark of psychotic conditions such as schizophrenia. It has been proposed that schizophrenia-related cognitive deficits are caused by an unbalance of reciprocal inhibitory and stimulatory signaling. This supposedly leads to decreased power of induced gamma oscillations during the performance of cognitive tasks. In light of this hypothesis an efficient antipsychotic treatment should modify the connectivity and synchronization of local neural circuits. To address this issue, we investigated a model of hippocampal neuronal networks in vitro...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912162/regional-cellular-environment-shapes-phenotypic-variations-of-hippocampal-and-neocortical-chandelier-cells
#12
Yugo Ishino, Michael J Yetman, Serena M Sossi, André Steinecke, Yasufumi Hayano, Hiroki Taniguchi
Different cortical regions processing distinct information, such as the hippocampus and the neocortex, share common cellular components and circuit motifs but form unique networks by modifying these cardinal units. Cortical circuits include diverse types of GABAergic interneurons (INs) that shape activity of excitatory principal neurons (PNs). Canonical IN types conserved across distinct cortical regions have been defined by their morphological, electrophysiological, and neurochemical properties. However, it remains largely unknown whether canonical IN types undergo specific modifications in distinct cortical regions and display "regional variants"...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911965/physiological-roles-of-cns-muscarinic-receptors-gained-from-knockout-mice
#13
REVIEW
Morgane Thomsen, Gunnar Sørensen, Ditte Dencker
Because the five muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes have overlapping distributions in many CNS tissues, and because ligands with a high degree of selectivity for a given subtype long remained elusive, it has been difficult to determine the physiological functions of each receptor. Genetically engineered knockout mice, in which one or more muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtype has been inactivated, have been instrumental in identifying muscarinic receptor functions in the CNS, at the neuronal, circuit, and behavioral level...
September 11, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910740/generation-of-low-gamma-oscillations-in-a-gabaergic-network-model-of-the-striatum
#14
Zhihua Wu, Aike Guo, Xiaodi Fu
Striatal oscillations in the low-gamma frequency range have been consistently recorded in a number of experimental studies. However, whether these rhythms are locally generated in the striatum circuit, which is mainly composed of GABAergic neurons, remains an open question. GABAergic medium spiny projection neurons represent the great majority of striatal neurons, but they fire at very low rates. GABAergic fast-spiking interneurons typically show firing rates that are approximately 10 times higher than those of principal neurons, but they are a very small minority of the total neuronal population...
September 11, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910624/a-sensorimotor-circuit-in-mouse-cortex-for-visual-flow-predictions
#15
Marcus Leinweber, Daniel R Ward, Jan M Sobczak, Alexander Attinger, Georg B Keller
The cortex is organized as a hierarchical processing structure. Feedback from higher levels of the hierarchy, known as top-down signals, have been shown to be involved in attentional and contextual modulation of sensory responses. Here we argue that top-down input to the primary visual cortex (V1) from A24b and the adjacent secondary motor cortex (M2) signals a prediction of visual flow based on motor output. A24b/M2 sends a dense and topographically organized projection to V1 that targets most neurons in layer 2/3...
September 13, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910617/whole-cell-recording-of-neuronal-membrane-potential-during-behavior
#16
REVIEW
Carl C H Petersen
Neuronal membrane potential is of fundamental importance for the mechanistic understanding of brain function. This review discusses progress in whole-cell patch-clamp recordings for low-noise measurement of neuronal membrane potential in awake behaving animals. Whole-cell recordings can be combined with two-photon microscopy to target fluorescently labeled neurons, revealing cell-type-specific membrane potential dynamics of retrogradely or genetically labeled neurons. Dual whole-cell recordings reveal behavioral modulation of membrane potential synchrony and properties of synaptic transmission in vivo...
September 13, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910338/rapid-plasticity-of-visually-evoked-responses-in-rat-monocular-visual-cortex
#17
Trevor C Griffen, Melissa S Haley, Alfredo Fontanini, Arianna Maffei
Sensory cortical circuits are shaped by experience during sensitive periods in development. In the primary visual cortex (V1) altered visual experience results in changes in visual responsiveness of cortical neurons. The experience-dependent refinement of the circuit in V1 is thought to rely on competitive interactions between feedforward circuits driven by the two eyes. However, recent data have provided evidence for an additional role of cortico-cortical circuits in this process. Indeed, experience-dependent changes in intracortical circuits can be induced rapidly and may result in rapid-onset functional changes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903981/serotonin-drives-predatory-feeding-behavior-via-synchronous-feeding-rhythms-in-the-nematode-pristionchus-pacificus
#18
Misako Okumura, Martin Wilecki, Ralf J Sommer
Feeding behaviors in a wide range of animals are regulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin, although the exact neural circuits and associated mechanism are often unknown. The nematode Pristionchus pacificus can kill other nematodes by opening prey cuticles with movable teeth. Previous studies showed that exogenous serotonin treatment induces a predatory-like tooth movement and slower pharyngeal pumping in the absence of prey, however, physiological functions of serotonin during predation and other behaviors in P...
September 13, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902870/reduced%C3%A2-insulin-signaling-maintains-electrical-transmission-in-a-neural-circuit-in-aging-flies
#19
Hrvoje Augustin, Kieran McGourty, Marcus J Allen, Sirisha Kudumala Madem, Jennifer Adcott, Fiona Kerr, Chi Tung Wong, Alec Vincent, Tanja Godenschwege, Emmanuel Boucrot, Linda Partridge
Lowered insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling (IIS) can extend healthy lifespan in worms, flies, and mice, but it can also have adverse effects (the "insulin paradox"). Chronic, moderately lowered IIS rescues age-related decline in neurotransmission through the Drosophila giant fiber system (GFS), a simple escape response neuronal circuit, by increasing targeting of the gap junctional protein innexin shaking-B to gap junctions (GJs). Endosomal recycling of GJs was also stimulated in cultured human cells when IIS was reduced...
September 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902833/rabies-screen-reveals-gpe-control-of-cocaine-triggered-plasticity
#20
Kevin T Beier, Christina K Kim, Paul Hoerbelt, Lin Wai Hung, Boris D Heifets, Katherine E DeLoach, Timothy J Mosca, Sophie Neuner, Karl Deisseroth, Liqun Luo, Robert C Malenka
Identification of neural circuit changes that contribute to behavioural plasticity has routinely been conducted on candidate circuits that were preselected on the basis of previous results. Here we present an unbiased method for identifying experience-triggered circuit-level changes in neuronal ensembles in mice. Using rabies virus monosynaptic tracing, we mapped cocaine-induced global changes in inputs onto neurons in the ventral tegmental area. Cocaine increased rabies-labelled inputs from the globus pallidus externus (GPe), a basal ganglia nucleus not previously known to participate in behavioural plasticity triggered by drugs of abuse...
September 13, 2017: Nature
keyword
keyword
106585
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"