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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161091/dealing-with-stress-defective-metabolic-adaptation-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-pathogenesis
#1
Charalambos Michaeloudes, Pankaj K Bhavsar, Sharon Mumby, Kian Fan Chung, Ian M Adcock
The mitochondrion is the main site of energy production and a hub of key signaling pathways. It is also central in stress-adaptive response due to its dynamic morphology and ability to interact with other organelles. In response to stress, mitochondria fuse into networks to increase bioenergetic efficiency and protect against oxidative damage. Mitochondrial damage triggers segregation of damaged mitochondria from the mitochondrial network through fission and their proteolytic degradation by mitophagy. Post-translational modifications of the mitochondrial proteome and nuclear cross-talk lead to reprogramming of metabolic gene expression to maintain energy production and redox balance...
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141004/lack-of-mitochondrial-muts-homolog-1-in-toxoplasma-gondii-disrupts-maintenance-and-fidelity-of-mitochondrial-dna-and-reveals-metabolic-plasticity
#2
Tamila Garbuz, Gustavo Arrizabalaga
The importance of maintaining the fidelity of the mitochondrial genome is underscored by the presence of various repair pathways within this organelle. Presumably, the repair of mitochondrial DNA would be of particular importance in organisms that possess only a single mitochondrion, like the human pathogens Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii. Understanding the machinery that maintains mitochondrial DNA in these parasites is of particular relevance, as mitochondrial function is a validated and effective target for anti-parasitic drugs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970112/characterization-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-muty-dna-glycosylase-ortholog-and-its-role-in-oxidative-stress-response
#3
Marianna Kunrath-Lima, Bruno Marçal Repolês, Ceres Luciana Alves, Carolina Furtado, Matheus Andrade Rajão, Andrea Mara Macedo, Glória Regina Franco, Sérgio Danilo Junho Pena, Lucía Valenzuela, Simon Wisnovsky, Shana O Kelley, Norbel Galanti, Gonzalo Cabrera, Carlos Renato Machado
Trypanosoma cruzi is a protozoan parasite and the causative agent of Chagas disease. Like most living organisms, it is susceptible to oxidative stress, and must adapt to distinct environments. Hence, DNA repair is essential for its survival and the persistence of infection. Therefore, we studied whether T. cruzi has a homolog counterpart of the MutY enzyme (TcMYH), important in the DNA Base Excision Repair (BER) mechanism. Analysis of T. cruzi genome database showed that this parasite has a putative MutY DNA glycosylase sequence...
September 29, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839913/biological-action-in-read-write-genome-evolution
#4
REVIEW
James A Shapiro
Many of the most important evolutionary variations that generated phenotypic adaptations and originated novel taxa resulted from complex cellular activities affecting genome content and expression. These activities included (i) the symbiogenetic cell merger that produced the mitochondrion-bearing ancestor of all extant eukaryotes, (ii) symbiogenetic cell mergers that produced chloroplast-bearing ancestors of photosynthetic eukaryotes, and (iii) interspecific hybridizations and genome doublings that generated new species and adaptive radiations of higher plants and animals...
October 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803347/melatonin-mitochondria-and-the-skin
#5
REVIEW
Andrzej T Slominski, Michal A Zmijewski, Igor Semak, Tae-Kang Kim, Zorica Janjetovic, Radomir M Slominski, Jaroslaw W Zmijewski
The skin being a protective barrier between external and internal (body) environments has the sensory and adaptive capacity to maintain local and global body homeostasis in response to noxious factors. An important part of the skin response to stress is its ability for melatonin synthesis and subsequent metabolism through the indolic and kynuric pathways. Indeed, melatonin and its metabolites have emerged as indispensable for physiological skin functions and for effective protection of a cutaneous homeostasis from hostile environmental factors...
November 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793853/equine-skeletal-muscle-adaptations-to-exercise-and-training-evidence-of-differential-regulation-of-autophagosomal-and-mitochondrial-components
#6
Kenneth Bryan, Beatrice A McGivney, Gabriella Farries, Paul A McGettigan, Charlotte L McGivney, Katie F Gough, David E MacHugh, Lisa M Katz, Emmeline W Hill
BACKGROUND: A single bout of exercise induces changes in gene expression in skeletal muscle. Regular exercise results in an adaptive response involving changes in muscle architecture and biochemistry, and is an effective way to manage and prevent common human diseases such as obesity, cardiovascular disorders and type II diabetes. However, the biomolecular mechanisms underlying such responses still need to be fully elucidated. Here we performed a transcriptome-wide analysis of skeletal muscle tissue in a large cohort of untrained Thoroughbred horses (n = 51) before and after a bout of high-intensity exercise and again after an extended period of training...
August 9, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637217/experimental-support-that-natural-selection-has-shaped-the-latitudinal-distribution-of-mitochondrial-haplotypes-in-australian-drosophila-melanogaster
#7
M Florencia Camus, Jonci N Wolff, Carla M Sgrò, Damian K Dowling
Cellular metabolism is regulated by enzyme complexes within the mitochondrion, the function of which are sensitive to the prevailing temperature. Such thermal sensitivity, coupled with the observation that population frequencies of mitochondrial haplotypes tend to associate with latitude, altitude, or climatic regions across species distributions, led to the hypothesis that thermal selection has played a role in shaping standing variation in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence. This hypothesis, however, remains controversial, and requires evidence that the distribution of haplotypes observed in nature corresponds with the capacity of these haplotypes to confer differences in thermal tolerance...
October 1, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588043/heme-a-synthesis-and-cco-activity-are-essential-for-trypanosoma-cruzi-infectivity-and-replication
#8
Marcelo L Merli, Brenda A Cirulli, Simón M Menéndez-Bravo, Julia A Cricco
Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, presents a complex life cycle and adapts its metabolism to nutrients' availability. Although T. cruzi is an aerobic organism, it does not produce heme. This cofactor is acquired from the host and is distributed and inserted into different heme-proteins such as respiratory complexes in the parasite's mitochondrion. It has been proposed that T. cruzi's energy metabolism relies on a branched respiratory chain with a cytochrome c oxidase-type aa3 (CcO) as the main terminal oxidase...
June 27, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579897/tsa-protects-h9c2-cells-against-thapsigargin-induced-apoptosis-related-to-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-mediated-mitochondrial-injury
#9
Zhiping Li, Yan Liu, Xinlun Dai, Qiangqiang Zhou, Xueli Liu, Zeyu Li, Xia Chen
Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) activates an adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR) that facilitates cellular repair, however, under prolonged ER stress, the UPR can ultimately trigger apoptosis thereby terminating damaged cells. Recently, TSA has shown protective effects on ERS and its mechanisms related to ER pathway has been previously characterized. However, whether TSA exerts its protective role via metabolic events remain largely undefined. Objectives: To explore the possible involvement of the metabolic changes during ERS and to better understand how TSA influence mitochondrial function to facilitate cellular adaptation...
May 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363600/heme-modulates-trypanosoma-cruzi-bioenergetics-inducing-mitochondrial-ros-production
#10
Natália P Nogueira, Francis M S Saraiva, Matheus P Oliveira, Ana Paula M Mendonça, Job D F Inacio, Elmo E Almeida-Amaral, Rubem F Menna-Barreto, Gustavo A T Laranja, Eduardo J Lopes Torres, Marcus F Oliveira, Marcia C Paes
Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease and has a single mitochondrion, an organelle responsible for ATP production and the main site for the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). T. cruzi is an obligate intracellular parasite with a complex life cycle that alternates between vertebrate and invertebrate hosts, therefore the development of survival strategies and morphogenetic adaptations to deal with the various environments is mandatory. Over the years our group has been studying the vector-parasite interactions using heme as a physiological oxidant molecule that triggered epimastigote proliferation however, the source of ROS induced by heme remained unknown...
March 29, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274921/the-unfolded-protein-response-in-relation-to-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-skeletal-muscle-cells
#11
Zahra S Mesbah Moosavi, David A Hood
Mitochondria comprise both nuclear and mitochondrially encoded proteins requiring precise stoichiometry for their integration into functional complexes. The augmented protein synthesis associated with mitochondrial biogenesis results in the accumulation of unfolded proteins, thus triggering cellular stress. As such, the unfolded protein responses emanating from the endoplasmic reticulum (UPR(ER)) or the mitochondrion (UPR(MT)) are triggered to ensure correct protein handling. Whether this response is necessary for mitochondrial adaptations is unknown...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274203/comprehensive-transcriptomic-analysis-of-tibetan-schizothoracinae-fish-gymnocypris-przewalskii-reveals-how-it-adapts-to-a-high-altitude-aquatic-life
#12
Chao Tong, Tian Fei, Cunfang Zhang, Kai Zhao
BACKGROUND: Understanding the genetic basis of adaptation to high altitude life is of paramount importance for preserving and managing genetic diversity in highland animals. This objective has been addressed mainly in terrestrial fauna but rarely in aquatic animals. Tibetan Schizothoracinae fish is the ideal model system in evolutionary biology, carrying key insights into evolutionary genetics of speciation and adaptation at high altitude. Gymnocypris przewalskii is the newly formed Schizothoracinae fish species in the Tibetan Plateau, inhabits chronic cold, extreme saline and alkaline aquatic environment in Lake Qinghai, thus evolving the unique genomic signatures to adapt extremely severe environments...
March 9, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054713/alternating-terminal-electron-acceptors-at-the-basis-of-symbiogenesis-how-oxygen-ignited-eukaryotic-evolution
#13
Dave Speijer
What kind of symbiosis between archaeon and bacterium gave rise to their eventual merger at the origin of the eukaryotes? I hypothesize that conditions favouring bacterial uptake were based on exchange of intermediate carbohydrate metabolites required by recurring changes in availability and use of the two different terminal electron chain acceptors, the bacterial one being oxygen. Oxygen won, and definitive loss of the archaeal membrane potential allowed permanent establishment of the bacterial partner as the proto-mitochondrion, further metabolic integration and highly efficient ATP production...
January 5, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030332/spermatological-characteristics-of-the-enigmatic-monogenean-dictyocotyle-coeliaca-nybelin-1941-monopisthocotylea-monocotylidae-reveal-possible-adaptation-to-endoparasitism
#14
Magdaléna Bruňanská, John S Mackiewicz, Larisa G Poddubnaya
Spermatological characters of Dictyocotyle coeliaca Nybelin, a unique endoparasitic monogenean from the body cavity of the ray Amblyraja radiata (Elasmobranchii: Rajidae), was investigated by means of scanning and transmission electron microscopy for the first time. The process of the spermatozoon formation begins with the appearance of the differentiation zone which contains two centrioles. Subsequently developed two free flagella rotate to lie parallel before their fusing. After fusion, both the mitochondrion and nucleus migrate alongside the axonemes...
March 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017135/role-of-sumoylation-in-heart-development-and-cardiovascular-diseases
#15
L Zhang, T-H Yang, D W-C Li
Heart is an extremely important organ, and cardiovascular disorders emerge as primary life-threatening disease in human life. Aberrant post-translational modifications (PTMs) on cardiac proteins are closely correlated with pathological abnormalities in heart. SUMOylation, one of the most prevalent PTMs with thousands of substrates throughout the cell including critical subcellular organelles, has been shown to precisely fine-tune the cell survival and proliferation during heart development, and delicately control the function of mitochondrion and sarcoplasmic reticulum in physiological heart functioning...
December 23, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898765/transcriptome-assembly-and-comparison-of-an-allotetraploid-weed-species-annual-bluegrass-with-its-two-diploid-progenitor-species-schrad-and-kunth
#16
Shu Chen, J Scott McElroy, Fenny Dane, Leslie R Goertzen
Annual bluegrass ( L.) is one of the most widespread weed species in this world. As a young allotetraploid, has occupied diverse environments from Antarctic area to subtropical regions. To unveil the evolutionary mystery behind 's wide distribution, extensive adaptability and phenotypic plasticity needs collaboration from multiple research scopes from ecology and plant physiology to population genetics and molecular biology. However, the lack of omic data and reference has greatly hampered the study. This is the first comprehensive transcriptome study on species...
March 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834740/being-right-on-q-shaping-eukaryotic-evolution
#17
REVIEW
Dave Speijer
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation by mitochondria is an incompletely understood eukaryotic process. I proposed a kinetic model [BioEssays (2011) 33: , 88-94] in which the ratio between electrons entering the respiratory chain via FADH2 or NADH (the F/N ratio) is a crucial determinant of ROS formation. During glucose breakdown, the ratio is low, while during fatty acid breakdown, the ratio is high (the longer the fatty acid, the higher is the ratio), leading to higher ROS levels. Thus, breakdown of (very-long-chain) fatty acids should occur without generating extra FADH2 in mitochondria...
November 15, 2016: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744337/protein-quality-control-at-the-mitochondrion
#18
REVIEW
Wolfgang Voos, Witold Jaworek, Anne Wilkening, Michael Bruderek
Mitochondria are essential constituents of a eukaryotic cell by supplying ATP and contributing to many mayor metabolic processes. As endosymbiotic organelles, they represent a cellular subcompartment exhibiting many autonomous functions, most importantly containing a complete endogenous machinery responsible for protein expression, folding and degradation. This article summarizes the biochemical processes and the enzymatic components that are responsible for maintaining mitochondrial protein homoeostasis. As mitochondria lack a large part of the required genetic information, most proteins are synthesized in the cytosol and imported into the organelle...
October 15, 2016: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666965/the-earliest-stages-of-mitochondrial-adaptation-to-low-oxygen-revealed-in-a-novel-rhizarian
#19
Ryan M R Gawryluk, Ryoma Kamikawa, Courtney W Stairs, Jeffrey D Silberman, Matthew W Brown, Andrew J Roger
Mitochondria exist on a functional and evolutionary continuum that includes anaerobic mitochondrion-related organelles (MROs), such as hydrogenosomes. Hydrogenosomes lack many classical mitochondrial features, including conspicuous cristae, mtDNA, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and ATP synthesis powered by an electron transport chain (ETC); instead, they produce ATP anaerobically, liberating H2 and CO2 gas in the process. However, our understanding of the evolutionary transformation from aerobic mitochondria to various MRO types remains incomplete...
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640755/integration-of-superoxide-formation-and-cristae-morphology-for-mitochondrial-redox-signaling
#20
REVIEW
Lydie Plecitá-Hlavatá, Petr Ježek
The mitochondrial network provides the central cell's energetic and regulatory unit, which besides ATP and metabolite production participates in cellular signaling through regulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and various protein/ion fluxes. The inner membrane forms extensive folds, called cristae, i.e. cavities enfolded from and situated perpendicularly to its inner boundary membrane portion, which encompasses an inner cylinder within the outer membrane tubule. Mitochondrial cristae ultramorphology reflects various metabolic, physiological or pathological states...
November 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
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