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Antibiotics for acute otitis media in children.

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390611/the-use-of-practice-guidelines-in-the-management-of-pediatric-cases-of-acute-otitis-media-in-amman-jordan
#1
Lubna Khreesha, Ali Bacharouch, R Alexander Blackwood, Mohammed Alkhoujah, Mohamad R Issa
OBJECTIVES: The widespread emergence of antimicrobial resistance has led many healthcare institutions to adopt more conservative antibiotic prescription practice guidelines for the treatment of acute otitis media (AOM). Little is known about the awareness and use of such guidelines by physicians in Jordan. Our aim was to pilot an anonymous survey instrument that would assess AOM treatment trends as well as awareness of and adherence to practice guidelines in Amman. By qualitatively assessing the management of AOM we could illuminate possible disparities in treatment trends, evaluate variability in practice guideline adherence, and help focus efforts of future educational programs that pertain to pediatric AOM management...
May 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372534/panel-7-otitis-media-treatment-and-complications
#2
Anne G M Schilder, Tal Marom, Mahmood F Bhutta, Margaretha L Casselbrant, Harvey Coates, Marie Gisselsson-Solén, Amanda J Hall, Paola Marchisio, Aino Ruohola, Roderick P Venekamp, Ellen M Mandel
Objective We aimed to summarize key articles published between 2011 and 2015 on the treatment of (recurrent) acute otitis media, otitis media with effusion, tympanostomy tube otorrhea, chronic suppurative otitis media and complications of otitis media, and their implications for clinical practice. Data Sources PubMed, Ovid Medline, the Cochrane Library, and Clinical Evidence (BMJ Publishing). Review Methods All types of articles related to otitis media treatment and complications between June 2011 and March 2015 were identified...
April 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372529/panel-4-report-of-the-microbiology-panel
#3
Stephen J Barenkamp, Tasnee Chonmaitree, Anders P Hakansson, Terho Heikkinen, Samantha King, Johanna Nokso-Koivisto, Laura A Novotny, Janak A Patel, Melinda Pettigrew, W Edward Swords
Objective To perform a comprehensive review of the literature from July 2011 until June 2015 on the virology and bacteriology of otitis media in children. Data Sources PubMed database of the National Library of Medicine. Review Methods Two subpanels comprising experts in the virology and bacteriology of otitis media were created. Each panel reviewed the relevant literature in the fields of virology and bacteriology and generated draft reviews. These initial reviews were distributed to all panel members prior to meeting together at the Post-symposium Research Conference of the 18th International Symposium on Recent Advances in Otitis Media, National Harbor, Maryland, in June 2015...
April 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338813/antibiotic-prescribing-for-acute-respiratory-infections-in-children-in-jordan
#4
Mera A Ababneh, Sayer I Al-Azzam, Rawan Ababneh, Abeer M Rababa'h, Saddam Al Demour
Background: Most acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in children are due to viral etiology; however, over-prescribing of antibiotics for ARIs is common. The aim of this investigation was to identify antibiotic prescribing prevalence for children with ARIs and to identify predictors of broad-spectrum antibiotic prescribing. Methods: This was a prospective cross sectional study in a sample of ambulatory care settings in Jordan. Children (<18 years) presenting with ARIs were assessed in terms of patient's demographics, antibiotic prescription and clinical diagnosis...
March 1, 2017: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329388/healthcare-claims-data-an-underutilized-tool-for-pediatric-outpatient-antimicrobial-stewardship
#5
Joshua R Watson, Ling Wang, Jennifer Klima, Melissa Moore-Clingenpeel, Sean Gleeson, Kelly Kelleher, Preeti Jaggi
Background: Healthcare claims are under-utilized to identify factors associated with high outpatient antibiotic use. Methods: We evaluated ambulatory encounter claims of Medicaid-insured children in 34 Ohio counties in 2014. 1) Rates of total antibiotic and azithromycin prescriptions dispensed were determined by county of patient residence. 2) Standardized treatment rates by county were estimated for uncomplicated upper respiratory tract encounters (acute otitis media, pharyngitis, sinusitis, presumed viral infection) after adjusting for patient age and encounter provider type...
March 9, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289114/parents-expectations-and-experiences-of-antibiotics-for-acute-respiratory-infections-in-primary-care
#6
Peter D Coxeter, Chris Del Mar, Tammy C Hoffmann
PURPOSE: Primary care visits for children with acute respiratory infections frequently result in antibiotic prescriptions, although antibiotics have limited benefits for common acute respiratory infections and can cause harms, including antibiotic resistance. Parental demands are often blamed for antibiotic prescription. We aimed to explore parents' beliefs about antibiotic necessity, quantify their expectations of antibiotic benefit, and report experiences of other management options and exposure to and preferences for shared decision making...
March 2017: Annals of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258074/cost-effectiveness-of-watchful-waiting-in-acute-otitis-media
#7
Di Sun, T J McCarthy, Danica B Liberman
BACKGROUND: American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines for acute otitis media (AOM) allow for children meeting certain criteria to undergo watchful waiting (WW). The cost-effectiveness of this policy has not been evaluated in the United States. METHODS: A retrospective review of a random selection of 250 patients ≤18 years old with AOM in the emergency department of a tertiary care children's hospital was used to characterize current practice of AOM management...
March 3, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257541/risk-factors-for-outpatient-use-of-antibiotics-in-children-with-acute-respiratory-illnesses
#8
Sophie R Zhao, Marie R Griffin, Barron L Patterson, Rachel L Mace, Dayna Wyatt, Yuwei Zhu, H Keipp Talbot
OBJECTIVES: Antibiotics for acute respiratory illness (ARI) constitute most pediatric medication use and contribute to the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. We investigated antibiotic prescription risk factors for ARI in pediatric clinics and clinical follow-up in individuals prescribed and not prescribed antibiotics. METHODS: In this observational study, we enrolled children ages 2 to 17 years old presenting with ARI with fever to two academic pediatric primary care outpatient clinics during influenza season 2013-2014...
March 2017: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235386/characteristics-of-ci-children-with-complicated-middle-ear-infections
#9
Søren Hoberg, Christian Danstrup, Bjarke Laursen, Niels Krintel Petersen, Nichlas Udholm, Gintaras Audrius Kamarauskas, Therese Ovesen
OBJECTIVE: To describe cases of complicated middle ear infections in children with cochlear implants (CI), i.e., episodes of acute otitis media (AOM) and acute mastoiditis (AM), resulting in hospitalization. METHODS: A total of 206 children under 16 years (300 implantations) were implanted between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2014 at the West Danish CI Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Aarhus, Denmark. By means of two prospective local databases, episodes of AOM or AM and demographics were retrieved including biochemistry, microbiology, length of follow- up, and variable treatment modalities (intravenous (IV) antibiotics, revision mastoidectomy, and insertion of ventilation tubes)...
February 24, 2017: Cochlear Implants International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178138/etiology-of-acute-otitis-media-and-serotype-distribution-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-haemophilus-influenzae-in-chilean-children-5-years-of-age
#10
Andres Rosenblut, Carla Napolitano, Angelica Pereira, Camilo Moreno, Devayani Kolhe, Alejandro Lepetic, Eduardo Ortega-Barria
The impact of bacterial conjugate vaccines on acute otitis media (AOM) is affected by several factors including population characteristics, bacterial etiology and vaccine conjugation method, carrier, and coverage. This study estimated the baseline etiology, distribution, and antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial serotypes that causes AOM in children aged <5 years in a public setting in Santiago, Chile.Children aged ≥3 months and <5 years referred to the physician for treatment of AOM episodes (with an onset of symptoms <72 h) were enrolled between September 2009 and September 2010...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122841/antibiotic-management-of-children-with-infectious-diseases-in-dutch-primary-care
#11
Anne R J Dekker, Theo J M Verheij, Alike W van der Velden
Background.: Childhood infections are common in general practice. Although clinical guidelines recommend restrictive antibiotic use for children, antibiotics are too often prescribed. Objective.: The aim of this study was to obtain insight in antibiotic prescribing for children related to clinical diagnoses. This is pivotal to define improvement strategies in the antibiotic management. Methods.: In this observational study, we used consultation data collected from 45 general practices in the Netherlands in 2012...
April 1, 2017: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119402/a-national-pharmacoepidemiological-study-of-antibiotic-use-in-korean-paediatric-outpatients
#12
Yun-Kyoung Song, Nayoung Han, Myeong Gyu Kim, Hyeu-Jin Chang, Hyun Soon Sohn, Eunhee Ji, Jung Mi Oh
BACKGROUND: Information on the use of antibiotics in Eastern Asian children is limited. The objectives of this study were to evaluate in Korean paediatric outpatients (1) the nationwide pattern of prescribing antibiotics according to age group and medical institution and (2) the adherence of antibiotic use for acute respiratory tract infections to both national guidelines and European antibiotic prescribing quality indicators. METHOD: This population-based study used the national insurance reimbursement database for 2011...
January 24, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103950/the-effects-of-ventilation-tubes-versus-no-ventilation-tubes-for-recurrent-acute-otitis-media-or-chronic-otitis-media-with-effusion-in-9-to-36%C3%A2-month-old-greenlandic-children-the-siutit-trial-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Malene Nøhr Demant, Ramon Gordon Jensen, Janus Christian Jakobsen, Christian Gluud, Preben Homøe
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of otitis media in Greenlandic children is one of the highest in the world. International studies have shown that otitis-prone children may benefit from tubulation of the tympanic membrane. However, it is unknown whether these results can be applied to Greenlandic children and trials on the effects of ventilation tubes in high-risk populations have, to our knowledge, never been conducted. METHODS: The trial is an investigator-initiated, multicentre, randomized, blinded superiority trial of bilateral ventilation tube insertion versus treatment as usual (no tube) in Greenlandic children aged 9-36 months with chronic otitis media with effusion or recurrent acute otitis media...
January 19, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087317/acute-otitis-media-caused-by-streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotype-19a-st320-clone-epidemiological-and-clinical-characteristics
#14
Hsin Chi, Nan-Chang Chiu, Fu-Yuan Huang, Chyong-Hsin Hsu, Kuo-Sheng Lee, Li-Min Huang, Yu-Chia Hsieh
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A ST320, a highly multiresistant and virulent clone, has emerged as a common pathogen causing acute otitis media (AOM) in children. METHODS: Patients aged 0-18 years with AOM who presented at Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan were prospectively enrolled between December 1, 2009, and November 30, 2012. For each patient, a specimen of middle-ear fluid was obtained and cultured. S. pneumoniae isolates were tested by serotyping, antibiotic-resistance profiling, and multilocus sequence typing...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024738/recent-epidemiology-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-nasopharynxes-of-korean-children-with-acute-otitis-media
#15
Seung Beom Han, Jong-Hyun Kim, Jin Han Kang, Sang Hyuk Ma, Chun Soo Kim, Kyung-Hyo Kim, Hwang Min Kim, Young Youn Choi
BACKGROUND: This prospective study was performed to evaluate serotype distribution, multilocus sequence typing, and antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae identified in Korean children with acute otitis media (AOM) after the introduction of a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). METHODS: Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from children diagnosed with AOM in seven hospitals in Korea. The bacteria identified in these samples and the serotypes, sequence types (STs), and antibiotic susceptibilities of S...
March 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012530/acute-mastoiditis-in-children-middle-ear-cultures-may-help-in-reducing-use-of-broad-spectrum-antibiotics
#16
Catarina Garcia, Ana Bárbara Salgueiro, Catarina Luís, Paula Correia, Maria João Brito
BACKGROUND: Acute mastoiditis (AM) is a suppurative infection of the mastoid air cells, representing the most frequent complication of acute otitis media. AM remains an important entity in children due to its potential complications and sequelae. We aim to describe the cases of AM admitted at our department, identify risk factors potentially associated with complications and analyse the changes in clinical approach of AM over time. METHODS: Case review of clinical files of children admitted with acute mastoiditis from June 1996 to May 2013 at a Lisbon metropolitan area hospital...
January 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000028/demonstration-of-the-herd-effect-in-adults-after-the-implementation-of-pneumococcal-vaccination-with-pcv13-in-children
#17
C Hays, Q Vermee, A Agathine, A Dupuis, E Varon, C Poyart, M-C Ploy, J Raymond
The purpose of this investigation was to describe the evolution of serotypes and antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated from both adults and children from the same population area with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) or acute otitis media (AOM), 5 years after the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). From 2009 to 2015, 839 strains of S. pneumoniae strains were collected (481 from adults and 358 from children). Serotyping by latex antisera and molecular methods was performed...
December 20, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977844/paracetamol-acetaminophen-or-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-alone-or-combined-for-pain-relief-in-acute-otitis-media-in-children
#18
REVIEW
Alies Sjoukes, Roderick P Venekamp, Alma C van de Pol, Alastair D Hay, Paul Little, Anne Gm Schilder, Roger Amj Damoiseaux
BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most common childhood infectious diseases and a significant reason for antibiotic prescriptions in children worldwide. Pain from middle ear infection and pressure behind the eardrum is the key symptom of AOM. Ear pain is central to children's and parents' experience of the illness. Because antibiotics provide only marginal benefits, analgesic treatment including paracetamol (acetaminophen) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is regarded as the cornerstone of AOM management in children...
December 15, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919900/n-acetyl-l-cysteine-and-cysteamine-as-new-strategies-against-mixed-biofilms-of-nonencapsulated-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-nontypeable-haemophilus-influenzae
#19
Mirian Domenech, Ernesto García
Acute otitis media, a polymicrobial disease of the middle ear cavity of children, is a significant public health problem worldwide. It is most frequently caused by encapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, although the widespread use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines is apparently producing an increase in the carriage of nonencapsulated S. pneumoniae Frequently, pneumococci and H. influenzae live together in the human nasopharynx, forming a self-produced biofilm. Biofilms present a global medical challenge since the inherent antibiotic resistance of their producers demands the use of large doses of antibiotics over prolonged periods...
February 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918383/etiology-of-acute-otitis-media-in-children-less-than-5-years-of-age-a-pooled-analysis-of-10-similarly-designed-observational-studies
#20
Melissa K Van Dyke, Jean-Yves Pirçon, Robert Cohen, Shabir A Madhi, Andrés Rosenblüt, Mercedes Macias Parra, Khalid Al-Mazrou, Gerhard Grevers, Pio Lopez, Laura Naranjo, Felix Pumarola, Nuntigar Sonsuwan, William P Hausdorff
BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is an important cause of childhood morbidity and antibiotic prescriptions. However, the relative importance of the well-known otopathogens, Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) and Haemophilus influenzae (Hflu), remains unclear because of a limited number of tympanocentesis-based studies that vary significantly in populations sampled, case definitions and heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine use. METHODS: We conducted a pooled analysis of results from 10 AOM etiology studies of similar design, the protocols of which were derived from a common protocol and conducted in children 3 months to 5 years of age in different countries...
March 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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