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Xin Wang, Limin Hao, Taixiang Saur, Katelyn Joyal, Ying Zhao, Desheng Zhai, Jie Li, Mochtar Pribadi, Giovanni Coppola, Bruce M Cohen, Edgar A Buttner
An abnormally expanded GGGGCC repeat in C9ORF72 is the most frequent causal mutation associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)/frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Both gain-of-function (gf) and loss-of-function (lf) mechanisms have been involved in C9ORF72 related ALS/FTLD. The gf mechanism of C9ORF72 has been studied in various animal models but not in C. elegans. In the present study, we described mutant C9ORF72 modeling in C. elegans and report the finding of two suppressor genes. We made transgenes containing 9 or 29 repeats of GGGGCC in C9ORF72, driven by either the hsp-16 promoters or the unc-119 promoter...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Dong-Feng Liu, Di Min, Lei Cheng, Feng Zhang, Dao-Bo Li, Xiang Xiao, Guo-Ping Sheng, Han-Qing Yu
Dinitrotoluene (DNT) is a widely present pollutant in aquatic environments, and its biodegradation is an economically attractive way to effectively removal. In aquatic environments, the presence of electrochemically active bacteria (EAB) could contribute to the anaerobic bioreduction of DNT. However, the mechanism behind such a biodegradation process at gene level remains to be further elucidated. In this work, the anaerobic reduction of 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT) by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a typical EAB in aquatic environments, was investigated...
November 7, 2016: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Jingya Shen, Liping Huang, Peng Zhou, Xie Quan, Gianluca Li Puma
The performance of four indigenous electrochemically active bacteria (EAB) (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia JY1, Citrobacter sp. JY3, Pseudomonas aeruginosa JY5 and Stenotrophomonas sp. JY6) was evaluated for Cu(II) reduction on the cathodes of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). These EAB were isolated from well adapted mixed cultures on the MFC cathodes operated for Cu(II) reduction. The relationship between circuital current, Cu(II) reduction rate, and cellular electron transfer processes was investigated from a mechanistic point of view using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electronic microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, linear sweep voltammetry and cyclic voltammetry...
November 5, 2016: Bioelectrochemistry
Ming Sun, Yue Li, Huiwen Zheng, Yiming Shao
The recent discoveries of broadly potent neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies represent a new generation of antiretrovirals for the treatment and prophylaxis. Antibodies are generally considered more effective and safer and have been proved to provide passive protection against mucosal challenge in humanized mice and macaques. Several neutralizing Abs could protect animals against HIV-1 but are not effective when used in an established infected model for therapy. In order to overcome the limitation of antiviral activities, multiple antibody-engineering technologies have been explored to generate "the better" neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1 since bNAbs attack viral entry by various mechanisms...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Bernard Gallagher, Anne H Berman, Justyna Bieganski, Adele D Jones, Liliana Foca, Ben Raikes, Johanna Schiratzki, Mirjam Urban, Sara Ullman
Although international research is increasing in volume and importance, there remains a dearth of knowledge on similarities and differences in "national human research ethics" (NHREs), that is, national ethical guidelines (NEGs), Institutional Review Boards (IRBs), and research stakeholder' ethical attitudes and behaviors (EABs). We begin to address this situation by reporting upon our experiences in conducting a multinational study into the mental health of children who had a parent/carer in prison. The study was conducted in 4 countries: Germany, Great Britain, Romania, and Sweden...
October 2, 2016: Ethics & Behavior
Rahul Thakur, Bahareh Saberi, Penta Pristijono, John Golding, Costas Stathopoulos, Christopher Scarlett, Michael Bowyer, Quan Vuong
The main aim of this study was to develop rice starch (RS), ι-carrageenan (ι-car) based film. Different formulations of RS (1-4%, w/w), ι-car (0.5-2%, w/w) was blended with stearic acid (SA; 0.3-0.9%, w/w) and glycerol (1%, w/w) as a plasticizer. The effect of film ingredients on the thickness, water vapour permeability (WVP), film solubility (FS), moisture content (MC), colour, film opacity (FO), tensile strength (TS), elongation-at-break (EAB) of film was examined. Interactions and miscibility of partaking components was studied by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD)...
September 16, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Kateryna Artyushkova, Dan Roizman, Carlo Santoro, Lucinda Elizabeth Doyle, Abeed Fatima Mohidin, Plamen Atanassov, Enrico Marsili
The structure and activity of electrochemically active biofilms (EABs) are usually investigated on flat electrodes. However, real world applications such as wastewater treatment and bioelectrosynthesis require tridimensional electrodes to increase surface area and facilitate EAB attachment. The structure and activity of thick EABs grown on high surface area electrodes are difficult to characterize with electrochemical and microscopy methods. Here, the authors adopt a stacked electrode configuration to simulate the high surface and the tridimensional structure of an electrode for large-scale EAB applications...
2016: Biointerphases
Thomas Lane, Teodora Best, Nicole Zembower, Jack Davitt, Nathan Henry, Yi Xu, Jennifer Koch, Haiying Liang, John McGraw, Stephan Schuster, Donghwan Shim, Mark V Coggeshall, John E Carlson, Margaret E Staton
BACKGROUND: To develop a set of transcriptome sequences to support research on environmental stress responses in green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), we undertook deep RNA sequencing of green ash tissues under various stress treatments. The treatments, including emerald ash borer (EAB) feeding, heat, drought, cold and ozone, were selected to mimic the increasing threats of climate change and invasive pests faced by green ash across its native habitat. RESULTS: We report the generation and assembly of RNA sequences from 55 green ash samples into 107,611 putative unique transcripts (PUTs)...
2016: BMC Genomics
Laura Fierce, Tami C Bond, Susanne E Bauer, Francisco Mena, Nicole Riemer
Atmospheric black carbon (BC) exerts a strong, but uncertain, warming effect on the climate. BC that is coated with non-absorbing material absorbs more strongly than the same amount of BC in an uncoated particle, but the magnitude of this absorption enhancement (Eabs) is not well constrained. Modelling studies and laboratory measurements have found stronger absorption enhancement than has been observed in the atmosphere. Here, using a particle-resolved aerosol model to simulate diverse BC populations, we show that absorption is overestimated by as much as a factor of two if diversity is neglected and population-averaged composition is assumed across all BC-containing particles...
2016: Nature Communications
Haitao Sun, Xinru Shao, Zhongsu Ma
This work aimed to study the effect of nanocrystalline corn straw cellulose (NCSC) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) on the properties of biodegradable corn distarch phosphate (CDP) films. The mechanical properties and barrier properties were investigated. Meanwhile, the compatibility, crystallization, thermal stability, and morphological structure of the films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (X-RD), thermogravimetric (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
October 2016: Journal of Food Science
Yan Peng, Xiumei Zhu, Liyan Qiu
MiR-200c has been confirmed to display remarkable effects on proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction of certain cancer cells, but the main challenge for its successful translation into the clinic remains its effective delivery to the action site in vivo. In this study, a novel composite polyphosphazene vesicle system composed of amphiphilic [NP(PEG)0.3(EAB)1.7]n (PEEP) and weakly cationic [NP(PEG)0.5(DPA)1.5]n (PEDP) was prepared via a very simple dialysis method. The loading of miR-200c was accomplished with high efficiency by taking advantage of the combination effect of physical encapsulation and electrostatic interaction between vectors and miR-200c...
November 2016: Biomaterials
L V Skripnikov, A V Titov
An experiment towards the search for the interaction of the Schiff moment (S) of the (207)Pb nuclei with electrons in PbTiO3 crystal which violates the time reversal (T) and space parity (P) symmetries was proposed by Mukhamedjanov and Sushkov [Phys. Rev. A 72, 034501 (2005)]. The interpretation of the experiment in terms of the Schiff moment requires knowledge of an electronic density gradient parameter (usually designated as X) on the Pb nucleus in the crystal, which is determined by the electronic structure of the crystal...
August 7, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Chad M Rigsby, Daniel A Herms, Pierluigi Bonello, Don Cipollini
Emerald ash borer (EAB) is an invasive beetle native to Asia that infests and kills ash (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. Previous experiments indicated that larvae feeding on co-evolved, resistant Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica) have increased antioxidant and quinone-protective enzyme activities compared to larvae feeding on susceptible North American species. Here, we examined mechanisms of host-generated oxidative and quinone-based stress and other putative defenses in Manchurian ash and the closely related and chemically similar, but susceptible, black ash (F...
August 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Benjamin A Jones, Shana M McDermott, Janie M Chermak
This paper examines invasive species management when invasive species impact health outcomes indirectly through changes to environmental quality. For example, the emerald ash borer (EAB) has destroyed millions of ash trees throughout North America and has the potential to impact rates of cardiorespiratory mortality and morbidity through ash trees' ability to capture airborne pollutants. Optimal management inclusive of indirect health externalities may be different than status quo plans because the links between nature and health are complex, dynamic, and spatially heterogeneous...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Yong Yuan, Tuan Guo, Xuhui Qiu, Jiahuan Tang, Yunyun Huang, Li Zhuang, Shungui Zhou, Zhaohui Li, Bai-Ou Guan, Xuming Zhang, Jacques Albert
Spectroelectrochemistry has been found to be an efficient technique for revealing extracellular electron transfer (EET) mechanism of electroactive biofilms (EABs). Herein, we propose a novel electrochemical surface plasmon resonance (EC-SPR) optical fiber sensor for monitoring EABs in situ. The sensor uses a tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) imprinted in a commercial single-mode fiber and coated with nanoscale gold film for high-efficiency SPR excitation. The wavelength shift of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) over the fiber surface clearly identifies the electrochemical activity of the surface localized (adjacent to the electrode interface) bacterial cells in EABs, which differs from the "bulk" detections of the conventional electrochemical measurements...
August 2, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Nathan P Lord, Rebecca L Plimpton, Camilla R Sharkey, Anton Suvorov, Jonathan P Lelito, Barry M Willardson, Seth M Bybee
BACKGROUND: Arthropods have received much attention as a model for studying opsin evolution in invertebrates. Yet, relatively few studies have investigated the diversity of opsin proteins that underlie spectral sensitivity of the visual pigments within the diverse beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera). Previous work has demonstrated that beetles appear to lack the short-wavelength-sensitive (SWS) opsin class that typically confers sensitivity to the "blue" region of the light spectrum. However, this is contrary to established physiological data in a number of Coleoptera...
2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Caitlin E Falcone, R Graham Cooks
RATIONALE: The introduction of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) (EAB) from Asia to Michigan, USA, in the 1990s caused the widespread death of ash trees in two Canadian provinces and 24 US states. The three current methods for the detection of emerald ash borer infestation, visual surveys, tree girdling and artificial traps, can be unreliable, and there is clearly a need for a rapid, dependable technique for the detection of emerald ash borer infestation. METHODS: Leaf spray, an ambient ionization method for mass spectrometry (MS), gives direct chemical information on a leaf sample by applying a high voltage to a naturally or artificially sharply pointed leaf piece causing ions to be generated directly from the leaf tip for MS analysis...
June 15, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Hung-Wen Lai, Shou-Tung Chen, Dar-Ren Chen, Shu-Ling Chen, Tsai-Wang Chang, Shou-Jen Kuo, Yao-Lung Kuo, Chin-Sheng Hung
BACKGROUND: Endoscopy-assisted breast surgery (EABS) performed through minimal axillary and/or periareolar incisions is a possible alternative to open surgery for certain patients with breast cancer. In this study, we report the early results of an EABS program in Taiwan. METHODS: The medical records of patients who underwent EABS for breast cancer during the period May 2009 to December 2014 were collected from the Taiwan Endoscopic Breast Surgery Cooperative Group database...
2016: PloS One
Han Bao, Zhanwang Zheng, Bin Yang, Ding Liu, Feifang Li, Xingwang Zhang, Zhongjian Li, Lecheng Lei
Much attention has been focused on electrochemically active bacteria (EAB) in the application of bioelectrochemical systems (BESs). Studying the EAB biofilm growth mechanism as well as electron transfer mechanism provides a route to upgrade BES performance. But an effective bacterial growth monitoring method on the biofilm scale is still absent in this field. In this work, electrode-attached bacterial biofilms formed by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 were dynamically monitored through a microelectrode method. For S...
June 2016: Bioelectrochemistry
Fernanda Cristina Ferrari, Rita de Cássia Lemos Lima, Zilma Schimith Ferraz Filha, Camila Helena Barros, Marcela Carolina de Paula Michel Araújo, Dênia Antunes Saúde-Guimarães
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Leaves infusion of Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus (Gomes) Landrum is used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat the predisposition to arthritical and gouty affections of the joints, fever and other diseases. A refreshing drink prepared with the specie is also used due to its diuretic, sedative and aphrodisiac actions. AIM OF THE STUDY: The study was undertaken to investigate the mechanisms of anti-hyperuricemic effect and anti-inflammatory activity of P...
March 2, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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