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Yu Wu, Tianhai Cheng, Dantong Liu, James Allan, Lijuan Zheng, Hao Chen
The radiative forcing of black carbon aerosol (BC) is one of the largest sources of uncertainty in climate change assessments. Contrasting results of BC absorption enhancement (Eabs) after aging are estimated by field measurements and modeling studies, causing ambiguous parameterizations of BC solar absorption in climate models. Here we quantify Eabs using a theoretical model parameterized by the complex particle morphology of BC in different aging scales. We show that Eabs continuously increases with aging and stabilizes with a maximum of ~3...
May 22, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Gürbüz Daş, Mark Hennies, Armin Tuchscherer, Matthias Gauly
Factors affecting the development of Ascaridia galli-specific humoral responses and their protective roles are largely unknown. We investigated the effects of time and infection dose on A. galli-specific IgY antibody levels following experimental infection. The acquisition and development of new infections and reinfections were also monitored by using tracer birds. Relationships between the retrospective IgY and the final worm burden of the birds were investigated to determine whether humoral immune responses generated during infection provide protection to the host animal...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Julio A Ventocilla, Jorge Nuñez, Laura Lorena Tapia, Carmen M Lucas, Stephen R Manock, Andrés G Lescano, Kimberly A Edgel, Paul C F Graf
In the Peruvian North Coast (PNC), the number of Plasmodium vivax malaria cases increased steadily from 2007 to 2010 despite a significant decline in the overall number of cases in Peru during the same period. To better understand the transmission dynamics of P. vivax populations in the PNC and the neighboring Ecuadorian Amazon Basin (EAB), we studied the genetic variability and population structure of P. vivax in these areas. One hundred and twenty P. vivax isolates (58 from Piura and 37 from Tumbes in the PNC collected from 2008 to 2010 and 25 from the EAB collected in Pastaza from 2001 to 2004) were assessed by five polymorphic microsatellite markers...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Huanqin Zhao, Yan Cheng, Wei Liu, Zhihong Yang, Baoshan Zhang, Guangbin Ji, Youwei Du
Special electric and magnetic characteristics make Fe3O4 widely applied in the electromagnetic (EM) wave absorption region. However, for pure Fe3O4 substance, it is still a challenge to obtain strong absorption intensity and broadband absorption simultaneously at low thickness, owing to low dielectric property. As we realized, flake configuration and porous structure have an obvious promotion on EM wave absorption property. Because the former could lead to the multi-reflection between flakes and the latter is conductive to the interface polarization...
April 27, 2018: Nanotechnology
Jens E T Andersen
Weighing with electronic-analytical balances (EABs) is the most precise operation of measurement in the analytical laboratory, but the determination of the uncertainty of measurement remains an issue of some controversy. Manufacturers' specifications are not always met during routine measurements, and method validation of weighing is therefore required to arrive at the true level of uncertainty. The aim of this study is to revisit concepts introduced by the Bureau International de Poids et Mesures, which are supposed to provide a level of uncertainty that corresponds to the observed uncertainty associated with those of the samples...
April 19, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Corrie R Camalier, Maureen McHugo, David H Zald, Joseph S Neimat
In addition to motor symptoms, Parkinson's disease (PD) involves significant non-motor sequelae, including disruptions in cognitive and emotional processing. Fear recognition appears to be affected both by the course of the disease and by a common interventional therapy, deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS). Here, we examined if these effects extend to other aspects of emotional processing, such as attentional capture by negative emotional stimuli. Performance on an emotional attentional blink (EAB) paradigm, a common paradigm used to study emotional capture of attention, was examined in a cohort of individuals with PD, both on and off STN-DBS therapy (n=20)...
2018: Journal of Neurological Disorders
Ewelina Jamróz, Lesław Juszczak, Mateusz Kucharek
Lavender essential oil (OEL) was added to starch, furcellaran and gelatin (S/F/G) films in concentrations of 2%, 4% and 6%. The films were examined in terms of physical properties (thickness, density, water solubility, water absorption and degree of swelling) and mechanical properties (tensile strength, elongation at break). The test results show that the film thickness increased upon addition of OEL. The solubility, water absorption and degree of swelling of the film decreased with increasing concentration of oils...
April 5, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Thais B Rodrigues, Jian J Duan, Subba R Palli, Lynne K Rieske
Recent study has shown that RNA interference (RNAi) is efficient in emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, and that ingestion of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) targeting specific genes causes gene silencing and mortality in neonates. Here, we report on the identification of highly effective target genes for RNAi-mediated control of EAB. We screened 13 candidate genes in neonate larvae and selected the most effective target genes for further investigation, including their effect on EAB adults and on a non-target organism, Tribolium castaneum...
March 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Liping Huang, Peng Zhou, Xie Quan, Bruce E Logan
Electrochemically active bacteria (EAB) on the cathodes of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can remove metals from the catholyte, but the fate of metals in the cells has not been examined in the presence of multiple metals. To study the relative uptake and fate of Cr(VI) and Cd(II) in cells, fluorescence probes were used to determine the amount and location of these metals in four different EAB on the biocathodes of MFCs. When both metals were present, less Cr(VI) was removed but Cd(II) uptake was not appreciably affected...
March 19, 2018: Bioelectrochemistry
Thomas Verhaeghe, Christof Van Poucke, Geertrui Vlaemynck, Jan De Block, Marc Hendrickx
Heat-induced color changes of crustaceans are commonly described as the release of astaxanthin. In this study on Crangon crangon, it was found that astaxanthin plays a minor role in the (dis)coloration. By LC-HRMS, two polar, process dependent pigments were found. One pigment was identified as riboflavin and one as drosopterin (level-2 certainty). Thermal treatments had highest effect on drosopterin concentration changes and were chosen as indicator for a kinetic study of heat-induced color changes. The kinetic data fitted a consecutive step model (r2  = 0...
July 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Atsumi Hirose, Takuya Kasai, Motohide Aoki, Tomonari Umemura, Kazuya Watanabe, Atsushi Kouzuma
Electrochemically active bacteria (EAB) receive considerable attention for their utility in bioelectrochemical processes. Although electrode potentials are known to affect the metabolic activity of EAB, it is unclear whether EAB are able to sense and respond to electrode potentials. Here, we show that, in the presence of a high-potential electrode, a model EAB Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 can utilize NADH-dependent catabolic pathways and a background formate-dependent pathway to achieve high growth yield. We also show that an Arc regulatory system is involved in sensing electrode potentials and regulating the expression of catabolic genes, including those for NADH dehydrogenase...
March 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Emily N Bick, Nora J Forbes, Christopher Haugen, Grant Jones, Shawn Bernick, Fredric Miller
Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire; Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is decimating ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. Combatting EAB includes the use of insecticides; however, reported insecticide efficacy varies among published studies. This study assessed the effects of season of application, insecticide active ingredient, and insecticide application rate on green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.) (Lamiales: Oleaceae) canopy decline caused by EAB over a 5- to 7-yr interval. Data suggested that spring treatments were generally more effective in reducing canopy decline than fall treatments, but this difference was not statistically significant...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Darren W Campbell, Sandra Stewart, Camille E P Gray, Courtney L Ryan, Peter Fettes, Adam J McLandress, Ralph Dell'Aquila
INTRODUCTION: A significant proportion of chronic cannabis users experience occupational, social, and psychological problems thought to reflect, in part, cannabis-related cognitive and emotional attentional biases. The emotional attentional blink (EAB) is a unique test of attentional bias that assesses automatic responses, cue-detection failures, and rapid and temporally extended biases. Using the EAB, we tested users' and non-users' attentional biases and how cannabis exposure correlates with these attentional biases...
June 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Tetsuya Fujimura, Kenichi Takayama, Satoru Takahashi, Satoshi Inoue
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been widely prescribed for patients with advanced prostate cancer (PC) to control key signaling pathways via androgen receptor (AR) and AR-collaborative transcriptional factors; however, PC gradually acquires a lethal phenotype and results in castration-resistant PC (CRPC) during ADT. Therefore, new therapeutic strategies are required in clinical practice. In addition, ARs; estrogen receptors (ERs; ERα and ERβ); and estrogen-related receptors (ERRs; ERRα, ERRβ, and ERRγ) have been reported to be involved in the development or regulation of PC...
January 23, 2018: Cancers
Stephen J Burr, Deborah G McCullough, Therese M Poland
Emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive phloem-feeding buprestid, has killed hundreds of millions of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees in the United States and two Canadian provinces. We evaluated EAB persistence in post-invasion sites and compared EAB adult captures and larval densities in 24 forested sites across an east-west gradient in southern Michigan representing the Core (post-invasion), Crest (high EAB populations), and Cusp (recently infested areas) of the EAB invasion wave...
February 8, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Yaping Zhang, Guanqun Li, Jing Wen, Yangao Xu, Jian Sun, Xun-An Ning, Xingwen Lu, Yujie Wang, Zuoyi Yang, Yong Yuan
Heavy metals play an important role in the conductivity of solution, power generation and activity of microorganisms in bioelectrochemical systems (BESs). However, effect of heavy metal on the process of exoelectrogenesis metabolism and extracellular electron transfer of electrochemically active biofilms (EABs) was poorly understood. Herein, we investigated the impact of Cu2+ at gradually increasing concentration on the morphological and electrochemical performance and bacterial communities of anodic biofilms in mixed-culture BESs...
April 2018: Chemosphere
Naomi L Stock, Michael C Doran, Ron F Bonners, Raymond E March
RATIONALE: The Emerald Ash Borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, an invasive insect detected in the USA and Canada in 2002, is a threat to ash trees with both ecological and economic implications. Early detection of EAB-infestation is difficult due to lack of visible signs and symptoms in the early stages of attack, but is essential to prevent ash mortality. An efficient and reliable tool for the early detection of EAB-infestation would be advantageous. METHODS: A mass spectrometry based metabolomics approach, using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS), has been used to investigate the leaf metabolites of both healthy and EAB-infested trees...
March 15, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Rajesh Sharma, Pooja Kesari, Pravindra Kumar, Shailly Tomar
The crystal structure of chikungunya (CHIKV) virus capsid protease domain has been determined at 2.2Å. Structure reveals a chymotrypsin-like protease fold with a conserved hydrophobic pocket in CHIKV capsid protein (CP) for interaction with the cytoplasmic tail of E2 (cdE2) similar to the capsid protein of other alphaviruses. Molecular contacts between CP-cdE2 were determined by fitting structures of CHIKV CP and cdE2 into the cryo-EM map of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV). Binding of (S)-(+)-Mandelic acid (MDA) and Ethyl 3-aminobenzoate (EAB) to the hydrophobic pocket of CP was evaluated by molecular docking...
February 2018: Virology
Buğra Ocak
Discharges of huge quantities of leather solid wastes by leather industries and the increased use of synthetic packaging films have raised serious concerns on account of their environmental impacts. The paper focuses on the development and characterization of potential environmentally friendly composite films using collagen hydrolysate (CH) extracted from leather solid wastes and chitosan (C) to assess the feasibility of producing polymeric materials suitable for applications in packaging and wrapping purposes...
February 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Xiaomeng Wu, Anjun Liu, Wenhang Wang, Ran Ye
This study utilized three different thermo-stable proteins of casein, keratin and soy protein isolate (SPI) to improve the thermal stabilities and mechanical properties of collagen fiber films using transglutaminase (TGase) crosslinking. The crosslinking greatly enhanced the thermal- stability of collagen fiber films, especially that of the collagen fiber crosslinking with 50% casein composite films, judged from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Furthermore, the TGase treatment improved the mechanical properties of the collagen fiber films interms of tensile strength (TS) and elongation at break (EAB)...
April 1, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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