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mitochondrion adaptation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637217/experimental-support-that-natural-selection-has-shaped-the-latitudinal-distribution-of-mitochondrial-haplotypes-in-australian-drosophila-melanogaster
#1
M Florencia Camus, Jonci N Wolff, Carla M Sgrò, Damian K Dowling
Cellular metabolism is regulated by enzyme complexes within the mitochondrion, the function of which are sensitive to the prevailing temperature. Such thermal sensitivity, coupled with the observation that population frequencies of mitochondrial haplotypes tend to associate with latitude, altitude or climatic regions across species distributions, led to the hypothesis that thermal selection has played a role in shaping standing variation in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence. This hypothesis, however, remains controversial, and requires evidence that the distribution of haplotypes observed in nature corresponds with the capacity of these haplotypes to confer differences in thermal tolerance...
June 20, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588043/heme-a-synthesis-and-c-c-o-activity-are-essential-for-trypanosoma-cruzi-infectivity-and-replication
#2
Marcelo Luciano Merli, Brenda Analía Cirulli, Simón Matías Menéndez-Bravo, Julia Alejandra Cricco
Trypanosoma cruzi , the causative agent of Chagas disease, presents a complex life cycle and adapts its metabolism to nutrients availability. Although T. cruzi is an aerobic organism, it does not produce heme. This cofactor is acquired from the host, and is distributed and inserted into different heme-proteins such as respiratory complexes in the parasite mitochondrion. It has been proposed that T. cruzi's energy metabolism relies on a branched respiratory chain with a cytochrome c oxidase type aa 3 (C c O) as the main terminal oxidase...
June 6, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579897/tsa-protects-h9c2-cells-against-thapsigargin-induced-apoptosis-related-to-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-mediated-mitochondrial-injury
#3
Zhiping Li, Yan Liu, Xinlun Dai, Qiangqiang Zhou, Xueli Liu, Zeyu Li, Xia Chen
Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) activates an adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR) that facilitates cellular repair, however, under prolonged ER stress, the UPR can ultimately trigger apoptosis thereby terminating damaged cells. Recently, TSA has shown protective effects on ERS and its mechanisms related to ER pathway has been previously characterized. However, whether TSA exerts its protective role via metabolic events remain largely undefined. Objectives: To explore the possible involvement of the metabolic changes during ERS and to better understand how TSA influence mitochondrial function to facilitate cellular adaptation...
May 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363600/heme-modulates-trypanosoma-cruzi-bioenergetics-inducing-mitochondrial-ros-production
#4
Natália P Nogueira, Francis M S Saraiva, Matheus P Oliveira, Ana Paula M Mendonça, Job D F Inacio, Elmo E Almeida-Amaral, Rubem F Menna-Barreto, Gustavo A T Laranja, Eduardo J Lopes Torres, Marcus F Oliveira, Marcia C Paes
Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease and has a single mitochondrion, an organelle responsible for ATP production and the main site for the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). T. cruzi is an obligate intracellular parasite with a complex life cycle that alternates between vertebrate and invertebrate hosts, therefore the development of survival strategies and morphogenetic adaptations to deal with the various environments is mandatory. Over the years our group has been studying the vector-parasite interactions using heme as a physiological oxidant molecule that triggered epimastigote proliferation however, the source of ROS induced by heme remained unknown...
March 29, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274921/the-unfolded-protein-response-in-relation-to-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-skeletal-muscle-cells
#5
Zahra S Mesbah Moosavi, David A Hood
Mitochondria comprise both nuclear and mitochondrially encoded proteins requiring precise stoichiometry for their integration into functional complexes. The augmented protein synthesis associated with mitochondrial biogenesis results in the accumulation of unfolded proteins, thus triggering cellular stress. As such, the unfolded protein responses emanating from the endoplasmic reticulum (UPR(ER)) or the mitochondrion (UPR(MT)) are triggered to ensure correct protein handling. Whether this response is necessary for mitochondrial adaptations is unknown...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274203/comprehensive-transcriptomic-analysis-of-tibetan-schizothoracinae-fish-gymnocypris-przewalskii-reveals-how-it-adapts-to-a-high-altitude-aquatic-life
#6
Chao Tong, Tian Fei, Cunfang Zhang, Kai Zhao
BACKGROUND: Understanding the genetic basis of adaptation to high altitude life is of paramount importance for preserving and managing genetic diversity in highland animals. This objective has been addressed mainly in terrestrial fauna but rarely in aquatic animals. Tibetan Schizothoracinae fish is the ideal model system in evolutionary biology, carrying key insights into evolutionary genetics of speciation and adaptation at high altitude. Gymnocypris przewalskii is the newly formed Schizothoracinae fish species in the Tibetan Plateau, inhabits chronic cold, extreme saline and alkaline aquatic environment in Lake Qinghai, thus evolving the unique genomic signatures to adapt extremely severe environments...
March 9, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054713/alternating-terminal-electron-acceptors-at-the-basis-of-symbiogenesis-how-oxygen-ignited-eukaryotic-evolution
#7
Dave Speijer
What kind of symbiosis between archaeon and bacterium gave rise to their eventual merger at the origin of the eukaryotes? I hypothesize that conditions favouring bacterial uptake were based on exchange of intermediate carbohydrate metabolites required by recurring changes in availability and use of the two different terminal electron chain acceptors, the bacterial one being oxygen. Oxygen won, and definitive loss of the archaeal membrane potential allowed permanent establishment of the bacterial partner as the proto-mitochondrion, further metabolic integration and highly efficient ATP production...
January 5, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030332/spermatological-characteristics-of-the-enigmatic-monogenean-dictyocotyle-coeliaca-nybelin-1941-monopisthocotylea-monocotylidae-reveal-possible-adaptation-to-endoparasitism
#8
Magdaléna Bruňanská, John S Mackiewicz, Larisa G Poddubnaya
Spermatological characters of Dictyocotyle coeliaca Nybelin, a unique endoparasitic monogenean from the body cavity of the ray Amblyraja radiata (Elasmobranchii: Rajidae), was investigated by means of scanning and transmission electron microscopy for the first time. The process of the spermatozoon formation begins with the appearance of the differentiation zone which contains two centrioles. Subsequently developed two free flagella rotate to lie parallel before their fusing. After fusion, both the mitochondrion and nucleus migrate alongside the axonemes...
March 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017135/role-of-sumoylation-in-heart-development-and-cardiovascular-diseases
#9
L Zhang, T-H Yang, D W-C Li
Heart is an extremely important organ, and cardiovascular disorders emerge as primary life-threatening disease in human life. Aberrant post-translational modifications (PTMs) on cardiac proteins are closely correlated with pathological abnormalities in heart. SUMOylation, one of the most prevalent PTMs with thousands of substrates throughout the cell including critical subcellular organelles, has been shown to precisely fine-tune the cell survival and proliferation during heart development, and delicately control the function of mitochondrion and sarcoplasmic reticulum in physiological heart functioning...
December 23, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898765/transcriptome-assembly-and-comparison-of-an-allotetraploid-weed-species-annual-bluegrass-with-its-two-diploid-progenitor-species-schrad-and-kunth
#10
Shu Chen, J Scott McElroy, Fenny Dane, Leslie R Goertzen
Annual bluegrass ( L.) is one of the most widespread weed species in this world. As a young allotetraploid, has occupied diverse environments from Antarctic area to subtropical regions. To unveil the evolutionary mystery behind 's wide distribution, extensive adaptability and phenotypic plasticity needs collaboration from multiple research scopes from ecology and plant physiology to population genetics and molecular biology. However, the lack of omic data and reference has greatly hampered the study. This is the first comprehensive transcriptome study on species...
March 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834740/being-right-on-q-shaping-eukaryotic-evolution
#11
REVIEW
Dave Speijer
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation by mitochondria is an incompletely understood eukaryotic process. I proposed a kinetic model [BioEssays (2011) 33: , 88-94] in which the ratio between electrons entering the respiratory chain via FADH2 or NADH (the F/N ratio) is a crucial determinant of ROS formation. During glucose breakdown, the ratio is low, while during fatty acid breakdown, the ratio is high (the longer the fatty acid, the higher is the ratio), leading to higher ROS levels. Thus, breakdown of (very-long-chain) fatty acids should occur without generating extra FADH2 in mitochondria...
November 15, 2016: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744337/protein-quality-control-at-the-mitochondrion
#12
REVIEW
Wolfgang Voos, Witold Jaworek, Anne Wilkening, Michael Bruderek
Mitochondria are essential constituents of a eukaryotic cell by supplying ATP and contributing to many mayor metabolic processes. As endosymbiotic organelles, they represent a cellular subcompartment exhibiting many autonomous functions, most importantly containing a complete endogenous machinery responsible for protein expression, folding and degradation. This article summarizes the biochemical processes and the enzymatic components that are responsible for maintaining mitochondrial protein homoeostasis. As mitochondria lack a large part of the required genetic information, most proteins are synthesized in the cytosol and imported into the organelle...
October 15, 2016: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666965/the-earliest-stages-of-mitochondrial-adaptation-to-low-oxygen-revealed-in-a-novel-rhizarian
#13
Ryan M R Gawryluk, Ryoma Kamikawa, Courtney W Stairs, Jeffrey D Silberman, Matthew W Brown, Andrew J Roger
Mitochondria exist on a functional and evolutionary continuum that includes anaerobic mitochondrion-related organelles (MROs), such as hydrogenosomes. Hydrogenosomes lack many classical mitochondrial features, including conspicuous cristae, mtDNA, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and ATP synthesis powered by an electron transport chain (ETC); instead, they produce ATP anaerobically, liberating H2 and CO2 gas in the process. However, our understanding of the evolutionary transformation from aerobic mitochondria to various MRO types remains incomplete...
September 13, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640755/integration-of-superoxide-formation-and-cristae-morphology-for-mitochondrial-redox-signaling
#14
Lydie Plecitá-Hlavatá, Petr Ježek
The mitochondrial network provides the central cell's energetic and regulatory unit, which besides ATP and metabolite production participates in cellular signaling through regulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and various protein/ion fluxes. The inner membrane forms extensive folds, called cristae, i.e. cavities enfolded from and situated perpendicularly to its inner boundary membrane portion, which encompasses an inner cylinder within the outer membrane tubule. Mitochondrial cristae ultramorphology reflects various metabolic, physiological or pathological states...
September 15, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27528758/the-quantum-mitochondrion-and-optimal-health
#15
REVIEW
Alistair V W Nunn, Geoffrey W Guy, Jimmy D Bell
A sufficiently complex set of molecules, if subject to perturbation, will self-organize and show emergent behaviour. If such a system can take on information it will become subject to natural selection. This could explain how self-replicating molecules evolved into life and how intelligence arose. A pivotal step in this evolutionary process was of course the emergence of the eukaryote and the advent of the mitochondrion, which both enhanced energy production per cell and increased the ability to process, store and utilize information...
August 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27439008/glycolytic-coupling-to-mitochondrial-energy-production-ensures-survival-in-an-oxygen-rich-environment
#16
REVIEW
George B Stefano, Richard M Kream
The mitochondrion exhibits biochemical and functional variations that emerged by random chance as an evolutionary survival strategy, which include enhanced energy production driven by anaerobic respiratory mechanisms. In invertebrates, this mitochondrial anaerobic respiration permits survival at a lower energy state suited for this type of environment while yielding more ATP than by glycolysis alone. This ability provides a protective existential advantage in naturally occurring hypoxic environments via diminished free radical generation...
July 20, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27336480/back-to-water-signature-of-adaptive-evolution-in-cetacean-mitochondrial-trnas
#17
Stefano Montelli, Antonella Peruffo, Tomaso Patarnello, Bruno Cozzi, Enrico Negrisolo
The mitochondrion is the power plant of the eukaryotic cell, and tRNAs are the fundamental components of its translational machinery. In the present paper, the evolution of mitochondrial tRNAs was investigated in the Cetacea, a clade of Cetartiodactyla that retuned to water and thus had to adapt its metabolism to a different medium than that of its mainland ancestors. Our analysis focussed on identifying the factors that influenced the evolution of Cetacea tRNA double-helix elements, which play a pivotal role in the formation of the secondary and tertiary structures of each tRNA and consequently manipulate the whole translation machinery of the mitochondrion...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27280585/novel-hydrogenosomes-in-the-microaerophilic-jakobid-stygiella-incarcerata
#18
Michelle M Leger, Laura Eme, Laura A Hug, Andrew J Roger
Mitochondrion-related organelles (MROs) have arisen independently in a wide range of anaerobic protist lineages. Only a few of these organelles and their functions have been investigated in detail, and most of what is known about MROs comes from studies of parasitic organisms such as the parabasalid Trichomonas vaginalis Here, we describe the MRO of a free-living anaerobic jakobid excavate, Stygiella incarcerata We report an RNAseq-based reconstruction of S. incarcerata's MRO proteome, with an associated biochemical map of the pathways predicted to be present in this organelle...
September 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27063425/spermatozeugmata-structure-and-dissociation-of-the-australian-flat-oyster-ostera-angasi-implications-for-reproductive-strategy
#19
Md Mahbubul Hassan, Jian G Qin, Xiaoxu Li
Variation in reproductive strategy is one of the key factors contributing to recruitment success of molluscs in different habitats. Spermcasting is a unique mode in mollusc reproduction where males produce spermatozeugmata, a radially arrayed sperm cluster wrapped by gelatinous membrane. In this study, spermatozeugmata structure and their dissociation in the Australian flat oyster Ostrea angasi were investigated to elucidate the reproductive strategy in spermcasting molluscs. The histological observation indicated that spermatogonia gradually aggregated in the gonad follicle at the early gonad development stages and developed into spermatozeugmata and became tightly packed at the advanced stages...
June 2016: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27018790/transcriptomic-characterization-of-tambaqui-colossoma-macropomum-cuvier-1818-exposed-to-three-climate-change-scenarios
#20
Marcos Prado-Lima, Adalberto Luis Val
Climate change substantially affects biodiversity around the world, especially in the Amazon region, which is home to a significant portion of the world's biodiversity. Freshwater fishes are susceptible to increases in water temperature and variations in the concentrations of dissolved gases, especially oxygen and carbon dioxide. It is important to understand the mechanisms underlying the physiological and biochemical abilities of fishes to survive such environmental changes. In the present study, we applied RNA-Seq and de novo transcriptome sequencing to evaluate transcriptome alterations in tambaqui when exposed to five or fifteen days of the B1, A1B and A2 climate scenarios foreseen by the IPCC...
2016: PloS One
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