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mitochondrion adaptation

Dave Speijer
What kind of symbiosis between archaeon and bacterium gave rise to their eventual merger at the origin of the eukaryotes? I hypothesize that conditions favouring bacterial uptake were based on exchange of intermediate carbohydrate metabolites required by recurring changes in availability and use of the two different terminal electron chain acceptors, the bacterial one being oxygen. Oxygen won, and definitive loss of the archaeal membrane potential allowed permanent establishment of the bacterial partner as the proto-mitochondrion, further metabolic integration and highly efficient ATP production...
January 5, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
Magdaléna Bruňanská, John S Mackiewicz, Larisa G Poddubnaya
Spermatological characters of Dictyocotyle coeliaca Nybelin, a unique endoparasitic monogenean from the body cavity of the ray Amblyraja radiata (Elasmobranchii: Rajidae), was investigated by means of scanning and transmission electron microscopy for the first time. The process of the spermatozoon formation begins with the appearance of the differentiation zone which contains two centrioles. Subsequently developed two free flagella rotate to lie parallel before their fusing. After fusion, both the mitochondrion and nucleus migrate alongside the axonemes...
March 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
L Zhang, T-H Yang, D W-C Li
Heart is an extremely important organ, and cardiovascular disorders emerge as primary life-threatening disease in human life. Aberrant post-translational modifications (PTMs) on cardiac proteins are closely correlated with pathological abnormalities in heart. SUMOylation, one of the most prevalent PTMs with thousands of substrates throughout the cell including critical subcellular organelles, has been shown to precisely fine-tune the cell survival and proliferation during heart development, and delicately control the function of mitochondrion and sarcoplasmic reticulum in physiological heart functioning...
December 23, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
Shu Chen, J Scott McElroy, Fenny Dane, Leslie R Goertzen
Annual bluegrass ( L.) is one of the most widespread weed species in this world. As a young allotetraploid, has occupied diverse environments from Antarctic area to subtropical regions. To unveil the evolutionary mystery behind 's wide distribution, extensive adaptability and phenotypic plasticity needs collaboration from multiple research scopes from ecology and plant physiology to population genetics and molecular biology. However, the lack of omic data and reference has greatly hampered the study. This is the first comprehensive transcriptome study on species...
March 2016: Plant Genome
Dave Speijer
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation by mitochondria is an incompletely understood eukaryotic process. I proposed a kinetic model [BioEssays (2011) 33: , 88-94] in which the ratio between electrons entering the respiratory chain via FADH2 or NADH (the F/N ratio) is a crucial determinant of ROS formation. During glucose breakdown, the ratio is low, while during fatty acid breakdown, the ratio is high (the longer the fatty acid, the higher is the ratio), leading to higher ROS levels. Thus, breakdown of (very-long-chain) fatty acids should occur without generating extra FADH2 in mitochondria...
November 15, 2016: Biochemical Journal
Wolfgang Voos, Witold Jaworek, Anne Wilkening, Michael Bruderek
Mitochondria are essential constituents of a eukaryotic cell by supplying ATP and contributing to many mayor metabolic processes. As endosymbiotic organelles, they represent a cellular subcompartment exhibiting many autonomous functions, most importantly containing a complete endogenous machinery responsible for protein expression, folding and degradation. This article summarizes the biochemical processes and the enzymatic components that are responsible for maintaining mitochondrial protein homoeostasis. As mitochondria lack a large part of the required genetic information, most proteins are synthesized in the cytosol and imported into the organelle...
October 15, 2016: Essays in Biochemistry
Ryan M R Gawryluk, Ryoma Kamikawa, Courtney W Stairs, Jeffrey D Silberman, Matthew W Brown, Andrew J Roger
Mitochondria exist on a functional and evolutionary continuum that includes anaerobic mitochondrion-related organelles (MROs), such as hydrogenosomes. Hydrogenosomes lack many classical mitochondrial features, including conspicuous cristae, mtDNA, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and ATP synthesis powered by an electron transport chain (ETC); instead, they produce ATP anaerobically, liberating H2 and CO2 gas in the process. However, our understanding of the evolutionary transformation from aerobic mitochondria to various MRO types remains incomplete...
September 13, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Lydie Plecitá-Hlavatá, Petr Ježek
The mitochondrial network provides the central cell's energetic and regulatory unit, which besides ATP and metabolite production participates in cellular signaling through regulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and various protein/ion fluxes. The inner membrane forms extensive folds, called cristae, i.e. cavities enfolded from and situated perpendicularly to its inner boundary membrane portion, which encompasses an inner cylinder within the outer membrane tubule. Mitochondrial cristae ultramorphology reflects various metabolic, physiological or pathological states...
September 15, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Alistair V W Nunn, Geoffrey W Guy, Jimmy D Bell
A sufficiently complex set of molecules, if subject to perturbation, will self-organize and show emergent behaviour. If such a system can take on information it will become subject to natural selection. This could explain how self-replicating molecules evolved into life and how intelligence arose. A pivotal step in this evolutionary process was of course the emergence of the eukaryote and the advent of the mitochondrion, which both enhanced energy production per cell and increased the ability to process, store and utilize information...
August 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
George B Stefano, Richard M Kream
The mitochondrion exhibits biochemical and functional variations that emerged by random chance as an evolutionary survival strategy, which include enhanced energy production driven by anaerobic respiratory mechanisms. In invertebrates, this mitochondrial anaerobic respiration permits survival at a lower energy state suited for this type of environment while yielding more ATP than by glycolysis alone. This ability provides a protective existential advantage in naturally occurring hypoxic environments via diminished free radical generation...
July 20, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Stefano Montelli, Antonella Peruffo, Tomaso Patarnello, Bruno Cozzi, Enrico Negrisolo
The mitochondrion is the power plant of the eukaryotic cell, and tRNAs are the fundamental components of its translational machinery. In the present paper, the evolution of mitochondrial tRNAs was investigated in the Cetacea, a clade of Cetartiodactyla that retuned to water and thus had to adapt its metabolism to a different medium than that of its mainland ancestors. Our analysis focussed on identifying the factors that influenced the evolution of Cetacea tRNA double-helix elements, which play a pivotal role in the formation of the secondary and tertiary structures of each tRNA and consequently manipulate the whole translation machinery of the mitochondrion...
2016: PloS One
Michelle M Leger, Laura Eme, Laura A Hug, Andrew J Roger
Mitochondrion-related organelles (MROs) have arisen independently in a wide range of anaerobic protist lineages. Only a few of these organelles and their functions have been investigated in detail, and most of what is known about MROs comes from studies of parasitic organisms such as the parabasalid Trichomonas vaginalis Here, we describe the MRO of a free-living anaerobic jakobid excavate, Stygiella incarcerata We report an RNAseq-based reconstruction of S. incarcerata's MRO proteome, with an associated biochemical map of the pathways predicted to be present in this organelle...
September 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Md Mahbubul Hassan, Jian G Qin, Xiaoxu Li
Variation in reproductive strategy is one of the key factors contributing to recruitment success of molluscs in different habitats. Spermcasting is a unique mode in mollusc reproduction where males produce spermatozeugmata, a radially arrayed sperm cluster wrapped by gelatinous membrane. In this study, spermatozeugmata structure and their dissociation in the Australian flat oyster Ostrea angasi were investigated to elucidate the reproductive strategy in spermcasting molluscs. The histological observation indicated that spermatogonia gradually aggregated in the gonad follicle at the early gonad development stages and developed into spermatozeugmata and became tightly packed at the advanced stages...
June 2016: Tissue & Cell
Marcos Prado-Lima, Adalberto Luis Val
Climate change substantially affects biodiversity around the world, especially in the Amazon region, which is home to a significant portion of the world's biodiversity. Freshwater fishes are susceptible to increases in water temperature and variations in the concentrations of dissolved gases, especially oxygen and carbon dioxide. It is important to understand the mechanisms underlying the physiological and biochemical abilities of fishes to survive such environmental changes. In the present study, we applied RNA-Seq and de novo transcriptome sequencing to evaluate transcriptome alterations in tambaqui when exposed to five or fifteen days of the B1, A1B and A2 climate scenarios foreseen by the IPCC...
2016: PloS One
Raphaël Méheust, Ehud Zelzion, Debashish Bhattacharya, Philippe Lopez, Eric Bapteste
The integration of foreign genetic information is central to the evolution of eukaryotes, as has been demonstrated for the origin of the Calvin cycle and of the heme and carotenoid biosynthesis pathways in algae and plants. For photosynthetic lineages, this coordination involved three genomes of divergent phylogenetic origins (the nucleus, plastid, and mitochondrion). Major hurdles overcome by the ancestor of these lineages were harnessing the oxygen-evolving organelle, optimizing the use of light, and stabilizing the partnership between the plastid endosymbiont and host through retargeting of proteins to the nascent organelle...
March 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Núria Mach, Sandra Plancade, Alicja Pacholewska, Jérôme Lecardonnel, Julie Rivière, Marco Moroldo, Anne Vaiman, Caroline Morgenthaler, Marine Beinat, Alizée Nevot, Céline Robert, Eric Barrey
The adaptive response to extreme endurance exercise might involve transcriptional and translational regulation by microRNAs (miRNAs). Therefore, the objective of the present study was to perform an integrated analysis of the blood transcriptome and miRNome (using microarrays) in the horse before and after a 160 km endurance competition. A total of 2,453 differentially expressed genes and 167 differentially expressed microRNAs were identified when comparing pre- and post-ride samples. We used a hypergeometric test and its generalization to gain a better understanding of the biological functions regulated by the differentially expressed microRNA...
2016: Scientific Reports
Haitao Yuan, Qiang Zhang, Jiabin Guo, Tingfen Zhang, Jun Zhao, Jin Li, Andrew White, Paul L Carmichael, Carl Westmoreland, Shuangqing Peng
Chemical toxicity testing is fast moving in a direction that relies increasingly on cell-basedin vitroassays anchored on toxicity pathways according to the toxicity testing in the 21st century vision. Identifying points of departure (POD) via these assays and revealing their mechanistic underpinnings via computational modeling of the relevant pathways are critical and challenging steps. Here we used doxorubicin (DOX) as a prototype chemical to study mitochondrial toxicity in human AC16 cells. Mitochondrial toxicity has been linked to cardiovascular risk of DOX, which has limited its clinical use as an antitumor drug...
April 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Feng Zhao, Beibei Wu, Gang Yang, Tao Zhang, Ping Zhuang
Understanding the physiological changes and osmoregulatory strategy is critical for anadromous species to adapt to large changes between freshwater and marine environments. In this study, juvenile Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) were acclimated for 2 months to freshwater (FW, c. 0‰) and brackish water (BW, 15‰). Blood was assessed for changes in osmolality and ions. Gill tissue was assayed for Na(+), K(+)-ATPase (NKA) activity and immunohistochemical analysis on mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs). Serum osmolality and ions concentrations (Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+)) examined, except K(+), increased significantly in those specimens adapted to BW...
April 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Yong Shao, Jin-Xiu Li, Ri-Li Ge, Li Zhong, David M Irwin, Robert W Murphy, Ya-Ping Zhang
The plateau zokor (Myospalax baileyi) spends its entire life underground in sealed burrows. Confronting limited oxygen and high carbon dioxide concentrations, and complete darkness, they epitomize a successful physiological adaptation. Here, we employ transcriptome sequencing to explore the genetic underpinnings of their adaptations to this unique habitat. Compared to Rattus norvegicus, genes belonging to GO categories related to energy metabolism (e.g. mitochondrion and fatty acid beta-oxidation) underwent accelerated evolution in the plateau zokor...
November 25, 2015: Scientific Reports
Dave Speijer
Of two contending models for eukaryotic evolution the "archezoan" has an amitochondriate eukaryote take up an endosymbiont, while "symbiogenesis" states that an Archaeon became a eukaryote as the result of this uptake. If so, organelle formation resulting from new engulfments is simplified by the primordial symbiogenesis, and less informative regarding the bacterium-to-mitochondrion conversion. Gradualist archezoan visions still permeate evolutionary thinking, but are much less likely than symbiogenesis. Genuine amitochondriate eukaryotes have never been found and rapid, explosive adaptive periods characteristic of symbiogenetic models explain this...
December 2015: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
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