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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333487/activation-of-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-reverses-cognitive-and-respiratory-symptoms-in-a-mouse-model-of-rett-syndrome
#1
C James Howell, Michael P Sceniak, Min Lang, Wenceslas Krakowiecki, Fatimah E Abouelsoud, Saloni U Lad, Heping Yu, David M Katz
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2; Amir et al., 1999), a transcriptional regulatory protein (Klose et al., 2005). Mouse models of RTT (Mecp2 mutants) exhibit excitatory hypoconnectivity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC; Sceniak et al., 2015), a region critical for functions that are abnormal in RTT patients, ranging from learning and memory to regulation of visceral homeostasis (Riga et al...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333474/saccades-in-progressive-supranuclear-palsy-maladapted-irregular-curved-and-slow
#2
Aasef G Shaikh, Stewart A Factor, Jorge Juncos
Background and objectives: Slowed and curved rapid eye movements, saccades, are the well-known features of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). We hypothesized that the saccades in PSP are not only slow and curved, but they are also irregular and have timing deficits. Methods: We tested this hypothesis in 12 patients with PSP by measuring vertical and horizontal visually guided saccades using a limbus tracker. Results: Both, horizontal and vertical saccades were slow and had irregular trajectory and velocity profiles, but deficits were much more robust in vertical saccades...
September 2017: Movement Disorders Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331233/a-biophysical-modelling-platform-of-the-cochlear-nucleus-and-other-auditory-circuits-from-channels-to-networks
#3
Paul B Manis, Luke Campagnola
Models of the auditory brainstem have been an invaluable tool for testing hypotheses about auditory information processing and for highlighting the most important gaps in the experimental literature. Due to the complexity of the auditory brainstem, and indeed most brain circuits, the dynamic behavior of the system may be difficult to predict without a detailed, biologically realistic computational model. Despite the sensitivity of models to their exact construction and parameters, most prior models of the cochlear nucleus have incorporated only a small subset of the known biological properties...
December 28, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330458/architecture-of-a-mammalian-glomerular-domain-revealed-by-novel-volume-electroporation-using-nanoengineered-microelectrodes
#4
D Schwarz, M Kollo, C Bosch, C Feinauer, I Whiteley, T W Margrie, T Cutforth, A T Schaefer
Dense microcircuit reconstruction techniques have begun to provide ultrafine insight into the architecture of small-scale networks. However, identifying the totality of cells belonging to such neuronal modules, the "inputs" and "outputs," remains a major challenge. Here, we present the development of nanoengineered electroporation microelectrodes (NEMs) for comprehensive manipulation of a substantial volume of neuronal tissue. Combining finite element modeling and focused ion beam milling, NEMs permit substantially higher stimulation intensities compared to conventional glass capillaries, allowing for larger volumes configurable to the geometry of the target circuit...
January 12, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329999/understanding-melanocortin-4-receptor-control-of-neuronal-circuits-toward-novel-therapeutics-for-obesity-syndrome
#5
REVIEW
Sang Hyeon Ju, Gyu-Bon Cho, Jong-Woo Sohn
It is well known that melanocortin-4 receptors (MC4Rs) and central melanocortin pathways regulate food intake, energy expenditure, and glucose homeostasis. Importantly, MC4R deficiency is the most common monogenic cause of human obesity. Interestingly, MC4Rs expressed by distinct central nuclei are responsible for the different physiological function of MC4R stimulation. In addition, MC4Rs activate multiple intracellular and/or synaptic signaling molecules for the regulation of neuronal circuits. Therefore, MC4Rs and the downstream signal molecules are plausible targets for development of novel therapeutics against obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders...
January 9, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329312/a-computational-study-of-the-impact-of-inhomogeneous-internodal-lengths-on-conduction-velocity-in-myelinated-neurons
#6
Abby Scurfield, David C Latimer
Age-related decreases in the conduction velocity (CV) of action potentials along myelinated axons have been linked to morphological changes in the myelin sheath. In particular, evidence suggests the presence of segmental demyelination and remyelination of axons. In remyelinated segments, the distance between adjacent nodes of Ranvier is typically shorter, and myelin sheaths are thinner. Both experimental and computational evidence indicates that shortened internodes slows CV. In this computational study, we determine the impact of progressive segmental demyelination and remyelination, modeled by shorter internodes with thinner myelin sheaths interspersed with normal ones, upon the CV...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329089/neural-circuit-dysfunction-in-mouse-models-of-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Isabel Del Pino, Beatriz Rico, Oscar Marín
Neuropsychiatric disorders arise from the alteration of normal brain developmental trajectories disrupting the function of specific neuronal circuits. Recent advances in human genetics have greatly accelerated the identification of genes whose variation increases the susceptibility for neurodevelopmental disorders, most notably for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia. In parallel, experimental studies in animal models-most typically in mice-are beginning to shed light on the role of these genes in the development and function of specific brain circuits...
January 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328919/color-processing-in-the-early-visual-system-of-drosophila
#8
Christopher Schnaitmann, Väinö Haikala, Eva Abraham, Vitus Oberhauser, Thomas Thestrup, Oliver Griesbeck, Dierk F Reiff
Color vision extracts spectral information by comparing signals from photoreceptors with different visual pigments. Such comparisons are encoded by color-opponent neurons that are excited at one wavelength and inhibited at another. Here, we examine the circuit implementation of color-opponent processing in the Drosophila visual system by combining two-photon calcium imaging with genetic dissection of visual circuits. We report that color-opponent processing of UVshort/blue and UVlong/green is already implemented in R7/R8 inner photoreceptor terminals of "pale" and "yellow" ommatidia, respectively...
January 11, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328623/mimicking-biological-synaptic-functionality-with-an-indium-phosphide-synaptic-device-on-silicon-for-scalable-neuromorphic-computing
#9
Debarghya Sarkar, Jun Tao, Wei Wang, Qingfeng Lin, Matthew Yeung, Chenhao Ren, Rehan Kapadia
Neuromorphic or "brain-like" computation is a leading candidate for efficient, fault-tolerant processing of large-scale data, as well as real-time sensing and transduction of complex multivariate systems and networks such as self-driving vehicles or Internet of Things applications. In biology, the synapse serves as an active memory unit in the neural system, and is the component responsible for learning and memory. Electronically emulating this element via a compact, scalable technology which can be integrated in a 3-D architecture is critical for future implementations of neuromorphic processors...
January 12, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325757/the-role-of-fatty-acids-and-their-endocannabinoid-like-derivatives-in-the-molecular-regulation-of-appetite
#10
REVIEW
Renger F Witkamp
Intake, absorption and synthesis of fatty acids, including those produced by the intestinal microbiota are tightly monitored via specific receptors and, indirectly through their conversion into a variety of signalling molecules. The resulting information is integrated and translated to different physiological processes, including the regulation of appetite and satiation. Direct chemosensing of fatty acids takes place via interaction with free fatty acid (FFA) and other receptors. These are present in the oronasal cavity and along the entire gastrointestinal tract, in various other tissues, and, for some receptors also in brain...
January 8, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325119/mir-96-is-required-for-normal-development-of-the-auditory-hindbrain
#11
Tina Schlüter, Christina Berger, Elena Rosengauer, Pascal Fieth, Constanze Krohs, Kathy Ushakov, Karen P Steel, Karen B Avraham, Alexander Hartmann, Felix Felmy, Hans Gerd Nothwang
The peripheral deafness gene Mir96 is expressed in both the cochlea and central auditory circuits. To investigate whether it plays a role in the auditory system beyond the cochlea, we characterized homozygous Dmdo/Dmdo mice with a point mutation in miR-96. Anatomical analysis demonstrated a significant decrease in volume of auditory nuclei in Dmdo/Dmdo mice. This decrease resulted from decreased cell size. Non-auditory structures in the brainstem of Dmdo/Dmdo mice or auditory nuclei of the congenital deaf Cldn14-/- mice revealed no such differences...
January 9, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324422/assimilation-of-biophysical-neuronal-dynamics-in-neuromorphic-vlsi
#12
Jun Wang, Daniel Breen, Abraham Akinin, Frederic Broccard, Henry D I Abarbanel, Gert Cauwenberghs
Representing the biophysics of neuronal dynamics and behavior offers a principled analysis-by-synthesis approach toward understanding mechanisms of nervous system functions. We report on a set of procedures assimilating and emulating neurobiological data on a neuromorphic very large scale integrated (VLSI) circuit. The analog VLSI chip, NeuroDyn, features 384 digitally programmable parameters specifying for 4 generalized Hodgkin-Huxley neurons coupled through 12 conductance-based chemical synapses. The parameters also describe reversal potentials, maximal conductances, and spline regressed kinetic functions for ion channel gating variables...
December 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323028/surgical-reconstruction-of-spinal-cord-circuit-provides-functional-return-in-humans
#13
REVIEW
Thomas Carlstedt, Nicholas James, Mårten Risling
This mini review describes the current surgical strategy for restoring function after traumatic spinal nerve root avulsion in brachial or lumbosacral plexus injury in man. As this lesion is a spinal cord or central nervous injury functional return depends on spinal cord nerve cell growth within the central nervous system. Basic science, clinical research and human application has demonstrated good and useful motor function after ventral root avulsion followed by spinal cord reimplantation. Recently, sensory return could be demonstrated following spinal cord surgery bypassing the injured primary sensory neuron...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322941/persistent-activity-in-a-recurrent-circuit-underlies-courtship-memory-in-drosophila
#14
Xiaoliang Zhao, Daniela Lenek, Ugur Dag, Barry Dickson, Krystyna Keleman
Recurrent connections are thought to be a common feature of the neural circuits that encode memories, but how memories are laid down in such circuits is not fully understood. Here we present evidence that courtship memory in Drosophila relies on the recurrent circuit between mushroom body gamma (MBg), M6 output, and aSP13 dopaminergic neurons. We demonstrate persistent neuronal activity of aSP13 neurons and show that it transiently potentiates synaptic transmission from MBγ>M6 neurons. M6 neurons in turn provide input to aSP13 neurons, prolonging potentiation of MBγ>M6 synapses over time periods that match short-term memory...
January 11, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322522/eye-specific-segregation-and-differential-fasciculation-of-developing-retinal-ganglion-cell-axons-in-the-mouse-visual-pathway
#15
Austen A Sitko, Takaaki Kuwajima, Carol Mason
Prior to forming and refining synaptic connections, axons of projection neurons navigate long distances to their targets. While much is known about guidance cues for axon navigation through intermediate choice points, whether and how axons are organized within tracts is less clear. Here we analyze the organization of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons in the developing mouse retinogeniculate pathway. RGC axons are organized by both eye-specificity and topography in the optic nerve and tract: ipsilateral RGC axons are segregated from contralateral axons and are offset laterally in the tract relative to contralateral axon topographic position...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321682/intermittent-metabolic-switching-neuroplasticity-and-brain-health
#16
REVIEW
Mark P Mattson, Keelin Moehl, Nathaniel Ghena, Maggie Schmaedick, Aiwu Cheng
During evolution, individuals whose brains and bodies functioned well in a fasted state were successful in acquiring food, enabling their survival and reproduction. With fasting and extended exercise, liver glycogen stores are depleted and ketones are produced from adipose-cell-derived fatty acids. This metabolic switch in cellular fuel source is accompanied by cellular and molecular adaptations of neural networks in the brain that enhance their functionality and bolster their resistance to stress, injury and disease...
January 11, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321559/the-role-of-parafacial-neurons-in-the-control-of-breathing-during-exercise
#17
Alla Korsak, Shahriar Sheikhbahaei, Asif Machhada, Alexander V Gourine, Robert T R Huckstepp
Neuronal cell groups residing within the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) and C1 area of the rostral ventrolateral medulla oblongata contribute to the maintenance of resting respiratory activity and arterial blood pressure, and play an important role in the development of cardiorespiratory responses to metabolic challenges (such as hypercapnia and hypoxia). In rats, acute silencing of neurons within the parafacial region which includes the RTN and the rostral aspect of the C1 circuit (pFRTN/C1), transduced to express HM4D (Gi-coupled) receptors, was found to dramatically reduce exercise capacity (by 60%), determined by an intensity controlled treadmill running test...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317598/enriched-expression-of-genes-associated-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-in-human-inhibitory-neurons
#18
Ping Wang, Dejian Zhao, Herbert M Lachman, Deyou Zheng
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is highly heritable but genetically heterogeneous. The affected neural circuits and cell types remain unclear and may vary at different developmental stages. By analyzing multiple sets of human single cell transcriptome profiles, we found that ASD candidates showed relatively enriched gene expression in neurons, especially in inhibitory neurons. ASD candidates were also more likely to be the hubs of the co-expression gene module that is highly expressed in inhibitory neurons, a feature not detected for excitatory neurons...
January 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316506/expansion-microscopy-development-and-neuroscience-applications
#19
REVIEW
Emmanouil D Karagiannis, Edward S Boyden
Many neuroscience questions center around understanding how the molecules and wiring in neural circuits mechanistically yield behavioral functions, or go awry in disease states. However, mapping the molecules and wiring of neurons across the large scales of neural circuits has posed a great challenge. We recently developed expansion microscopy (ExM), a process in which we physically magnify biological specimens such as brain circuits. We synthesize throughout preserved brain specimens a dense, even mesh of a swellable polymer such as sodium polyacrylate, anchoring key biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids to the polymer...
January 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313982/layer-specific-e-i-balances-during-neuronal-synchronization-in-the-visual-cortex
#20
Hillel Adesnik
Rhythmic activity can synchronize neural ensembles within and across cortical layers. While gamma band rhythmicity has been observed in all layers, the laminar sources and functional impacts of neuronal synchronization in the cortex remain incompletely understood. Here, layer-specific optogenetic stimulation demonstrates that populations of excitatory neurons in any cortical layer of the mouse's primary visual cortex are sufficient to powerfully entrain neuronal oscillations in the gamma band. Within each layer, inhibition balances excitation and keeps activity in check...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Physiology
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