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mitochondrion adaptation

Qi-Lin Zhang, Xing-Zhuo Yang, Li Zhang, Run-Qiu Feng, Qian-Hua Zhu, Jun-Yuan Chen, Ming-Long Yuan
Given mitochondrion is the 'energy and oxygen usage factories', adaptive signatures of mitochondrial genes have been extensively investigated in vertebrates from different altitudes, but few studies focus on insects. Here, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Dolycoris. baccarum living in the Tibetan Plateau (DBHC, ∼3200 m above sea level (asl)) and conducted a detailed comparative analysis with another D. baccarum mitogenome (DBQY) from relatively low altitude (∼1300 m asl)...
March 9, 2018: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
Asha Lekshmi, Shankara Narayanan Varadarajan, Santhik Subhasingh Lupitha, Mydhily Nair, Aneesh Chandrasekharan, T R Santhoshkumar
Recent cell biology studies reveal that a cell can die through multiple pathways via distinct signaling mechanisms. Among these, apoptosis and necrosis are two distinct cell death pathways, and their detection and discrimination is vital in the drug discovery process and in understanding diverse biological processes. Although sensitive assays for apoptosis and necrosis are available, it is extremely difficult to adapt any of these methods to discriminate apoptosis-inducing stimuli from necrosis-inducing stimuli because of the acquisition of secondary necrosis by apoptotic cells when they are not phagocytosed...
February 21, 2018: Current Protocols in Toxicology
Mervyn Singer
An exaggerated, dysregulated host response to insults such as infection (i.e. sepsis), trauma and ischaemia-reperfusion injury can result in multiple organ dysfunction and death. While the focus of research in this area has largely centred on inflammation and immunity, a crucial missing link is the precise identification of mechanisms at the organ level that cause this physiological-biochemical failure. Any hypothesis must reconcile this functional organ failure with minimal signs of cell death, availability of oxygen, and (often) minimal early local inflammatory cell infiltrate...
December 28, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
James A Shapiro
Evolutionary variations generating phenotypic adaptations and novel taxa resulted from complex cellular activities altering genome content and expression: (i) Symbiogenetic cell mergers producing the mitochondrion-bearing ancestor of eukaryotes and chloroplast-bearing ancestors of photosynthetic eukaryotes; (ii) interspecific hybridizations and genome doublings generating new species and adaptive radiations of higher plants and animals; and, (iii) interspecific horizontal DNA transfer encoding virtually all of the cellular functions between organisms and their viruses in all domains of life...
December 6, 2017: Biology
Qi-Lin Zhang, Li Zhang, Xing-Zhuo Yang, Xiao-Tong Wang, Xiao-Peng Li, Juan Wang, Jun-Yuan Chen, Ming-Long Yuan
Adaptation of insects to different altitudes remain largely unknown, especially those endemic to the Tibetan Plateau (TP). Here, we generated the transcriptomes of Gynaephora menyuanensis and G. alpherakii, inhabiting different high altitudes on the TP, and used these and the previously available transcriptomic and genomic sequences from low-altitude insects to explore potential genetic basis for divergent high-altitude adaptation in Gynaephora. An analysis of 5,869 orthologous genes among Gynaephora and other three low-altitude insects uncovered that fast-evolving genes and positively selected genes (PSGs) in the two Gynaephora species were enriched in energy metabolism and hypoxia response categories (e...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
Charalambos Michaeloudes, Pankaj K Bhavsar, Sharon Mumby, Kian Fan Chung, Ian M Adcock
The mitochondrion is the main site of energy production and a hub of key signaling pathways. It is also central in stress-adaptive response due to its dynamic morphology and ability to interact with other organelles. In response to stress, mitochondria fuse into networks to increase bioenergetic efficiency and protect against oxidative damage. Mitochondrial damage triggers segregation of damaged mitochondria from the mitochondrial network through fission and their proteolytic degradation by mitophagy. Post-translational modifications of the mitochondrial proteome and nuclear cross-talk lead to reprogramming of metabolic gene expression to maintain energy production and redox balance...
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Tamila Garbuz, Gustavo Arrizabalaga
The importance of maintaining the fidelity of the mitochondrial genome is underscored by the presence of various repair pathways within this organelle. Presumably, the repair of mitochondrial DNA would be of particular importance in organisms that possess only a single mitochondrion, like the human pathogens Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii. Understanding the machinery that maintains mitochondrial DNA in these parasites is of particular relevance, as mitochondrial function is a validated and effective target for anti-parasitic drugs...
2017: PloS One
Marianna Kunrath-Lima, Bruno Marçal Repolês, Ceres Luciana Alves, Carolina Furtado, Matheus Andrade Rajão, Andrea Mara Macedo, Glória Regina Franco, Sérgio Danilo Junho Pena, Lucía Valenzuela, Simon Wisnovsky, Shana O Kelley, Norbel Galanti, Gonzalo Cabrera, Carlos Renato Machado
Trypanosoma cruzi is a protozoan parasite and the causative agent of Chagas disease. Like most living organisms, it is susceptible to oxidative stress, and must adapt to distinct environments. Hence, DNA repair is essential for its survival and the persistence of infection. Therefore, we studied whether T. cruzi has a homolog counterpart of the MutY enzyme (TcMYH), important in the DNA Base Excision Repair (BER) mechanism. Analysis of T. cruzi genome database showed that this parasite has a putative MutY DNA glycosylase sequence...
September 29, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
James A Shapiro
Many of the most important evolutionary variations that generated phenotypic adaptations and originated novel taxa resulted from complex cellular activities affecting genome content and expression. These activities included (i) the symbiogenetic cell merger that produced the mitochondrion-bearing ancestor of all extant eukaryotes, (ii) symbiogenetic cell mergers that produced chloroplast-bearing ancestors of photosynthetic eukaryotes, and (iii) interspecific hybridizations and genome doublings that generated new species and adaptive radiations of higher plants and animals...
October 6, 2017: Interface Focus
Andrzej T Slominski, Michal A Zmijewski, Igor Semak, Tae-Kang Kim, Zorica Janjetovic, Radomir M Slominski, Jaroslaw W Zmijewski
The skin being a protective barrier between external and internal (body) environments has the sensory and adaptive capacity to maintain local and global body homeostasis in response to noxious factors. An important part of the skin response to stress is its ability for melatonin synthesis and subsequent metabolism through the indolic and kynuric pathways. Indeed, melatonin and its metabolites have emerged as indispensable for physiological skin functions and for effective protection of a cutaneous homeostasis from hostile environmental factors...
November 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Kenneth Bryan, Beatrice A McGivney, Gabriella Farries, Paul A McGettigan, Charlotte L McGivney, Katie F Gough, David E MacHugh, Lisa M Katz, Emmeline W Hill
BACKGROUND: A single bout of exercise induces changes in gene expression in skeletal muscle. Regular exercise results in an adaptive response involving changes in muscle architecture and biochemistry, and is an effective way to manage and prevent common human diseases such as obesity, cardiovascular disorders and type II diabetes. However, the biomolecular mechanisms underlying such responses still need to be fully elucidated. Here we performed a transcriptome-wide analysis of skeletal muscle tissue in a large cohort of untrained Thoroughbred horses (n = 51) before and after a bout of high-intensity exercise and again after an extended period of training...
August 9, 2017: BMC Genomics
M Florencia Camus, Jonci N Wolff, Carla M Sgrò, Damian K Dowling
Cellular metabolism is regulated by enzyme complexes within the mitochondrion, the function of which are sensitive to the prevailing temperature. Such thermal sensitivity, coupled with the observation that population frequencies of mitochondrial haplotypes tend to associate with latitude, altitude, or climatic regions across species distributions, led to the hypothesis that thermal selection has played a role in shaping standing variation in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence. This hypothesis, however, remains controversial, and requires evidence that the distribution of haplotypes observed in nature corresponds with the capacity of these haplotypes to confer differences in thermal tolerance...
October 1, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Marcelo L Merli, Brenda A Cirulli, Simón M Menéndez-Bravo, Julia A Cricco
Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, presents a complex life cycle and adapts its metabolism to nutrients' availability. Although T. cruzi is an aerobic organism, it does not produce heme. This cofactor is acquired from the host and is distributed and inserted into different heme-proteins such as respiratory complexes in the parasite's mitochondrion. It has been proposed that T. cruzi's energy metabolism relies on a branched respiratory chain with a cytochrome c oxidase-type aa3 (CcO) as the main terminal oxidase...
June 27, 2017: Biochemical Journal
Zhiping Li, Yan Liu, Xinlun Dai, Qiangqiang Zhou, Xueli Liu, Zeyu Li, Xia Chen
Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) activates an adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR) that facilitates cellular repair, however, under prolonged ER stress, the UPR can ultimately trigger apoptosis thereby terminating damaged cells. Recently, TSA has shown protective effects on ERS and its mechanisms related to ER pathway has been previously characterized. However, whether TSA exerts its protective role via metabolic events remain largely undefined. Objectives: To explore the possible involvement of the metabolic changes during ERS and to better understand how TSA influence mitochondrial function to facilitate cellular adaptation...
May 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
Natália P Nogueira, Francis M S Saraiva, Matheus P Oliveira, Ana Paula M Mendonça, Job D F Inacio, Elmo E Almeida-Amaral, Rubem F Menna-Barreto, Gustavo A T Laranja, Eduardo J Lopes Torres, Marcus F Oliveira, Marcia C Paes
Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease and has a single mitochondrion, an organelle responsible for ATP production and the main site for the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). T. cruzi is an obligate intracellular parasite with a complex life cycle that alternates between vertebrate and invertebrate hosts, therefore the development of survival strategies and morphogenetic adaptations to deal with the various environments is mandatory. Over the years our group has been studying the vector-parasite interactions using heme as a physiological oxidant molecule that triggered epimastigote proliferation however, the source of ROS induced by heme remained unknown...
March 29, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Zahra S Mesbah Moosavi, David A Hood
Mitochondria comprise both nuclear and mitochondrially encoded proteins requiring precise stoichiometry for their integration into functional complexes. The augmented protein synthesis associated with mitochondrial biogenesis results in the accumulation of unfolded proteins, thus triggering cellular stress. As such, the unfolded protein responses emanating from the endoplasmic reticulum (UPR(ER)) or the mitochondrion (UPR(MT)) are triggered to ensure correct protein handling. Whether this response is necessary for mitochondrial adaptations is unknown...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Chao Tong, Tian Fei, Cunfang Zhang, Kai Zhao
BACKGROUND: Understanding the genetic basis of adaptation to high altitude life is of paramount importance for preserving and managing genetic diversity in highland animals. This objective has been addressed mainly in terrestrial fauna but rarely in aquatic animals. Tibetan Schizothoracinae fish is the ideal model system in evolutionary biology, carrying key insights into evolutionary genetics of speciation and adaptation at high altitude. Gymnocypris przewalskii is the newly formed Schizothoracinae fish species in the Tibetan Plateau, inhabits chronic cold, extreme saline and alkaline aquatic environment in Lake Qinghai, thus evolving the unique genomic signatures to adapt extremely severe environments...
March 9, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Dave Speijer
What kind of symbiosis between archaeon and bacterium gave rise to their eventual merger at the origin of the eukaryotes? I hypothesize that conditions favouring bacterial uptake were based on exchange of intermediate carbohydrate metabolites required by recurring changes in availability and use of the two different terminal electron chain acceptors, the bacterial one being oxygen. Oxygen won, and definitive loss of the archaeal membrane potential allowed permanent establishment of the bacterial partner as the proto-mitochondrion, further metabolic integration and highly efficient ATP production...
February 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
Magdaléna Bruňanská, John S Mackiewicz, Larisa G Poddubnaya
Spermatological characters of Dictyocotyle coeliaca Nybelin, a unique endoparasitic monogenean from the body cavity of the ray Amblyraja radiata (Elasmobranchii: Rajidae), was investigated by means of scanning and transmission electron microscopy for the first time. The process of the spermatozoon formation begins with the appearance of the differentiation zone which contains two centrioles. Subsequently developed two free flagella rotate to lie parallel before their fusing. After fusion, both the mitochondrion and nucleus migrate alongside the axonemes...
March 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
L Zhang, T-H Yang, D W-C Li
Heart is an extremely important organ, and cardiovascular disorders emerge as primary life-threatening disease in human life. Aberrant post-translational modifications (PTMs) on cardiac proteins are closely correlated with pathological abnormalities in heart. SUMOylation, one of the most prevalent PTMs with thousands of substrates throughout the cell including critical subcellular organelles, has been shown to precisely fine-tune the cell survival and proliferation during heart development, and delicately control the function of mitochondrion and sarcoplasmic reticulum in physiological heart functioning...
December 23, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
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