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Myosin IIB

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251924/differential-role-of-nonmuscle-myosin-ii-isoforms-during-blebbing-of-mcf-7-cells
#1
Sumit K Dey, Raman K Singh, Shyamtanu Chattoraj, Shekhar Saha, Alakesh Das, Kankan Bhattacharyya, Kaushik Sengupta, Shamik Sen, Siddhartha S Jana
Bleb formation has been correlated with nonmuscle myosin II (NM-II) activity. Whether three isoforms of NM-II (NM-IIA, -IIB, and -IIC) have the same or differential roles in bleb formation is not well understood. Here, we report that ectopically expressed GFP-tagged NM-II isoforms exhibit different types of membrane protrusions such as multiple blebs, lamellipodia, combination of both or absence of any such protrusions in MCF-7 cells. Quantification suggests that 50% of NM-IIA-GFP, 29% of NM-IIB-GFP and 19% of NM-IIC1-GFP expressing MCF-7 cells show multiple blebs formation compared with 36% of GFP alone expressing cells...
March 1, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228547/limch1-regulates-nonmuscle-myosin-ii-activity-and-suppresses-cell-migration
#2
Yu-Hung Lin, Yen-Yi Zhen, Kun-Yi Chien, I-Ching Lee, Wei-Chi Lin, Mei-Yu Chen, Li-Mei Pai
Nonmuscle myosin II (NM-II) is an important motor protein involved in cell migration. Incorporation of NM-II into actin stress fiber provides a traction force to promote actin retrograde flow and focal adhesion assembly. However, the components involved in regulation of NM-II activity are not well understood. Here, we identified a novel actin stress fiber-associated protein, LIM and calponin-homology domains 1 (LIMCH1), which regulates NM-II activity. The recruitment of LIMCH1 into contractile stress fibers revealed its localization complementary to actinin-1...
February 22, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214291/segmental-distribution-of-myosin-heavy-chain-isoforms-within-single-muscle-fibers
#3
Ming Zhang, Maree Gould
Despite many studies looking at the distribution of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms across a transverse section of muscle, knowledge of MHC distribution along the longitudinal axis of a single skeletal muscle fiber has been relatively overlooked. Immunocytochemistry was performed on serial sections of rat extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle to identify MHC types I, IIA, IIX, IIY and IIB. Sixteen fascicles which contained a total of 362 fibers were randomly and systematically sampled from the 3 EDL muscles...
February 18, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209124/rna-seq-and-metabolomic-analyses-of-akt1-mediated-muscle-growth-reveals-regulation-of-regenerative-pathways-and-changes-in-the-muscle-secretome
#4
Chia-Ling Wu, Yoshinori Satomi, Kenneth Walsh
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle is a major regulator of systemic metabolism as it serves as the major site for glucose disposal and the main reservoir for amino acids. With aging, cachexia, starvation, and myositis, there is a preferential loss of fast glycolytic muscle fibers. We previously reported a mouse model in which a constitutively-active Akt transgene is induced to express in a subset of muscle groups leading to the hypertrophy of type IIb myofibers with an accompanying increase in strength...
February 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181366/molecular-phenotype-and-bleeding-risks-of-an-inherited-platelet-disorder-in-a-family-with-a-runx1-frameshift-mutation
#5
M S Badin, J K Iyer, M Chong, L Graf, G E Rivard, J S Waye, A D Paterson, G Pare, C P M Hayward
INTRODUCTION: Inherited defects in RUNX1 are important causes of platelet function disorders. AIM: Our goals were to evaluate RUNX1-related platelet disorders among individuals evaluated for uncharacterized, inherited platelet function disorders and test a proof of concept that bleeding risks could be quantitatively estimated for typical families with an inherited platelet function disorder. METHODS: Index cases with an uncharacterized inherited platelet function disorder were subjected to exome sequencing with confirmation of RUNX1 mutations by Sanger sequencing...
February 8, 2017: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097658/segmental-fibre-type-composition-of-the-rat-iliopsoas-muscle
#6
Hrvoje Vlahovic, Ksenija Bazdaric, Verner Marijancic, Tamara Soic-Vranic, Daniela Malnar, Juraj Arbanas
The iliopsoas of the rat is composed of two muscles - the psoas major muscle and the iliacus muscle. The psoas major muscle arises from all the lumbar vertebrae and the iliacus muscle from the fifth and sixth lumbar vertebrae and ilium. Their common insertion point is the lesser trochanter of the femur, and their common action is the lateral rotation of the femur and flexion of the hip joint. Unlike humans, the rat is a quadruped and only occasionally rises up on its hind legs. Therefore, it is expected that the fibre type composition of the rat iliopsoas muscle will be different than that of humans...
April 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074127/transfer-of-%C3%AE-hydroxy-%C3%AE-methylbutyrate-from-sows-to-their-offspring-and-its-impact-on-muscle-fiber-type-transformation-and-performance-in-pigs
#7
Haifeng Wan, Jiatao Zhu, Caimei Wu, Pan Zhou, Yong Shen, Yan Lin, Shengyu Xu, Lianqiang Che, Bin Feng, Jian Li, Zhengfeng Fang, De Wu
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested that supplementation of lactating sows with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) could improve the performance of weaning pigs, but there were little information in the muscle fiber type transformation of the offspring and the subsequent performance in pigs from weaning through finishing in response to maternal HMB consumption. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of supplementing lactating sows with HMB on skeletal muscle fiber type transformation and growth of the offspring during d 28 and 180 after birth...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018235/modulation-of-muscle-fiber-compositions-in-response-to-hypoxia-via-pyruvate-dehydrogenase-kinase-1
#8
Daniel D Nguyen, Gyuyoup Kim, Eung-Kwon Pae
Muscle fiber-type changes in hypoxic conditions in accordance with pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (Pdk)-1 and hypoxia inducible factor (Hif)-1α were investigated in rats. Hif-1α and its down-stream molecule Pdk-1 are well known for readily response to hypoxia. We questioned their roles in relation to changes in myosin heavy chain (MyHC) composition in skeletal muscles. We hypothesize that the level of Pdk-1 with respect to the level of Hif-1α determines MyHC composition of the muscle in rats in hypoxia. Young male rats were housed in a chamber maintained at 11...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017710/a-vitamin-d-analogue-eldecalcitol-enhances-expression-of-fast-myosin-heavy-chain-subtypes-in-differentiated-c2c12-myoblasts
#9
Hideo Saito, Koshi N Kishimoto, Yu Mori, Hiroshi Okuno, Masahiko Tanaka, Eiji Itoi
BACKGROUND: Several lines of evidence indicate that the active form of vitamin D has an anabolic effect on skeletal muscle. Eldecalcitol, an analogue of the active form of vitamin D, has the potential to increase bone density and decrease fracture risk. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of eldecalcitol in C2C12 myogenic cells. METHODS: C2C12 cells were grown to confluency and the culture medium was replaced with low-glucose DMEM containing 2% horse serum...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960114/identification-and-quantification-of-myosin-heavy-chain-isoforms-in-bovine-and-porcine-longissimus-muscles-by-lc-ms-ms-analysis
#10
Gap-Don Kim, Tae-Chul Jeong, Kye Man Cho, Jin-Yeon Jeong
To identify and quantify the myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms in porcine and bovine longissimus thoracis (LT) muscles, LC-MS/MS and label-free quantification were conducted. 2a, 2x, 2b and slow isoforms were identified in porcine LT muscle, whereas bovine LT muscle contained 2a, 2x and slow isoforms. The highest peak intensity (44.32%) of MHC 2b was observed in porcine LT muscle, whereas the peak intensity of MHC 2a was the highest (71.15%) in bovine LT muscle (p<0.05). MHC-based fiber compositions for porcine and bovine LT were also the highest in types IIB (61...
March 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897407/activin-a-induces-skeletal-muscle-catabolism-via-p38%C3%AE-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase
#11
Hui Ding, Guohua Zhang, Ka Wai Thomas Sin, Zhelong Liu, Ren-Kuo Lin, Min Li, Yi-Ping Li
BACKGROUND: Activation of type IIB activin receptor (ActRIIB) in skeletal muscle leads to muscle atrophy because of increased muscle protein degradation. However, the intracellular signalling mechanism that mediates ActRIIB-activated muscle catabolism is poorly defined. METHODS: We investigated the role of p38β mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) in mediating ActRIIB ligand activin A-activated muscle catabolic pathways in C2C12 myotubes and in mice with perturbation of this kinase pharmacologically and genetically...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870829/crumbs2-promotes-cell-ingression-during-the-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-at-gastrulation
#12
Nitya Ramkumar, Tatiana Omelchenko, Nancy F Silva-Gagliardi, C Jane McGlade, Jan Wijnholds, Kathryn V Anderson
During gastrulation of the mouse embryo, individual cells ingress in an apparently stochastic pattern during the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Here we define a critical role of the apical protein Crumbs2 (CRB2) in the gastrulation EMT. Static and live imaging show that ingressing cells in Crumbs2 mutant embryos become trapped at the primitive streak, where they continue to express the epiblast transcription factor SOX2 and retain thin E-cadherin-containing connections to the epiblast surface that trap them at the streak...
December 2016: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820862/fast-to-slow-transition-of-skeletal-muscle-contractile-function-and-corresponding-changes-in-myosin-heavy-and-light-chain-formation-in-the-r6-2-mouse-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#13
Tanja Hering, Peter Braubach, G Bernhard Landwehrmeyer, Katrin S Lindenberg, Werner Melzer
Huntington´s disease (HD) is a hereditary neurodegenerative disease resulting from an expanded polyglutamine sequence (poly-Q) in the protein huntingtin (HTT). Various studies report atrophy and metabolic pathology of skeletal muscle in HD and suggest as part of the process a fast-to-slow fiber type transition that may be caused by the pathological changes in central motor control or/and by mutant HTT in the muscle tissue itself. To investigate muscle pathology in HD, we used R6/2 mice, a common animal model for a rapidly progressing variant of the disease expressing exon 1 of the mutant human gene...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736981/impact-of-tieg1-deletion-on-the-passive-mechanical-properties-of-fast-and-slow-twitch-skeletal-muscles-in-female-mice
#14
Malek Kammoun, Philippe Pouletaut, Francis Canon, Malayannan Subramaniam, John R Hawse, Muriel Vayssade, Sabine F Bensamoun
As transforming growth factor (TGF)-β inducible early gene-1 is highly expressed in skeletal muscle, the effect of TIEG1 gene deletion on the passive mechanical properties of slow and fast twitch muscle fibers was analyzed. Twenty five muscle fibers were harvested from soleus (Sol) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles from TIEG1-/- (N = 5) and control (N = 5) mice. Mechanical tests were performed on fibers and the dynamic and static stresses were measured. A viscoelastic Hill model of 3rd order was used to fit the experimental relaxation test data...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689088/influence-of-botulinumtoxin-a-on-the-expression-of-adult-myhc-isoforms-in-the-masticatory-muscles-in-dystrophin-deficient-mice-mdx-mice
#15
Ute Ulrike Botzenhart, Constantin Wegenstein, Teodor Todorov, Christiane Kunert-Keil
The most widespread animal model to investigate Duchenne muscular dystrophy is the mdx-mouse. In contrast to humans, phases of muscle degeneration are replaced by regeneration processes; hence there is only a restricted time slot for research. The aim of the study was to investigate if an intramuscular injection of BTX-A is able to break down muscle regeneration and has direct implications on the gene expression of myosin heavy chains in the corresponding treated and untreated muscles. Therefore, paralysis of the right masseter muscle was induced in adult healthy and dystrophic mice by a specific intramuscular injection of BTX-A...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600826/novel-single-skeletal-muscle-fiber-analysis-reveals-a-fiber-type-selective-effect-of-acute-exercise-on-glucose-uptake
#16
Gregory D Cartee, Edward B Arias, Carmen S Yu, Mark W Pataky
One exercise session can induce subsequently elevated insulin sensitivity that is largely attributable to greater insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by skeletal muscle. Because skeletal muscle is a heterogeneous tissue comprised of diverse fiber types, our primary aim was to determine exercise effects on insulin-independent and insulin-dependent glucose uptake by single fibers of different fiber types. We hypothesized that each fiber type featuring elevated insulin-independent glucose uptake immediately postexercise (IPEX) would be characterized by increased insulin-dependent glucose uptake at 3...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27555912/effects-of-dietary-protein-restriction-on-muscle-fiber-characteristics-and-mtorc1-pathway-in-the-skeletal-muscle-of-growing-finishing-pigs
#17
Yinghui Li, Fengna Li, Li Wu, Hongkui Wei, Yingying Liu, Tiejun Li, Bie Tan, Xiangfeng Kong, Kang Yao, Shuai Chen, Fei Wu, Yehui Duan, Yulong Yin
BACKGROUND: To investigate the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) restriction on muscle fiber characteristics and key regulators related to protein deposition in skeletal muscle, a total of 18 growing-finishing pigs (62.30 ± 0.88 kg) were allotted to 3 groups and fed with the recommended adequate protein (AP, 16 % CP) diet, moderately restricted protein (MP, 13 % CP) diet and low protein (LP, 10 % CP) diet, respectively. The skeletal muscle of different locations in pigs, including longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM), psoas major muscle (PMM) and biceps femoris muscle (BFM) were collected and analyzed...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27528075/myosin-light-chain-kinase-steady-state-kinetics-comparison-of-smooth-muscle-myosin-ii-and-nonmuscle-myosin-iib-as-substrates
#18
Diego B Alcala, Brian D Haldeman, Richard K Brizendine, Agata K Krenc, Josh E Baker, Ronald S Rock, Christine R Cremo
Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) phosphorylates S19 of the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC), which is required to activate myosin's ATPase activity and contraction. Smooth muscles are known to display plasticity in response to factors such as inflammation, developmental stage, or stress, which lead to differential expression of nonmuscle and smooth muscle isoforms. Here, we compare steady-state kinetics parameters for phosphorylation of different MLCK substrates: (1) nonmuscle RLC, (2) smooth muscle RLC, and heavy meromyosin subfragments of (3) nonmuscle myosin IIB, and (4) smooth muscle myosin II...
October 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27469054/regional-adaptation-of-collagen-in-skeletal-muscle-to-repeated-bouts-of-strenuous-eccentric-exercise
#19
Ryo Takagi, Riki Ogasawara, Arata Tsutaki, Koichi Nakazato, Naokata Ishii
This study investigated the injured region-specific alterations of factors related to the "repeated bout effect" (RBE), i.e., when the first bout of eccentric exercise generates resistance to injuries from the second bout of the same exercise. Wistar rats were divided into single injury (SI) and repeated injury (RI) groups. The right gastrocnemius muscle was subjected to a bout of eccentric contractions (ECs) at the age of 14 weeks in the SI group and 10 and 14 weeks in the RI group. The number of injured fibers after the last bout of ECs was lower in RI than in SI...
September 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27421023/comparisons-of-different-myosin-heavy-chain-types-ampk-and-pgc-1%C3%AE-gene-expression-in-the-longissimus-dorsi-muscles-in-bama-xiang-and-landrace-pigs
#20
Y N Huang, Q W Ao, Q Y Jiang, Y F Guo, G Q Lan, H S Jiang
Bama Xiang and Landrace pigs are the local fatty and lean breeds, respectively, in China. We compared differences in carcass traits, meat quality traits, and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) types in the longissimus dorsi muscles between Bama Xiang and Landrace pigs. This was done in pigs of the same age, using real-time PCR, to investigate the relationship between MyHC fiber types and carcass characteristics, meat quality traits, and the key factors regulating muscle fiber type. Bama Xiang pigs exhibited smaller size and slower growth than Landrace pigs (P < 0...
July 14, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
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