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Sand fly

Erica Cristina da Silva Chagas, Arineia Soares Silva, Nelson Ferreira Fé, Lucas Silva Ferreira, Vanderson de Souza Sampaio, Wagner Cosme Morhy Terrazas, Jorge Augusto Oliveira Guerra, Rodrigo Augusto Ferreira de Souza, Henrique Silveira, Maria das Graças Vale Barbosa Guerra
BACKGROUND: Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are vectors of Leishmania species, the etiological agents of leishmaniasis, which is one of the most important emerging infectious diseases in the Americas. In the state of Amazonas in Brazil, anthropogenic activities encourage the presence of these insects around rural homes. The present study aimed to describe the composition and distribution of sand fly species diversity among the ecotopes (intradomicile, peridomicile and forest) in an area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission and detect natural infection with Leishmania DNA to evaluate which vectors are inside houses and whether the presence of possible vectors represents a hazard of transmission...
March 13, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Omar Hamarsheh, Mehmet Karakuş, Kifaya Azmi, Kaouther Jaouadi, Mohammad Reza Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Andreas Krüger, Ahmad Amro, Mohamed Amin Kenawy, Mostafa Ramadhan Dokhan, Ziad Abdeen, Mary Ann McDowell
BACKGROUND: Phlebotomus papatasi is a widely distributed sand fly species in different tropical and sub-tropical regions including the Middle East and North Africa. It is considered an important vector that transmits Leishmania major parasites, the causative agents of cutaneous leishmaniasis. The development of microsatellite markers for this sand fly vector is of high interest to understand its population structure and to monitor its geographic dispersal. RESULTS: Fourteen polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed with simple di-, tri- and tetra-nucleotide repeats...
March 9, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Sofia Sales Martins, Adriana de Oliveira Santos, Beatriz Dolabela Lima, Ciro Martins Gomes, Raimunda Nonata Ribeiro Sampaio
Cutaneous leishmaniasis is usually transmitted by infected phlebotomine sand fly bites that initiate local cutaneous lesions. Few reports in the literature describe other modes of transmission. We report a case of a previously healthy 59-year-old woman who underwent electrocoagulation to remove seborrheic keratosis confirmed by dermatoscopy. Three months later, a skin fragment tested positive for Leishmania culture; the parasite was identified as L. (V.) braziliensis. Trauma may generate inflammatory cascades that favor Leishmania growth and lesion formation in previously infected patients...
January 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Agna Cristina Guimarães, Paula Monalisa Nogueira, Soraia de Oliveira Silva, Jovana Sadlova, Katerina Pruzinova, Jana Hlavacova, Maria Norma Melo, Rodrigo Pedro Soares
BACKGROUND Leishmania major is an Old World species causing cutaneous leishmaniasis and is transmitted by Phlebotomus papatasi and Phlebotomus duboscqi. In Brazil, two isolates from patients who never left the country were characterised as L. major-like (BH49 and BH121). Using molecular techniques, these isolates were indistinguishable from the L. major reference strain (FV1). OBJECTIVES We evaluated the lipophosphoglycans (LPGs) of the strains and their behaviour in Old and New World sand fly vectors. METHODS LPGs were purified, and repeat units were qualitatively evaluated by immunoblotting...
2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Mohammed A Mohammed, Noteila M Khalid, Mariam A Aboud
BACKGROUND: Recent reports showed high numbers of visceral leishmaniasis cases in North Darfur, western Sudan. Due to a lack of previous studies, no information is available on local transmission of the disease in these areas. Therefore, a pilot entomological and epidemiological study was conducted in Al-Malha Locality during the year 2013, to investigate possibility of local transmission and places and times of the year where and when people contract the infection. METHODS: Kala-azar incidence data were obtained from records of Ministry of Health, North Darfur; Al-Malha rural hospital; and the Federal Ministry of Health, Division of Communicable and Non-communicable Diseases...
March 6, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Devika Iddawela, Sanura Malinda Pallegoda Vithana, Dhilma Atapattu, Lanka Wijekoon
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis, a vector borne tropical/subtropical disease caused by the protozoan Leishmania is transmitted to humans by sandfly vectors Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. The principal form found in Sri Lanka is cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and is caused by Leishmania donovani. A rising trend in disease prevalence has been observed recently in Sri Lanka and the island is in fact the newest endemic focus in South Asia. Determining the prevalence of smear positivity among clinically suspected CL patients, identifying risk factors and specific clinical presentations of CL in order to implement preventive and early treatment strategies were the objectives of this study...
March 6, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Emilie Bouhsira, Katrin Deuster, Emmanuel Lienard, Christophe Le Sueur, Michel Franc
BACKGROUND: Two laboratory experiments (Studies 1 and 2) were conducted to confirm the efficacy of an imidacloprid and permethrin combination (Advantix® Spot-on, Bayer) to repel and kill Phlebotomus (Larroussius) perniciosus sand flies when applied once a month topically to dogs. METHODS: Both studies compared dogs treated with a combination containing 100 mg/ml imidacloprid + 500 mg/ml permethrin (Advantix® Spot-on, Bayer) to placebo treated dogs. The treatments were applied topically on Day -28 (Study 2) and Day 0 (Studies 1 and 2)...
March 2, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Idris Mhaidi, Sofia El Kacem, Mouad Ait Kbaich, Adil El Hamouchi, M'hammed Sarih, Khadija Akarid, Meryem Lemrani
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an infectious disease caused by various species of Leishmania and transmitted by several species of sand flies. CL is among the most neglected tropical diseases, and it has represented a major health threat over the past 20 years in Morocco. The main objectives of this study were to identify relevant sand fly species and detect Leishmania infection in the most prevalent species and patient skin samples in Taza, a focus of CL in North-eastern Morocco...
March 2, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Hassan Vatandoost, Jalil Nejati, Abedin Saghafipour, Alireza Zahraei-Ramazani
Phlebotomine sand flies occur throughout the tropics and subtropics, as well as in temperate regions of the world. They are vectors of human and canine leishmaniasis and sand fly fevers caused by phleboviruses. This study was aimed to determine the geographic and ecological characteristics of phlebotomine sand flies as vectors of leishmaniasis and to prepare a checklist of phlebotomine sand flies. The study was conducted in Qom province, central Iran, between April and November 2016. Qom is located in latitude 34...
March 2018: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Nikolaos Tsirigotakis, Christoforos Pavlou, Vasiliki Christodoulou, Emmanouil Dokianakis, Christos Kourouniotis, Bulent Alten, Maria Antoniou
BACKGROUND: Blood-sucking phlebotomine sand flies are the vectors of the protozoan parasites Leishmania spp. Different Phlebotomus species transmit different Leishmania species causing leishmaniases which are neglected diseases emerging/reemerging in new regions. Thirteen sand fly species, ten belonging to the medically important genus Phlebotomus and three belonging to Sergentomyia are known in Greece. An increasing number of human and dog cases are reported each year from all parts of the country including the Aegean Islands...
February 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Alexandra Chaskopoulou, Michael Miaoulis, Javid Kashefi
The Phlebotomus sand flies are considered an important vector of both canine and human leishmaniasis. Current measures for sand fly control include mostly indoor interventions, such as residual spraying of dwellings (IRS) to target endophilic sand fly species with very limited number of vector control tools for outdoor interventions against exophilic sand flies. In this study we investigated the efficacy of ground ultra low volume (ULV) space spray applications of a deltamethrin based product against field populations of P...
February 16, 2018: Acta Tropica
Emmanouil Dokianakis, Nikolaos Tsirigotakis, Vasiliki Christodoulou, Nikos Poulakakis, Maria Antoniou
BACKGROUND: Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are vectors of Leishmania spp., protozoan parasites responsible for a group of neglected diseases called leishmaniases. Two sand fly genera, Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia, contain species that are present in the Mediterranean islands of Crete and Cyprus where the visceral (VL), cutaneous (CL) and canine (CanLei) leishmaniases are a public health concern. The risk of transmission of different Leishmania species can be studied in an area by monitoring their vectors...
February 17, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Rodrigo Pedro Soares, Paula Monalisa Nogueira, Nágila Francinete Secundino, Eric Fabrício Marialva, Cláudia Maria Ríos-Velásquez, Felipe Arley Costa Pessoa
BACKGROUND: Lutzomyia umbratilis, the vector for Leishmania guyanensis in northern South America, has been found naturally infected with L. guyanensis only in areas north of the Negro and Amazon rivers. While populations of this sand fly species are also found in areas south of these rivers, these populations have never been reported to be infected and/or transmitting L. guyanensis. However, no studies on the corresponding host-parasite interactions are available. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the interaction between Lu...
March 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Mattia Calzolari, Chiara Chiapponi, Romeo Bellini, Paolo Bonilauri, Davide Lelli, Ana Moreno, Ilaria Barbieri, Stefano Pongolini, Antonio Lavazza, Michele Dottori
BACKGROUND: Different phleboviruses are important pathogens for humans; most of these viruses are transmitted by sand flies. An increasing number of new phleboviruses have been reported over the past decade, especially in Mediterranean countries, mainly via their detection in sand flies. RESULTS: At least five different phleboviruses co-circulated in sand flies that were collected in three sites in Emilia-Romagna (Italy) in the summer of 2013. The well-known Toscana virus (TOSV) was isolated; three new, closely related phleboviruses differing in their M segments and tentatively named Ponticelli I, Ponticelli II and Ponticelli III virus, respectively, were isolated; a fifth putative phlebovirus, related to the sand fly fever Naples phlebovirus species, was also detected...
February 6, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Laura Giovati, Claudia Santinoli, Elena Ferrari, Tecla Ciociola, Elena Martin, Claudio Bandi, Irene Ricci, Sara Epis, Stefania Conti
The isolation and characterization from the sand fly Phlebotomus perniciosus of a Wickerhamomyces anomalus yeast strain (Wa1F1) displaying the killer phenotype was recently reported. In the present work, the killer toxin (KT) produced by Wa1F1 was purified and characterized, and its antimicrobial activity in vitro was investigated against fluconazole- susceptible and -resistant clinical isolates and laboratory strains of Candida albicans and C. glabrata displaying known mutations. Wa1F1-KT showed a differential killing ability against different mutant strains of the same species...
February 3, 2018: Toxins
Cristina Ballart, Bernard Pesson, Montserrat Gállego
An entomological survey was carried out in 2007 in two Pyrenean counties of Lleida province (north-eastern Spain), where cases of autochthonous canine leishmaniasis have been recently reported. Phlebotomus ariasi and P. perniciosus, vectors of Leishmania infantum in the Mediterranean area, were captured. The aim of the present study was to compare these phlebotomine populations with others captured in known leishmaniasis foci in Europe. Populations of these species were studied by analysing the polymorphism of seven enzymatic systems (HK, PGI, PGM, MDH, 6PGD, FUM and ACO) and compared with other specimens from endemic regions of France, Italy, Malta, Portugal and Spain captured in other campaigns, and also with previously published results...
2018: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
Khurshaid Khan, Sobia Wahid, Nazma Habib Khan, Safeer Ullah Shah, Bakht Sarwar, Naheed Ali
We provide a comprehensive and updated review on the effects of elevation and climatic factors on distribution of sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) across Pakistan. Our study was undertaken in view of the increasing risk of leishmaniasis, particularly resulting from climatic deviations and political instability in the region. Literature (published and unpublished) on suspected vectors of CL (Phlebotomus sergenti Parrot and Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli) and VL (Phlebotomus major Yakimoff and Schokhor and Phlebotomus hindustanicus Theodor) was collected, sorted, and utilized in geospatial analysis...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Shunchun Yao, Jialong Xu, Lifeng Zhang, Jingbo Zhao, Zhimin Lu
A novel measurement technology named as particle flow-spark induced breakdown spectroscopy (PF-SIBS) was reported for real-time measurement of solid materials. Critical measurement parameters of PF-SIBS were optimized and a set of fly ashes with different carbon content were measured for evaluation of measurement performance. Four electrode materials, tungsten, copper, molybdenum and platinum, were compared in the aspects of signal stability, line interference and electrode durability. Less line interference and better signal stability were obtained with W and Cu electrode, while W electrode has better durability...
January 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Rajan Kumar Pandey, Vijay Kumar Prajapati
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is caused by the parasites of Leishmania donovani complex, leads to the death of 20,000-40,000 people from 56 affected countries, worldwide. Till date, there is not a single available vaccine candidate to prevent the visceral leishmaniasis infection, and treatment only relies upon expensive and toxic chemotherapeutic options. Consequently, immunoinformatics approach was applied to design a multi-epitope based subunit vaccine to enhance the humoral as well as cell mediated immunity...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Márcia Moreira de Ávila, Andreia Fernandes Brilhante, Cristian Ferreira de Souza, Paula Dias Bevilacqua, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi Galati, Reginaldo Peçanha Brazil
BACKGROUND: Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are insects of medical importance due to their involvement in the zoonotic transmission of Leishmania spp. to vertebrates. The aim of this work was to study the ecology of the sand fly fauna of two types of environments, a rural environment (the Transacreana Road) and an urban park (Horto Florestal Park), both located in the municipality of Rio Branco in the state of Acre, Brazil. Additionally, this study intended to investigate Leishmania infection and blood meal sources of these sand flies using molecular techniques...
January 26, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
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