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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637203/morphological-diversity-strongly-constrains-synaptic-connectivity-and-plasticity
#1
Michael W Reimann, Anna-Lena Horlemann, Srikanth Ramaswamy, Eilif B Muller, Henry Markram
Synaptic connectivity between neurons is naturally constrained by the anatomical overlap of neuronal arbors, the space on the axon available for synapses, and by physiological mechanisms that form synapses at a subset of potential synapse locations. What is not known is how these constraints impact emergent connectivity in a circuit with diverse morphologies. We investigated the role of morphological diversity within and across neuronal types on emergent connectivity in a model of neocortical microcircuitry...
June 20, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636960/mechanisms-and-therapeutic-relevance-of-neuro-immune-communication
#2
REVIEW
Sangeeta S Chavan, Valentin A Pavlov, Kevin J Tracey
Active research at the frontiers of immunology and neuroscience has identified multiple points of interaction and communication between the immune system and the nervous system. Immune cell activation stimulates neuronal circuits that regulate innate and adaptive immunity. Molecular mechanistic insights into the inflammatory reflex and other neuro-immune interactions have greatly advanced our understanding of immunity and identified new therapeutic possibilities in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Recent successful clinical trials using bioelectronic devices that modulate the inflammatory reflex to significantly ameliorate rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease provide a path for using electrons as a therapeutic modality for targeting molecular mechanisms of immunity...
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636953/dicer-deficiency-differentially-impacts-microglia-of-the-developing-and-adult-brain
#3
Diana Varol, Alexander Mildner, Thomas Blank, Anat Shemer, Neta Barashi, Simon Yona, Eyal David, Sigalit Boura-Halfon, Yifat Segal-Hayoun, Louise Chappell-Maor, Hadas Keren-Shaul, Dena Leshkowitz, Eran Hornstein, Martin Fuhrmann, Ido Amit, Nicola Maggio, Marco Prinz, Steffen Jung
Microglia seed the embryonic neuro-epithelium, expand and actively sculpt neuronal circuits in the developing central nervous system, but eventually adopt relative quiescence and ramified morphology in the adult. Here, we probed the impact of post-transcriptional control by microRNAs (miRNAs) on microglial performance during development and adulthood by generating mice lacking microglial Dicer expression at these distinct stages. Conditional Dicer ablation in adult microglia revealed that miRNAs were required to limit microglial responses to challenge...
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636935/the-sensory-striatum-is-permanently-impaired-by-transient-developmental-deprivation
#4
Todd M Mowery, Kristina B Penikis, Stephen K Young, Christopher E Ferrer, Vibhakar C Kotak, Dan H Sanes
Corticostriatal circuits play a fundamental role in regulating many behaviors, and their dysfunction is associated with many neurological disorders. In contrast, sensory disorders, like hearing loss (HL), are commonly linked with processing deficits at or below the level of the auditory cortex (ACx). However, HL can be accompanied by non-sensory deficits, such as learning delays, suggesting the involvement of regions downstream of ACx. Here, we show that transient developmental HL differentially affected the ACx and its downstream target, the sensory striatum...
June 20, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636662/differential-regulation-of-polarized-synaptic-vesicle-trafficking-and-synapse-stability-in-neural-circuit-rewiring-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#5
Naina Kurup, Dong Yan, Karina Kono, Yishi Jin
Neural circuits are dynamic, with activity-dependent changes in synapse density and connectivity peaking during different phases of animal development. In C. elegans, young larvae form mature motor circuits through a dramatic switch in GABAergic neuron connectivity, by concomitant elimination of existing synapses and formation of new synapses that are maintained throughout adulthood. We have previously shown that an increase in microtubule dynamics during motor circuit rewiring facilitates new synapse formation...
June 21, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634442/mild-traumatic-brain-injury-evokes-pyramidal-neuron-axon-initial-segment-plasticity-and-diffuse-presynaptic-inhibitory-terminal-loss
#6
Michal Vascak, Jianli Sun, Matthew Baer, Kimberle M Jacobs, John T Povlishock
The axon initial segment (AIS) is the site of action potential (AP) initiation, thus a crucial regulator of neuronal activity. In excitatory pyramidal neurons, the high density of voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV1.6) at the distal AIS regulates AP initiation. A surrogate AIS marker, ankyrin-G (ankG) is a structural protein regulating neuronal functional via clustering voltage-gated ion channels. In neuronal circuits, changes in presynaptic input can alter postsynaptic output via AIS structural-functional plasticity...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633050/the-adenosine-mediated-neuronal-glial-homeostatic-sleep-response
#7
REVIEW
Robert W Greene, Theresa E Bjorness, Ayako Suzuki
Slow wave activity (SWA) during slow wave sleep (SWS) is the best indicator of the sleep homeostasis. The intensity of the SWA observed during SWS that follows prolonged waking is directly correlated with the duration of prior waking and its intensity decays during SWS suggesting a buildup and a resolution of sleep need. This sleep-homeostasis related SWA results from a buildup and decay of extracellular adenosine that acts at neuronal adenosine A1 receptors to facilitate SWA and is metabolized by adenosine kinase found in glia...
June 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632905/the-malleable-brain-plasticity-of-neural-circuits-and-behavior-a-review-from-students-to-students
#8
REVIEW
Natascha Schaefer, Carola Rotermund, Eva-Maria Blumrich, Mychael V Lourenco, Pooja Joshi, Regina U Hegemann, Sumit Jamwal, Nilufar Ali, Ezra Michelet García Romero, Sorabh Sharma, Shampa Ghosh, Jitendra K Sinha, Hannah Loke, Vishal Jain, Katarzyna Lepeta, Ahmad Salamian, Mahima Sharma, Mojtaba Golpich, Katarzyna Nawrotek, Ramesh K Paidi, Sheila M Shahidzadeh, Tetsade Piermartiri, Elham Amini, Veronica Pastor, Yvette Wilson, Philip A Adeniyi, Ashok K Datusalia, Benham Vafadari, Vedangana Saini, Edna Suárez-Pozos, Neetu Kushwah, Paula Fontanet, Anthony J Turner
One of the most intriguing features of the brain is its ability to be malleable, allowing it to adapt continually to changes in the environment. Specific neuronal activity patterns drive long-lasting increases or decreases in the strength of synaptic connections, referred to as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) respectively. Such phenomena have been described in a variety of model organisms, which are used to study molecular, structural, and functional aspects of synaptic plasticity...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632736/from-the-motor-cortex-to-the-movement-and-back-again
#9
Wondimu W Teka, Khaldoun C Hamade, William H Barnett, Taegyo Kim, Sergey N Markin, Ilya A Rybak, Yaroslav I Molkov
The motor cortex controls motor behaviors by generating movement-specific signals and transmitting them through spinal cord circuits and motoneurons to the muscles. Precise and well-coordinated muscle activation patterns are necessary for accurate movement execution. Therefore, the activity of cortical neurons should correlate with movement parameters. To investigate the specifics of such correlations among activities of the motor cortex, spinal cord network and muscles, we developed a model for neural control of goal-directed reaching movements that simulates the entire pathway from the motor cortex through spinal cord circuits to the muscles controlling arm movements...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632132/antagonistic-modulation-of-npy-agrp-and-pomc-neurons-in-the-arcuate-nucleus-by-noradrenalin
#10
Lars Paeger, Ismene Karakasilioti, Janine Altmüller, Peter Frommolt, Jens Brüning, Peter Kloppenburg
In the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH) satiety signaling (anorexigenic) pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-expressing and hunger signaling (orexigenic) agouti-related peptide (AgRP)-expressing neurons are key components of the neuronal circuits that control food intake and energy homeostasis. Here, we assessed whether the catecholamine noradrenalin directly modulates the activity of these neurons in mice. Perforated patch clamp recordings showed that noradrenalin changes the activity of these functionally antagonistic neurons in opposite ways, increasing the activity of the orexigenic NPY/AgRP neurons and decreasing the activity of the anorexigenic POMC neurons...
June 20, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632130/the-laminar-organization-of-the-drosophila-ellipsoid-body-is-semaphorin-dependent-and-prevents-the-formation-of-ectopic-synaptic-connections
#11
Xiaojun Xie, Masashi Tabuchi, Matthew P Brown, Sarah P Mitchell, Mark N Wu, Alex L Kolodkin
The ellipsoid body (EB) in the Drosophila brain is a central complex (CX) substructure that harbors circumferentially laminated ring (R) neuron axons and mediates multifaceted sensory integration and motor coordination functions. However, what regulates R axon lamination and how lamination affects R neuron function remain unknown. We show here that the EB is sequentially innervated by small-field and large-field neurons, and that early-developing EB neurons play an important regulatory role in EB laminae formation...
June 20, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631858/sensory-response-in-host-and-engrafted-astrocytes-of-adult-brain-in-vivo
#12
REVIEW
Kuan Zhang, Xiaowei Chen
Rapid advances in Ca(2+) imaging techniques enable us to simultaneously monitor the activities of hundreds of astrocytes in the intact brain, thus providing a powerful tool for understanding the functions of both host and engrafted astrocytes in sensory processing in vivo. These techniques include both improved Ca(2+) indicators and advanced optical recording methods. Astrocytes in multiple cortical and sub-cortical areas are able to respond to the corresponding sensory modalities. These sensory stimuli produce astrocytic Ca(2+) responses through different cellular mechanisms...
June 20, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631619/modeling-trans-spinal-direct-current-stimulation-for-the-modulation-of-the-lumbar-spinal-motor-pathways
#13
Alexander Kuck, Dick Stegeman, Edwin van Asseldonk
OBJECTIVE: Trans-spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) is a potential new technique for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). TsDCS aims to facilitate plastic changes in the neural pathways of the spinal cord with a positive effect on SCI recovery. To establish tsDCS as a possible treatment option for SCI, it is essential to gain a better understanding of its cause and effects. We seek to understand the acute effect of tsDCS, including the generated electric field (EF) and its polarization effect on the spinal circuits, to determine a cellular target...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630356/developmental-downregulation-of-lis1-expression-limits-axonal-extension-and-allows-axon-pruning
#14
Kanako Kumamoto, Tokuichi Iguchi, Ryuichi Ishida, Takuya Uemura, Makoto Sato, Shinji Hirotsune
The robust axonal growth and regenerative capacities of young neurons decrease substantially with age. This developmental downregulation of axonal growth may facilitate axonal pruning and neural circuit formation but limits functional recovery following nerve damage. While external factors influencing axonal growth have been extensively investigated, relatively little is known about the intrinsic molecular changes underlying the age-dependent reduction in regeneration capacity. We report that developmental downregulation of LIS1 is responsible for the decreased axonal extension capacity of mature dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons...
June 19, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630298/hypocretin-orexin-is-critical-in-sustaining-theta-gamma-rich-waking-behaviors-that-drive-sleep-need
#15
Anne Vassalli, Paul Franken
Hcrt gene inactivation in mice leads to behavioral state instability, abnormal transitions to paradoxical sleep, and cataplexy, hallmarks of narcolepsy. Sleep homeostasis is, however, considered unimpaired in patients and narcoleptic mice. We find that whereas Hcrt(ko/ko) mice respond to 6-h sleep deprivation (SD) with a slow-wave sleep (SWS) EEG δ (1.0 to 4.0 Hz) power rebound like WT littermates, spontaneous waking fails to induce a δ power reflecting prior waking duration. This correlates with impaired θ (6...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628804/neuronal-substrates-of-sleep-homeostasis-lessons-from-flies-rats-and-mice
#16
REVIEW
Jeffrey M Donlea, Md Noor Alam, Ronald Szymusiak
Sleep homeostasis is a fundamental property of vigilance state regulation that is highly conserved across species. Neuronal systems and circuits that underlie sleep homeostasis are not well understood. In Drosophila, a neuronal circuit involving neurons in the ellipsoid body and in the dorsal Fan-shaped body is a candidate for both tracing sleep need during waking and translating it to increased sleep drive and expression. Sleep homeostasis in rats and mice involves multiple neuromodulators acting on multiple wake- and sleep-promoting neuronal systems...
June 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628197/vesicular-acetylcholine-transporter-vacht-overexpression-induces-major-modifications-of-striatal-cholinergic-interneuron-morphology-and-function
#17
Helena Janickova, Vania F Prado, Marco A M Prado, Salah El Mestikawy, Véronique Bernard
Striatal cholinergic interneurons (CIN) are pivotal for the regulation of the striatal network. Acetylcholine (ACh) released by CIN is centrally involved in reward behavior as well as locomotor or cognitive functions. Recently, BAC transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) protein under the control of the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) promoter (ChAT-ChR2) and displaying almost 50 extra copies of the VAChT gene were used to dissect cholinergic circuit connectivity and function using optogenetic approaches...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628196/molecular-mechanisms-of-experience-dependent-maturation-in-cortical-gabaergic-inhibition
#18
REVIEW
M Ridzwana Begum, Judy C G Sng
Critical periods (CP) in early postnatal life are periods of plasticity during which the neuronal circuitry is most receptive to environmental stimuli. These early experiences translate to a more permanent and sophisticated neuronal connection in the adult brain systems. Multiple studies have pointed to the development of inhibitory circuitry as one of the central factors for the onset of critical periods. We discuss several molecular mechanisms regulating inhibitory circuit maturation and CP, from gene transcription level to protein signaling level...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628005/emergence-of-visually-evoked-reward-expectation-signals-in-dopamine-neurons-via-the-superior-colliculus-in-v1-lesioned-monkeys
#19
Norihiro Takakuwa, Rikako Kato, Peter Redgrave, Tadashi Isa
Responses of midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons reflecting expected reward from sensory cues are critical for reward-based associative learning. However, critical pathways by which reward-related visual information is relayed to DA neurons remain unclear. To address this question, we investigated Pavlovian conditioning in macaque monkeys with unilateral primary visual cortex (V1) lesions (an animal model of 'blindsight'). Anticipatory licking responses to obtain juice drops were elicited in response to visual conditioned stimuli (CS) in the affected visual field...
June 19, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626012/pharmacological-modulation-of-noradrenergic-arousal-circuitry-disrupts-functional-connectivity-of-the-locus-coeruleus-in-humans
#20
Andrew H Song, Aaron Kucyi, Vitaly Napadow, Emery N Brown, Marco L Loggia, Oluwaseun Akeju
State dependent activity of locus coeruleus (LC) neurons has long suggested a role for noradrenergic modulation of arousal. However, in vivo insights into noradrenergic arousal circuitry have been constrained by the fundamental inaccessibility of the human brain for invasive studies. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies performed during site-specific pharmacological manipulations of arousal levels may be used to study brain arousal circuitry. Dexmedetomidine is an anesthetic that alters the level of arousal by selectively targeting α2 adrenergic receptors on LC neurons, resulting in reduced firing rate and norepinephrine release...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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