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Antibiotics for acute otitis media in children.

E Carmel, J H Curotta, A T Cheng
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of pre- and post-admission antibiotic treatment in paediatric acute mastoiditis. DESIGN: Retrospective study. METHOD: Eighty-eight children with acute mastoiditis, from 2003 to 2012, were studied to investigate the effect of antibiotic therapy on short and long-term sequelae. RESULTS: The median period of antibiotic therapy immediately following hospital discharge was 10 days (range, 5-49 days; standard deviation = 7...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
Terho Heikkinen, Emilia Ojala, Matti Waris
BACKGROUND:  Vaccines and antivirals against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are being developed, but there are scarce data on the full impact of RSV infection on outpatient children. METHODS:  We analyzed the burden of RSV in a prospective cohort study of children aged ≤13 years during 2 consecutive respiratory seasons in Turku, Finland (2231 child-seasons of follow-up). We examined the children and obtained nasal swabs for the detection of RSV during each respiratory illness...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Karen Arane, Ran D Goldman
QUESTION: A 2-year-old patient in my practice with acute otitis media that has progressed to mastoiditis with a high fever returns with positive culture results for Fusobacterium What should I do next? ANSWER: Fusobacterium is a genus of anaerobic bacteria. Although Fusobacterium infections are rare, they can become severe if not treated promptly. Appropriate treatment is combination antibiotic therapy consisting of a β-lactam (penicillin, cephalosporin) and an anaerobic antimicrobial agent (metronidazole, clindamycin)...
October 2016: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
Nuntigar Sonsuwan, Patcharin Watcharinyanon, Kittisak Sawanyawisuth
OBJECTIVES: Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common infectious disease in children. Data regarding the distribution of causative pathogens are not universal. Tympanic perforation due to AOM may occur in 5-30% of AOM patients. The causative pathogens for AOM with tympanic perforation are limited. METHODS: This was a prospective study conducted at the Department of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Thailand. All consecutive children diagnosed as having AOM with tympanic perforation were enrolled...
November 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Gijs van Ingen, Jin Li, André Goedegebure, Rahul Pandey, Yun Rose Li, Michael E March, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Marina Bakay, Frank D Mentch, Kelly Thomas, Zhi Wei, Xiao Chang, Heather S Hain, André G Uitterlinden, Henriette A Moll, Cornelia M van Duijn, Fernando Rivadeneira, Hein Raat, Robert J Baatenburg de Jong, Patrick M Sleiman, Marc P van der Schroeff, Hakon Hakonarson
Acute otitis media (AOM) is among the most common pediatric diseases, and the most frequent reason for antibiotic treatment in children. Risk of AOM is dependent on environmental and host factors, as well as a significant genetic component. We identify genome-wide significance at a locus on 6q25.3 (rs2932989, Pmeta=2.15 × 10(-09)), and show that the associated variants are correlated with the methylation status of the FNDC1 gene (cg05678571, P=1.43 × 10(-06)), and further show it is an eQTL for FNDC1 (P=9...
September 28, 2016: Nature Communications
Marthe Te Molder, Marieke L A de Hoog, Cuno S P M Uiterwaal, Cornelis K van der Ent, Henriette A Smit, Anne G M Schilder, Roger A M J Damoiseaux, Roderick P Venekamp
OBJECTIVE: Antibiotic treatment of acute otitis media (AOM) has been suggested to increase the risk of future AOM episodes by causing unfavorable shifts in microbial flora. Because current evidence on this topic is inconclusive and long-term follow-up data are scarce, we wanted to estimate the effect of antibiotic treatment for a first AOM episode occurring during infancy on AOM recurrences and AOM-related health care utilization later in life. METHODS: We obtained demographic information and risk factors from data of the Wheezing Illnesses Study Leidsche Rijn, a prospective birth cohort study in which all healthy newborns born in Leidsche Rijn (between 2001 and 2012), The Netherlands, were enrolled...
2016: PloS One
Joan Henderson, Lisa Valenti, Graeme C Miller
Otitis media (OM) is one of the most common infections in children. The cause can be viral, but is most often bacterial. It remains one of the most common reasons for antibiotic prescribing for children. Many episodes of acute OM are self-limiting and resolve without treatment, but antibiotics are often prescribed because these infections can develop into serious, sometimes life-threatening complications.
June 2016: Australian Family Physician
Henrik Szőke, Márta Maródi, Zsuzsa Sallay, Balázs Székely, Martin-Günther Sterner, Gabriella Hegyi
BACKGROUND: Chronic otitis media with effusion (COME) and adenoid hypertrophy (AH) are common entities in the pediatric population. The conventional treatment approach (conventional medicine; COM) involved mainly surgery after a period of close observation. In this study, we aimed to introduce an integrative, non-invasive approach (integrative medicine; IM) for COME, AH, and associated episodes of recurrent acute otitis media, and compared outcomes with conventional treatment. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, non-randomized study in an integrative primary care pediatric practice and a conventional pediatric otolaryngological clinic, where treatment modality was determined by patient preference...
2016: Forschende Komplementärmedizin, Research in Complementary Medicine
Anne G M Schilder, Tasnee Chonmaitree, Allan W Cripps, Richard M Rosenfeld, Margaretha L Casselbrant, Mark P Haggard, Roderick P Venekamp
Otitis media (OM) or middle ear inflammation is a spectrum of diseases, including acute otitis media (AOM), otitis media with effusion (OME; 'glue ear') and chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM). OM is among the most common diseases in young children worldwide. Although OM may resolve spontaneously without complications, it can be associated with hearing loss and life-long sequelae. In developing countries, CSOM is a leading cause of hearing loss. OM can be of bacterial or viral origin; during 'colds', viruses can ascend through the Eustachian tube to the middle ear and pave the way for bacterial otopathogens that reside in the nasopharynx...
2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
Sharon Ovnat Tamir, Shay Shemesh, Yahav Oron, Tal Marom
BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common childhood disease, with an enormous economic and healthcare-related burden. Guidelines and consensus papers for AOM diagnosis and management were published in many countries. Our objective was to study the differences and similarities between these protocols in developing and developed countries. METHODS: The keywords: 'acute otitis media' AND 'children' AND ['treatment' or 'management'] AND ['guideline' or 'consensus'] were used in various electronic databases between 1 January 1989 through 31 December 2015...
September 6, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Laura Toivonen, Linnea Schuez-Havupalo, Sinikka Karppinen, Tamara Teros-Jaakkola, Maris Rulli, Jussi Mertsola, Matti Waris, Ville Peltola
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Rhinoviruses frequently cause respiratory infections in young children. We aimed to establish the burden of acute respiratory infections caused by rhinovirus during the first 2 years of life. METHODS: In this prospective birth cohort study, we followed 923 children for acute respiratory infections from birth to 2 years of age. Data on respiratory infections were collected by daily symptom diaries, study clinic visits, and from electronic registries...
September 2016: Pediatrics
Carlo Caffarelli, Francesca Santamaria, Dora Di Mauro, Carla Mastrorilli, Virginia Mirra, Sergio Bernasconi
This review focuses key advances in different pediatric fields that were published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics and in international journals in 2015. Weaning studies continue to show promise for preventing food allergy. New diagnostic tools are available for identifying the allergic origin of allergic-like symptoms. Advances have been reported in obesity, short stature and autoimmune endocrine disorders. New molecules are offered to reduce weight gain and insulin-resistance in obese children. Regional investigations may provide suggestions for preventing short stature...
August 27, 2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Marieke L A de Hoog, Alexandre C Fortanier, Henriette A Smit, CunoS P M Uiterwaal, Cornelis K van der Ent, Anne Schilder, RogerA M J Damoiseaux, Roderick P Venekamp, Patricia Bruijning-Verhagen
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the critical age period of first episode of acute otitis media (AOM) and its consequences for AOM recurrences and AOM health care use. STUDY DESIGN: Children enrolled in the Wheezing-Illnesses-STudy-LEidsche-Rijn cohort with at least 1 episode of AOM documented in their primary care health record before 2 years of age were followed until 6 years of age. Data on episodes of AOM and associated primary care consultations, antibiotic prescriptions, and specialist referrals were retrieved...
October 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Marie Gisselsson-Solen, Ann Hermansson, Åsa Melhus
BACKGROUND: Although there is evidence of an association between antibiotic consumption and resistant bacteria on a population level, the relationship on an individual level has been less well studied, particularly in terms of nasopharyngeal colonization. We have therefore analysed this association, using data from a closely followed cohort of children taking part in a vaccination trial. METHODS: 109 children with early onset of acute otitis media (AOM) were randomised to heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) or no vaccination...
September 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Amir Azarpazhooh, Herenia P Lawrence, Prakeshkumar S Shah
BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is the most common bacterial infection among young children in the United States. There are limitations and concerns over its treatment with antibiotics and surgery and so effective preventative measures are attractive. A potential preventative measure is xylitol, a natural sugar substitute that reduces the risk of dental decay. Xylitol can reduce the adherence of Streptococcus pneumoniae (S pneumoniae) and Haemophilus influenzae (H influenzae) to nasopharyngeal cells in vitro...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Hana Dojčárová
INTRODUCTION: The objectives were to assess the prevalence of etiological agents of acute otitis media (AOM) in children, age distribution of patients, frequency of the disease throughout the year, prescribed antibiotics, risk factors and complications. METHODS: Included in the study were 100 children and adolescents aged 0 to 18 years who had been diagnosed with AOM. From these patients, swabs for culture were obtained from the middle ear after paracentesis or perforation of the ear drum...
March 2016: Klinická Mikrobiologie a Infekc̆ní Lékar̆ství
Vytautas Usonis, Teresa Jackowska, Sigita Petraitiene, Alicja Sapala, Andrea Neculau, Izabella Stryjewska, Raghavendra Devadiga, Monica Tafalla, Katsiaryna Holl
BACKGROUND: Although acute otitis media (AOM) remains a major public health problem worldwide and brings economic burden on health care system and caregivers, little information is available about its epidemiology in Eastern Europe. METHODS: We conducted an epidemiological, prospective, observational, multi-centre cohort study (NCT01365390) in five East European countries (Estonia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Slovenia) between June 2011 and January 2013 to determine the incidence and clinical characteristics of AOM among children aged < 6 years during 1 year...
July 26, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
Laura Toivonen, Sinikka Karppinen, Linnea Schuez-Havupalo, Tamara Teros-Jaakkola, Juho Vuononvirta, Jussi Mertsola, Qiushui He, Matti Waris, Ville Peltola
BACKGROUND: The burden of recurrent respiratory infections is unclear. We identified young children with recurrent respiratory infections in order to characterize the clinical manifestations, risk factors, and short-term consequences. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, 1089 children were followed from birth to 2 years of age for respiratory infections by a daily symptom diary. Nasal swabs taken during respiratory infections were analyzed for viruses from 714 children...
July 22, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Yoshihisa Nakamura, Yuki Hamajima, Motohiko Suzuki, Shinichi Esaki, Makoto Yokota, Masanori Oshika, Ippei Takagi, Keiko Yasui, Naoya Miyamoto, Kazuko Sugiyama, Meiho Nakayama, Shingo Murakami
OBJECTIVE: Conventional treatment for acute otitis media mainly targets bacteria with antibiotics, neglecting to control for mediators of inflammation. Mediators of inflammation, such as leukotrienes, have been identified in patients with acute otitis media (AOM) or subsequent secretory otitis media (SOM). They can cause functional eustachian tube dysfunction or increase mucous in the middle ear, causing persistent SOM following AOM. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether or not administration of pranlukast, a widely used leukotriene C4, D4, and E4 antagonist, together with antibiotics could inhibit the progression to SOM...
August 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Roderick P Venekamp, Martin J Burton, Thijs M A van Dongen, Geert J van der Heijden, Alice van Zon, Anne G M Schilder
BACKGROUND: Otitis media with effusion (OME) is characterised by an accumulation of fluid in the middle ear behind an intact tympanic membrane, without the symptoms or signs of acute infection. Since most cases of OME will resolve spontaneously, only children with persistent middle ear effusion and associated hearing loss potentially require treatment. Previous Cochrane reviews have focused on the effectiveness of ventilation tube insertion, adenoidectomy, nasal autoinflation, antihistamines, decongestants and corticosteroids in OME...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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