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Antibiotics for acute otitis media in children.

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329388/healthcare-claims-data-an-underutilized-tool-for-pediatric-outpatient-antimicrobial-stewardship
#1
Joshua R Watson, Ling Wang, Jennifer Klima, Melissa Moore-Clingenpeel, Sean Gleeson, Kelly Kelleher, Preeti Jaggi
Background: Healthcare claims are under-utilized to identify factors associated with high outpatient antibiotic use. Methods: We evaluated ambulatory encounter claims of Medicaid-insured children in 34 Ohio counties in 2014. 1) Rates of total antibiotic and azithromycin prescriptions dispensed were determined by county of patient residence. 2) Standardized treatment rates by county were estimated for uncomplicated upper respiratory tract encounters (acute otitis media, pharyngitis, sinusitis, presumed viral infection) after adjusting for patient age and encounter provider type...
March 9, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289114/parents-expectations-and-experiences-of-antibiotics-for-acute-respiratory-infections-in-primary-care
#2
Peter D Coxeter, Chris Del Mar, Tammy C Hoffmann
PURPOSE: Primary care visits for children with acute respiratory infections frequently result in antibiotic prescriptions, although antibiotics have limited benefits for common acute respiratory infections and can cause harms, including antibiotic resistance. Parental demands are often blamed for antibiotic prescription. We aimed to explore parents' beliefs about antibiotic necessity, quantify their expectations of antibiotic benefit, and report experiences of other management options and exposure to and preferences for shared decision making...
March 2017: Annals of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258074/cost-effectiveness-of-watchful-waiting-in-acute-otitis-media
#3
Di Sun, T J McCarthy, Danica B Liberman
BACKGROUND: American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines for acute otitis media (AOM) allow for children meeting certain criteria to undergo watchful waiting (WW). The cost-effectiveness of this policy has not been evaluated in the United States. METHODS: A retrospective review of a random selection of 250 patients ≤18 years old with AOM in the emergency department of a tertiary care children's hospital was used to characterize current practice of AOM management...
March 3, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257541/risk-factors-for-outpatient-use-of-antibiotics-in-children-with-acute-respiratory-illnesses
#4
Sophie R Zhao, Marie R Griffin, Barron L Patterson, Rachel L Mace, Dayna Wyatt, Yuwei Zhu, H Keipp Talbot
OBJECTIVES: Antibiotics for acute respiratory illness (ARI) constitute most pediatric medication use and contribute to the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. We investigated antibiotic prescription risk factors for ARI in pediatric clinics and clinical follow-up in individuals prescribed and not prescribed antibiotics. METHODS: In this observational study, we enrolled children ages 2 to 17 years old presenting with ARI with fever to two academic pediatric primary care outpatient clinics during influenza season 2013-2014...
March 2017: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235386/characteristics-of-ci-children-with-complicated-middle-ear-infections
#5
Søren Hoberg, Christian Danstrup, Bjarke Laursen, Niels Krintel Petersen, Nichlas Udholm, Gintaras Audrius Kamarauskas, Therese Ovesen
OBJECTIVE: To describe cases of complicated middle ear infections in children with cochlear implants (CI), i.e., episodes of acute otitis media (AOM) and acute mastoiditis (AM), resulting in hospitalization. METHODS: A total of 206 children under 16 years (300 implantations) were implanted between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2014 at the West Danish CI Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Aarhus, Denmark. By means of two prospective local databases, episodes of AOM or AM and demographics were retrieved including biochemistry, microbiology, length of follow- up, and variable treatment modalities (intravenous (IV) antibiotics, revision mastoidectomy, and insertion of ventilation tubes)...
February 24, 2017: Cochlear Implants International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178138/etiology-of-acute-otitis-media-and-serotype-distribution-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-haemophilus-influenzae-in-chilean-children-5-years-of-age
#6
Andres Rosenblut, Carla Napolitano, Angelica Pereira, Camilo Moreno, Devayani Kolhe, Alejandro Lepetic, Eduardo Ortega-Barria
The impact of bacterial conjugate vaccines on acute otitis media (AOM) is affected by several factors including population characteristics, bacterial etiology and vaccine conjugation method, carrier, and coverage. This study estimated the baseline etiology, distribution, and antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial serotypes that causes AOM in children aged <5 years in a public setting in Santiago, Chile.Children aged ≥3 months and <5 years referred to the physician for treatment of AOM episodes (with an onset of symptoms <72 h) were enrolled between September 2009 and September 2010...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122841/antibiotic-management-of-children-with-infectious-diseases-in-dutch-primary-care
#7
Anne R J Dekker, Theo J M Verheij, Alike W van der Velden
BACKGROUND: Childhood infections are common in general practice. Although clinical guidelines recommend restrictive antibiotic use for children, antibiotics are too often prescribed. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to obtain insight in antibiotic prescribing for children related to clinical diagnoses. This is pivotal to define improvement strategies in the antibiotic management. METHODS: In this observational study, we used consultation data collected from 45 general practices in the Netherlands in 2012...
January 24, 2017: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119402/a-national-pharmacoepidemiological-study-of-antibiotic-use-in-korean-paediatric-outpatients
#8
Yun-Kyoung Song, Nayoung Han, Myeong Gyu Kim, Hyeu-Jin Chang, Hyun Soon Sohn, Eunhee Ji, Jung Mi Oh
BACKGROUND: Information on the use of antibiotics in Eastern Asian children is limited. The objectives of this study were to evaluate in Korean paediatric outpatients (1) the nationwide pattern of prescribing antibiotics according to age group and medical institution and (2) the adherence of antibiotic use for acute respiratory tract infections to both national guidelines and European antibiotic prescribing quality indicators. METHOD: This population-based study used the national insurance reimbursement database for 2011...
January 24, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103950/the-effects-of-ventilation-tubes-versus-no-ventilation-tubes-for-recurrent-acute-otitis-media-or-chronic-otitis-media-with-effusion-in-9-to-36%C3%A2-month-old-greenlandic-children-the-siutit-trial-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Malene Nøhr Demant, Ramon Gordon Jensen, Janus Christian Jakobsen, Christian Gluud, Preben Homøe
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of otitis media in Greenlandic children is one of the highest in the world. International studies have shown that otitis-prone children may benefit from tubulation of the tympanic membrane. However, it is unknown whether these results can be applied to Greenlandic children and trials on the effects of ventilation tubes in high-risk populations have, to our knowledge, never been conducted. METHODS: The trial is an investigator-initiated, multicentre, randomized, blinded superiority trial of bilateral ventilation tube insertion versus treatment as usual (no tube) in Greenlandic children aged 9-36 months with chronic otitis media with effusion or recurrent acute otitis media...
January 19, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087317/acute-otitis-media-caused-by-streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotype-19a-st320-clone-epidemiological-and-clinical-characteristics
#10
Hsin Chi, Nan-Chang Chiu, Fu-Yuan Huang, Chyong-Hsin Hsu, Kuo-Sheng Lee, Li-Min Huang, Yu-Chia Hsieh
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A ST320, a highly multiresistant and virulent clone, has emerged as a common pathogen causing acute otitis media (AOM) in children. METHODS: Patients aged 0-18 years with AOM who presented at Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan were prospectively enrolled between December 1, 2009, and November 30, 2012. For each patient, a specimen of middle-ear fluid was obtained and cultured. S. pneumoniae isolates were tested by serotyping, antibiotic-resistance profiling, and multilocus sequence typing...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024738/recent-epidemiology-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-nasopharynxes-of-korean-children-with-acute-otitis-media
#11
Seung Beom Han, Jong-Hyun Kim, Jin Han Kang, Sang Hyuk Ma, Chun Soo Kim, Kyung-Hyo Kim, Hwang Min Kim, Young Youn Choi
BACKGROUND: This prospective study was performed to evaluate serotype distribution, multilocus sequence typing, and antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae identified in Korean children with acute otitis media (AOM) after the introduction of a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). METHODS: Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from children diagnosed with AOM in seven hospitals in Korea. The bacteria identified in these samples and the serotypes, sequence types (STs), and antibiotic susceptibilities of S...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012530/acute-mastoiditis-in-children-middle-ear-cultures-may-help-in-reducing-use-of-broad-spectrum-antibiotics
#12
REVIEW
Catarina Garcia, Ana Bárbara Salgueiro, Catarina Luís, Paula Correia, Maria João Brito
BACKGROUND: Acute mastoiditis (AM) is a suppurative infection of the mastoid air cells, representing the most frequent complication of acute otitis media. AM remains an important entity in children due to its potential complications and sequelae. We aim to describe the cases of AM admitted at our department, identify risk factors potentially associated with complications and analyse the changes in clinical approach of AM over time. METHODS: Case review of clinical files of children admitted with acute mastoiditis from June 1996 to May 2013 at a Lisbon metropolitan area hospital...
January 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000028/demonstration-of-the-herd-effect-in-adults-after-the-implementation-of-pneumococcal-vaccination-with-pcv13-in-children
#13
C Hays, Q Vermee, A Agathine, A Dupuis, E Varon, C Poyart, M-C Ploy, J Raymond
The purpose of this investigation was to describe the evolution of serotypes and antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated from both adults and children from the same population area with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) or acute otitis media (AOM), 5 years after the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). From 2009 to 2015, 839 strains of S. pneumoniae strains were collected (481 from adults and 358 from children). Serotyping by latex antisera and molecular methods was performed...
December 20, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977844/paracetamol-acetaminophen-or-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-alone-or-combined-for-pain-relief-in-acute-otitis-media-in-children
#14
REVIEW
Alies Sjoukes, Roderick P Venekamp, Alma C van de Pol, Alastair D Hay, Paul Little, Anne Gm Schilder, Roger Amj Damoiseaux
BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most common childhood infectious diseases and a significant reason for antibiotic prescriptions in children worldwide. Pain from middle ear infection and pressure behind the eardrum is the key symptom of AOM. Ear pain is central to children's and parents' experience of the illness. Because antibiotics provide only marginal benefits, analgesic treatment including paracetamol (acetaminophen) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is regarded as the cornerstone of AOM management in children...
December 15, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919900/n-acetyl-l-cysteine-and-cysteamine-as-new-strategies-against-mixed-biofilms-of-nonencapsulated-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-nontypeable-haemophilus-influenzae
#15
Mirian Domenech, Ernesto García
Acute otitis media, a polymicrobial disease of the middle ear cavity of children, is a significant public health problem worldwide. It is most frequently caused by encapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, although the widespread use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines is apparently producing an increase in the carriage of nonencapsulated S. pneumoniae Frequently, pneumococci and H. influenzae live together in the human nasopharynx, forming a self-produced biofilm. Biofilms present a global medical challenge since the inherent antibiotic resistance of their producers demands the use of large doses of antibiotics over prolonged periods...
February 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918383/etiology-of-acute-otitis-media-in-children-less-than-5-years-of-age-a-pooled-analysis-of-10-similarly-designed-observational-studies
#16
Melissa K Van Dyke, Jean-Yves Pirçon, Robert Cohen, Shabir A Madhi, Andrés Rosenblüt, Mercedes Macias Parra, Khalid Al-Mazrou, Gerhard Grevers, Pio Lopez, Laura Naranjo, Felix Pumarola, Nuntigar Sonsuwan, William P Hausdorff
BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is an important cause of childhood morbidity and antibiotic prescriptions. However, the relative importance of the well-known otopathogens, Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) and Haemophilus influenzae (Hflu), remains unclear because of a limited number of tympanocentesis-based studies that vary significantly in populations sampled, case definitions and heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine use. METHODS: We conducted a pooled analysis of results from 10 AOM etiology studies of similar design, the protocols of which were derived from a common protocol and conducted in children 3 months to 5 years of age in different countries...
March 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854381/interventions-for-children-with-ear-discharge-occurring-at-least-two-weeks-following-grommet-ventilation-tube-insertion
#17
REVIEW
Roderick P Venekamp, Faisal Javed, Thijs Ma van Dongen, Angus Waddell, Anne Gm Schilder
BACKGROUND: Ear discharge (otorrhoea) is common in children with grommets (ventilation/tympanostomy tubes); the proportion of children developing discharge ranges from 25% to 75%. The most common treatment strategies include oral broad-spectrum antibiotics, antibiotic eardrops or those containing a combination of antibiotic(s) and a corticosteroid, and initial observation. Important drivers for one strategy over the other are concerns over the side effects of oral antibiotics and the potential ototoxicity of antibiotic eardrops...
November 17, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810126/randomized-controlled-trial-of-juzen-taiho-to-in-children-with-recurrent-acute-otitis-media
#18
Makoto Ito, Yumiko Maruyama, Ken Kitamura, Toshimitsu Kobayashi, Haruo Takahashi, Noboru Yamanaka, Yasuaki Harabuchi, Hideki Origasa, Tomokazu Yoshizaki
OBJECTIVE: Recurrent acute otitis media (AOM) in young children is rapidly increasing worldwide. Repeated antibiotic use leads to antibiotic-resistant pathogen development. Complementary and alternative medicine approaches have been suggested as a supplemental treatment option to conventional antimicrobial medicine. This randomized, parallel-group, open-label, non-herbal medicine controlled trial assessed the efficacy of a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, juzen-taiho-to (JTT) for AOM prevention in otitis-prone children...
October 31, 2016: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798547/streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotypes-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-patterns-in-middle-ear-fluid-isolates-during-acute-otitis-media-and-nasopharyngeal-isolates-during-community-acquired-alveolar-pneumonia-in-central-romania
#19
Raluca-Ileana Lixandru, Cristian Falup-Pecurariu, Laura Bleotu, Alice Mercas, Eugene Leibovitz, Ron Dagan, David Greenberg, Oana Falup-Pecurariu
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired alveolar pneumonia (CAAP) and acute otitis media (AOM) in children. Romania has high rates of S. pneumoniae antibiotic resistance. The pneumococcal conjugated vaccines (PCVs) are not being used routinely in this country. The aims of the study were as follows: 1) to compare pneumococcal antibiotic resistance patterns in AOM and CAAP in children from central Romania and 2) to compare differences in the distribution of pneumococcal serotypes isolated from the middle ear fluid (MEF) of children with AOM and from the nasopharynx (NP) of children with CAAP...
February 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748206/prognostic-effect-of-pre-and-post-admission-antibiotic-treatment-in-paediatric-acute-mastoiditis
#20
E Carmel, J H Curotta, A T Cheng
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of pre- and post-admission antibiotic treatment in paediatric acute mastoiditis. DESIGN: Retrospective study. METHOD: Eighty-eight children with acute mastoiditis, from 2003 to 2012, were studied to investigate the effect of antibiotic therapy on short and long-term sequelae. RESULTS: The median period of antibiotic therapy immediately following hospital discharge was 10 days (range, 5-49 days; standard deviation = 7...
January 2017: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
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