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mitochondrion selection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208302/real-time-monitoring-atp-in-mitochondrion-of-living-cells-a-specific-fluorescent-probe-for-atp-by-dual-recognition-sites
#1
Kai-Yue Tan, Chun-Yan Li, Yong-Fei Li, Junjie Fei, Bin Yang, Ya-Jun Fu, Fang Li
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is mainly produced in the mitochondrion and used as a universal energy source for various cellular events. Various fluorescent probes for ATP have been established successfully, but most of them are not appropriate for monitoring the fluctuation of the mitochondrial ATP level. Herein, a fluorescent probe named Mito-Rh is first synthesized and used to recognize ATP in mitochondrion. In the probe, rhodamine, diethylenetriamine, and triphenylphosphonium are selected as fluorophore, reaction site, and mitochondrion-targeting group, respectively...
February 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188893/ultra-deep-next-generation-mitochondrial-genome-sequencing-reveals-widespread-heteroplasmy-in-chinese-hamster-ovary-cells
#2
Paul S Kelly, Colin Clarke, Alan Costello, Craig Monger, Justine Meiller, Heena Dhiman, Nicole Borth, Michael J Betenbaugh, Martin Clynes, Niall Barron
Recent sequencing of the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell and Chinese hamster genomes has dramatically advanced our ability to understand the biology of these mammalian cell factories. In this study, we focus on the powerhouse of the CHO cell, the mitochondrion. Utilizing a high-resolution next generation sequencing approach we sequenced the Chinese hamster mitochondrial genome for the first time and surveyed the mutational landscape of CHO cell mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Depths of coverage ranging from ~3,319X to 8,056X enabled accurate identification of low frequency mutations (>1%) revealing that mtDNA heteroplasmy is widespread in CHO cells...
February 7, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168222/tgprelid-a-mitochondrial-protein-linked-to-multidrug-resistance-in-the-parasite-toxoplasma-gondii
#3
Victoria Jeffers, Edwin T Kamau, Ananth R Srinivasan, Jonathan Harper, Preethi Sankaran, Sarah E Post, Joseph M Varberg, William J Sullivan, Jon P Boyle
New drugs to control infection with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are needed as current treatments exert toxic side effects on patients. Approaches to develop novel compounds for drug development include screening of compound libraries and targeted inhibition of essential cellular pathways. We identified two distinct compounds that display inhibitory activity against the parasite's replicative stage: F3215-0002, which we previously identified during a compound library screen, and I-BET151, an inhibitor of bromodomains, the "reader" module of acetylated lysines...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112515/conjugates-of-2-4-dihydroxybenzoate-and-salicylhydroxamate-and-lipocations-display-potent-antiparasite-effects-by-efficiently-targeting-the-trypanosoma-brucei-and-trypanosoma-congolense-mitochondrion
#4
Francisco José Fueyo González, Godwin U Ebiloma, Carolina Izquierdo García, Victor Bruggeman, José María Sánchez Villamañán, Anne Donachie, Emmanuel Oluwadare Balogun, Daniel Ken Inaoka, Tomoo Shiba, Shigeharu Harada, Kiyoshi Kita, Harry P de Koning, Christophe Dardonville
We investigated a chemical strategy to boost the trypanocidal activity of 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,4-DHBA)- and salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM)-based trypanocides with triphenylphosphonium and quinolinium lipophilic cations (LC). Three series of LC conjugates were synthesized that were active in the submicromolar (5a-d and 10d-f) to low nanomolar (6a-f) range against wild-type and multidrug resistant strains of African trypanosomes (Trypanosoma brucei brucei and T. congolense). This represented an improvement in trypanocidal potency of at least 200-fold, and up to >10 000-fold, compared with that of non-LC-coupled parent compounds 2,4-DHBA and SHAM...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004338/network-analysis-identifies-disease-specific-pathways-for-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Chiara Monti, Ilaria Colugnat, Leonardo Lopiano, Adriano Chiò, Tiziana Alberio
Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the progressive loss of specific neurons in selected regions of the central nervous system. The main clinical manifestation (movement disorders, cognitive impairment, and/or psychiatric disturbances) depends on the neuron population being primarily affected. Parkinson's disease is a common movement disorder, whose etiology remains mostly unknown. Progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra causes an impairment of the motor control. Some of the pathogenetic mechanisms causing the progressive deterioration of these neurons are not specific for Parkinson's disease but are shared by other neurodegenerative diseases, like Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis...
December 21, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991712/targeting-of-tail-anchored-membrane-proteins-to-subcellular-organelles-in-toxoplasma-gondii
#6
Leah R Padgett, Gustavo Arrizabalaga, William J Sullivan
Proper protein localization is essential for critical cellular processes, including vesicle-mediated transport and protein translocation. Tail-anchored (TA) proteins are integrated into organellar membranes via the C-terminus, orienting the N-terminus towards the cytosol. Localization of TA proteins occurs posttranslationally and is governed by the C-terminus, which contains the integral transmembrane domain (TMD) and targeting sequence. Targeting of TA proteins is dependent on the hydrophobicity of the TMD as well as the length and composition of flanking amino acid sequences...
December 19, 2016: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777722/nuclear-mitochondrial-epistasis-a-gene-s-eye-view-of-genomic-conflict
#7
Michael J Wade, Devin M Drown
We use population genetic models to investigate the cooperative and conflicting synergistic fitness effects between genes from the nucleus and the mitochondrion. By varying fitness parameters, we examine the scope for conflict relative to cooperation among genomes and the utility of the "gene's eye view" analytical approach, which is based on the marginal average fitness of specific alleles. Because sexual conflict can maintain polymorphism of mitochondrial haplotypes, we can explore two types of evolutionary conflict (genomic and sexual) with one epistatic model...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27728990/scanning-the-mitochondrial-genome-for-mutations-by-cycling-temperature-capillary-electrophoresis
#8
Christian Arstad, Paulo Refinetti, David Warren, Karl-Erik Giercksky, Per Olaf Ekstrøm
To bypass possible nuclear contamination and to exclusively amplify DNA from the mitochondrion, a set of 23 primers was selected. On the mitochondrial DNA selection fragments, a second set of fragments was used to amplify and identify mutant fractions with a detection limit of 1% . This mutation scanning method analyzed 76% of the mitochondrial genome and was used to examine 94 tumours from different tissues of origin. In all, 87 tumours had one or more mutations, leaving seven samples without observed mutations...
October 11, 2016: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719626/metabolic-inhibitors-as-antiparasitic-drugs-pharmacological-biochemical-and-molecular-perspectives
#9
Suprabhat Mukherjee, Niladri Mukherjee, Prajna Gayen, Priya Roy, Santi P Sinha Babu
Human diseases caused by the infectious parasites have been one of the major problems throughout the evolutionary journey. Protozoan and metazoan parasitic infections result in a large number of deaths, disabilities and socio-economic loss worldwide to date. Despite our best efforts of developing suitable antiparasitics, these infections take a massive toll on human health. The prevalence of emerging resistance to the existing drugs, lack of efficacy and toxic side effects came out as added complications. Being enlisted under 'neglected' category, serious diseases like leishmaniases, filariases, trypanosomiases etc...
October 4, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715485/constructive-edge-of-uridylation-induced-rna-degradation
#10
Ruslan Aphasizhev, Takuma Suematsu, Liye Zhang, Inna Aphasizheva
RNA uridylation is a significant transcriptome-shaping factor in protists, fungi, metazoans, and plants. The 3' U-additions are catalyzed by terminal uridyltransferases (TUTases), a diverse group of enzymes that along with non-canonical poly(A) polymerases form a distinct group in the superfamily of DNA polymerase β-like nucleotidyl transferases. Within and across studied organisms and subcellular compartments, TUTases differ in nucleotide triphosphate selectivity, interacting partners, and RNA targets. A general premise linking RNA uridylation to 3'-5' degradation received support from several studies of small RNAs and mRNA turnover...
October 7, 2016: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539140/suppression-of-reactive-oxygen-species-mediated-erk-and-jnk-activation-sensitizes-dihydromyricetin-induced-mitochondrial-apoptosis-in-human-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#11
Shang-Jyh Kao, Wei-Jiunn Lee, Jer-Hwa Chang, Jyh-Ming Chow, Chi-Li Chung, Wen-Yueh Hung, Ming-Hsien Chien
Nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer with a high mortality rate and still remains a therapeutic challenge. A strategy for targeting NSCLC is to identify agents that are effective against NSCLC cells while sparing normal cells. Dihydromyricetin (DHM) is the major flavonoid component derived from Ampelopsis grossedentata, which has a long history of use in medicine. Herein, the molecular mechanisms by which DHM exerts its anticancer effects against NSCLC cells were investigated...
August 19, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27528758/the-quantum-mitochondrion-and-optimal-health
#12
REVIEW
Alistair V W Nunn, Geoffrey W Guy, Jimmy D Bell
A sufficiently complex set of molecules, if subject to perturbation, will self-organize and show emergent behaviour. If such a system can take on information it will become subject to natural selection. This could explain how self-replicating molecules evolved into life and how intelligence arose. A pivotal step in this evolutionary process was of course the emergence of the eukaryote and the advent of the mitochondrion, which both enhanced energy production per cell and increased the ability to process, store and utilize information...
August 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527552/structurally-novel-steroidal-spirooxindole-by241-potently-inhibits-tumor-growth-mainly-through-ros-mediated-mechanisms
#13
Xiao-Jing Shi, Bin Yu, Jun-Wei Wang, Ping-Ping Qi, Kai Tang, Xin Huang, Hong-Min Liu
Cancer cells always have increased ROS levels, thus making them more vulnerable to persistent endogenous oxidative stress. The biochemical difference between cancer and normal cells could be exploited to achieve selective cancer cell killing by exogenous ROS-producing agents. Herein we described a structurally novel steroidal spirooxindole by241 and its anticancer efficacy. By241 exhibited potent inhibition against human cancer cells and less toxic to normal cells. By241 concentration-dependently induced apoptosis of MGC-803 and EC9706 cells, accompanied with the mitochondrial dysfunction and increased ROS levels...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27485212/acute-upregulation-of-neuronal-mitochondrial-type-1-cannabinoid-receptor-and-it-s-role-in-metabolic-defects-and-neuronal-apoptosis-after-tbi
#14
Zhen Xu, Xiao-Ai Lv, Qun Dai, Yu-Qing Ge, Jie Xu
Metabolic defects and neuronal apoptosis initiated by traumatic brain injury (TBI) contribute to subsequent neurodegeneration. They are all regulated by mechanisms centered around mitochondrion. Type-1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1) is a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) enriched on neuronal plasma membrane. Recent evidences point to the substantial presence of CB1 receptors on neuronal mitochondrial outer membranes (mtCB1) and the activation of mtCB1 influences aerobic respiration via inhibiting mitochondrial cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA)/complex I pathway...
2016: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27451341/mitochondrial-dna-plays-an-equal-role-in-influencing-female-and-male-longevity-in-centenarians
#15
Yong-Han He, Xiang Lu, Jiao-Yang Tian, Dong-Jing Yan, Yu-Chun Li, Rong Lin, Benjamin Perry, Xiao-Qiong Chen, Qin Yu, Wang-Wei Cai, Qing-Peng Kong
The mitochondrion is a double membrane-bound organelle which plays important functional roles in aging and many other complex phenotypes. Transmission of the mitochondrial genome in the matrilineal line causes the evolutionary selection sieve only in females. Theoretically, beneficial or neutral variations are more likely to accumulate and be retained in the female mitochondrial genome during evolution, which may be an initial trigger of gender dimorphism in aging. The asymmetry of evolutionary processes between gender could lead to males and females aging in different ways...
October 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27436151/multiple-g-quartet-structures-in-pre-edited-mrnas-suggest-evolutionary-driving-force-for-rna-editing-in-trypanosomes
#16
W-Matthias Leeder, Niklas F C Hummel, H Ulrich Göringer
Mitochondrial transcript maturation in African trypanosomes requires a U-nucleotide specific RNA editing reaction. In its most extreme form hundreds of U's are inserted into and deleted from primary transcripts to generate functional mRNAs. Unfortunately, both origin and biological role of the process have remained enigmatic. Here we report a so far unrecognized structural feature of pre-edited mRNAs. We demonstrate that the cryptic pre-mRNAs contain numerous clustered G-nt, which fold into G-quadruplex (GQ) structures...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27344612/the-cytotoxic-and-pro-apoptotic-effects-of-phenylephrine-on-corneal-stromal-cells-via-a-mitochondrion-dependent-pathway-both-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#17
Jun Zhao, Yue Qiu, Cheng-Lei Tian, Ting-Jun Fan
Phenylephrine (PHE), a selective α1-adrenergic receptor agonist, is often used as a decongestant for mydriasis prior to cataract surgery, and its abuse might be cytotoxic to the cornea and result in blurred vision. However, the cytotoxicity of PHE to the cornea and its cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unknown. To provide references for secure medication and prospective therapeutic interventions of PHE, we investigated the cytotoxicity of PHE to corneal stroma and its possible mechanisms using an in vitro model of human corneal stromal (HCS) cells and an in vivo model of cat keratocytes...
August 2016: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27279257/increased-intramuscular-fat-induced-by-reduced-dietary-protein-in-finishing-pigs-effects-on-the-longissimus-lumborum-muscle-proteome
#18
V M R Pires, M S Madeira, A A Dowle, J Thomas, A M Almeida, J A M Prates
Due to genetic selection towards reduced subcutaneous fat, the amount of intramuscular fat (IMF) in commercial pigs has been reduced (<2.5%), compromising pork quality. The use of reduced protein diets (RPD) is a good strategy to increase IMF in pigs. We have previously shown that increased IMF promoted by RPD is mediated by lysine restriction. However, the molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. Here we performed a proteomics study to quantify differentially regulated proteins in the longissimus lumborum muscle of pigs (n = 4) fed a normal protein diet (NPD) (16...
July 19, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27257140/mechanisms-involved-in-reproductive-toxicity-caused-by-nickel-nanoparticle-in-female-rats
#19
Lu Kong, Xiaojie Gao, Jiaqian Zhu, Keping Cheng, Meng Tang
Nickel nanoparticles (Ni NPs) are associated with reproductive toxicity. However, the mechanisms of reproductive toxicity are unclear. Our goal was to explore further reproductive toxicity induced by nickel nanoparticle and mechanisms involved in this process, including the role of oxidative stress and apoptosis. According to the one-generation reproductive toxicity standard, rats were exposed to nickel nanoparticles by gavage and we selected indicators including ultrastructural, reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidant and antioxidant enzymes, and cell apoptosis-related factors...
November 2016: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27220746/the-liquorice-root-derivative-glycyrrhetinic-acid-can-ameliorate-ionoregulatory-disturbance-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-abruptly-exposed-to-ion-poor-water
#20
Chun Chih Chen, Dennis Kolosov, Scott P Kelly
To consider the idea that a dietary botanical supplement could act as an adaptogen in a teleost fish, the effect of a liquorice root derivative (18β-glycyrrhetinic acid, 18βGA) on rainbow trout following an acute ionoregulatory stressor was examined. Freshwater (FW) trout were fed a control or 18βGA supplemented diet (0, 5, or 50μg 18βGA/g diet) for 2weeks, then abruptly exposed to ion-poor water (IPW) for 24h. Following IPW exposure, muscle moisture content and serum cortisol levels elevated and serum [Na(+)] and/or [Cl(-)] reduced in control and 50μg/g 18βGA-fed fish...
September 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
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