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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505264/geographical-information-systems-in-determination-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-spatial-risk-level-based-on-distribution-of-vector-species-in-imamoglu-province-adana
#1
Hakan Kavur, Ozan Artun
The Imamoglu district located in the southeast of Adana province in Turkey is an endemic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) owing to dominancy of Phlebotomus tobbi, which is a probable vector of Leishmania infantum. About 11.26% of CL cases reported each year are from Imamoglu, Adana, and between 2008 and 2015, 223 cases of CL were reported. Leishmania infantum, which may be transmitted by P. tobbi, Phlebotomus neglectus/syriacus, and Phlebotomus perfiliewi, is referred as leishmaniasis factor in Adana. Thus, the aim of this study was to map the risk areas for each sand fly species using remote sensing images based on environmental factors and geographical characteristics...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502644/leishmania-v-braziliensis-infecting-bats-from-pantanal-wetland-brazil-first-records-for-platyrrhinus-lineatus-and-artibeus-planirostris
#2
Eduardo de Castro Ferreira, Agnes Antônio Sampaio Pereira, Maurício Silveira, Carina Margonari, Glaucia Elisete Barbosa Marcon, Adriana de Oliveira França, Ludiele Souza Castro, Marcelo Oscar Bordignon, Erich Fischer, Walfrido Moraes Tomas, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros Dorval, Célia Maria Ferreira Gontijo
In the New World genus Leishmania parasites are etiological agents of neglected zoonoses known as leishmaniasis. Its epidemiology is very complex due to the participation of several species of sand fly vectors and mammalian hosts, and man is an accidental host. Control is very difficult because of the different epidemiological patterns of transmission observed. Studies about Leishmania spp. infection in bats are so scarce, which represents a large gap in knowledge about the role of these animals in the transmission cycle of these pathogens, especially when considering that Chiroptera is one of the most abundant and diverse orders among mammals...
May 11, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472733/in-vitro-inhibition-of-leishmania-attachment-to-sandfly-midguts-and-ll-5-cells-by-divalent-metal-chelators-anti-gp63-and-phosphoglycans
#3
Rodrigo Pedro Soares, Ellen Cristina Félix Altoé, Vítor Ennes-Vidal, Simone M da Costa, Elizabeth Ferreira Rangel, Nataly Araújo de Souza, Vanderlei Campos da Silva, Petr Volf, Claudia Masini d'Avila-Levy
Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania infantum are the causative agents of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, respectively. Several aspects of the vector-parasite interaction involving gp63 and phosphoglycans have been individually assayed in different studies. However, their role under the same experimental conditions was not studied yet. Here, the roles of divalent metal chelators, anti-gp63 antibodies and purified type I phosphoglycans (PGs) were evaluated during in vitro parasite attachment to the midgut of the vector...
March 29, 2017: Protist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465349/genetic-metabolic-complementation-establishes-a-requirement-for-gdp-fucose-in-leishmania
#4
Hongjie Guo, Natalia M Novozhilova, Giulia Bandini, Salvatore J Turco, Michael A J Ferguson, Stephen M Beverley
To survive in its sand fly vector, the trypanosomatid protozoan parasite Leishmania first attaches to the midgut to avoid excretion, but eventually it must detach for transmission by the next bite. In Leishmania major strain Friedlin, this is controlled by modifications of the stage-specific adhesin lipophosphoglycan (LPG). During differentiation to infective metacyclics, D-arabinopyranose (D-Arap) caps the LPG side-chain galactose residues, blocking interaction with the midgut lectin PpGalec, thereby leading to parasite detachment and transmission...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456690/standardization-of-dna-extraction-from-sand-flies-application-to-genotyping-by-next-generation-sequencing
#5
Aline Etelvina Casaril, Liliane Prado de Oliveira, Diego Peres Alonso, Everton Falcão de Oliveira, Suellem Petilim Gomes Barrios, Jucelei de Oliveira Moura Infran, Wagner de Souza Fernandes, Elisa Teruya Oshiro, Alda Maria Teixeira Ferreira, Paulo Eduardo Martins Ribolla, Alessandra Gutierrez de Oliveira
Standardization of the methods for extraction of DNA from sand flies is essential for obtaining high efficiency during subsequent molecular analyses, such as the new sequencing methods. Information obtained using these methods may contribute substantially to taxonomic, evolutionary, and eco-epidemiological studies. The aim of the present study was to standardize and compare two methods for the extraction of genomic DNA from sand flies for obtaining DNA in sufficient quantities for next-generation sequencing...
April 26, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455239/minimally-invasive-microbiopsies-a-novel-sampling-method-for-identifying-asymptomatic-potentially-infectious-carriers-of-leishmania-donovani
#6
Oscar David Kirstein, Ibrahim Abbasi, Ben Zion Horwitz, Laura Skrip, Asrat Hailu, Charles Jaffe, Lynlee L Li, Tarl W Prow, Alon Warburg
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a potentially lethal, sand fly-borne disease caused by protozoan parasites belonging to the Leishmania donovani species complex. There are several adequate methods for diagnosing VL, but the majority of infected individuals remain asymptomatic, comprising potential parasite reservoirs for transmission of the disease. The gold standard for assessing host infectiousness to biting vector insects is xenodiagnosis (i.e. scoring infection rates among insectary-reared insects that had fed on humans suspected of being infected)...
April 26, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439019/type-i-interferons-induced-by-endogenous-or-exogenous-viral-infections-promote-metastasis-and-relapse-of-leishmaniasis
#7
Matteo Rossi, Patrik Castiglioni, Mary-Anne Hartley, Remzi Onur Eren, Florence Prével, Chantal Desponds, Daniel T Utzschneider, Dietmar Zehn, Maria G Cusi, F Matthew Kuhlmann, Stephen M Beverley, Catherine Ronet, Nicolas Fasel
The presence of the endogenous Leishmania RNA virus 1 (LRV1) replicating stably within some parasite species has been associated with the development of more severe forms of leishmaniasis and relapses after drug treatment in humans. Here, we show that the disease-exacerbatory role of LRV1 relies on type I IFN (type I IFNs) production by macrophages and signaling in vivo. Moreover, infecting mice with the LRV1-cured Leishmania guyanensis (LgyLRV1(-) ) strain of parasites followed by type I IFN treatment increased lesion size and parasite burden, quantitatively reproducing the LRV1-bearing (LgyLRV1(+) ) infection phenotype...
April 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434998/use-of-two-photon-microscopy-to-study-leishmania-major-infection-of-the-skin
#8
REVIEW
Matheus Batista Carneiro, Leah Shan Hohman, Jackson G Egen, Nathan C Peters
Intra-vital two-photon microscopy (2P-IVM) allows for in-situ investigation of tissue organization, cell behavior and the dynamic interactions between different cell types in their natural environment. This methodology has also expanded our understanding of the immune response against pathogens. Leishmania are protozoan intracellular parasites that have adapted to successfully establish infection within the context of an inflammatory response in the skin following transmission by the bite of an infected sand fly...
April 18, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420407/understanding-phlebotomus-perniciosus-abundance-in-south-east-spain-assessing-the-role-of-environmental-and-anthropic-factors
#9
José Risueño, Clara Muñoz, Pedro Pérez-Cutillas, Elena Goyena, Moisés Gonzálvez, María Ortuño, Luis Jesús Bernal, Juana Ortiz, Bulent Alten, Eduardo Berriatua
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniosis is associated with Phlebotomus sand fly vector density, but our knowledge of the environmental framework that regulates highly overdispersed vector abundance distributions is limited. We used a standardized sampling procedure in the bioclimatically diverse Murcia Region in Spain and multilevel regression models for count data to estimate P. perniciosus abundance in relation to environmental and anthropic factors. METHODS: Twenty-five dog and sheep premises were sampled for sand flies using adhesive and light-attraction traps, from late May to early October 2015...
April 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402250/zoonotic-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-prevalence-among-farmers-in-central-tunisia-2014
#10
Hedia Bellali, Fraj Chemak, Issam Nouiri, Dorra Ben Mansour, Jamila Ghrab, Mohamed Kouni Chahed
BACKGROUND: Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) is endemic in Central Tunisia, and is more prevalent in rural agricultural areas. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to determine ZCL prevalence among farmers and to test their availability to take ownership of the problem and participate actively to fight and address the disease. METHODS: A sample of farmers from Sidi Bouzid, Central Tunisia was selected randomly. Farmers were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire about ZCL lesion occurrence, its date of onset among family members, and their availability to contribute to fighting this disease...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Agromedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399264/phlebotomine-sand-fly-composition-diptera-psychodidae-and-putative-vectors-of-american-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-porto-velho-municipality-western-amazon-brazil
#11
Fábio Resadore, Antônio Marques Pereira Júnior, Luís Paulo Costa Carvalho, Ana Paula de Azevedo Dos Santos, Carolina Bioni Garcia Teles, Jansen Fernandes Medeiros
This study evaluated the species composition of sand flies and identified potential vectors of Leishmania Ross species in rural areas of Porto Velho, Rondônia State, Brazil. American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is one of the gravest threats to public health in this state. Sand flies were collected over the course of 2014 and 2015 using HP light traps. Polymerase chain reaction was performed by targeting the Leishmania mkDNA region. In total, 2,344 sand flies were collected, from which 45 species, nine subgenera, and five species group were identified...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399209/spatial-distribution-of-phlebotomus-argentipes-diptera-psychodidae-in-eastern-india-a-case-study-evaluating-multispatial-resolution-remotely-sensed-environmental-evidence-and-microclimatic-data
#12
Rakesh Mandal, Pradeep Das, Vijay Kumar, Shreekant Kesari
Remote sensing, a powerful tool for analyzing landscape factors, is being used to explore the spatial ecology of vectors of several diseases. This study aims to explore the role of buffer size in identification and quantification of geo-environmental factors from multispatial resolution satellite data and its application along with microclimatic data to kala-azar vector abundance modeling.Sand fly abundance and microclimatic data were collected from 210 sample sites during the premonsoon and postmonsoon season of 2014 from Muzaffarpur district of Bihar (India)...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393122/effect-of-class-f-fly-ash-on-fine-sand-compaction-through-soil-stabilization
#13
Siavash Mahvash, Susana López-Querol, Ali Bahadori-Jahromi
This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation carried out to evaluate the effect of fly ash (FA) on fine sand compaction and its suitability as a material for embankments. The literature review demonstrates the lack of research on stabilization of sandy material using FA. The study is concerned with the role of FA content in stabilized soil physical characteristics. The main aim of this paper is to determine the optimum quantity of FA content for stabilization of this type of soil. This is achieved through particle size distribution and compaction (standard proctor) tests...
March 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384307/studies-on-sand-fly-fauna-and-ecological-analysis-of-phlebotomus-orientalis-in-the-highland-and-lowland-foci-of-kala-azar-in-northwestern-ethiopia
#14
Esayas Aklilu, Araya Gebresilassie, Solomon Yared, Mizan Kindu, Habte Tekie, Meshesha Balkew, Alon Warburg, Asrat Hailu, Teshome Gebre-Michael
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) also known as kala-azar is a growing health problem in Ethiopia with an estimated annual VL incidence between 3700 and 7400. The disease is mainly endemic in northwestern parts of the country. The aim of the current study was to determine the sand fly fauna and ecology of Phlebotomus orientalis in two endemic and ecologically distinct areas of northwestern Ethiopia. METHODS: Sand flies were collected using CDC light traps, sticky traps and pyrethrum spray catches from peri-domestic, mixed forest, farm field and indoor habitats from both Libo-Kemkem (May 2011-April 2012) and Metema (October 2012-September 2013) districts...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377524/the-transcriptome-of-leishmania-major-developmental-stages-in-their-natural-sand-fly-vector
#15
Ehud Inbar, V Keith Hughitt, Laura A L Dillon, Kashinath Ghosh, Najib M El-Sayed, David L Sacks
The life cycle of the Leishmania parasite in the sand fly vector involves differentiation into several distinctive forms, each thought to represent an adaptation to specific microenvironments in the midgut of the fly. Based on transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) results, we describe the first high-resolution analysis of the transcriptome dynamics of four distinct stages of Leishmania major as they develop in a natural vector, Phlebotomus duboscqi The early transformation from tissue amastigotes to procyclic promastigotes in the blood-fed midgut was accompanied by the greatest number of differentially expressed genes, including the downregulation of amastins, and upregulation of multiple cell surface proteins, sugar and amino acid transporters, and genes related to glucose metabolism and cell cycle progression...
April 4, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355207/an-integrated-overview-of-the-midgut-bacterial-flora-composition-of-phlebotomus-perniciosus-a-vector-of-zoonotic-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-the-western-mediterranean-basin
#16
Wael Fraihi, Wasfi Fares, Pascale Perrin, Franck Dorkeld, Denis Sereno, Walid Barhoumi, Imed Sbissi, Saifedine Cherni, Ifhem Chelbi, Ravi Durvasula, Marcelo Ramalho-Ortigao, Maher Gtari, Elyes Zhioua
BACKGROUND: The Leishmania developmental life cycle within its sand fly vector occurs exclusively in the lumen of the insect's digestive tract in the presence of symbiotic bacteria. The composition of the gut microbiota and the factors that influence its composition are currently poorly understood. A set of factors, including the host and its environment, may influence this composition. It has been demonstrated that the insect gut microbiota influences the development of several human pathogens, such as Plasmodium falciparum...
March 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343954/a-new-whole-mitochondrial-genome-qpcr-wmg-qpcr-with-sybr-green-%C3%A2-to-identify-phlebotomine-sand-fly-blood-meals
#17
Ana Caroline Moura Rodrigues, Rafaela Damasceno Magalhães, Kalil Andrade Mubarac Romcy, Jeferson Lucas Sousa Freitas, Ana Carolina Fonseca Lindoso Melo, Fernanda Cristina Macedo Rodon, Claudia Maria Leal Bevilaqua, Luciana Magalhães Melo
Phlebotomine sand flies are blood-feeding insects of marked medical and veterinary significance. Investigations on the biology of these insects hold great importance for both ecological and epidemiological purposes. The present work describes a new approach for real-time PCR (qPCR) with SYBR Green(®), named WMG-qPCR, to identify phlebotomine blood meals. The novelty of the assay was to design primers based on the Whole Mitochondrial Genome (WMG) of the potential hosts (human, dog, cat, brown rat and chicken) aiming to amplify through qPCR the regions of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) which are less conserved among all species...
March 9, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340594/species-specific-ecological-niche-modelling-predicts-different-range-contractions-for-lutzomyia-intermedia-and-a-related-vector-of-leishmania-braziliensis-following-climate-change-in-south-america
#18
Shannon McIntyre, Elizabeth F Rangel, Paul D Ready, Bruno M Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Before 1996 the phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia neivai was usually treated as a synonym of the morphologically similar Lutzomyia intermedia, which has long been considered a vector of Leishmania braziliensis, the causative agent of much cutaneous leishmaniasis in South America. This report investigates the likely range changes of both sand fly species in response to a stabilisation climate change scenario (RCP4.5) and a high greenhouse gas emissions one (RCP8.5). METHODS: Ecological niche modelling was used to identify areas of South America with climates currently suitable for each species, and then the future distributions of these climates were predicted based on climate change scenarios...
March 24, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329329/increased-transmissibility-of-leishmania-donovani-from-the-mammalian-host-to-vector-sand-flies-after-multiple-exposures-to-sand-fly-bites
#19
Joanna G Valverde, Andrea Paun, Ehud Inbar, Audrey Romano, Michael Lewis, Kashinath Ghosh, David Sacks
Background: Patients with active visceral leishmaniasis are important reservoirs in the anthroponotic transmission cycle of Leishmania donovani. The role of the blood or skin as a source of infection to sand flies remains unclear, and the possible effect of multiple exposures to fly bites on transmissibility has not been addressed. Methods: L. donovani infected hamsters were exposed to xenodiagnoses with Lutzomyia longipalpis on the same or different sites on the abdomen on two consecutive days, or by artificial feeding on the skin or blood...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327794/seasonality-of-sand-flies-diptera-psychodidae-and-leishmania-dna-detection-in-vector-species-in-an-area-with-endemic-visceral-leishmaniasis
#20
Lara Saraiva, Camila Gonçalves Leite, Ana Cristina Vianna Mariano da Rocha Lima, Luiz Otávio Alves de Carvalho, Agnes Antônia Sampaio Pereira, Jerônimo Marteleto Nunes Rugani, Felipe Dutra Rego, Célia Maria Ferreira Gontijo, José Dilermando Andrade
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniases are a serious health problem in southeast Brazil, including the city of Belo Horizonte (BH), Minas Gerais state (MG), where there are high rates of incidence and mortality due to visceral leishmaniases. BH is divided into nine sanitary districts (SD) of which one, the Venda Nova SD, was selected for this study because it has high rates of positivity for canine leishmaniasis and high incidence of human leishmaniasis. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to survey the sand fly fauna in Venda Nova SD from August 2011 to July 2013 and perform a descriptive analysis of the vector population...
April 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
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