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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208990/comparative-transcriptomic-analysis-of-tibetan-gynaephora-to-explore-the-genetic-basis-of-insect-adaptation-to-divergent-altitude-environments
#1
Qi-Lin Zhang, Li Zhang, Xing-Zhuo Yang, Xiao-Tong Wang, Xiao-Peng Li, Juan Wang, Jun-Yuan Chen, Ming-Long Yuan
Adaptation of insects to different altitudes remain largely unknown, especially those endemic to the Tibetan Plateau (TP). Here, we generated the transcriptomes of Gynaephora menyuanensis and G. alpherakii, inhabiting different high altitudes on the TP, and used these and the previously available transcriptomic and genomic sequences from low-altitude insects to explore potential genetic basis for divergent high-altitude adaptation in Gynaephora. An analysis of 5,869 orthologous genes among Gynaephora and other three low-altitude insects uncovered that fast-evolving genes and positively selected genes (PSGs) in the two Gynaephora species were enriched in energy metabolism and hypoxia response categories (e...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170928/leishmania-mexicana-differentiation-involves-a-selective-plasma-membrane-autophagic-like-process
#2
Francehuli Dagger, Camila Bengio, Angel Martinez, Carlos Ayesta
Parasites of the Leishmania genus, which are the causative agents of leishmaniasis, display a complex life cycle, from a flagellated form (promastigotes) residing in the midgut of the phlebotomine vector to a non-flagellated form (amastigote) invading the mammalian host. The cellular process for the conversion between these forms is an interesting biological phenomenon involving modulation of the plasma membrane. In this study, we describe a selective autophagic-like process during the in vitro differentiation of Leishmania mexicana promastigote to amastigote-like cells...
November 23, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159705/isopropyl-quinoxaline-7-carboxylate-1-4-di-n-oxide-derivatives-induce-regulated-necrosis-like-cell-death-on-leishmania-leishmania-mexicana
#3
Karla Fabiola Chacón-Vargas, Sergio Andrade-Ochoa, Benjamín Nogueda-Torres, Dulce Carolina Juárez-Ramírez, Edgar E Lara-Ramírez, Ricardo Mondragón-Flores, Antonio Monge, Gildardo Rivera, Luvia Enid Sánchez-Torres
Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by the parasite of the genus Leishmania. About 13 million people are infected worldwide, and it is estimated that 350 million are at risk of infection. Clinical manifestations depend on the parasite species and factors related to the host such as the immune system, nutrition, housing, and financial resources. Available treatments have severe side effects; therefore, research currently focuses on finding more active and less toxic compounds. Quinoxalines have been described as promising alternatives...
November 20, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111701/mitochondrial-imaging-with-combined-fluorescence-and-stimulated-raman-scattering-microscopy-using-a-probe-of-the-aggregation-induced-emission-characteristic
#4
Xuesong Li, Meijuan Jiang, Jacky W Y Lam, Ben Zhong Tang, Jianan Y Qu
In vivo quantitative measurement of biodistribution plays a critical role in the drug/probe development and diagnosis/treatment process monitoring. In this work, we report a probe, named AIE-SRS-Mito, for imaging mitochondria in live cells via fluorescence (FL) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) imaging. The probe features an aggregation-induced emission (AIE) characteristic and possesses an enhanced alkyne Raman peak at 2223 cm(-1). The dual-mode imaging of AIE-SRS-Mito for selective mitochondrion-targeting was examined on a homemade FL-SRS microscope system...
November 16, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057653/mitochondrion-targeting-environment-sensitive-red-fluorescent-probe-for-highly-sensitive-detection-and-imaging-of-vicinal-dithiol-containing-proteins
#5
Feng Liu, Hai-Juan Liu, Xian-Jun Liu, Wen Chen, Fenglin Wang, Ru-Qin Yu, Jian-Hui Jiang
Mitochondrial vicinal dithiol-containing proteins (VDPs) are key regulators in cellular redox homeostasis and useful markers for diagnostics of redox-dependent diseases. Current probes fail to target mitochondrial VDPs and show limited sensitivity and response rate. We develop a novel fluorescent probe using an engineered benzoxadiazole fluorophore that allows selective targeting of mitochondria and exhibits highly sensitive environment responsiveness. This probe is almost nonfluorescent in aqueous media, while delivering intense fluorescence upon binding to VDPs via a cyclic dithiaarsane ligand...
November 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991908/mitochondrial-dual-coding-genes-in-trypanosoma-brucei
#6
Laura E Kirby, Donna Koslowsky
Trypanosoma brucei is transmitted between mammalian hosts by the tsetse fly. In the mammal, they are exclusively extracellular, continuously replicating within the bloodstream. During this stage, the mitochondrion lacks a functional electron transport chain (ETC). Successful transition to the fly, requires activation of the ETC and ATP synthesis via oxidative phosphorylation. This life cycle leads to a major problem: in the bloodstream, the mitochondrial genes are not under selection and are subject to genetic drift that endangers their integrity...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961281/chronic-administration-of-mitochondrion-targeted-peptide-ss-31-prevents-atherosclerotic-development-in-apoe-knockout-mice-fed-western-diet
#7
Meng Zhang, Hongting Zhao, Jing Cai, Huihui Li, Qi Wu, Tong Qiao, Kuanyu Li
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress and inflammatory factors are deeply involved in progression of atherosclerosis. Mitochondrion-targeted peptide SS-31, selectively targeting to mitochondrial inner membrane reacting with cardiolipin, has been reported to inhibit ROS generation and mitigate inflammation. The present study was designed to investigate whether SS-31 could suppress the development of atherosclerosis in vivo. METHODS: Male ApoE-/- mice (8 weeks old) fed with Western diet were treated with normal saline or SS-31 (1 mg/kg/d or 3 mg/kg/d) through subcutaneous injection for 12 weeks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916841/some-liked-it-hot-a-hypothesis-regarding-establishment-of-the-proto-mitochondrial-endosymbiont-during-eukaryogenesis
#8
Cory D Dunn
Eukaryotic cells are characterized by a considerable increase in subcellular compartmentalization when compared to prokaryotes. Most evidence suggests that the earliest eukaryotes consisted of mitochondria derived from an α-proteobacterial ancestor enclosed within an archaeal host cell. However, what benefits the archaeal host and the proto-mitochondrial endosymbiont might have obtained at the beginning of this endosymbiotic relationship remains unclear. In this work, I argue that heat generated by the proto-mitochondrion initially permitted an archaeon living at high temperatures to colonize a cooler environment, thereby removing apparent limitations on cellular complexity...
October 2017: Journal of Molecular Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837145/discovery-of-4-bromophenyl-3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl-methanone-through-upregulating-htert-induces-cell-apoptosis-and-ers
#9
Xiu Cheng, Jing Bo Shi, Hao Liu, Liu Zeng Chen, Yang Wang, Wen Jian Tang, Xin Hua Liu
Dominant-negative mutants of telomerase hTERT were demonstrated to have selective effects in tumor cells. However, no any effective and highly selective hTERT inhibitor has been developed so far. We focused on developing new hTERT modulators and synthesized a small molecular compound, named (4-bromophenyl)(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)methanone. Our in vitro studies found that title compound showed high inhibitory activity against telomerase, had high antiproliferative capacity on SMMC-7721 cells with IC50 value 88 nm, and had no obvious toxic effect on human normal hepatocyte cells with IC50 value 10 μM...
August 24, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829780/proteomic-analysis-of-potentilla-fruticosa-l-leaves-by-itraq-reveals-responses-to-heat-stress
#10
Yingtian Guo, Zhi Wang, Xuelian Guan, Zenghui Hu, Ze Zhang, Jian Zheng, Yizeng Lu
High temperature is an important environmental factor that affects plant growth and crop yield. Potentilla fruticosa L. has a developed root system and characteristics of resistance to several stresses (e.g., high temperature, cold, drought) that are shared by native shrubs in the north and west of China. To investigate thermotolerance mechanisms in P. fruticosa, 3-year-old plants were subjected to a high temperature of 42°C for 1, 2, and 3 days respectively before analysis. Then, we studied changes in cell ultrastructure using electron microscopy and investigated physiological changes in the leaves of P...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743501/hypoxic-postconditioning-attenuates-apoptosis-via-inactivation-of-adenosine-a2a-receptor-through-ndrg3-raf-erk-pathway
#11
Chao Cui, Huang Lin, Yanyu Shi, Ruiyan Pan
BACKGROUND: In recent years, many studies have demonstrated that endogenous adenosine induced by ischemia postconditioning reduces apoptosis in animal and cell models, but no study has clearly elucidated the effects of hypoxia postconditioning (HPC) in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs) of flaps, and the subtype of adenosine receptors involved remains unknown. In our study, we sought to identify the roles of adenosine A2a receptor, NDRG3 (N-myc downstream-regulated gene 3) and Raf-ERK pathway in the anti-apoptotic effects of hypoxia postconditioning...
September 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740612/3-hydroxykynurenine-a-tryptophan-metabolite-generated-during-the-infection-is-active-against-trypanosoma-cruzi
#12
Carolina P Knubel, Constanza Insfran, Fernando F Martinez, Cintia Diaz Lujan, Ricardo E Fretes, Martin G Theumer, Laura Cervi, Claudia C Motran
The antiparasitic activity of 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK), one of the major tryptophan catabolites of the kynurenine pathway, against both Trypanosoma cruzi evolutive forms that are important for human infection, trypomastigotes (Tps) and amastigotes (Am), possible targets in the parasite and the drug toxicity to mammalian cells have been investigated. 3-HK showed a potent activity against Am with IC50 values in the micromolar concentration range, while the IC50 values to cause Tps death was ∼6000-times higher, indicating that the replicative form present in the vertebrate hosts is much more susceptible to 3-HK than bloodstream Tps...
July 13, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637217/experimental-support-that-natural-selection-has-shaped-the-latitudinal-distribution-of-mitochondrial-haplotypes-in-australian-drosophila-melanogaster
#13
M Florencia Camus, Jonci N Wolff, Carla M Sgrò, Damian K Dowling
Cellular metabolism is regulated by enzyme complexes within the mitochondrion, the function of which are sensitive to the prevailing temperature. Such thermal sensitivity, coupled with the observation that population frequencies of mitochondrial haplotypes tend to associate with latitude, altitude, or climatic regions across species distributions, led to the hypothesis that thermal selection has played a role in shaping standing variation in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence. This hypothesis, however, remains controversial, and requires evidence that the distribution of haplotypes observed in nature corresponds with the capacity of these haplotypes to confer differences in thermal tolerance...
October 1, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636676/mitochondrion-to-endoplasmic-reticulum-apposition-length-in-zebrafish-embryo-spinal-progenitors-is-unchanged-in-response-to-perturbations-associated-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Morgan Newman, Lena Halter, Anne Lim, Michael Lardelli
Mutations in the human genes PRESENILIN1 (PSEN1), PRESENILIN2 (PSEN2) and AMYLOID BETA A4 PRECURSOR PROTEIN (APP) have been identified in familial Alzheimer's disease (AD). The length of mitochondrion-endoplasmic reticulum (M-ER) appositions is increased in Psen1-/-/Psen2-/- double knockout murine embryonic fibroblasts and in fibroblasts from AD-affected individuals. Development of an easily accessible, genetically manipulable, in vivo system for studying M-ER appositions would be valuable so we attempted to manipulate M-ER apposition length in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352279/development-of-a-double-nuclear-gene-targeting-method-by-two-step-transformation-based-on-a-newly-established-chloramphenicol-selection-system-in-the-red-alga-cyanidioschyzon-merolae
#15
Takayuki Fujiwara, Mio Ohnuma, Tsuneyoshi Kuroiwa, Ryudo Ohbayashi, Shunsuke Hirooka, Shin-Ya Miyagishima
The unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae possesses a simple cellular architecture that consists of one mitochondrion, one chloroplast, one peroxisome, one Golgi apparatus, and several lysosomes. The nuclear genome content is also simple, with very little genetic redundancy (16.5 Mbp, 4,775 genes). In addition, molecular genetic tools such as gene targeting and inducible gene expression systems have been recently developed. These cytological features and genetic tractability have facilitated various omics analyses...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338826/the-evolutionary-fate-of-the-chloroplast-and-nuclear-rps16-genes-as-revealed-through-the-sequencing-and-comparative-analyses-of-four-novel-legume-chloroplast-genomes-from-lupinus
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
J Keller, M Rousseau-Gueutin, G E Martin, J Morice, J Boutte, E Coissac, M Ourari, M Aïnouche, A Salmon, F Cabello-Hurtado, A Aïnouche
The Fabaceae family is considered as a model system for understanding chloroplast genome evolution due to the presence of extensive structural rearrangements, gene losses and localized hypermutable regions. Here, we provide sequences of four chloroplast genomes from the Lupinus genus, belonging to the underinvestigated Genistoid clade. Notably, we found in Lupinus species the functional loss of the essential rps16 gene, which was most likely replaced by the nuclear rps16 gene that encodes chloroplast and mitochondrion targeted RPS16 proteins...
August 1, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274921/the-unfolded-protein-response-in-relation-to-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-skeletal-muscle-cells
#17
Zahra S Mesbah Moosavi, David A Hood
Mitochondria comprise both nuclear and mitochondrially encoded proteins requiring precise stoichiometry for their integration into functional complexes. The augmented protein synthesis associated with mitochondrial biogenesis results in the accumulation of unfolded proteins, thus triggering cellular stress. As such, the unfolded protein responses emanating from the endoplasmic reticulum (UPR(ER)) or the mitochondrion (UPR(MT)) are triggered to ensure correct protein handling. Whether this response is necessary for mitochondrial adaptations is unknown...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274203/comprehensive-transcriptomic-analysis-of-tibetan-schizothoracinae-fish-gymnocypris-przewalskii-reveals-how-it-adapts-to-a-high-altitude-aquatic-life
#18
Chao Tong, Tian Fei, Cunfang Zhang, Kai Zhao
BACKGROUND: Understanding the genetic basis of adaptation to high altitude life is of paramount importance for preserving and managing genetic diversity in highland animals. This objective has been addressed mainly in terrestrial fauna but rarely in aquatic animals. Tibetan Schizothoracinae fish is the ideal model system in evolutionary biology, carrying key insights into evolutionary genetics of speciation and adaptation at high altitude. Gymnocypris przewalskii is the newly formed Schizothoracinae fish species in the Tibetan Plateau, inhabits chronic cold, extreme saline and alkaline aquatic environment in Lake Qinghai, thus evolving the unique genomic signatures to adapt extremely severe environments...
March 9, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208302/real-time-monitoring-atp-in-mitochondrion-of-living-cells-a-specific-fluorescent-probe-for-atp-by-dual-recognition-sites
#19
Kai-Yue Tan, Chun-Yan Li, Yong-Fei Li, Junjie Fei, Bin Yang, Ya-Jun Fu, Fang Li
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is mainly produced in the mitochondrion and used as a universal energy source for various cellular events. Various fluorescent probes for ATP have been established successfully, but most of them are not appropriate for monitoring the fluctuation of the mitochondrial ATP level. Herein, a fluorescent probe named Mito-Rh is first synthesized and used to recognize ATP in mitochondrion. In the probe, rhodamine, diethylenetriamine, and triphenylphosphonium are selected as fluorophore, reaction site, and mitochondrion-targeting group, respectively...
February 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188893/ultra-deep-next-generation-mitochondrial-genome-sequencing-reveals-widespread-heteroplasmy-in-chinese-hamster-ovary-cells
#20
Paul S Kelly, Colin Clarke, Alan Costello, Craig Monger, Justine Meiller, Heena Dhiman, Nicole Borth, Michael J Betenbaugh, Martin Clynes, Niall Barron
Recent sequencing of the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell and Chinese hamster genomes has dramatically advanced our ability to understand the biology of these mammalian cell factories. In this study, we focus on the powerhouse of the CHO cell, the mitochondrion. Utilizing a high-resolution next generation sequencing approach we sequenced the Chinese hamster mitochondrial genome for the first time and surveyed the mutational landscape of CHO cell mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Depths of coverage ranging from ~3,319X to 8,056X enabled accurate identification of low frequency mutations (>1%), revealing that mtDNA heteroplasmy is widespread in CHO cells...
February 8, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
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