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mitochondrion selection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643986/ajuba-receptor-mediates-the-internalization-of-tumor-secreted-grp78-into-macrophages-through-different-endocytosis-pathways
#1
Xiaoqin La, Lichao Zhang, Hanqing Li, Zhuoyu Li, Guisheng Song, Peng Yang, Yufei Yang
Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), an ER chaperone, is overexpressed in cancer cells. Solid tumor cells can secrete GRP78 that can promote tumor angiogenesis, differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, tumor cell proliferation and polarization of tumor-associated macrophages. However, the mechanism by which GRP78 functions as a tumor promoter either by staying on the membrane to stimulate intracellular signals or directly entering into cytosolic remains unknown. Here, we reported that an endotoxin-free His-GRP78 protein was purified in vitro that simulates original secreted GRP78...
March 20, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617954/agora-organellar-genome-annotation-from-the-amino-acid-and-nucleotide-references
#2
Jaehee Jung, Jong Im Kim, Young-Sik Jeong, Gangman Yi
Summary: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have led to the accumulation of highthroughput sequence data from various organisms in biology. To apply gene annotation of organellar genomes for various organisms, more optimized tools for functional gene annotation are required. Almost all gene annotation tools are mainly focused on the chloroplast genome of land plants or the mitochondrial genome of animals.We have developed a web application AGORA for the fast, user-friendly, and improved annotations of organellar genomes...
March 29, 2018: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594839/o-glcnac-in-cancer-an-oncometabolism-fueled-vicious-cycle
#3
REVIEW
John A Hanover, Weiping Chen, Michelle R Bond
Cancer cells exhibit unregulated growth, altered metabolism, enhanced metastatic potential and altered cell surface glycans. Fueled by oncometabolism and elevated uptake of glucose and glutamine, the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) sustains glycosylation in the endomembrane system. In addition, the elevated pools of UDP-GlcNAc drives the O-GlcNAc modification of key targets in the cytoplasm, nucleus and mitochondrion. These targets include transcription factors, kinases, key cytoplasmic enzymes of intermediary metabolism, and electron transport chain complexes...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544150/inhibition-of-trypanosome-alternative-oxidase-without-its-n-terminal-mitochondrial-targeting-signal-%C3%AE-mts-tao-by-cationic-and-non-cationic-4-hydroxybenzoate-and-4-alkoxybenzaldehyde-derivatives-active-against-t-brucei-and-t-congolense
#4
Godwin U Ebiloma, Teresa Díaz Ayuga, Emmanuel O Balogun, Lucía Abad Gil, Anne Donachie, Marcel Kaiser, Tomás Herraiz, Daniel K Inaoka, Tomoo Shiba, Shigeharu Harada, Kiyoshi Kita, Harry P de Koning, Christophe Dardonville
African trypanosomiasis is a neglected parasitic disease that is still of great public health relevance, and a severe impediment to agriculture in endemic areas. The pathogens possess certain unique metabolic features that can be exploited for the development of new drugs. Notably, they rely on an essential, mitochondrially-localized enzyme, Trypanosome Alternative Oxidase (TAO) for their energy metabolism, which is absent in the mammalian hosts and therefore an attractive target for the design of safe drugs...
February 26, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521177/adaptive-evidence-of-mitochondrial-genomes-in-dolycoris-baccarum-hemiptera-pentatomidae-to-divergent-altitude-environments
#5
Qi-Lin Zhang, Xing-Zhuo Yang, Li Zhang, Run-Qiu Feng, Qian-Hua Zhu, Jun-Yuan Chen, Ming-Long Yuan
Given mitochondrion is the 'energy and oxygen usage factories', adaptive signatures of mitochondrial genes have been extensively investigated in vertebrates from different altitudes, but few studies focus on insects. Here, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Dolycoris. baccarum living in the Tibetan Plateau (DBHC, ∼3200 m above sea level (asl)) and conducted a detailed comparative analysis with another D. baccarum mitogenome (DBQY) from relatively low altitude (∼1300 m asl)...
March 9, 2018: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510335/oxidative-modification-of-methionine80-in-cytochrome-c-by-reaction-with-peroxides
#6
Ari Dwi Nugraheni, Chunguang Ren, Yorifumi Matsumoto, Satoshi Nagao, Masaru Yamanaka, Shun Hirota
The Met80-heme iron bond of cytochrome c (cyt c) is cleaved by the interaction of cyt c with cardiolipin (CL) in membranes. The Met80 dissociation enhances the peroxidase activity of cyt c and triggers cyt c release from mitochondrion to the cytosol at the early stage of apoptosis. This paper demonstrates the selective oxidation of Met80 for the reaction of ferric cyt c with a peroxide, meta-chloroperbenzoic acid (mCPBA), in the presence of CL-containing liposomes by formation of a ferryl species (Compound I)...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391546/the-gs-nitroxide-jp4-039-improves-intestinal-barrier-and-stem-cell-recovery-in-irradiated-mice
#7
Liang Wei, Brian J Leibowitz, Michael Epperly, Cheng Bi, Allen Li, Justin Steinman, Peter Wipf, Song Li, Lin Zhang, Joel Greenberger, Jian Yu
Total body irradiation (TBI) leads to dose- and tissue-specific lethality. In the current study, we demonstrate that a mitochondrion-targeted nitroxide JP4-039 given once 24 hours after 9-10 Gy TBI significantly improves mouse survival, and the recovery of intestinal barrier, differentiation and stem cell functions. The GI-protective effects are associated with rapid and selective induction of tight junction proteins and cytokines including TGF-β, IL-10, IL-17a, IL-22 and Notch signaling long before bone marrow depletion...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342092/metabolic-alterations-in-cancer-cells-and-the-emerging-role-of-oncometabolites-as-drivers-of-neoplastic-change
#8
REVIEW
Zhengqiu Zhou, Elochukwu Ibekwe, Yevgen Chornenkyy
The mitochondrion is an important organelle and provides energy for a plethora of intracellular reactions. Metabolic dysregulation has dire consequences for the cell, and alteration in metabolism has been identified in multiple disease states-cancer being one. Otto Warburg demonstrated that cancer cells, in the presence of oxygen, undergo glycolysis by reprogramming their metabolism-termed "aerobic glycolysis". Alterations in metabolism enable cancer cells to gain a growth advantage by obtaining precursors for macromolecule biosynthesis, such as nucleic acids and lipids...
January 17, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208990/comparative-transcriptomic-analysis-of-tibetan-gynaephora-to-explore-the-genetic-basis-of-insect-adaptation-to-divergent-altitude-environments
#9
Qi-Lin Zhang, Li Zhang, Xing-Zhuo Yang, Xiao-Tong Wang, Xiao-Peng Li, Juan Wang, Jun-Yuan Chen, Ming-Long Yuan
Adaptation of insects to different altitudes remain largely unknown, especially those endemic to the Tibetan Plateau (TP). Here, we generated the transcriptomes of Gynaephora menyuanensis and G. alpherakii, inhabiting different high altitudes on the TP, and used these and the previously available transcriptomic and genomic sequences from low-altitude insects to explore potential genetic basis for divergent high-altitude adaptation in Gynaephora. An analysis of 5,869 orthologous genes among Gynaephora and other three low-altitude insects uncovered that fast-evolving genes and positively selected genes (PSGs) in the two Gynaephora species were enriched in energy metabolism and hypoxia response categories (e...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170928/leishmania-mexicana-differentiation-involves-a-selective-plasma-membrane-autophagic-like-process
#10
Francehuli Dagger, Camila Bengio, Angel Martinez, Carlos Ayesta
Parasites of the Leishmania genus, which are the causative agents of leishmaniasis, display a complex life cycle, from a flagellated form (promastigotes) residing in the midgut of the phlebotomine vector to a non-flagellated form (amastigote) invading the mammalian host. The cellular process for the conversion between these forms is an interesting biological phenomenon involving modulation of the plasma membrane. In this study, we describe a selective autophagic-like process during the in vitro differentiation of Leishmania mexicana promastigote to amastigote-like cells...
November 23, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159705/isopropyl-quinoxaline-7-carboxylate-1-4-di-n-oxide-derivatives-induce-regulated-necrosis-like-cell-death-on-leishmania-leishmania-mexicana
#11
Karla Fabiola Chacón-Vargas, Sergio Andrade-Ochoa, Benjamín Nogueda-Torres, Dulce Carolina Juárez-Ramírez, Edgar E Lara-Ramírez, Ricardo Mondragón-Flores, Antonio Monge, Gildardo Rivera, Luvia Enid Sánchez-Torres
Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by the parasite of the genus Leishmania. About 13 million people are infected worldwide, and it is estimated that 350 million are at risk of infection. Clinical manifestations depend on the parasite species and factors related to the host such as the immune system, nutrition, housing, and financial resources. Available treatments have severe side effects; therefore, research currently focuses on finding more active and less toxic compounds. Quinoxalines have been described as promising alternatives...
January 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111701/mitochondrial-imaging-with-combined-fluorescence-and-stimulated-raman-scattering-microscopy-using-a-probe-of-the-aggregation-induced-emission-characteristic
#12
Xuesong Li, Meijuan Jiang, Jacky W Y Lam, Ben Zhong Tang, Jianan Y Qu
In vivo quantitative measurement of biodistribution plays a critical role in the drug/probe development and diagnosis/treatment process monitoring. In this work, we report a probe, named AIE-SRS-Mito, for imaging mitochondria in live cells via fluorescence (FL) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) imaging. The probe features an aggregation-induced emission (AIE) characteristic and possesses an enhanced alkyne Raman peak at 2223 cm-1 . The dual-mode imaging of AIE-SRS-Mito for selective mitochondrion-targeting was examined on a homemade FL-SRS microscope system...
November 29, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057653/mitochondrion-targeting-environment-sensitive-red-fluorescent-probe-for-highly-sensitive-detection-and-imaging-of-vicinal-dithiol-containing-proteins
#13
Feng Liu, Hai-Juan Liu, Xian-Jun Liu, Wen Chen, Fenglin Wang, Ru-Qin Yu, Jian-Hui Jiang
Mitochondrial vicinal dithiol-containing proteins (VDPs) are key regulators in cellular redox homeostasis and useful markers for diagnostics of redox-dependent diseases. Current probes fail to target mitochondrial VDPs and show limited sensitivity and response rate. We develop a novel fluorescent probe using an engineered benzoxadiazole fluorophore that allows selective targeting of mitochondria and exhibits highly sensitive environment responsiveness. This probe is almost nonfluorescent in aqueous media, while delivering intense fluorescence upon binding to VDPs via a cyclic dithiaarsane ligand...
November 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991908/mitochondrial-dual-coding-genes-in-trypanosoma-brucei
#14
Laura E Kirby, Donna Koslowsky
Trypanosoma brucei is transmitted between mammalian hosts by the tsetse fly. In the mammal, they are exclusively extracellular, continuously replicating within the bloodstream. During this stage, the mitochondrion lacks a functional electron transport chain (ETC). Successful transition to the fly, requires activation of the ETC and ATP synthesis via oxidative phosphorylation. This life cycle leads to a major problem: in the bloodstream, the mitochondrial genes are not under selection and are subject to genetic drift that endangers their integrity...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961281/chronic-administration-of-mitochondrion-targeted-peptide-ss-31-prevents-atherosclerotic-development-in-apoe-knockout-mice-fed-western-diet
#15
Meng Zhang, Hongting Zhao, Jing Cai, Huihui Li, Qi Wu, Tong Qiao, Kuanyu Li
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress and inflammatory factors are deeply involved in progression of atherosclerosis. Mitochondrion-targeted peptide SS-31, selectively targeting to mitochondrial inner membrane reacting with cardiolipin, has been reported to inhibit ROS generation and mitigate inflammation. The present study was designed to investigate whether SS-31 could suppress the development of atherosclerosis in vivo. METHODS: Male ApoE-/- mice (8 weeks old) fed with Western diet were treated with normal saline or SS-31 (1 mg/kg/d or 3 mg/kg/d) through subcutaneous injection for 12 weeks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916841/some-liked-it-hot-a-hypothesis-regarding-establishment-of-the-proto-mitochondrial-endosymbiont-during-eukaryogenesis
#16
REVIEW
Cory D Dunn
Eukaryotic cells are characterized by a considerable increase in subcellular compartmentalization when compared to prokaryotes. Most evidence suggests that the earliest eukaryotes consisted of mitochondria derived from an α-proteobacterial ancestor enclosed within an archaeal host cell. However, what benefits the archaeal host and the proto-mitochondrial endosymbiont might have obtained at the beginning of this endosymbiotic relationship remains unclear. In this work, I argue that heat generated by the proto-mitochondrion initially permitted an archaeon living at high temperatures to colonize a cooler environment, thereby removing apparent limitations on cellular complexity...
October 2017: Journal of Molecular Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837145/discovery-of-4-bromophenyl-3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl-methanone-through-upregulating-htert-induces-cell-apoptosis-and-ers
#17
Xiu Cheng, Jing Bo Shi, Hao Liu, Liu Zeng Chen, Yang Wang, Wen Jian Tang, Xin Hua Liu
Dominant-negative mutants of telomerase hTERT were demonstrated to have selective effects in tumor cells. However, no any effective and highly selective hTERT inhibitor has been developed so far. We focused on developing new hTERT modulators and synthesized a small molecular compound, named (4-bromophenyl)(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)methanone. Our in vitro studies found that title compound showed high inhibitory activity against telomerase, had high antiproliferative capacity on SMMC-7721 cells with IC50 value 88 nm, and had no obvious toxic effect on human normal hepatocyte cells with IC50 value 10 μM...
August 24, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829780/proteomic-analysis-of-potentilla-fruticosa-l-leaves-by-itraq-reveals-responses-to-heat-stress
#18
Yingtian Guo, Zhi Wang, Xuelian Guan, Zenghui Hu, Ze Zhang, Jian Zheng, Yizeng Lu
High temperature is an important environmental factor that affects plant growth and crop yield. Potentilla fruticosa L. has a developed root system and characteristics of resistance to several stresses (e.g., high temperature, cold, drought) that are shared by native shrubs in the north and west of China. To investigate thermotolerance mechanisms in P. fruticosa, 3-year-old plants were subjected to a high temperature of 42°C for 1, 2, and 3 days respectively before analysis. Then, we studied changes in cell ultrastructure using electron microscopy and investigated physiological changes in the leaves of P...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743501/hypoxic-postconditioning-attenuates-apoptosis-via-inactivation-of-adenosine-a-2a-receptor-through-ndrg3-raf-erk-pathway
#19
Chao Cui, Huang Lin, Yanyu Shi, Ruiyan Pan
BACKGROUND: In recent years, many studies have demonstrated that endogenous adenosine induced by ischemia postconditioning reduces apoptosis in animal and cell models, but no study has clearly elucidated the effects of hypoxia postconditioning (HPC) in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs) of flaps, and the subtype of adenosine receptors involved remains unknown. In our study, we sought to identify the roles of adenosine A2a receptor, NDRG3 (N-myc downstream-regulated gene 3) and Raf-ERK pathway in the anti-apoptotic effects of hypoxia postconditioning...
September 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740612/3-hydroxykynurenine-a-tryptophan-metabolite-generated-during-the-infection-is-active-against-trypanosoma-cruzi
#20
Carolina P Knubel, Constanza Insfran, Fernando F Martinez, Cintia Diaz Lujan, Ricardo E Fretes, Martin G Theumer, Laura Cervi, Claudia C Motran
The antiparasitic activity of 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK), one of the major tryptophan catabolites of the kynurenine pathway, against both Trypanosoma cruzi evolutive forms that are important for human infection, trypomastigotes (Tps) and amastigotes (Am), possible targets in the parasite and the drug toxicity to mammalian cells have been investigated. 3-HK showed a potent activity against Am with IC50 values in the micromolar concentration range, while the IC50 values to cause Tps death was ∼6000-times higher, indicating that the replicative form present in the vertebrate hosts is much more susceptible to 3-HK than bloodstream Tps...
July 13, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
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