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Myosin IIB

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103954/catenins-steer-cell-migration-via-stabilization-of-front-rear-polarity
#1
Vassil Vassilev, Anna Platek, Sylvain Hiver, Hideki Enomoto, Masatoshi Takeichi
Cell migration plays a pivotal role in morphogenetic and pathogenetic processes. To achieve directional migration, cells must establish a front-to-rear axis of polarity. Here we show that components of the cadherin-catenin complex function to stabilize this front-rear polarity. Neural crest and glioblastoma cells undergo directional migration in vivo or in vitro. During this process, αE-catenin accumulated at lamellipodial membranes and then moved toward the rear with the support of a tyrosine-phosphorylated β-catenin...
October 31, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084269/non-muscle-myosin-iib-myh10-is-required-for-epicardial-function-and-coronary-vessel-formation-during-mammalian-development
#2
Liam A Ridge, Karen Mitchell, Ali Al-Anbaki, Wasay Mohiuddin Shaikh Qureshi, Louise A Stephen, Gennadiy Tenin, Yinhui Lu, Irina-Elena Lupu, Christopher Clowes, Abigail Robertson, Emma Barnes, Jayne A Wright, Bernard Keavney, Elisabeth Ehler, Simon C Lovell, Karl E Kadler, Kathryn E Hentges
The coronary vasculature is an essential vessel network providing the blood supply to the heart. Disruptions in coronary blood flow contribute to cardiac disease, a major cause of premature death worldwide. The generation of treatments for cardiovascular disease will be aided by a deeper understanding of the developmental processes that underpin coronary vessel formation. From an ENU mutagenesis screen, we have isolated a mouse mutant displaying embryonic hydrocephalus and cardiac defects (EHC). Positional cloning and candidate gene analysis revealed that the EHC phenotype results from a point mutation in a splice donor site of the Myh10 gene, which encodes NMHC IIB...
October 30, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057943/high-fat-diet-induced-insulin-resistance-in-single-skeletal-muscle-fibers-is-fiber-type-selective
#3
Mark W Pataky, Haiyan Wang, Carmen S Yu, Edward B Arias, Robert J Ploutz-Snyder, Xiaohua Zheng, Gregory D Cartee
Skeletal muscle is the major site for insulin-stimulated glucose disposal, and muscle insulin resistance confers many negative health outcomes. Muscle is composed of multiple fiber types, and conventional analysis of whole muscles cannot elucidate fiber type differences at the cellular level. Previous research demonstrated that a brief (two weeks) high fat diet (HFD) caused insulin resistance in rat skeletal muscle. The primary aim of this study was to determine in rat skeletal muscle the influence of a brief (two weeks) HFD on glucose uptake (GU) ± insulin in single fibers that were also characterized for fiber type...
October 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049414/wavelet-imaging-on-multiple-scales-wims-reveals-focal-adhesion-distributions-dynamics-and-coupling-between-actomyosin-bundle-stability
#4
Tim Toplak, Benoit Palmieri, Alba Juanes-García, Miguel Vicente-Manzanares, Martin Grant, Paul W Wiseman
We introduce and use Wavelet Imaging on Multiple Scales (WIMS) as an improvement to fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to measure physical processes and features that occur across multiple length scales. In this study, wavelet transforms of cell images are used to characterize molecular dynamics at the cellular and subcellular levels (i.e. focal adhesions). We show the usefulness of the technique by applying WIMS to an image time series of a migrating osteosarcoma cell expressing fluorescently labelled adhesion proteins, which allows us to characterize different components of the cell ranging from optical resolution scale through to focal adhesion and whole cell size scales...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961272/sorbin-and-sh3-domain-containing-protein-2-sorbs2-is-a-component-of-the-acto-myosin-ring-at-the-apical-junctional-complex-in-epithelial-cells
#5
Karin Fredriksson-Lidman, Christina M Van Itallie, Amber J Tietgens, James M Anderson
SORBS2 is a scaffolding protein associated with Abl/Arg non-receptor tyrosine kinase pathways and is known to interact with actin and several other cytoskeletal proteins in various cell types. Previous BioID proximity labeling of tight and adherens junction proteins suggested that SORBS2 is a component of the apical junction complex of epithelial cells. We asked whether SORBS2 plays a previously unappreciated role in controlling perijunctional actin and tight junction barrier function. Using super resolution imaging we confirmed that SORBS2 is localized at the apical junction complex but farther from the membrane than ZO-1 and located partially overlapping both the tight- and adherens junctions with a periodic concentration that alternates with myosin IIB in polarized epithelial cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912360/influence-of-past-injurious-exercise-on-fiber-type-specific-acute-anabolic-response-to-resistance-exercise-in-skeletal-muscle
#6
Ryo Takagi, Riki Ogasawara, Junya Takegaki, Arata Tsutaki, Koichi Nakazato, Naokata Ishii
We investigated influence of past injurious exercise on anabolic response of skeletal muscle fibers to resistance exercise (RE). Wistar rats were divided into exercise (E) and exercise after injury (I-E) groups. At age 10 wk, the right gastrocnemius muscle in each rat in the I-E group was subjected to strenuous eccentric contractions. Subsequently, RE was imposed on the same muscle of each rat at 14 wk of age in both groups. Peak joint torque and total force generation per body mass during RE were similar between the groups...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892032/semi-automated-analysis-of-mouse-skeletal-muscle-morphology-and-fiber-type-composition
#7
Sidharth Tyagi, Donald Beqollari, Chang Seok Lee, Lori A Walker, Roger A Bannister
For years, distinctions between skeletal muscle fiber types were best visualized by myosin-ATPase staining. More recently, immunohistochemical staining of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms has emerged as a finer discriminator of fiber-type. Type I, type IIA, type IIX and type IIB fibers can now be identified with precision based on their MyHC profile; however, manual analysis of these data can be slow and down-right tedious. In this regard, rapid, accurate assessment of fiber-type composition and morphology is a very desirable tool...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861647/fiber-type-distribution-and-expression-of-myosin-heavy-chain-isoforms-in-newborn-heterozygous-myostatin-knockout-pigs
#8
Xiao-Xu Xing, Mei-Fu Xuan, Long Jin, Qing Guo, Zhao-Bo Luo, Jun-Xia Wang, Qi-Rong Luo, Guang-Lei Zhang, Cheng-Du Cui, Zheng-Yun Cui, Jin-Dan Kang, Xi-Jun Yin
OBJECTIVES: To explore the effects of heterozygous myostatin-knockout (MSNT(+/-)) on muscle characteristics, specifically fiber-type distribution and expression of myosin heavy chain isoforms in pigs. RESULTS: The fiber cross-sectional area of the semitendinosus and semimembranosus muscles were much larger in MSTN(+/-) pigs at birth than in wild-type (WT) pigs. MSTN(+/-) pigs had a higher proportion of fast-type fibers and lower succinate dehydrogenase activity in muscles than WT pigs...
August 31, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823135/the-meat-quality-muscle-fiber-characteristics-and-fatty-acid-profile-in-jinjiang-and-f1-simmental%C3%A2-%C3%A3-%C3%A2-jinjiang-yellow-cattle
#9
Yue Zheng, Shizhi Wang, Peishi Yan
Objective: This study compared the meat quality, muscle fiber characteristics, and fatty acids between Jinjiang yellow cattle (JJ) and F1 Simmental × Jinjiang yellow cattle (SJ) which were offered the same diet. Methods: Six JJ and six SJ individuals were reared and fattened from 10 to 26 months of age. After feeding, the highrib (HR), ribeye (RB) and tenderloin (TL) samples were taken from the carcass for meat quality evaluations. Results: The results showed that growth performance of SJ was higher than that of JJ (higher live weight and average daily gain), and the hot carcass weight of SJ was higher than that of JJ (P < 0...
August 16, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821574/mosaic-loss-of-non-muscle-myosin-iia-and-iib-is-sufficient-to-induce-mammary-epithelial-proliferation
#10
Kim-Vy Nguyen-Ngoc, Vanesa L Silvestri, Dan Georgess, Amanda N Fairchild, Andrew J Ewald
The mammary epithelium elaborates through hormonally regulated changes in proliferation, migration and differentiation. Non-muscle myosin II (NMII) functions at the interface between contractility, adhesion and signal transduction. It is therefore a plausible regulator of mammary morphogenesis. We tested the genetic requirement for NMIIA and NMIIB in mammary morphogenesis through deletion of the three NMII heavy chain-encoding genes (NMHCIIA, NMHCIIB and NMHCIIC; also known as MYH9, MYH10 and MYH14, respectively) that confer specificity to the complex...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814507/systematic-gene-tagging-using-crispr-cas9-in-human-stem-cells-to-illuminate-cell-organization
#11
Brock Roberts, Amanda Haupt, Andrew Tucker, Tanya Grancharova, Joy Arakaki, Margaret A Fuqua, Angelique Nelson, Caroline Hookway, Susan A Ludmann, Irina A Mueller, Ruian Yang, Rick Horwitz, Susanne M Rafelski, Ruwanthi N Gunawardane
We present a CRISPR/Cas9 genome-editing strategy to systematically tag endogenous proteins with fluorescent tags in human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC). To date, we have generated multiple hiPSC lines with monoallelic green fluorescent protein tags labeling 10 proteins representing major cellular structures. The tagged proteins include alpha tubulin, beta actin, desmoplakin, fibrillarin, nuclear lamin B1, nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIB, paxillin, Sec61 beta, tight junction protein ZO1, and Tom20...
October 15, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769032/vestigial-like-2-contributes-to-normal-muscle-fiber-type-distribution-in-mice
#12
Masahiko Honda, Kyoko Hidaka, So-Ichiro Fukada, Ryo Sugawa, Manabu Shirai, Masahito Ikawa, Takayuki Morisaki
Skeletal muscle is composed of heterogeneous populations of myofibers that are classified as slow- and fast-twitch fibers. The muscle fiber-type is regulated in a coordinated fashion by multiple genes, including transcriptional factors and microRNAs (miRNAs). However, players involved in this regulation are not fully elucidated. One of the members of the Vestigial-like factors, Vgll2, is thought to play a pivotal role in TEA domain (TEAD) transcription factor-mediated muscle-specific gene expression because of its restricted expression in skeletal muscles of adult mice...
August 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752107/muscle-histology-characterization-using-h-e-staining-and-muscle-fiber-type-classification-using-immunofluorescence-staining
#13
Chao Wang, Feng Yue, Shihuan Kuang
Muscle function is determined by its structure and fiber type composition. Here we describe a protocol to examine muscle histology and myofiber types using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and immunofluorescence staining, respectively. H&E stain nucleus in blue and cytoplasm in red, therefore allowing for morphological analyses, such as myofiber diameter, the presence of degenerated and regenerated myofibers, and adipocytes and fibrotic cells. Muscle fibers in adult skeletal muscles of rodents are classified into 4 subtypes based on the expression of myosin heavy chain proteins: Myh7 (type I fiber), Myh2 (type IIA fiber), Myh1 (type IIX fiber), Myh4 (type IIB fiber)...
May 20, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729432/tropomodulin-1-controls-erythroblast-enucleation-via-regulation-of-f-actin-in-the-enucleosome
#14
Roberta B Nowak, Julien Papoin, David S Gokhin, Carla Casu, Stefano Rivella, Jeffrey M Lipton, Lionel Blanc, Velia M Fowler
Biogenesis of mammalian red blood cells requires nuclear expulsion by orthochromatic erythoblasts late in terminal differentiation (enucleation), but the mechanism is largely unexplained. Here, we employed high-resolution confocal microscopy to analyze nuclear morphology and F-actin rearrangements during the initiation, progression, and completion of mouse and human erythroblast enucleation in vivo. Mouse erythroblast nuclei acquire a dumbbell-shaped morphology during enucleation, whereas human bone marrow erythroblast nuclei unexpectedly retain their spherical morphology...
August 31, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728382/effects-of-a-traditional-chinese-medicine-formula-and-its-extraction-on-muscle-fiber-characteristics-in-finishing-pigs-porcine-cell-proliferation-and-isoforms-of-myosin-heavy-chain-gene-expression-in-myocytes
#15
Qin Ping Yu, Ding Yuan Feng, Xiao Jun He, Fan Wu, Min Hao Xia, Tao Dong, Yi Hua Liu, Hui Ze Tan, Shi Geng Zou, Tao Zheng, Xian Hua Ou, Jian Jun Zuo
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effects of a traditional Chinese medicine formula (TCMF) on muscle fiber characteristics in finishing pigs and the effects of the formula's extract (distilled water, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extraction) on porcine cell proliferation and isoforms of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) gene expression in myocytes. METHODS: In a completely randomized design, ninety pigs were assigned to three diets with five replications per treatment and six pigs per pen...
November 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701425/self-sorting-of-nonmuscle-myosins-iia-and-iib-polarizes-the-cytoskeleton-and-modulates-cell-motility
#16
Maria S Shutova, Sreeja B Asokan, Shefali Talwar, Richard K Assoian, James E Bear, Tatyana M Svitkina
Nonmuscle myosin II (NMII) is uniquely responsible for cell contractility and thus defines multiple aspects of cell behavior. To generate contraction, NMII molecules polymerize into bipolar minifilaments. Different NMII paralogs are often coexpressed in cells and can copolymerize, suggesting that they may cooperate to facilitate cell motility. However, whether such cooperation exists and how it may work remain unknown. We show that copolymerization of NMIIA and NMIIB followed by their differential turnover leads to self-sorting of NMIIA and NMIIB along the front-rear axis, thus producing a polarized actin-NMII cytoskeleton...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642260/cigarette-smoke-disrupts-monolayer-integrity-by-altering-epithelial-cell-cell-adhesion-and-cortical-tension
#17
Kristine Nishida, Kieran A Brune, Nirupama Putcha, Pooja Mandke, Wanda K O'Neal, Danny Shade, Vasudha Srivastava, Menghan Wang, Hong Lam, Steven S An, M Bradley Drummond, Nadia N Hansel, Douglas N Robinson, Venkataramana K Sidhaye
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Cigarette smoke (CS) drives disease development and progression. The epithelial barrier is damaged by CS with increased monolayer permeability. However, the molecular changes that cause this barrier disruption and the interaction between adhesion proteins and the cytoskeleton are not well defined. We hypothesized that CS alters monolayer integrity by increasing cell contractility and decreasing cell adhesion in epithelia...
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622884/the-effect-of-caloric-restriction-on-the-forelimb-skeletal-muscle-fibers-of-the-hypertrophic-myostatin-null-mice
#18
Mohamed I Elashry, Antonios Matsakas, Sabine Wenisch, Stefan Arnhold, Ketan Patel
Skeletal muscle mass loss has a broad impact on body performance and physical activity. Muscle wasting occurs due to genetic mutation as in muscular dystrophy, age-related muscle loss (sarcopenia) as well as in chronic wasting disorders as in cancer cachexia. Food restriction reduces muscle mass underpinned by increased muscle protein break down. However the influence of dietary restriction on the morphometry and phenotype of forelimb muscles in a genetically modified myostatin null mice are not fully characterized...
June 13, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606474/regulation-of-intracellular-trafficking-and-secretion-of-adiponectin-by-myosin-ii
#19
Deepa Bedi, John C Dennis, Edward E Morrison, Tim D Braden, Robert L Judd
Adiponectin is a protein secreted by white adipocytes that plays an important role in insulin action, energy homeostasis and the development of atherosclerosis. The intracellular localization and trafficking of GLUT4 and leptin in adipocytes has been well studied, but little is known regarding the intracellular trafficking of adiponectin. Recent studies have demonstrated that constitutive adiponectin secretion is dependent on PIP2 levels and the integrity of cortical F-actin. Non-muscle myosin II is an actin-based motor that is associated with membrane vesicles and participates in vesicular trafficking in mammalian cells...
August 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592632/rear-polarized-wnt5a-receptor-actin-myosin-polarity-wramp-structures-promote-the-speed-and-persistence-of-directional-cell-migration
#20
Mary Katherine Connacher, Jian Wei Tay, Natalie G Ahn
In contrast to events at the cell leading edge, rear-polarized mechanisms that control directional cell migration are poorly defined. Previous work described a new intracellular complex, the Wnt5a-receptor-actomyosin polarity (WRAMP) structure, which coordinates the polarized localization of MCAM, actin, and myosin IIB in a Wnt5a-induced manner. However, the polarity and function for the WRAMP structure during cell movement were not determined. Here we characterize WRAMP structures during extended cell migration using live-cell imaging...
July 7, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
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