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Thomas Verhaeghe, Christof Van Poucke, Geertrui Vlaemynck, Jan De Block, Marc Hendrickx
Heat-induced color changes of crustaceans are commonly described as the release of astaxanthin. In this study on Crangon crangon, it was found that astaxanthin plays a minor role in the (dis)coloration. By LC-HRMS, two polar, process dependent pigments were found. One pigment was identified as riboflavin and one as drosopterin (level-2 certainty). Thermal treatments had highest effect on drosopterin concentration changes and were chosen as indicator for a kinetic study of heat-induced color changes. The kinetic data fitted a consecutive step model (r2  = 0...
July 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Atsumi Hirose, Takuya Kasai, Motohide Aoki, Tomonari Umemura, Kazuya Watanabe, Atsushi Kouzuma
Electrochemically active bacteria (EAB) receive considerable attention for their utility in bioelectrochemical processes. Although electrode potentials are known to affect the metabolic activity of EAB, it is unclear whether EAB are able to sense and respond to electrode potentials. Here, we show that, in the presence of a high-potential electrode, a model EAB Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 can utilize NADH-dependent catabolic pathways and a background formate-dependent pathway to achieve high growth yield. We also show that an Arc regulatory system is involved in sensing electrode potentials and regulating the expression of catabolic genes, including those for NADH dehydrogenase...
March 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Emily N Bick, Nora J Forbes, Christopher Haugen, Grant Jones, Shawn Bernick, Fredric Miller
Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire; Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is decimating ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. Combatting EAB includes the use of insecticides; however, reported insecticide efficacy varies among published studies. This study assessed the effects of season of application, insecticide active ingredient, and insecticide application rate on green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.) (Lamiales: Oleaceae) canopy decline caused by EAB over a 5- to 7-yr interval. Data suggested that spring treatments were generally more effective in reducing canopy decline than fall treatments, but this difference was not statistically significant...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Darren W Campbell, Sandra Stewart, Camille E P Gray, Courtney L Ryan, Peter Fettes, Adam J McLandress, Ralph Dell'Aquila
INTRODUCTION: A significant proportion of chronic cannabis users experience occupational, social, and psychological problems thought to reflect, in part, cannabis-related cognitive and emotional attentional biases. The emotional attentional blink (EAB) is a unique test of attentional bias that assesses automatic responses, cue-detection failures, and rapid and temporally extended biases. Using the EAB, we tested users' and non-users' attentional biases and how cannabis exposure correlates with these attentional biases...
January 10, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Tetsuya Fujimura, Kenichi Takayama, Satoru Takahashi, Satoshi Inoue
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been widely prescribed for patients with advanced prostate cancer (PC) to control key signaling pathways via androgen receptor (AR) and AR-collaborative transcriptional factors; however, PC gradually acquires a lethal phenotype and results in castration-resistant PC (CRPC) during ADT. Therefore, new therapeutic strategies are required in clinical practice. In addition, ARs; estrogen receptors (ERs; ERα and ERβ); and estrogen-related receptors (ERRs; ERRα, ERRβ, and ERRγ) have been reported to be involved in the development or regulation of PC...
January 23, 2018: Cancers
Stephen J Burr, Deborah G McCullough, Therese M Poland
Emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive phloem-feeding buprestid, has killed hundreds of millions of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees in the United States and two Canadian provinces. We evaluated EAB persistence in post-invasion sites and compared EAB adult captures and larval densities in 24 forested sites across an east-west gradient in southern Michigan representing the Core (post-invasion), Crest (high EAB populations), and Cusp (recently infested areas) of the EAB invasion wave...
January 16, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Yaping Zhang, Guanqun Li, Jing Wen, Yangao Xu, Jian Sun, Xun-An Ning, Xingwen Lu, Yujie Wang, Zuoyi Yang, Yong Yuan
Heavy metals play an important role in the conductivity of solution, power generation and activity of microorganisms in bioelectrochemical systems (BESs). However, effect of heavy metal on the process of exoelectrogenesis metabolism and extracellular electron transfer of electrochemically active biofilms (EABs) was poorly understood. Herein, we investigated the impact of Cu2+ at gradually increasing concentration on the morphological and electrochemical performance and bacterial communities of anodic biofilms in mixed-culture BESs...
January 5, 2018: Chemosphere
Naomi L Stock, Michael C Doran, Ron F Bonner, Raymond E March
RATIONALE: The Emerald Ash Borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, an invasive insect detected in the U.S.A. and Canada in 2002, is a threat to ash trees with both ecological and economic implications. Early detection of EAB-infestation is difficult due to lack of visible signs and symptoms in the early stages of attack, but is essential to prevent ash mortality. An efficient and reliable tool for the early detection of EAB-infestation would be advantageous. METHODS: A mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approach, using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), has been used to investigate the leaf metabolites of both healthy and EAB-infested trees...
January 5, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Rajesh Sharma, Pooja Kesari, Pravindra Kumar, Shailly Tomar
The crystal structure of chikungunya (CHIKV) virus capsid protease domain has been determined at 2.2Å. Structure reveals a chymotrypsin-like protease fold with a conserved hydrophobic pocket in CHIKV capsid protein (CP) for interaction with the cytoplasmic tail of E2 (cdE2) similar to the capsid protein of other alphaviruses. Molecular contacts between CP-cdE2 were determined by fitting structures of CHIKV CP and cdE2 into the cryo-EM map of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV). Binding of (S)-(+)-Mandelic acid (MDA) and Ethyl 3-aminobenzoate (EAB) to the hydrophobic pocket of CP was evaluated by molecular docking...
January 4, 2018: Virology
Buğra Ocak
Discharges of huge quantities of leather solid wastes by leather industries and the increased use of synthetic packaging films have raised serious concerns on account of their environmental impacts. The paper focuses on the development and characterization of potential environmentally friendly composite films using collagen hydrolysate (CH) extracted from leather solid wastes and chitosan (C) to assess the feasibility of producing polymeric materials suitable for applications in packaging and wrapping purposes...
February 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Xiaomeng Wu, Anjun Liu, Wenhang Wang, Ran Ye
This study utilized three different thermo-stable proteins of casein, keratin and soy protein isolate (SPI) to improve the thermal stabilities and mechanical properties of collagen fiber films using transglutaminase (TGase) crosslinking. The crosslinking greatly enhanced the thermal- stability of collagen fiber films, especially that of the collagen fiber crosslinking with 50% casein composite films, judged from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Furthermore, the TGase treatment improved the mechanical properties of the collagen fiber films interms of tensile strength (TS) and elongation at break (EAB)...
April 1, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Yi Hou, Laifei Cheng, Yani Zhang, Yong Yang, Chaoran Deng, Zhihong Yang, Qi Chen, Xiaoqing Du, Lianxi Zheng
Fiber alignment is a key factor that determines the physical properties of nanofiber mats. In this work, SiC nanofiber mats with or without fiber alignment are fabricated via electrospinning and the microwave electromagnetic properties of their silicone resin composites (5 wt %) are investigated in 2-18 GHz. By comparing with the composite containing SiC whisker, it is found that the nanofiber mats show superior dielectric loss and a minimal reflection loss (RL) of around -49 dB at 8.6 GHz and 4.3 mm thickness, associated with a broad effective absorption (<-10 dB) bandwidth (EAB) of about 7...
December 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Osman Gul, Furkan Turker Saricaoglu, Aysegul Besir, Ilyas Atalar, Fehmi Yazici
Hazelnut meal protein (4% (w/v)) and clove essential oil (CEO) (3% (v/v)) were homogenized with ultrasound (US) at different times (2, 4 and 6 min) and amplitudes (50, 75 and 100%) to obtain nano-emulsion films. Film forming nano-emulsions (FFNs) were analyzed for average particle size (Dz) and zeta potential, and edible film characterization were evaluated depending on US treatment, as well as antibacterial and antioxidant activities. Dz values and zeta potential of FFNs decreased with increasing acoustic energy delivered to nano-emulsion system...
March 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Junjie Lin, Ying Wang, Daodong Pan, Yangying Sun, Changrong Ou, Jinxuan Cao
The aim of this work was to evaluate the plasticizing effect of Lysine (Lys), Arginine (Arg) and Histidine (His) on gelatin films. Gelatin films incorporated with Lys, Arg and His at different levels (0, 0.5 and 1.0%) were prepared. The films without amino acids were prepared as controls. The addition of Lys increased the elongation at break (EAB) but decreased the tensile strength (TS) compared to the control, especially at 1.0% incorporated level. Arg had cross-linking effect on gelatin films through hydrogen bonds demonstrated by FTIR Analysis, which increased TS of the films...
November 4, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Xuejiao Wang, Yumei Xie, Hanjing Ge, Lin Chen, Jiali Wang, Shuang Zhang, Yan Guo, Zhixi Li, Xianchao Feng
Films with antioxidant activity were prepared by combining chitosan (CH) and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) with nano-bacterial cellulose (BC) as a reinforcement agent. Results showed that BC addition improved the qualities of films jeopardized by EGCG. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis confirmed that there were intermolecular interactions among BC, CH and EGCG though hydrogen bonding. Consequently, BC addition increased the crystallinity and thermal stability of CH-BC5/10-EGCG15/30 films analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric (TGA) analysis...
January 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Miles T Wetherington, David E Jennings, Paula M Shrewsbury, Jian J Duan
Observed changes in mean temperature and increased frequency of extreme climate events have already impacted the distributions and phenologies of various organisms, including insects. Although some research has examined how parasitoids will respond to colder temperatures or experimental warming, we know relatively little about how increased variation in temperature and humidity could affect interactions between parasitoids and their hosts. Using a study system consisting of emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, and its egg parasitoid Oobius agrili, we conducted environmentally controlled laboratory experiments to investigate how increased seasonal climate variation affected the synchrony of host-parasitoid interactions...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Deborah G McCullough, Therese M Poland
Emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), the most destructive forest insect to have invaded North America, has killed hundreds of millions of forest and landscape ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees. Several artificial trap designs to attract and capture EAB beetles have been developed to detect, delineate, and monitor infestations. Double-decker (DD) traps consist of two corrugated plastic prisms, one green and one purple, attached to a 3 m tall polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe supported by a t-post. The green prism at the top of the PVC pipe is baited with cis-3-hexenol, a compound produced by ash foliage...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Dominique Hansen, An Soors, Valerie Deluyker, Ines Frederix, Paul Dendale
BACKGROUND: Electrical assisted bicycles (EAB's) could be used to overcome barriers and difficulties to outdoor cycling and thus assist in achieving a sufficient physical activity level in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients, but it is unknown whether sufficient exercise intensities and volumes could be elicited during cycling on EAB's. In this study we examined, for the first time, the acute physiological impact of electrical support during outdoor cycling in CAD patients (ISRCTN32238279)...
October 10, 2017: Acta Cardiologica
E A B Gilbert, M K Vickaryous
As for many lizards, the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius) can self-detach its tail to avoid predation and then regenerate a replacement. The replacement tail includes a regenerated spinal cord with a simple morphology: an ependymal layer surrounded by nerve tracts. We hypothesized that cells within the ependymal layer of the original spinal cord include populations of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) that contribute to the regenerated spinal cord. Prior to tail loss, we performed a bromodeoxyuridine pulse-chase experiment and found that a subset of ependymal layer cells (ELCs) were label-retaining after a 140-day chase period...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Simone Giuliano, Maurizio Guastalegname, Alessandro Russo, Marco Falcone, Veronica Ravasio, Marco Rizzi, Matteo Bassetti, Pierluigi Viale, Maria Bruna Pasticci, Emanuele Durante-Mangoni, Mario Venditti
Candida Endocarditis (CE) is a deadly disease. It is of paramount importance to assess risk factors for acquisition of both Candida native (NVE) and prosthetic (PVE) valve endocarditis and relate clinical features and treatment strategies with the outcome of the disease. Areas covered: We searched the literature using the Pubmed database. Cases of CE from the Italian Study on Endocarditis (SEI) were also included. Overall, 140 cases of CE were analyzed. Patients with a history of abdominal surgery and antibiotic exposure had higher probability of developing NVE than PVE...
September 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
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