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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807304/association-between-mast-cells-tissue-remodelation-and-parasite-burden-in-the-skin-of-dogs-with-visceral-leishmaniasis
#1
Jamille Mirelle de Oliveira Cardoso, Henrique Gama Ker, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira Aguiar-Soares, Nádia das Dores Moreira, Fernando Augusto Siqueira Mathias, Levi Eduardo Soares Reis, Bruno Mendes Roatt, Paula Melo de Abreu Vieira, Wendel Coura-Vital, Cláudia Martins Carneiro, Alexandre Barbosa Reis
Canine visceral leishmaniosis (CVL) is a zoonosis of major public health impact caused by organisms of the genus Leishmania which is transmitted to human and animals by phlebotomine sand flies. The skin is the first point of contact with Leishmania parasites for sandy fly vectors and it is considered an important reservoir compartment in infected dogs. The aim of this study was to determine the main histophatologic alterations in ear skin of dogs naturally infected by Leishmania infantum with different clinical status and different degrees of parasitism...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796786/phlebotomine-sand-fly-borne-pathogens-in-the-mediterranean-basin-human-leishmaniasis-and-phlebovirus-infections
#2
REVIEW
Martina Moriconi, Gianluca Rugna, Mattia Calzolari, Romeo Bellini, Alessandro Albieri, Paola Angelini, Roberto Cagarelli, Maria P Landini, Remi N Charrel, Stefania Varani
Pathogens transmitted to humans by phlebotomine sand flies are neglected, as they cause infectious diseases that are not on the priority list of national and international public health systems. However, the infections caused by protozoa of the Leishmania genus and viruses belonging to the Phlebovirus genus (family Phenuiviridae)-the most significant group of viruses transmitted by sand flies-have a relevant role for human pathology. These infections are emerging in the Mediterranean region and will likely spread in forthcoming decades, posing a complex threat to human health...
August 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773986/nanoindentation-characterization-of-a-ternary-clay-based-composite-used-in-ancient-chinese-construction
#3
Dongwei Hou, Guoping Zhang, Rohit Raj Pant, Jack S Shen, Mingming Liu, Hao Luo
Ternary clay-based composite material (TCC), composed of lime, clay and sand, and usually modified with sticky rice and other organic compounds as additives, was widely used historically in Chinese construction and buildings due to its high mechanical performance. In this study, to gain an insight into the micromechanical mechanism of this cementitious material, the nanomechanical properties and volume fraction of mechanically different phases of the binder matrix are derived from the analysis of grid nanoindentation tests...
October 26, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773861/experimental-study-on-full-scale-beams-made-by-reinforced-alkali-activated-concrete-undergoing-flexure
#4
Linda Monfardini, Fausto Minelli
Alkali Activated Concrete (AAC) is an alternative kind of concrete that uses fly ash as a total replacement of Portland cement. Fly ash combined with alkaline solution and cured at high temperature reacts to form a binder. Four point bending tests on two full scale beams made with AAC are described in this paper. Companion small material specimens were also casted with the aim of properly characterizing this new tailored material. The beam's length was 5000 mm and the cross section was 200 mm × 300 mm. The AAC consisted of fly ash, water, sand 0-4 mm and coarse aggregate 6-10 mm; and the alkaline solution consisted of sodium hydroxide mixed with sodium silicate...
August 30, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773849/combined-effects-of-non-conforming-fly-ash-and-recycled-masonry-aggregates-on-mortar-properties
#5
Ana Isabel Torres-Gómez, Enrique F Ledesma, Rocio Otero, José Maria Fernández, José Ramón Jiménez, Jorge de Brito
This work evaluates the effects of using non-conforming fly ash (Nc-FA) generated in a thermoelectric power plant as filler material for mortars made with natural sand (NA) and recycled sand from masonry waste (FRMA). The incorporation of powdered recycled masonry filler (R-MF) is also tested as an alternative to siliceous filler (Si-F). Three families of mortars were designed to study: the effect of replacing Si-F with Nc-FA on mortars made with NA; the effect of replacing Si-F with Nc-FA on mortars made with 50% of NA and 50% of FRMA; and the effect of replacing Si-F with R-MF on mortars made with NA and FRMA...
August 25, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764772/phlebotomine-sand-fly-survey-in-the-focus-of-leishmaniasis-in-madrid-spain-2012-2014-seasonal-dynamics-leishmania-infantum-infection-rates-and-blood-meal-preferences
#6
Estela González, Maribel Jiménez, Sonia Hernández, Inés Martín-Martín, Ricardo Molina
BACKGROUND: An unusual increase of human leishmaniasis cases due to Leishmania infantum is occurring in an urban area of southwestern Madrid, Spain, since 2010. Entomological surveys have shown that Phlebotomus perniciosus is the only potential vector. Direct xenodiagnosis in hares (Lepus granatensis) and rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) collected in the focus area proved that they can transmit parasites to colonized P. perniciosus. Isolates were characterized as L. infantum. The aim of the present work was to conduct a comprehensive study of sand flies in the outbreak area, with special emphasis on P...
August 1, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742133/a-putative-atp-gtp-binding-protein-affects-leishmania-mexicana-growth-in-insect-vectors-and-vertebrate-hosts
#7
Aygul Ishemgulova, Natalya Kraeva, Jana Hlaváčová, Sara L Zimmer, Anzhelika Butenko, Lucie Podešvová, Tereza Leštinová, Julius Lukeš, Alexei Kostygov, Jan Votýpka, Petr Volf, Vyacheslav Yurchenko
BACKGROUND: Leishmania virulence factors responsible for the complicated epidemiology of the various leishmaniases remain mainly unidentified. This study is a characterization of a gene previously identified as upregulated in two of three overlapping datasets containing putative factors important for Leishmania's ability to establish mammalian intracellular infection and to colonize the gut of an insect vector. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The investigated gene encodes ATP/GTP binding motif-containing protein related to Leishmania development 1 (ALD1), a cytosolic protein that contains a cryptic ATP/GTP binding P-loop...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712974/diversity-and-altitudinal-distribution-of-phlebotomine-sand-flies-diptera-psychodidae-in-visceral-leishmaniasis-endemic-areas-of-northwest-ethiopia
#8
Solomon Yared, Araya Gebresilassie, Essayas Akililu, Kebede Deribe, Meshesha Balkew, Alon Warburg, Asrat Hailu, Teshome Gebre-Michael
BACKGROUND: The Leishmaniases are caused by the protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania and are transmitted to humans by the bite of infected female phlebotomine sand flies. Both visceral and cutaneous leishmaniases are widely distributed in different parts of Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to determine the diversity and altitudinal distribution of phlebotomine sand flies from Kafta Humera to Gondar town in northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: Seven localities were selected with distinct altitudinal variations between 550m above sea level (m a...
July 13, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707235/adsorptive-removal-of-five-heavy-metals-from-water-using-blast-furnace-slag-and-fly-ash
#9
Thuy Chung Nguyen, Paripurnanda Loganathan, Tien Vinh Nguyen, Jaya Kandasamy, Ravi Naidu, Saravanamuthu Vigneswaran
Heavy metals can be serious pollutants of natural water bodies causing health risks to humans and aquatic organisms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the removal of five heavy metals from water by adsorption onto an iron industry blast furnace slag waste (point of zero charge (PZC) pH 6.0; main constituents, Ca and Fe) and a coal industry fly ash waste (PZC 3.0; main constituents, Si and Al). Batch study revealed that rising pH increased the adsorption of all metals with an abrupt increase at pH 4...
July 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705610/breeding-protocol-for-the-sand-fly-nyssomyia-neivai-diptera-psychodidae-in-laboratory-conditions
#10
Thais Marchi Goulart, Flávia Benini da Rocha Silva, Vicente Estevam Machado, Wanderson Henrique Cruz Oliveira, Camila Feitosa de Castro, Marili Villa Nova Rodrigues, Mara Cristina Pinto
The information in this protocol covers from the basic steps and material necessary to start a sand fly colony up to the specific details which are important to the success of a Nyssomyia neivai colony. The greatest problems in our colony of Ny. neivai were solved with specific care, for instance, using vermiculite and an adequate number of adults in oviposition containers; the control of fungus with the exact amount of diet for the larvae and humidity control; a second blood meal for females and control of the number of times animals are used for blood meals...
October 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704370/insights-into-the-sand-fly-saliva-blood-feeding-and-immune-interactions-between-sand-flies-hosts-and-leishmania
#11
REVIEW
Tereza Lestinova, Iva Rohousova, Michal Sima, Camila I de Oliveira, Petr Volf
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniases are parasitic diseases present worldwide that are transmitted to the vertebrate host by the bite of an infected sand fly during a blood feeding. Phlebotomine sand flies inoculate into the mammalian host Leishmania parasites embedded in promastigote secretory gel (PSG) with saliva, which is composed of a diverse group of molecules with pharmacological and immunomodulatory properties. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this review, we focus on 3 main aspects of sand fly salivary molecules: (1) structure and composition of salivary glands, including the properties of salivary molecules related to hemostasis and blood feeding, (2) immunomodulatory properties of salivary molecules and the diverse impacts of these molecules on leishmaniasis, ranging from disease exacerbation to vaccine development, and (3) use of salivary molecules for field applications, including monitoring host exposure to sand flies and the risk of Leishmania transmission...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695834/sand-flies-and-their-control-methods
#12
Hüseyin Çetin, Yusuf Özbel
The main aim of managing arthropod vectors that carry the disease agents is interrupting the infection cycle. Therefore, the management of the disease implies that all precautions related to all elements (i.e., human, arthropod vector, and reservoir) in the infection cycle need to be taken. There are important points that need to be considered while dealing with sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), which in many regions worldwide, particularly in tropical and subtropical areas, are vectors of diseases such as leishmaniasis and sand fly fever and are the arthropods of the infection cycle...
June 2017: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686398/-leishmaniasis-an-infection-of-travellers-and-migrants
#13
Lena Jessen, Benoît Bard, Xavier Grenon, Frank Bally
Leishmaniasis is an infection of the tropical to temperate zone, occasionally imported in our regions by travellers and migrants. Leishmania parasites are transmitted by the sting of a sand fly, Phlebotomus or Lutzomyia, and causes two clinical syndromes with either cutaneous, also mucosal, or disseminated involvement. Clinical suspicion needs a confirmation by the detection of the parasite. The treatment is adapted to the patient, the clinical presentation, the region, the species and the availability. Cutaneous leishmaniasis can be observed only or treated by topical or systemic regimens...
October 12, 2016: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680146/skin-parasite-landscape-determines-host-infectiousness-in-visceral-leishmaniasis
#14
Johannes S P Doehl, Zoe Bright, Shoumit Dey, Helen Davies, John Magson, Najmeeyah Brown, Audrey Romano, Jane E Dalton, Ana I Pinto, Jon W Pitchford, Paul M Kaye
Increasing evidence suggests that the infectiousness of patients for the sand fly vector of visceral leishmaniasis is linked to parasites found in the skin. Using a murine model that supports extensive skin infection with Leishmania donovani, spatial analyses at macro-(quantitative PCR) and micro-(confocal microscopy) scales indicate that parasite distribution is markedly skewed. Mathematical models accounting for this heterogeneity demonstrate that while a patchy distribution reduces the expected number of sand flies acquiring parasites, it increases the infection load for sand flies feeding on a patch, increasing their potential for onward transmission...
July 5, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653450/environmental-risk-modeling-and-potential-sand-fly-vectors-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-chitral-district-a-leishmanial-focal-point-of-mount-tirchmir-pakistan
#15
Farrah Zaidi, Syeda Hira Fatima, Tehmina Jan, Mehreen Fatima, Asad Ali, Muhammad Khisroon, Muhammad Adnan, Syed Basit Rasheed
OBJECTIVE: To provide baseline information about suspected vectors and the incidence, distribution and an active zone of transmission for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) in Chitral, Pakistan using GIS tools; and to investigate the role of environmental factors in the disease dynamics. METHOD: Two surveys in 2014 and 2016 as a basis for chloropleth and environmental risk mapping. RESULTS: 769 captured specimens yielded 18 Phlebotomus and 4 Sergentomyia species including two potential vectors of CL, i...
June 27, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649370/leishmaniasis-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Edoardo Torres-Guerrero, Marco Romano Quintanilla-Cedillo, Julieta Ruiz-Esmenjaud, Roberto Arenas
Leishmaniasis is caused by an intracellular parasite transmitted to humans by the bite of a sand fly. It is endemic in Asia, Africa, the Americas, and the Mediterranean region. Worldwide, 1.5 to 2 million new cases occur each year, 350 million are at risk of acquiring the disease, and leishmaniasis causes 70,000 deaths per year. Clinical features depend on the species of Leishmania involved and the immune response of the host. Manifestations range from the localized cutaneous to the visceral form with potentially fatal outcomes...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647427/first-molecular-detection-of-leishmania-infantum-in-sergentomyia-minuta-diptera-psychodidae-in-alentejo-southern-portugal
#17
S Pereira, D Pita-Pereira, T Araujo-Pereira, C Britto, T Costa-Rego, J Ferrolho, M Vilhena, E F Rangel, M L Vilela, M O Afonso
Protozoan parasites, such as Leishmania spp., are the causative agents of many insect-borne infectious diseases with medical and veterinary importance. Leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania spp., is transmitted by female phlebotomine sand flies. In the Alentejo region of Portugal, located at the north of Algarve, cases of human and canine leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum have been notified. However, no recent studies regarding the sand fly fauna in the region are available. We therefore aimed to explore the phlebotomine sand fly species found in both, Évora and Beja Districts, to gain an insight about the leishmaniasis epidemiology in these areas...
June 21, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647347/differential-activation-of-human-keratinocytes-by-leishmania-spp-causing-localized-or-disseminated-disease
#18
Breanna M Scorza, Mark A Wacker, Kelly Messingham, Peter Kim, Aloysius Klingelhutz, Janet Fairley, Mary E Wilson
All Leishmania spp. parasites are introduced into mammalian skin through a sand fly bite, but different species cause distinct clinical outcomes. Mouse studies suggest early responses are critical determinants of subsequent adaptive immunity in leishmaniasis, yet few studies address the role of keratinocytes, the most abundant cell in the epidermis. We hypothesized Leishmania infection causes keratinocytes to produce immunomodulatory factors that influence the outcome of infection. Incubation of primary or immortalized human keratinocytes with Leishmania infantum or Leishmania major, which cause visceral or cutaneous leishmaniasis, respectively, elicited dramatically different responses...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645315/role-of-inhibitors-of-serine-peptidases-in-protecting-leishmania-donovani-against-the-hydrolytic-peptidases-of-sand-fly-midgut
#19
Sudha Verma, Sushmita Das, Abhishek Mandal, Md Yousuf Ansari, Sujata Kumari, Rani Mansuri, Ajay Kumar, Ruby Singh, Savita Saini, Kumar Abhishek, Vijay Kumar, Ganesh Chandra Sahoo, Pradeep Das
BACKGROUND: In vector-borne diseases such as leishmaniasis, the sand fly midgut is considered to be an important site for vector-parasite interaction. Digestive enzymes including serine peptidases such as trypsin and chymotrypsin, which are secreted in the midgut are one of the obstacles for Leishmania in establishing a successful infection. The presence of some natural inhibitors of serine peptidases (ISPs) has recently been reported in Leishmania. In the present study, we deciphered the role of these ISPs in the survival of Leishmania donovani in the hostile sand fly midgut environment...
June 23, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629171/cutaneous-manifestations-of-human-and-murine-leishmaniasis
#20
REVIEW
Breanna M Scorza, Edgar M Carvalho, Mary E Wilson
The leishmaniases are diseases caused by pathogenic protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Infections are initiated when a sand fly vector inoculates Leishmania parasites into the skin of a mammalian host. Leishmania causes a spectrum of inflammatory cutaneous disease manifestations. The type of cutaneous pathology is determined in part by the infecting Leishmania species, but also by a combination of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory host immune response factors resulting in different clinical outcomes...
June 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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