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Myosin IIB

Hui Ding, Guohua Zhang, Ka Wai Thomas Sin, Zhelong Liu, Ren-Kuo Lin, Min Li, Yi-Ping Li
BACKGROUND: Activation of type IIB activin receptor (ActRIIB) in skeletal muscle leads to muscle atrophy because of increased muscle protein degradation. However, the intracellular signalling mechanism that mediates ActRIIB-activated muscle catabolism is poorly defined. METHODS: We investigated the role of p38β mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) in mediating ActRIIB ligand activin A-activated muscle catabolic pathways in C2C12 myotubes and in mice with perturbation of this kinase pharmacologically and genetically...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Nitya Ramkumar, Tatiana Omelchenko, Nancy F Silva-Gagliardi, C Jane McGlade, Jan Wijnholds, Kathryn V Anderson
During gastrulation of the mouse embryo, individual cells ingress in an apparently stochastic pattern during the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Here we define a critical role of the apical protein Crumbs2 (CRB2) in the gastrulation EMT. Static and live imaging show that ingressing cells in Crumbs2 mutant embryos become trapped at the primitive streak, where they continue to express the epiblast transcription factor SOX2 and retain thin E-cadherin-containing connections to the epiblast surface that trap them at the streak...
December 2016: Nature Cell Biology
Tanja Hering, Peter Braubach, G Bernhard Landwehrmeyer, Katrin S Lindenberg, Werner Melzer
Huntington´s disease (HD) is a hereditary neurodegenerative disease resulting from an expanded polyglutamine sequence (poly-Q) in the protein huntingtin (HTT). Various studies report atrophy and metabolic pathology of skeletal muscle in HD and suggest as part of the process a fast-to-slow fiber type transition that may be caused by the pathological changes in central motor control or/and by mutant HTT in the muscle tissue itself. To investigate muscle pathology in HD, we used R6/2 mice, a common animal model for a rapidly progressing variant of the disease expressing exon 1 of the mutant human gene...
2016: PloS One
Malek Kammoun, Philippe Pouletaut, Francis Canon, Malayannan Subramaniam, John R Hawse, Muriel Vayssade, Sabine F Bensamoun
As transforming growth factor (TGF)-β inducible early gene-1 is highly expressed in skeletal muscle, the effect of TIEG1 gene deletion on the passive mechanical properties of slow and fast twitch muscle fibers was analyzed. Twenty five muscle fibers were harvested from soleus (Sol) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles from TIEG1-/- (N = 5) and control (N = 5) mice. Mechanical tests were performed on fibers and the dynamic and static stresses were measured. A viscoelastic Hill model of 3rd order was used to fit the experimental relaxation test data...
2016: PloS One
Ute Ulrike Botzenhart, Constantin Wegenstein, Teodor Todorov, Christiane Kunert-Keil
The most widespread animal model to investigate Duchenne muscular dystrophy is the mdx-mouse. In contrast to humans, phases of muscle degeneration are replaced by regeneration processes; hence there is only a restricted time slot for research. The aim of the study was to investigate if an intramuscular injection of BTX-A is able to break down muscle regeneration and has direct implications on the gene expression of myosin heavy chains in the corresponding treated and untreated muscles. Therefore, paralysis of the right masseter muscle was induced in adult healthy and dystrophic mice by a specific intramuscular injection of BTX-A...
2016: BioMed Research International
Gregory D Cartee, Edward B Arias, Carmen S Yu, Mark W Pataky
One exercise session can induce subsequently elevated insulin sensitivity that is largely attributable to greater insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by skeletal muscle. Because skeletal muscle is a heterogeneous tissue comprised of diverse fiber types, our primary aim was to determine exercise effects on insulin-independent and insulin-dependent glucose uptake by single fibers of different fiber types. We hypothesized that each fiber type featuring elevated insulin-independent glucose uptake immediately postexercise (IPEX) would be characterized by increased insulin-dependent glucose uptake at 3...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Yinghui Li, Fengna Li, Li Wu, Hongkui Wei, Yingying Liu, Tiejun Li, Bie Tan, Xiangfeng Kong, Kang Yao, Shuai Chen, Fei Wu, Yehui Duan, Yulong Yin
BACKGROUND: To investigate the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) restriction on muscle fiber characteristics and key regulators related to protein deposition in skeletal muscle, a total of 18 growing-finishing pigs (62.30 ± 0.88 kg) were allotted to 3 groups and fed with the recommended adequate protein (AP, 16 % CP) diet, moderately restricted protein (MP, 13 % CP) diet and low protein (LP, 10 % CP) diet, respectively. The skeletal muscle of different locations in pigs, including longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM), psoas major muscle (PMM) and biceps femoris muscle (BFM) were collected and analyzed...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Diego B Alcala, Brian D Haldeman, Richard K Brizendine, Agata K Krenc, Josh E Baker, Ronald S Rock, Christine R Cremo
: Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) phosphorylates S19 of the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC), which is required to activate myosin's ATPase activity and contraction. Smooth muscles are known to display plasticity in response to factors such as inflammation, developmental stage, or stress, which lead to differential expression of nonmuscle and smooth muscle isoforms. Here, we compare steady-state kinetics parameters for phosphorylation of different MLCK substrates: (1) nonmuscle RLC, (2) smooth muscle RLC, and heavy meromyosin subfragments of (3) nonmuscle myosin IIB, and (4) smooth muscle myosin II...
October 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Function
Ryo Takagi, Riki Ogasawara, Arata Tsutaki, Koichi Nakazato, Naokata Ishii
This study investigated the injured region-specific alterations of factors related to the "repeated bout effect" (RBE), i.e., when the first bout of eccentric exercise generates resistance to injuries from the second bout of the same exercise. Wistar rats were divided into single injury (SI) and repeated injury (RI) groups. The right gastrocnemius muscle was subjected to a bout of eccentric contractions (ECs) at the age of 14 weeks in the SI group and 10 and 14 weeks in the RI group. The number of injured fibers after the last bout of ECs was lower in RI than in SI...
September 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Y N Huang, Q W Ao, Q Y Jiang, Y F Guo, G Q Lan, H S Jiang
Bama Xiang and Landrace pigs are the local fatty and lean breeds, respectively, in China. We compared differences in carcass traits, meat quality traits, and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) types in the longissimus dorsi muscles between Bama Xiang and Landrace pigs. This was done in pigs of the same age, using real-time PCR, to investigate the relationship between MyHC fiber types and carcass characteristics, meat quality traits, and the key factors regulating muscle fiber type. Bama Xiang pigs exhibited smaller size and slower growth than Landrace pigs (P < 0...
2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Frédéric Derbré, Mickaël Droguet, Karelle Léon, Samuel Troadec, Jean-Pierre Pennec, Marie-Agnès Giroux-Metges, Fabrice Rannou
PURPOSE: Muscle contractile phenotype is affected during immobilization. Myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms are the major determinant of the muscle contractile phenotype. We therefore sought to evaluate the effects of muscle immobilization on both the MHC composition at single-fibre level and the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), a family of intracellular signaling pathways involved in the stress-induced muscle plasticity. METHODS: The distal tendon of female Wistar rat Peroneus Longus (PL) was cut and fixed to the adjacent bone at neutral muscle length...
2016: PloS One
Jie Feng, Zunlu Hu, Haijiao Chen, Juan Hua, Ronghua Wu, Zhangji Dong, Liang Qiang, Yan Liu, Peter W Baas, Mei Liu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2016: Development
G Fazarinc, M Vrecl, D Škorjanc, T Čehovin, M Čandek-Potokar
Dynamics of myofiber differentiation/maturation in porcine skeletal muscle is associated with domestication, breeding and rearing conditions. This study was aimed to comparatively elucidate the age-dependent myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform expression and transition pattern in domestic and wild pig (WP) skeletal muscle from birth until adulthood. Domestic pigs (DPs) of Large White breed raised in conventional production system were compared with WPs reared in a large hunting enclosure. Muscle samples for immuno/enzyme histochemistry were taken from the longissimus dorsi muscle within 24 h postmortem at 24 to 48 h, 21 to 23 days, 7 months and ~2 years postpartum...
June 27, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Dustin Thomas, Praveena S Thiagarajan, Vandana Rai, Ofer Reizes, Justin Lathia, Thomas Egelhoff
Despite many advances in the treatment of breast cancer, it remains one of the leading causes of death among women. One hurdle for effective therapy is the treatment of the highly invasive and tumorigenic subpopulation of tumors called cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs, when stimulated with EGF, migrate through a physiological 3D collagen matrix at a higher velocity than non-stem cancer cells (non-SCCs). This increased invasion is due, in part, by an enhanced nuclear translocation ability of CSCs. We observed no difference between CSC and non-SCC in cellular migration rates on a 2D surface...
June 7, 2016: Oncotarget
Thomas O Krag, Tomàs Pinós, Tue L Nielsen, Jordi Duran, Mar García-Rocha, Antoni L Andreu, John Vissing
McArdle disease (muscle glycogenosis type V) is a disease caused by myophosphorylase deficiency leading to "blocked" glycogen breakdown. A significant but varying glycogen accumulation in especially distal hind limb muscles of mice affected by McArdle disease has recently been demonstrated. In this study, we investigated how myophosphorylase deficiency affects glucose metabolism in hind limb muscle of 20-wk-old McArdle mice and vastus lateralis muscles from patients with McArdle disease. Western blot analysis and activity assay demonstrated that glycogen synthase was inhibited in glycolytic muscle from McArdle mice...
August 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Meng Wang, Xiao Ming Zhang, Sheng Bo Yang
Glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS) is one of the key enzymes involved in protein synthesis. Its mutations have been reported to cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease which demonstrates muscular atrophy in distal extremities, particularly manifested in peroneus muscles. In this situation, the dysfunctions of mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) affect energy supply and excitation-contraction coupling of muscle fibers, therefore resulting in muscular atrophy. Although the treatment of muscular atrophy is a global urgent problem, it can be improved by electroacupuncture (EA) treatment...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Philip A Bondzie, Hui A Chen, Mei Zhen Cao, Julie A Tomolonis, Fangfang He, Martin R Pollak, Joel M Henderson
Several glomerular pathologies resulting from podocyte injury are linked to genetic variation involving the MYH9 gene, which encodes the heavy chain of non-muscle myosin-IIA (NM-IIA). However, the functional role of NM-IIA has not been studied extensively in podocytes. We hypothesized that NM-IIA is critical for maintenance of podocyte structure and mechanical function. To test this hypothesis, we studied murine podocytes in vitro subjected to blebbistatin inhibition of NM-II activity, or RNA interference-mediated, isoform-specific ablation of Myh9 gene and protein (NM-IIA) or its paralog Myh10 gene and protein (NM-IIB)...
August 2016: Cytoskeleton
Joshua E Mangum, Justin P Hardee, Dennis K Fix, Melissa J Puppa, Johnathon Elkes, Diego Altomare, Yelena Bykhovskaya, Dean R Campagna, Paul J Schmidt, Anoop K Sendamarai, Hart G W Lidov, Shayne C Barlow, Nathan Fischel-Ghodsian, Mark D Fleming, James A Carson, Jeffrey R Patton
Mitochondrial myopathy with lactic acidosis and sideroblastic anemia (MLASA) is an oxidative phosphorylation disorder, with primary clinical manifestations of myopathic exercise intolerance and a macrocytic sideroblastic anemia. One cause of MLASA is recessive mutations in PUS1, which encodes pseudouridine (Ψ) synthase 1 (Pus1p). Here we describe a mouse model of MLASA due to mutations in PUS1. As expected, certain Ψ modifications were missing in cytoplasmic and mitochondrial tRNAs from Pus1(-/-) animals...
2016: Scientific Reports
Eric S Schiffhauer, Tianzhi Luo, Krithika Mohan, Vasudha Srivastava, Xuyu Qian, Eric R Griffis, Pablo A Iglesias, Douglas N Robinson
To change shape, divide, form junctions, and migrate, cells reorganize their cytoskeletons in response to changing mechanical environments [1-4]. Actin cytoskeletal elements, including myosin II motors and actin crosslinkers, structurally remodel and activate signaling pathways in response to imposed stresses [5-9]. Recent studies demonstrate the importance of force-dependent structural rearrangement of α-catenin in adherens junctions [10] and vinculin's molecular clutch mechanism in focal adhesions [11]...
June 6, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Jie Feng, Zunlu Hu, Haijiao Chen, Juan Hua, Ronghua Wu, Zhangji Dong, Liang Qiang, Yan Liu, Peter W Baas, Mei Liu
Kinesin-12 (also named Kif15) participates in important events during neuronal development, such as cell division of neuronal precursors, migration of young neurons and establishment of axons and dendritic arbors, by regulating microtubule organization. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms behind the functions of kinesin-12, and even less is known about its roles in other cell types of the nervous system. Here, we show that kinesin-12 depletion from cultured rat cortical astrocytes decreases cell proliferation but increases migration...
June 15, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
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