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Kexin Wang, Xiang Wen, Dibo Hou, Dezhan Tu, Naifu Zhu, Pingjie Huang, Guangxin Zhang, Hongjian Zhang
In water-quality, early warning systems and qualitative detection of contaminants are always challenging. There are a number of parameters that need to be measured which are not entirely linearly related to pollutant concentrations. Besides the complex correlations between variable water parameters that need to be analyzed also impairs the accuracy of quantitative detection. In aspects of these problems, the application of least-squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) is used to evaluate the water contamination and various conventional water quality sensors quantitatively...
March 22, 2018: Sensors
Mahesh Rangu, Zhujia Ye, Sarabjit Bhatti, Suping Zhou, Yong Yang, Tara Fish, Theodore W Thannhauser
In this paper, we report on aluminum (Al)-induced root proteomic changes in switchgrass. After growth in a hydroponic culture system supplemented with 400 μM of Al, plants began to show signs of physiological stress such as a reduction in photosynthetic rate. At this time, the basal 2-cm long root tips were harvested and divided into two segments, each of 1-cm in length, for protein extraction. Al-induced changes in proteomes were identified using tandem mass tags mass spectrometry (TMT-MS)-based quantitative proteomics analysis...
March 22, 2018: Proteomes
Irene Ródenas Esteve, Carmina Wanden-Berghe, Javier Sanz-Valero
OBJECTIVE: To review the available scientific literature about the effects of nutritional status on the multiple sclerosis disease. METHODS: A systematic review of the scientific literature in the Medline (PubMed), Scopus, Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases through November 2016. Search equation: ("Multiple Sclerosis"[Mesh] OR "Multiple Sclerosis"[Title/Abstract] OR "Disseminated Sclerosis"[Title/Abstract] OR "Multiple Sclerosis Acute Fulminating"[Title/Abstract]) AND ("Nutritional Status"[Mesh] OR "Nutritional Status"[Title/Abstract] OR "Nutrition Status"[Title/Abstract])...
January 19, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Montserrat Nunez, Ralph K Rosenbaum, Shooka Karimpour, Anne-Marie Boulay, Michael J Lathuillière, Manuele Margni, Laura Scherer, Francesca Verones, Stephan Pfister
Many new damage oriented methods have recently been developed to address environmental consequences of water consumption in life cycle assessment (LCA). However, such methods can only partially be compared and combined, since their modelling structure and metrics are inconsistent. Moreover, they focus on specific water sources (e.g. river) and miss description of transport flows between water compartments (e.g. from river to atmosphere via evaporation) and regions (e.g. atmospheric advection). Consequently, they provide a partial regard of the local and global hydrological cycle and derived impacts on the environment...
March 22, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
(no author information available yet)
In the context of the White Book of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM), this paper deals with Research, the future of PRM. PRM students and specialists are mainly involved in biomedical research, investigating the biological processes, the causes of diseases, their medical diagnosis, the evaluation of their consequences on functioning, disability and health and the effects of health interventions at an individual and a societal level. Most of the current PRM research, often interdisciplinary, originates from applied research which, using existing knowledge, is directed towards specific goals...
April 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
(no author information available yet)
In the context of the White Book of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) in Europe, this paper deals with the fundamentals of PRM from a physiological perspective, looking at the human mechanisms both physical and behavioral which are at the base of PRM physicians' work. After a discussion on the development and evolution of PRM that leads to its unique and specific approach, the mechanisms considered include: - repairing processes (and potential of recovery evaluation): repairing processes are mainly related to the quantity and natural history of diseases and impairments, while potential of recovery is also linked to the individual and environmental factors; PRM physicians work on impairments to favor healing or recovery, and propose rehabilitation if there is a potential of recovery: this is related to the prognostic role of PRM physicians; - learning processes: PRM is the specialty of teaching new physical ways and behavioral approaches to make patients participate at best through improvement of impairments and modification of activities; in this perspective, during repair and rehabilitation processes, PRM physicians and the rehabilitation team are teachers of new motor and behavioral strategies; - compensatory processes (adaptation/habilitation/rehabilitation): PRM physicians teach patients how to adapt to the new (acquired) health condition using compensatory mechanisms based on other body structures/functions, behavioral changes and/or assistive devices (or technical aids) (prosthesis and orthosis); during growth PRM physicians aim at allowing a complete (and compensatory) development of the intact function, not to be impaired by the original disease; compensatory processes are related to activities; - management skills: PRM physicians are managers of people and resources; they manage patients and their caregivers, to teach and allow them to reach the best possible participation, also focusing on maintenance; they lead the team, with the aim to make it function at best for the sake of the patient; finally, they manage resource allocation for the functioning of patients and team; - communication skills: PRM physicians need to develop very good communication skills, so to teach, inform and educate patients and their caregivers: this will allow the proper behavioural changes and also the correct physical compensations...
April 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
(no author information available yet)
In the context of the White Book of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) in Europe, this paper deals with the history of the PRM medical specialty. The specialty evolved in different European countries, and sometimes also into the single countries, from different medical streams that finally joined. These included among others: balneology, gymnastic, use of physical agents (water, heat, cold, massage, joint manipulations, physical exercise, etc.). Another important role has been played by the increasing number of people experiencing or likely to experience disability due to improvement of medicine and consequent survivals from wars, accidents and/or big infective epidemics (like polio); these evolutions happened in strict relationship with other specialties like cardiology, neurology, orthopaedics, pneumology, rheumatology, traumatology, creating a knowledge transversal to all of them...
April 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Andrei Khrennikov
Recently I posted a paper entitled "External observer reflections on QBism". As any external observer, I was not able to reflect all features of QBism properly. The comments I received from one of QBism's creators, C. A. Fuchs, were very valuable to me in better understanding the views of QBists. Some of QBism's features are very delicate and extracting them from articles of QBists is not a simple task. Therefore, I hope that the second portion of my reflections on QBism (or, strictly speaking, my reflections on Fuchs reflections on my earlier reflections) might be interesting and useful for other experts in quantum foundations and quantum information theory (especially, taking into account my previous aggressively anti-QBism position)...
2018: Foundations of Science
Jan P Vandenbroucke, Neil Pearce
Where do new research questions come from? This is at best only partially taught in courses or textbooks about clinical or epidemiological research. Methods are taught under the assumption that a researcher already knows the research question and knows which methods will fit that question. Similarly, the real complexity of the thought processes that lead to a scientific undertaking is almost never described in published papers. In this paper, we first discuss how to get an idea that is worth researching. We describe sources of new ideas and how to foster a creative attitude by "cultivating your thoughts"...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
H Nagaraja, N Srivatsa, S Hemalatha, S Shweta, S K Raghunath
Although lymphadenectomy is currently accepted as most accurate and reliable staging procedure for lymph node metastases, its therapeutic benefit in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) still remains controversial. Although the new, targeted therapy paradigms have changed the treatment of patients with advanced RCC and offer prolonged survival, cure is extremely uncommon in the absence of surgical resections. In this paper, the current role of metastasectomy is reviewed. Review the available literature concerning the role of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection and metastasectomy in outcome of oligometastatic RCC...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology
Sonia R Lakhotia, Mausumi Mukhopadhyay, Premlata Kumari
In this paper, a new approach to synthesize thin-film nanocomposite membranes using cerium oxide (CeO2 ) nanoparticles (NPs) by pre-seeding interfacial polymerization method was reported. Prepared membranes were examined using contact angle, molecular weight cut-off (MWCO), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning probe microscopy (SPM) to observe its hydrophilicity, pore size, morphology, surface chemistry, and roughness, respectively. Surface charges of the prepared membranes were also qualitatively calculated with the help of contact angle measurements by using the Grahame equation...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
S Maddali, I Calvo-Almazan, J Almer, P Kenesei, J-S Park, R Harder, Y Nashed, S O Hruszkewycz
Coherent X-ray photons with energies higher than 50 keV offer new possibilities for imaging nanoscale lattice distortions in bulk crystalline materials using Bragg peak phase retrieval methods. However, the compression of reciprocal space at high energies typically results in poorly resolved fringes on an area detector, rendering the diffraction data unsuitable for the three-dimensional reconstruction of compact crystals. To address this problem, we propose a method by which to recover fine fringe detail in the scattered intensity...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Bing Wang, Chao Wu, Liangguo Kang, Lang Huang, Wei Pan
OBJECTIVE: In recent years, the Chinese government has attached great importance to occupational health under the guidance of people-oriented concept. This paper introduces the current status and future development of occupational health in China's Thirteenth Five-Year Plan (13th FYP) period (2016-2020) to promote the cooperation and exchange on occupational health between China and other countries. METHODS: We collected statistical data about occupational diseases and information addressing occupational diseases...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Occupational Health
Joshua Gettinger, Allison Sturtevant-Gilliam, Kim Marmon-Saxe, Susanne Walker Wilson
There is an increasing national awareness that improving the health of the nation will need to involve addressing social determinants of health, including adverse childhood experiences. Advances in translational science and the science of social change have created new opportunities to address this refractory problem. This paper will describe a cross-sector collaborative effort in Western North Carolina that has produced unexpected fruit since its start in 2010, discuss themes that supported success, and identify future essential work...
March 2018: North Carolina Medical Journal
Jennifer Jane Hardes
The positive relationship between exercise and mental health is often taken for granted in today's society, despite the lack of academic literature evidencing this symbiosis. Gender is considered a significant determinant in a number of mental health diagnoses. Indeed, women are considered twice as likely as men to experience the most pervasive mental health condition, depression. Exercise for women's mental health is promoted through various macrolevel charity, as well as microlevel, campaigns that influence government healthcare policy and National Health Service guidelines...
March 21, 2018: Medical Humanities
William M Vanderheyden, Miranda M Lim, Erik S Musiek, Jason R Gerstner
Sleep-wake abnormalities are common in patients with Alzheimer's disease, and can be a major reason for institutionalization. However, an emerging concept is that these sleep-wake disturbances are part of the causal pathway accelerating the neurodegenerative process. Recently, new findings have provided intriguing evidence for a positive feedback loop between sleep-wake dysfunction and β-amyloid (Aβ) aggregation. Studies in both humans and animal models have shown that extended periods of wakefulness increase Aβ levels and aggregation, and accumulation of Aβ causes fragmentation of sleep...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Jillian Pugatch, Emily Grenen, Stacy Surla, Mary Schwarz, Heather Cole-Lewis
BACKGROUND: The rise in usage of and access to new technologies in recent years has led to a growth in digital health behavior change interventions. As the shift to digital platforms continues to grow, it is increasingly important to consider how the field of information architecture (IA) can inform the development of digital health interventions. IA is the way in which digital content is organized and displayed, which strongly impacts users' ability to find and use content. While many information architecture best practices exist, there is a lack of empirical evidence on the role it plays in influencing behavior change and health outcomes...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Guillaume Rohat
The Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) are the new set of alternative futures of societal development that inform global and regional climate change research. They have the potential to foster the integration of socioeconomic scenarios within assessments of future climate-related health impacts. To date, such assessments have primarily superimposed climate scenarios on current socioeconomic conditions only. Until now, the few assessments of future health risks that employed the SSPs have focused on future human exposure-i...
March 19, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ke Tan, Wenchao Li, Qian Zhang, Yulin Huang, Junjie Wu, Jianyu Yang
Deconvolution provides an efficient technology to implement angular super-resolution for scanning radar forward-looking imaging. However, deconvolution is an ill-posed problem, of which the solution is not only sensitive to noise, but also would be easily deteriorate by the noise amplification when excessive iterations are conducted. In this paper, a penalized maximum likelihood angular super-resolution method is proposed to tackle these problems. Firstly, a new likelihood function is deduced by separately considering the noise in I and Q channels to enhance the accuracy of the noise modeling for radar imaging system...
March 19, 2018: Sensors
Matthew W McCarthy, Thomas J Walsh
Discovering new drugs for treatment of invasive fungal infections is an enduring challenge. There are only three major classes of antifungal agents, and no new class has been introduced into clinical practice in more than a decade. However, recent advances in our understanding of the fungal life cycle, functional genomics, proteomics, and gene mapping have enabled the identification of new drug targets to treat these potentially deadly infections. In this paper, we examine amino acid transport mechanisms and metabolism as potential drug targets to treat invasive fungal infections, including pathogenic yeasts, such as species of Candida and Cryptococcus , as well as molds, such as Aspergillus fumigatus ...
March 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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