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Myosin IIB

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912360/influence-of-past-injurious-exercise-on-fiber-type-specific-acute-anabolic-response-to-resistance-exercise-in-skeletal-muscle
#1
Ryo Takagi, Riki Ogasawara, Junya Takegaki, Arata Tsutaki, Koichi Nakazato, Naokata Ishii
We investigated influence of past injurious exercise on anabolic response of skeletal muscle fibers to resistance exercise (RE). Wistar rats were divided into exercise (E) and exercise after injury (I-E) groups. At age 10 wk, the right gastrocnemius muscle in each rat in the I-E group was subjected to strenuous eccentric contractions. Subsequently, RE was imposed on the same muscle of each rat at 14 wk of age in both groups. Peak joint torque and total force generation per body mass during RE were similar between the groups...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892032/semi-automated-analysis-of-mouse-skeletal-muscle-morphology-and-fiber-type-composition
#2
Sidharth Tyagi, Donald Beqollari, Chang Seok Lee, Lori A Walker, Roger A Bannister
For years, distinctions between skeletal muscle fiber types were best visualized by myosin-ATPase staining. More recently, immunohistochemical staining of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms has emerged as a finer discriminator of fiber-type. Type I, type IIA, type IIX and type IIB fibers can now be identified with precision based on their MyHC profile; however, manual analysis of these data can be slow and down-right tedious. In this regard, rapid, accurate assessment of fiber-type composition and morphology is a very desirable tool...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861647/fiber-type-distribution-and-expression-of-myosin-heavy-chain-isoforms-in-newborn-heterozygous-myostatin-knockout-pigs
#3
Xiao-Xu Xing, Mei-Fu Xuan, Long Jin, Qing Guo, Zhao-Bo Luo, Jun-Xia Wang, Qi-Rong Luo, Guang-Lei Zhang, Cheng-Du Cui, Zheng-Yun Cui, Jin-Dan Kang, Xi-Jun Yin
OBJECTIVES: To explore the effects of heterozygous myostatin-knockout (MSNT(+/-)) on muscle characteristics, specifically fiber-type distribution and expression of myosin heavy chain isoforms in pigs. RESULTS: The fiber cross-sectional area of the semitendinosus and semimembranosus muscles were much larger in MSTN(+/-) pigs at birth than in wild-type (WT) pigs. MSTN(+/-) pigs had a higher proportion of fast-type fibers and lower succinate dehydrogenase activity in muscles than WT pigs...
August 31, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823135/the-meat-quality-muscle-fiber-characteristics-and-fatty-acid-profile-in-jinjiang-and-f1-simmental%C3%A2-%C3%A3-%C3%A2-jinjiang-yellow-cattle
#4
Yue Zheng, Shizhi Wang, Peishi Yan
Objective: This study compared the meat quality, muscle fiber characteristics, and fatty acids between Jinjiang yellow cattle (JJ) and F1 Simmental × Jinjiang yellow cattle (SJ) which were offered the same diet. Methods: Six JJ and six SJ individuals were reared and fattened from 10 to 26 months of age. After feeding, the highrib (HR), ribeye (RB) and tenderloin (TL) samples were taken from the carcass for meat quality evaluations. Results: The results showed that growth performance of SJ was higher than that of JJ (higher live weight and average daily gain), and the hot carcass weight of SJ was higher than that of JJ (P < 0...
August 16, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821574/mosaic-loss-of-non-muscle-myosin-iia-and-iib-is-sufficient-to-induce-mammary-epithelial-proliferation
#5
Kim-Vy Nguyen-Ngoc, Vanesa L Silvestri, Dan Georgess, Amanda N Fairchild, Andrew J Ewald
The mammary epithelium elaborates through hormonally-regulated changes in proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Non-muscle myosin II (NMII) functions at the interface between contractility, adhesion, and signal transduction. It was therefore a plausible regulator of mammary morphogenesis. We tested the genetic requirement for NMIIA and NMIIB through deletion of the myosin heavy chains (NMHC) that confer specificity to the complex. Surprisingly, mosaic loss, but not ubiquitous loss, of NMHCIIA and IIB induced high levels of proliferation in 3D culture...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814507/systematic-gene-tagging-using-crispr-cas9-in-human-stem-cells-to-illuminate-cell-organization
#6
Brock Roberts, Amanda Haupt, Andrew Tucker, Tanya Grancharova, Joy Arakaki, Margaret A Fuqua, Angelique Nelson, Caroline Hookway, Susan A Ludmann, Irina A Mueller, Ruian Yang, Alan R Horwitz, Susanne M Rafelski, Ruwanthi N Gunawardane
We present a CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing strategy to systematically tag endogenous proteins with fluorescent tags in human induced pluripotent stem cells. To date we have generated multiple human iPSC lines with monoallelic GFP tags labeling 10 proteins representing major cellular structures. The tagged proteins include alpha tubulin, beta actin, desmoplakin, fibrillarin, nuclear lamin B1, non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIB, paxillin, Sec61 beta, tight junction protein ZO1, and Tom20. Our genome editing methodology using Cas9/crRNA ribonuclear protein and donor plasmid co-electroporation, followed by fluorescence-based enrichment of edited cells, typically resulted in <0...
August 16, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769032/vestigial-like-2-contributes-to-normal-muscle-fiber-type-distribution-in-mice
#7
Masahiko Honda, Kyoko Hidaka, So-Ichiro Fukada, Ryo Sugawa, Manabu Shirai, Masahito Ikawa, Takayuki Morisaki
Skeletal muscle is composed of heterogeneous populations of myofibers that are classified as slow- and fast-twitch fibers. The muscle fiber-type is regulated in a coordinated fashion by multiple genes, including transcriptional factors and microRNAs (miRNAs). However, players involved in this regulation are not fully elucidated. One of the members of the Vestigial-like factors, Vgll2, is thought to play a pivotal role in TEA domain (TEAD) transcription factor-mediated muscle-specific gene expression because of its restricted expression in skeletal muscles of adult mice...
August 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752107/muscle-histology-characterization-using-h-e-staining-and-muscle-fiber-type-classification-using-immunofluorescence-staining
#8
Chao Wang, Feng Yue, Shihuan Kuang
Muscle function is determined by its structure and fiber type composition. Here we describe a protocol to examine muscle histology and myofiber types using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and immunofluorescence staining, respectively. H&E stain nucleus in blue and cytoplasm in red, therefore allowing for morphological analyses, such as myofiber diameter, the presence of degenerated and regenerated myofibers, and adipocytes and fibrotic cells. Muscle fibers in adult skeletal muscles of rodents are classified into 4 subtypes based on the expression of myosin heavy chain proteins: Myh7 (type I fiber), Myh2 (type IIA fiber), Myh1 (type IIX fiber), Myh4 (type IIB fiber)...
May 20, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729432/tropomodulin-1-controls-erythroblast-enucleation-via-regulation-of-f-actin-in-the-enucleosome
#9
Roberta B Nowak, Julien Papoin, David S Gokhin, Carla Casu, Stefano Rivella, Jeffrey M Lipton, Lionel Blanc, Velia M Fowler
Biogenesis of mammalian red blood cells requires nuclear expulsion by orthochromatic erythoblasts late in terminal differentiation (enucleation), but the mechanism is largely unexplained. Here, we employed high-resolution confocal microscopy to analyze nuclear morphology and F-actin rearrangements during the initiation, progression, and completion of mouse and human erythroblast enucleation in vivo. Mouse erythroblast nuclei acquire a dumbbell-shaped morphology during enucleation, whereas human bone marrow erythroblast nuclei unexpectedly retain their spherical morphology...
August 31, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728382/effects-of-a-traditional-chinese-medicine-formula-and-its-extraction-on-muscle-fiber-characteristics-in-finishing-pigs-porcine-cell-proliferation-and-isoforms-of-myosin-heavy-chain-gene-expression-in-myocytes
#10
Qin Ping Yu, Ding Yuan Feng, Xiao Jun He, Fan Wu, Min Hao Xia, Tao Dong, Yi Hua Liu, Hui Ze Tan, Shi Geng Zou, Tao Zheng, Xian Hua Ou, Jian Jun Zou
Objective: This study evaluated the effects of a traditional Chinese medicine formula (TCMF) on muscle fiber characteristics in finishing pigs and the effects of the formula's extract (distilled water, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extraction) on porcine cell proliferation and isoforms of MyHC gene expression in myocytes. Methods: XThe psoas major muscle was obtained from pigs at the end of the experiment. Muscle fiber characteristics in the psoas major muscle were analyzed using myosin ATPase staining...
June 26, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701425/self-sorting-of-nonmuscle-myosins-iia-and-iib-polarizes-the-cytoskeleton-and-modulates-cell-motility
#11
Maria S Shutova, Sreeja B Asokan, Shefali Talwar, Richard K Assoian, James E Bear, Tatyana M Svitkina
Nonmuscle myosin II (NMII) is uniquely responsible for cell contractility and thus defines multiple aspects of cell behavior. To generate contraction, NMII molecules polymerize into bipolar minifilaments. Different NMII paralogs are often coexpressed in cells and can copolymerize, suggesting that they may cooperate to facilitate cell motility. However, whether such cooperation exists and how it may work remain unknown. We show that copolymerization of NMIIA and NMIIB followed by their differential turnover leads to self-sorting of NMIIA and NMIIB along the front-rear axis, thus producing a polarized actin-NMII cytoskeleton...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642260/cigarette-smoke-disrupts-monolayer-integrity-by-altering-epithelial-cell-cell-adhesion-and-cortical-tension
#12
Kristine Nishida, Kieran A Brune, Nirupama Putcha, Pooja Mandke, Wanda K O'Neal, Danny Shade, Vasudha Srivastava, Menghan Wang, Hong Lam, Steven S An, M Bradley Drummond, Nadia N Hansel, Douglas N Robinson, Venkataramana K Sidhaye
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Cigarette smoke (CS) drives disease development and progression. The epithelial barrier is damaged by CS with increased monolayer permeability. However, the molecular changes that cause this barrier disruption and the interaction between adhesion proteins and the cytoskeleton are not well defined. We hypothesized that CS alters monolayer integrity by increasing cell contractility and decreasing cell adhesion in epithelia...
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622884/the-effect-of-caloric-restriction-on-the-forelimb-skeletal-muscle-fibers-of-the-hypertrophic-myostatin-null-mice
#13
Mohamed I Elashry, Antonios Matsakas, Sabine Wenisch, Stefan Arnhold, Ketan Patel
Skeletal muscle mass loss has a broad impact on body performance and physical activity. Muscle wasting occurs due to genetic mutation as in muscular dystrophy, age-related muscle loss (sarcopenia) as well as in chronic wasting disorders as in cancer cachexia. Food restriction reduces muscle mass underpinned by increased muscle protein break down. However the influence of dietary restriction on the morphometry and phenotype of forelimb muscles in a genetically modified myostatin null mice are not fully characterized...
June 13, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606474/regulation-of-intracellular-trafficking-and-secretion-of-adiponectin-by-myosin-ii
#14
Deepa Bedi, John C Dennis, Edward E Morrison, Tim D Braden, Robert L Judd
Adiponectin is a protein secreted by white adipocytes that plays an important role in insulin action, energy homeostasis and the development of atherosclerosis. The intracellular localization and trafficking of GLUT4 and leptin in adipocytes has been well studied, but little is known regarding the intracellular trafficking of adiponectin. Recent studies have demonstrated that constitutive adiponectin secretion is dependent on PIP2 levels and the integrity of cortical F-actin. Non-muscle myosin II is an actin-based motor that is associated with membrane vesicles and participates in vesicular trafficking in mammalian cells...
August 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592632/rear-polarized-wnt5a-receptor-actin-myosin-polarity-wramp-structures-promote-the-speed-and-persistence-of-directional-cell-migration
#15
Mary Katherine Connacher, Jian Wei Tay, Natalie G Ahn
In contrast to events at the cell leading edge, rear-polarized mechanisms that control directional cell migration are poorly defined. Previous work described a new intracellular complex, the Wnt5a-receptor-actomyosin polarity (WRAMP) structure, which coordinates the polarized localization of MCAM, actin, and myosin IIB in a Wnt5a-induced manner. However, the polarity and function for the WRAMP structure during cell movement were not determined. Here we characterize WRAMP structures during extended cell migration using live-cell imaging...
July 7, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538157/cell-and-tissue-scale-forces-coregulate-fgfr2-dependent-tetrads-and-rosettes-in-the-mouse-embryo
#16
Jun Wen, Hirotaka Tao, Kimberly Lau, Haijiao Liu, Craig A Simmons, Yu Sun, Sevan Hopyan
What motivates animal cells to intercalate is a longstanding question that is fundamental to morphogenesis. A basic mode of cell rearrangement involves dynamic multicellular structures called tetrads and rosettes. The contribution of cell-intrinsic and tissue-scale forces to the formation and resolution of these structures remains unclear, especially in vertebrates. Here, we show that Fgfr2 regulates both the formation and resolution of tetrads and rosettes in the mouse embryo, possibly in part by spatially restricting atypical protein kinase C, a negative regulator of non-muscle myosin IIB...
May 23, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533420/igf1-stimulates-greater-muscle-hypertrophy-in-the-absence-of-myostatin-in-male-mice
#17
Alexander Hennebry, Jenny Oldham, Tea Shavlakadze, Miranda D Grounds, Philip Sheard, Marta L Fiorotto, Shelley Falconer, Heather K Smith, Carole Berry, Ferenc Jeanplong, Jeremy Bracegirdle, Kenneth Matthews, Gina Nicholas, Mônica Senna-Salerno, Trevor Watson, Christopher D McMahon
Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and myostatin have opposing roles in regulating the growth and size of skeletal muscle, with IGF1 stimulating, and myostatin inhibiting, growth. However, it remains unclear whether these proteins have mutually dependent, or independent, roles. To clarify this issue, we crossed myostatin null (Mstn(-/-)) mice with mice overexpressing Igf1 in skeletal muscle (Igf1(+)) to generate six genotypes of male mice; wild type (Mstn(+/+) ), Mstn(+/-), Mstn(-/-), Mstn(+/+):Igf1(+), Mstn(+/-):Igf1(+) and Mstn(-/-):Igf1(+) Overexpression of Igf1 increased the mass of mixed fibre type muscles (e...
August 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475953/effects-of-dietary-starch-types-on-growth-performance-meat-quality-and-myofibre-type-of-finishing-pigs
#18
Y J Li, J L Li, L Zhang, F Gao, G H Zhou
To investigate the effects of dietary starch types on growth performance and meat quality of finishing pigs, ninety barrows (68.0±2.0kg) were randomly allotted to three experimental diets with five replicates of six pigs, containing pure waxy maize starch (WMS), nonwaxy maize starch (NMS) and pea starch (PS) (amylose/amylopectin were 0.07, 0.19 and 0.28 respectively). Compared with WMS diet, PS diet increased the average daily gain, loin eye area, pH45 value, NMR transverse relaxation (T2)2 peak area ratio and sarcoplasmic protein solubility, decreased the feed to gain ratio, back fat, drip loss, cooking loss and T23 peak area ratio (P<0...
May 2, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431393/loss-of-tpm4-1-leads-to-disruption-of-cell-cell-adhesions-and-invasive-behavior-in-breast-epithelial-cells-via-increased-rac1-signaling
#19
SukYeong Jeong, SunYoung Lim, Galina Schevzov, Peter W Gunning, David M Helfman
Here we report the identification and characterization of a novel high molecular weight isoform of tropomyosin, Tpm4.1, expressed from the human TPM4 gene. Tpm4.1 expression is down-regulated in a subset of breast cancer cells compared with untransformed MCF10A breast epithelial cells and in highly metastatic breast cancer cell lines derived from poorly metastatic MDA-MD-231 cells. In addition, patients with invasive ductal breast carcinoma show decreased TPM4 expression compared with patients with ductal breast carcinoma in situ, and low TPM4 expression is associated with poor prognosis...
May 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352215/myosin-iia-related-actomyosin-contractility-mediates-oxidative-stress-induced-neuronal-apoptosis
#20
Yan Wang, Yingqiong Xu, Qian Liu, Yuanyuan Zhang, Zhen Gao, Mingzhu Yin, Nan Jiang, Guosheng Cao, Boyang Yu, Zhengyu Cao, Junping Kou
Oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis plays an important role in the progression of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. In our study, when neuronal cells were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), an exogenous oxidant, cell apoptosis was observed with typical morphological changes including membrane blebbing, neurite retraction and cell contraction. The actomyosin system is considered to be responsible for the morphological changes, but how exactly it regulates oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis and the distinctive functions of different myosin II isoforms remain unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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