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mitochondrion selection

Michael J Wade, Devin M Drown
We use population genetic models to investigate the cooperative and conflicting synergistic fitness effects between genes from the nucleus and the mitochondrion. By varying fitness parameters, we examine the scope for conflict relative to cooperation among genomes and the utility of the "gene's eye view" analytical approach, which is based on the marginal average fitness of specific alleles. Because sexual conflict can maintain polymorphism of mitochondrial haplotypes, we can explore two types of evolutionary conflict (genomic and sexual) with one epistatic model...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Christian Arstad, Paulo Refinetti, David Warren, Karl-Erik Giercksky, Per Olaf Ekstrøm
To bypass possible nuclear contamination and to exclusively amplify DNA from the mitochondrion, a set of 23 primers was selected. On the mitochondrial DNA selection fragments, a second set of fragments was used to amplify and identify mutant fractions with a detection limit of 1% . This mutation scanning method analyzed 76% of the mitochondrial genome and was used to examine 94 tumours from different tissues of origin. In all, 87 tumours had one or more mutations, leaving seven samples without observed mutations...
October 11, 2016: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
Suprabhat Mukherjee, Niladri Mukherjee, Prajna Gayen, Priya Roy, Santi P Sinha Babu
Human diseases caused by the infectious parasites have been one of the major problems throughout the evolutionary journey. Protozoan and metazoan parasitic infections result in a large number of deaths, disabilities and socio-economic loss worldwide to date. Despite our best efforts of developing suitable antiparasitics, these infections take a massive toll on human health. The prevalence of emerging resistance to the existing drugs, lack of efficacy and toxic side effects came out as added complications. Being enlisted under 'neglected' category, serious diseases like leishmaniases, filariases, trypanosomiases etc...
October 4, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
Ruslan Aphasizhev, Takuma Suematsu, Liye Zhang, Inna Aphasizheva
RNA uridylation is a significant transcriptome-shaping factor in protists, fungi, metazoans, and plants. The 3' U-additions are catalyzed by terminal uridyltransferases (TUTases), a diverse group of enzymes that along with non-canonical poly(A) polymerases form a distinct group in the superfamily of DNA polymerase β-like nucleotidyl transferases. Within and across studied organisms and subcellular compartments, TUTases differ in nucleotide triphosphate selectivity, interacting partners, and RNA targets. A general premise linking RNA uridylation to 3'-5' degradation received support from several studies of small RNAs and mRNA turnover...
October 7, 2016: RNA Biology
Shang-Jyh Kao, Wei-Jiunn Lee, Jer-Hwa Chang, Jyh-Ming Chow, Chi-Li Chung, Wen-Yueh Hung, Ming-Hsien Chien
Nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer with a high mortality rate and still remains a therapeutic challenge. A strategy for targeting NSCLC is to identify agents that are effective against NSCLC cells while sparing normal cells. Dihydromyricetin (DHM) is the major flavonoid component derived from Ampelopsis grossedentata, which has a long history of use in medicine. Herein, the molecular mechanisms by which DHM exerts its anticancer effects against NSCLC cells were investigated...
August 19, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Alistair V W Nunn, Geoffrey W Guy, Jimmy D Bell
A sufficiently complex set of molecules, if subject to perturbation, will self-organize and show emergent behaviour. If such a system can take on information it will become subject to natural selection. This could explain how self-replicating molecules evolved into life and how intelligence arose. A pivotal step in this evolutionary process was of course the emergence of the eukaryote and the advent of the mitochondrion, which both enhanced energy production per cell and increased the ability to process, store and utilize information...
August 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
Xiao-Jing Shi, Bin Yu, Jun-Wei Wang, Ping-Ping Qi, Kai Tang, Xin Huang, Hong-Min Liu
Cancer cells always have increased ROS levels, thus making them more vulnerable to persistent endogenous oxidative stress. The biochemical difference between cancer and normal cells could be exploited to achieve selective cancer cell killing by exogenous ROS-producing agents. Herein we described a structurally novel steroidal spirooxindole by241 and its anticancer efficacy. By241 exhibited potent inhibition against human cancer cells and less toxic to normal cells. By241 concentration-dependently induced apoptosis of MGC-803 and EC9706 cells, accompanied with the mitochondrial dysfunction and increased ROS levels...
2016: Scientific Reports
Zhen Xu, Xiao-Ai Lv, Qun Dai, Yu-Qing Ge, Jie Xu
Metabolic defects and neuronal apoptosis initiated by traumatic brain injury (TBI) contribute to subsequent neurodegeneration. They are all regulated by mechanisms centered around mitochondrion. Type-1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1) is a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) enriched on neuronal plasma membrane. Recent evidences point to the substantial presence of CB1 receptors on neuronal mitochondrial outer membranes (mtCB1) and the activation of mtCB1 influences aerobic respiration via inhibiting mitochondrial cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA)/complex I pathway...
2016: Molecular Brain
Yong-Han He, Xiang Lu, Jiao-Yang Tian, Dong-Jing Yan, Yu-Chun Li, Rong Lin, Benjamin Perry, Xiao-Qiong Chen, Qin Yu, Wang-Wei Cai, Qing-Peng Kong
The mitochondrion is a double membrane-bound organelle which plays important functional roles in aging and many other complex phenotypes. Transmission of the mitochondrial genome in the matrilineal line causes the evolutionary selection sieve only in females. Theoretically, beneficial or neutral variations are more likely to accumulate and be retained in the female mitochondrial genome during evolution, which may be an initial trigger of gender dimorphism in aging. The asymmetry of evolutionary processes between gender could lead to males and females aging in different ways...
October 2016: Experimental Gerontology
W-Matthias Leeder, Niklas F C Hummel, H Ulrich Göringer
Mitochondrial transcript maturation in African trypanosomes requires a U-nucleotide specific RNA editing reaction. In its most extreme form hundreds of U's are inserted into and deleted from primary transcripts to generate functional mRNAs. Unfortunately, both origin and biological role of the process have remained enigmatic. Here we report a so far unrecognized structural feature of pre-edited mRNAs. We demonstrate that the cryptic pre-mRNAs contain numerous clustered G-nt, which fold into G-quadruplex (GQ) structures...
2016: Scientific Reports
Jun Zhao, Yue Qiu, Cheng-Lei Tian, Ting-Jun Fan
Phenylephrine (PHE), a selective α1-adrenergic receptor agonist, is often used as a decongestant for mydriasis prior to cataract surgery, and its abuse might be cytotoxic to the cornea and result in blurred vision. However, the cytotoxicity of PHE to the cornea and its cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unknown. To provide references for secure medication and prospective therapeutic interventions of PHE, we investigated the cytotoxicity of PHE to corneal stroma and its possible mechanisms using an in vitro model of human corneal stromal (HCS) cells and an in vivo model of cat keratocytes...
August 2016: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
V M R Pires, M S Madeira, A A Dowle, J Thomas, A M Almeida, J A M Prates
Due to genetic selection towards reduced subcutaneous fat, the amount of intramuscular fat (IMF) in commercial pigs has been reduced (<2.5%), compromising pork quality. The use of reduced protein diets (RPD) is a good strategy to increase IMF in pigs. We have previously shown that increased IMF promoted by RPD is mediated by lysine restriction. However, the molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. Here we performed a proteomics study to quantify differentially regulated proteins in the longissimus lumborum muscle of pigs (n = 4) fed a normal protein diet (NPD) (16...
July 19, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
Lu Kong, Xiaojie Gao, Jiaqian Zhu, Keping Cheng, Meng Tang
Nickel nanoparticles (Ni NPs) are associated with reproductive toxicity. However, the mechanisms of reproductive toxicity are unclear. Our goal was to explore further reproductive toxicity induced by nickel nanoparticle and mechanisms involved in this process, including the role of oxidative stress and apoptosis. According to the one-generation reproductive toxicity standard, rats were exposed to nickel nanoparticles by gavage and we selected indicators including ultrastructural, reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidant and antioxidant enzymes, and cell apoptosis-related factors...
June 3, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Chun Chih Chen, Dennis Kolosov, Scott P Kelly
To consider the idea that a dietary botanical supplement could act as an adaptogen in a teleost fish, the effect of a liquorice root derivative (18β-glycyrrhetinic acid, 18βGA) on rainbow trout following an acute ionoregulatory stressor was examined. Freshwater (FW) trout were fed a control or 18βGA supplemented diet (0, 5, or 50μg 18βGA/g diet) for 2weeks, then abruptly exposed to ion-poor water (IPW) for 24h. Following IPW exposure, muscle moisture content and serum cortisol levels elevated and serum [Na(+)] and/or [Cl(-)] reduced in control and 50μg/g 18βGA-fed fish...
September 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Daizhen Zhang, Ge Ding, Baoming Ge, Huabin Zhang, Boping Tang
The mitochondrion is the energy-producing factory of eukaryotic cells, in which oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is the main pathway for the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by cellular respiration. Because of their vital role in metabolism, mitochondrial proteins are predicted to evolve primarily under constant purifying selection. However, all mitochondrial coding genes of malacostraca had a significantly higher synonymous nt divergence (Ks) in this study. Complex I (NADH dehydrogenase) and complex V (ATP synthase) had a much higher ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous nt divergence (Ka/Ks) and non-synonymous diversity (πNS), whereas complex III (cytochrome bc1 complex) and complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) had a significantly lower Ka/Ks and non-synonymous diversity (πNS)...
March 8, 2016: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
Dennis Kolosov, Scott P Kelly
This study utilized dietary salt loading and ion-poor water (IPW) exposure of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to further understand the role of fish gill epithelium tight junction (TJ) physiology in salt and water balance. Gill morphology, biochemistry and molecular physiology were examined, with an emphasis on genes encoding TJ proteins. Fish were either fed a control or salt-enriched diet (~10 % NaCl) for 4 weeks prior to IPW exposure for 24 h. Serum [Na(+)], [Cl(-)] and muscle moisture content were unaltered by salt feeding, but changed in response to IPW irrespective of diet...
August 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
Christopher D Goodman, Josephine E Siregar, Vanessa Mollard, Joel Vega-Rodríguez, Din Syafruddin, Hiroyuki Matsuoka, Motomichi Matsuzaki, Tomoko Toyama, Angelika Sturm, Anton Cozijnsen, Marcelo Jacobs-Lorena, Kiyoshi Kita, Sangkot Marzuki, Geoffrey I McFadden
Drug resistance compromises control of malaria. Here, we show that resistance to a commonly used antimalarial medication, atovaquone, is apparently unable to spread. Atovaquone pressure selects parasites with mutations in cytochrome b, a respiratory protein with low but essential activity in the mammalian blood phase of the parasite life cycle. Resistance mutations rescue parasites from the drug but later prove lethal in the mosquito phase, where parasites require full respiration. Unable to respire efficiently, resistant parasites fail to complete mosquito development, arresting their life cycle...
April 15, 2016: Science
Prasanth Potluri, Vincent Procaccio, Immo E Scheffler, Douglas C Wallace
To identify nuclear DNA (nDNA) oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) gene mutations using cultured cells, we have developed a complementation system based on retroviral transduction with a full length cDNA expression library and selection for OXHOS function by growth in galactose. We have used this system to transduce the Chinese hamster V79-G7 OXPHOS mutant cell line with a defect in mitochondrial protein synthesis. The complemented cells were found to have acquired the cDNA for the bS6m polypeptide of the small subunit of the mitochondrial ribosome...
August 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Haibo Liu, Yet T Nguyen, Dan Nettleton, Jack C M Dekkers, Christopher K Tuggle
BACKGROUND: Improving feed efficiency (FE) of pigs by genetic selection is of economic and environmental significance. An increasingly accepted measure of feed efficiency is residual feed intake (RFI). Currently, the molecular mechanisms underlying RFI are largely unknown. Additionally, to incorporate RFI into animal breeding programs, feed intake must be recorded on individual pigs, which is costly and time-consuming. Thus, convenient and predictive biomarkers for RFI that can be measured at an early age are greatly desired...
2016: BMC Genomics
Xiu-Li Gao, Hua Lin, Wei Zhao, Ya-Qin Hou, Yong-Li Bao, Zhen-Bo Song, Lu-Guo Sun, Shang-Yi Tian, Biao Liu, Yu-Xin Li
Juglans mandshurica Maxim (Juglandaceae) is a famous folk medicine for cancer treatment and some natural compounds isolated from it have been studied extensively. Previously we isolated a type of ω-9 polyunsaturated fatty acid (JA) from the bark of J. mandshurica, however little is known about its activity and the underlying mechanisms. In this study, we studied anti-tumor activity of JA on several human cancer cell lines. Results showed that JA is cytotoxic to HepG2, MDA-MB-231, SGC-7901, A549 and Huh7 cells at a concentration exerting minimal toxic effects on L02 cells...
March 2016: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
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