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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548278/neuropeptide-s-precursor-knockout-mice-display-memory-and-arousal-deficits
#1
Xiaobin Liu, Wei Si, Celia Garau, Kay Jüngling, Hans-Christian Pape, Stefan Schulz, Rainer K Reinscheid
Activation of Neuropeptide S (NPS) signaling has been found to produce arousal, wakefulness, anxiolytic-like behaviors and enhanced memory formation. In order to further study physiological functions of the NPS system, we generated NPS precursor knockout mice by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. NPS(-/-) mice were viable, fertile, and anatomically normal, when compared to their wildtype and heterozygous littermates. The total number of NPS neurons - although no longer synthesizing the peptide - was not affected by the knockout, as analyzed in NPS(-/-) /NPS(EGFP) double-transgenic mice...
May 26, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546312/prefrontal-dopamine-d1-and-d2-receptors-regulate-dissociable-aspects-of-decision-making-via-distinct-ventral-striatal-and-amygdalar-circuits
#2
Nicole L Jenni, Joshua D Larkin, Stan B Floresco
Mesocortical dopamine (DA) regulates a variety of cognitive functions via actions on D1 and/or D2 receptors. For example, risk/reward decision making is differentially modulated by these two receptors within the prefrontal cortex (PFC), with D2 receptors enabling flexible decision making and D1 receptors promoting persistence in choice biases. Yet, it is unclear how DA mediates opposing patterns of behavior by acting on different receptors within the same terminal region. We explored the possibility that DA may act on separate networks of PFC neurons that are modulated by D1 or D2 receptors and in turn interface with divergent downstream structures, such as the basolateral amygdala (BLA) or nucleus accumbens (NAc)...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546190/a-neuronal-circuit-for-overeating
#3
EDITORIAL
Peter Stern
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 26, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544328/acetylcholine-related-proteins-in-non-neoplastic-appearing-colonic-mucosa-from-patients-with-colorectal-neoplasia
#4
Morten Matthiesen Bach Damm, Thorbjørn Søren Rønn Jensen, Badar Mahmood, Morten Lundh, Steen Seier Poulsen, Niels Bindslev, Mark Berner Hansen
The pathogenesis of colorectal neoplasia (CRN) has been associated with altered non-neuronal acetylcholine (ACh) metabolism. The aim of this study was to characterize expression, function and cellular location of ACh-related proteins in biopsies obtained from endoscopic normal appearing sigmoid colon in patients with and without CRN. Messenger-RNA (mRNA) levels of 17 ACh-related proteins were quantified by rt-qPCR. Functional responses to ACh, measured as electrogenic transepithelial short circuit current (SCC), were recorded using the Ussing chamber technique...
May 23, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542195/differential-excitatory-control-of-2-parallel-basket-cell-networks-in-amygdala-microcircuits
#5
Tibor Andrási, Judit M Veres, Laura Rovira-Esteban, Richárd Kozma, Attila Vikór, Erzsébet Gregori, Norbert Hájos
Information processing in neural networks depends on the connectivity among excitatory and inhibitory neurons. The presence of parallel, distinctly controlled local circuits within a cortical network may ensure an effective and dynamic regulation of microcircuit function. By applying a combination of optogenetics, electrophysiological recordings, and high resolution microscopic techniques, we uncovered the organizing principles of synaptic communication between principal neurons and basket cells in the basal nucleus of the amygdala...
May 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541214/investigating-synchronous-oscillation-and-deep-brain-stimulation-treatment-in-a-model-of-cortico-basal-ganglia-network
#6
Meili Lu, Xile Wei, Kenneth A Loparo
Altered firing properties and increased pathological oscillations in the basal ganglia have been proven to be hallmarks of Parkinson's disease. Increasing evidence suggests that abnormal synchronous oscillations and suppression in the cortex may also play a critical role in the pathogenic process and treatment of Parkinson's disease. In our study, a new closed-loop network including the cortex and basal ganglia using the Izhikevich models is proposed to investigate the synchrony and pathological oscillations in motor circuits and their modulation by deep brain stimulation (DBS)...
May 23, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539423/mnemonic-encoding-and-cortical-organization-in-parietal-and-prefrontal-cortices
#7
Nicolas Y Masse, Jonathan M Hodnefield, David J Freedman
Persistent activity within the frontoparietal network is consistently observed during tasks which require working memory. However, the neural circuit mechanisms underlying persistent neuronal encoding within this network remain unresolved. Here, we ask how neural circuits support persistent activity by examining population recordings from posterior parietal (PPC) and prefrontal (PFC) cortices in two male monkeys that performed spatial and motion direction based tasks that required working memory. While spatially selective persistent activity was observed in both areas, robust selective persistent activity for motion direction was only observed in PFC...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539422/galanin-expressing-gaba-neurons-in-the-lateral-hypothalamus-modulate-food-reward-and-non-compulsive-locomotion
#8
Emily Qualls-Creekmore, Sangho Yu, Marie Francois, John Hoang, Clara Huesing, Annadora Bruce-Keller, David Burk, Hans-Rudolf Berthoud, Christopher D Morrison, Heike Münzberg
The lateral hypothalamus (LHA) integrates reward and appetitive behavior and is composed of many overlapping neuronal populations. Recent studies associated LHA GABAergic neurons (LHA (GABA) ), that densely innervate the ventral tegmental area (VTA), with modulation of food reward and consumption; yet, LHA (GABA) >VTA projections exclusively modulated food consumption, not reward. We identified a subpopulation of LHA (GABA) neurons that co-express the neuropeptide galanin (LHA (Gal) ). These LHA (Gal) neurons also modulate food reward, but lack direct VTA innervation...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539418/loss-of-doc2-dependent-spontaneous-neurotransmission-augments-glutamatergic-synaptic-strength
#9
Denise M O Ramirez, Devon C Crawford, Natali L Chanaday, Brent Trauterman, Lisa M Monteggia, Ege T Kavalali
Action potential-evoked vesicle fusion comprises the majority of neurotransmission within chemical synapses, but action potential-independent spontaneous neurotransmission also contributes to the collection of signals sent to the postsynaptic cell. Previous work has implicated spontaneous neurotransmission in homeostatic synaptic scaling, but few studies have selectively manipulated spontaneous neurotransmission without substantial changes in evoked neurotransmission to study this function in detail. Here we used a quadruple knockdown strategy to reduce levels of proteins within the soluble calcium-binding double C2 domain (Doc2)-like protein family to selectively reduce spontaneous neurotransmission in cultured mouse and rat neurons...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539392/sodium-pump-regulation-of-locomotor-control-circuits
#10
Laurence David Picton, HongYan Zhang, Keith Thomas Sillar
Sodium pumps are ubiquitously expressed membrane proteins that extrude three N(a+) ions in exchange for two K(+) ions using ATP as an energy source. Recent studies have illuminated additional, dynamic roles for sodium pumps in regulating the excitability of neuronal networks in an activity-dependent fashion. Here we review their role in a novel form of short-term memory within rhythmic locomotor networks. The data we review derives mainly from recent studies on Xenopus tadpoles and neonatal mice. The role and underlying mechanisms of pump action broadly match previously published data from an invertebrate, the Drosophila larva...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538731/a-neural-circuit-architecture-for-angular-integration-in-drosophila
#11
Jonathan Green, Atsuko Adachi, Kunal K Shah, Jonathan D Hirokawa, Pablo S Magani, Gaby Maimon
Many animals keep track of their angular heading over time while navigating through their environment. However, a neural-circuit architecture for computing heading has not been experimentally defined in any species. Here we describe a set of clockwise- and anticlockwise-shifting neurons in the Drosophila central complex whose wiring and physiology provide a means to rotate an angular heading estimate based on the fly's angular velocity. We show that each class of shifting neurons exists in two subtypes, with spatiotemporal activity profiles that suggest different roles for each subtype at the start and end of tethered-walking turns...
May 22, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538174/schizophrenia-related-microdeletion-impairs-emotional-memory-through-microrna-dependent-disruption-of-thalamic-inputs-to-the-amygdala
#12
Tae-Yeon Eom, Ildar T Bayazitov, Kara Anderson, Jing Yu, Stanislav S Zakharenko
Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) are at high risk of developing psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia. Individuals with 22q11DS and schizophrenia are impaired in emotional memory, anticipating, recalling, and assigning a correct context to emotions. The neuronal circuits responsible for these emotional memory deficits are unknown. Here, we show that 22q11DS mouse models have disrupted synaptic transmission at thalamic inputs to the lateral amygdala (thalamo-LA projections). This synaptic deficit is caused by haploinsufficiency of the 22q11DS gene Dgcr8, which is involved in microRNA processing, and is mediated by the increased dopamine receptor Drd2 levels in the thalamus and by reduced probability of glutamate release from thalamic inputs...
May 23, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538173/cortico-accumbens-regulation-of-approach-avoidance-behavior-is-modified-by-experience-and-chronic-pain
#13
Neil Schwartz, Catriona Miller, Howard L Fields
Although optimizing decisions between drives to avoid pain and to obtain reward are critical for survival, understanding the neuronal circuit activity that regulates choice during approach-avoidance conflicts is limited. Here, we recorded neuronal activity in the infralimbic (IL) cortex and nucleus accumbens (NAc) during an approach-avoidance task. In this task, disruption of approach by a pain-predictive cue (PPC-avoidance) is extinguished by experience and reinstated in a model of chronic pain. In the IL-NAc circuit, the activity of distinct subpopulations of neurons predicts the extent of PPC-avoidance observed...
May 23, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536821/impaired-motor-coordination-and-learning-in-mice-lacking-anoctamin-2-calcium-gated-chloride-channels
#14
Franziska Neureither, Katharina Ziegler, Claudia Pitzer, Stephan Frings, Frank Möhrlen
Neurons communicate through excitatory and inhibitory synapses. Both lines of communication are adjustable and allow the fine tuning of signal exchange required for learning processes in neural networks. Several distinct modes of plasticity modulate glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses in Purkinje cells of the cerebellar cortex to promote motor control and learning. In the present paper, we present evidence for a role of short-term ionic plasticity in the cerebellar circuit activity. This type of plasticity results from altered chloride driving forces at the synapses that molecular layer interneurons form on Purkinje cell dendrites...
May 23, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536506/axonal-membranes-and-their-domains-assembly-and-function-of-the-axon-initial-segment-and-node-of-ranvier
#15
REVIEW
Andrew D Nelson, Paul M Jenkins
Neurons are highly specialized cells of the nervous system that receive, process and transmit electrical signals critical for normal brain function. Here, we review the intricate organization of axonal membrane domains that facilitate rapid action potential conduction underlying communication between complex neuronal circuits. Two critical excitable domains of vertebrate axons are the axon initial segment (AIS) and the nodes of Ranvier, which are characterized by the high concentrations of voltage-gated ion channels, cell adhesion molecules and specialized cytoskeletal networks...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536505/new-tools-to-study-astrocyte-ca-2-signal-dynamics-in-brain-networks-in-vivo
#16
REVIEW
Gabriele Losi, Letizia Mariotti, Michele Sessolo, Giorgio Carmignoto
Sensory information processing is a fundamental operation in the brain that is based on dynamic interactions between different neuronal populations. Astrocytes, a type of glial cells, have been proposed to represent active elements of brain microcircuits that, through dynamic interactions with neurons, provide a modulatory control of neuronal network activity. Specifically, astrocytes in different brain regions have been described to respond to neuronal signals with intracellular Ca(2+) elevations that represent a key step in the functional recruitment of astrocytes to specific brain circuits...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536069/crispr-engineered-genome-editing-for-the-next-generation-neurological-disease-modeling
#17
REVIEW
Weijun Feng, Hai-Kun Liu, Daisuke Kawauchi
Neurological disorders often occur because of failure of proper brain development and/or appropriate maintenance of neuronal circuits. In order to understand roles of causative factors (e.g. genes, cell types) in disease development, generation of solid animal models has been one of straight-forward approaches. Recent next generation sequencing studies on human patient-derived clinical samples have identified various types of recurrent mutations in individual neurological diseases. While these discoveries have prompted us to evaluate contribution of mutated genes to these neurological diseases, a feasible but flexible genome editing tool had remained to be developed...
May 20, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534043/familiarity-detection-is-an-intrinsic-property-of-cortical-microcircuits-with-bidirectional-synaptic-plasticity
#18
Xiaoyu Zhang, Han Ju, Trevor B Penney, Antonius M J VanDongen
Humans instantly recognize a previously seen face as "familiar." To deepen our understanding of familiarity-novelty detection, we simulated biologically plausible neural network models of generic cortical microcircuits consisting of spiking neurons with random recurrent synaptic connections. NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-dependent synaptic plasticity was implemented to allow for unsupervised learning and bidirectional modifications. Network spiking activity evoked by sensory inputs consisting of face images altered synaptic efficacy, which resulted in the network responding more strongly to a previously seen face than a novel face...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533384/changes-in-perceptual-sensitivity-related-to-spatial-cues-depends-on-subcortical-activity
#19
Lee P Lovejoy, Richard J Krauzlis
Spatial cues allow animals to selectively attend to relevant visual stimuli while ignoring distracters. This process depends on a distributed neuronal network, and an important current challenge is to understand the functional contributions made by individual brain regions within this network and how these contributions interact. Recent findings point to a possible anatomical segregation, with cortical and subcortical brain regions contributing to different functional components of selective attention. Cortical areas, especially visual cortex, may be responsible for implementing changes in perceptual sensitivity by changing the signal-to-noise ratio, whereas other regions, such as the superior colliculus, may be involved in processes that influence selection between competing stimuli without regulating perceptual sensitivity...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533206/myostatin-like-proteins-regulate-synaptic-function-and-neuronal-morphology
#20
Hrvoje Augustin, Kieran McGourty, Joern R Steinert, Helena M Cochemé, Jennifer Adcott, Melissa Cabecinha, Alec Vincent, Els F Halff, Josef T Kittler, Emmanuel Boucrot, Linda Partridge
Growth factors of the TGF-β superfamily play key roles in regulating neuronal and muscle function. Myostatin (or GDF8) and GDF11 are potent negative regulators of skeletal muscle mass. However, expression of both Myostatin and its cognate receptors in other tissues, including brain and peripheral nerves, suggests a potential wider biological role. Here, we show that Myoglianin (MYO), the Drosophila homolog of Myostatin and GDF11, regulates not only body weight and muscle size, but also inhibits neuromuscular synapse strength and composition in a Smad2-dependent manner...
May 22, 2017: Development
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