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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288759/feline-and-canine-leishmaniosis-and-other-vector-borne-diseases-in-the-aeolian-islands-pathogen-and-vector-circulation-in-a-confined-environment
#1
Domenico Otranto, Ettore Napoli, Maria Stefania Latrofa, Giada Annoscia, Viviana Domenica Tarallo, Grazia Greco, Eleonora Lorusso, Laura Gulotta, Luigi Falsone, Fabrizio Solari Basano, Maria Grazia Pennisi, Katrin Deuster, Gioia Capelli, Filipe Dantas-Torres, Emanuele Brianti
Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) are prevalently investigated in dogs. Studies on feline VBDs are scant, though feline leishmaniosis (FeL) is increasingly recognised as a disease of cats in endemic areas. Comprehensive investigations on the distribution of VBDs in populations of cats and dogs living in relatively small geographical areas, such as islands, are currently lacking. In this study the prevalence of Leishmania infantum and other VBD pathogens was assessed in cohorts of cats and dogs living in the Aeolian Islands...
March 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285587/serological-association-between-leishmania-infantum-and-sand-fly-fever-sicilian-but-not-toscana-virus-in-sheltered-dogs-from-southern-portugal
#2
Carla Maia, Sulaf Alwassouf, José Manuel Cristóvão, Nazli Ayhan, André Pereira, Remi N Charrel, Lenea Campino
BACKGROUND: Phlebotomine sand fly-borne diseases such as leishmanioses and phleboviruses are emerging threats to animal and public health. Canine leishmaniosis caused by Leishmania infantum is an endemic zoonosis in Portugal. Antibodies to Toscana virus (TOSV) and sand fly fever Sicilian virus (SFSV) were also reported in dogs from the south of the country. The aim of this work was to evaluate a possible association between exposure to L. infantum, TOSV and SFSV in sheltered dogs from the south of Portugal...
March 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285352/midgut-morphological-changes-and-autophagy-during-metamorphosis-in-sand-flies
#3
Juliana Malta, Matthew Heerman, Ju Lin Weng, Kenner M Fernandes, Gustavo Ferreira Martins, Marcelo Ramalho-Ortigão
During metamorphosis, holometabolous insects undergo significant remodeling of their midgut and become able to cope with changes in dietary requirements between larval and adult stages. At this stage, insects must be able to manage and recycle available food resources in order to develop fully into adults, especially when no nutrients are acquired from the environment. Autophagy has been previously suggested to play a crucial role during metamorphosis of the mosquito. Here, we investigate the overall morphological changes of the midgut of the sand fly during metamorphosis and assess the expression profiles of the autophagy-related genes ATG1, ATG6, and ATG8, which are associated with various steps of the autophagic process...
March 11, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278244/structure-of-salo-a-leishmaniasis-vaccine-candidate-from-the-sand-fly-lutzomyia-longipalpis
#4
Oluwatoyin A Asojo, Alan Kelleher, Zhuyun Liu, Jeroen Pollet, Elissa M Hudspeth, Wanderson C Rezende, Mallory Jo Groen, Christopher A Seid, Maha Abdeladhim, Shannon Townsend, Waldione de Castro, Antonio Mendes-Sousa, Daniella Castanheira Bartholomeu, Ricardo Toshio Fujiwara, Maria Elena Bottazzi, Peter J Hotez, Bin Zhan, Fabiano Oliveira, Shaden Kamhawi, Jesus G Valenzuela
BACKGROUND: Immunity to the sand fly salivary protein SALO (Salivary Anticomplement of Lutzomyia longipalpis) protected hamsters against Leishmania infantum and L. braziliensis infection and, more recently, a vaccine combination of a genetically modified Leishmania with SALO conferred strong protection against L. donovani infection. Because of the importance of SALO as a potential component of a leishmaniasis vaccine, a plan to produce this recombinant protein for future scale manufacturing as well as knowledge of its structural characteristics are needed to move SALO forward for the clinical path...
March 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241005/sand-fly-population-dynamics-and-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-among-soldiers-in-an-atlantic-forest-remnant-in-northeastern-brazil
#5
Filipe Dantas-Torres, Kamila Gaudêncio da Silva Sales, Débora Elienai de Oliveira Miranda, Fernando José da Silva, Luciana Aguiar Figueredo, Fábio Lopes de Melo, Maria Edileuza Felinto de Brito, Maria Sandra Andrade, Sinval Pinto Brandão-Filho
Outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis are relatively common among soldiers involved in nocturnal activities in tropical forests. We investigated the population dynamics of sand flies in a military training camp located in a remnant of Atlantic rainforest in northeastern Brazil, where outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis have sporadically been described. From July 2012 to July 2014, light traps were monthly placed in 10 collection sites, being nine sites located near the forest edge and one near a sheep and goat stable...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202044/the-history-of-leishmaniasis
#6
REVIEW
Dietmar Steverding
In this review article the history of leishmaniasis is discussed regarding the origin of the genus Leishmania in the Mesozoic era and its subsequent geographical distribution, initial evidence of the disease in ancient times, first accounts of the infection in the Middle Ages, and the discovery of Leishmania parasites as causative agents of leishmaniasis in modern times. With respect to the origin and dispersal of Leishmania parasites, the three currently debated hypotheses (Palaearctic, Neotropical and supercontinental origin, respectively) are presented...
February 15, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177044/comparison-of-lamp-and-pcr-for-molecular-mass-screening-of-sand-flies-for-leishmania-martiniquensis-infection
#7
Saruda Tiwananthagorn, Hirotomo Kato, Ranchana Yeewa, Amontip Muengpan, Raxsina Polseela, Saovanee Leelayoova
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania martiniquensis infection has been reported in human and domestic animals of Martinique Island, Germany, Switzerland, USA, Myanmar and Thailand. The peculiar clinical features of disseminated cutaneous and visceral forms co-existence render the urgent need of specific diagnostic tool to identify the natural sand fly vectors for effective prevention and control strategies. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of 18S rRNA gene as well as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of minicircle kinetoplast DNA gene (PCR-mkDNA) have never been applied to detect L...
February 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168019/time-restricted-flight-ability-influences-dispersal-and-colonization-rates-in-a-group-of-freshwater-beetles
#8
Lars Lønsmann Iversen, Riinu Rannap, Lars Briggs, Kaj Sand-Jensen
Variation in the ability to fly or not is a key mechanism for differences in local species occurrences. It is increasingly acknowledged that physiological or behavioral mechanisms rather than morphological differences may drive flight abilities. However, our knowledge on the seasonal variability and stressors creating nonmorphological differences in flight abilities and how it scales to local and regional occurrences is very limited particularly for small, short-lived species such as insects. Here, we examine how flight ability might vary across seasons and between two closely related genera of freshwater beetles with similar geographical ranges, life histories, and dispersal-related morphology...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166251/risk-analysis-and-prediction-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-dispersion-in-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-state-brazil
#9
Anaiá da Paixão Sevá, Liang Mao, Fredy Galvis-Ovallos, Joanna Marie Tucker Lima, Denis Valle
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important neglected disease caused by a protozoan parasite, and represents a serious public health problem in many parts of the world. It is zoonotic in Europe and Latin America, where infected dogs constitute the main domestic reservoir for the parasite and play a key role in VL transmission to humans. In Brazil this disease is caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum chagasi, and is transmitted by the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis. Despite programs aimed at eliminating infection sources, the disease continues to spread throughout the Country...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127360/species-identification-and-molecular-typing-of-leishmania-spp-using-targeting-hsp70-gene-in-suspected-patients-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-from-sistan-and-baluchestan-province-southeast-iran
#10
Hadi Mirahmadi, Alireza Salimi Khorashad, Alireza Sohrabnahad, Peyman Heydarian, Negar Bizhani
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is a sand fly-borne disease caused by the protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Leishmania. Because of the preventing and controlling methods, clinical course, prognosis and choice of treatment are differing from species; differentiation of species is critical. The present study was aimed to detect the parasite species using the PCR-RFLP method. METHODS: A total of 130 Giemsa-Stained slides from suspected Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) patients were examined under a light microscope at ×1000...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122496/lip-leishmaniasis-a-case-series-with-molecular-identification-and-literature-review
#11
Iraj Mohammadpour, Mohammad Hossein Motazedian, Farhad Handjani, Gholam Reza Hatam
BACKGROUND: Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL), a protozoan infectious disease, is very rare in Iran despite the endemicity of both cutaneous and visceral forms. It is transmitted by the Phlebotomus sand fly. The lip is considered one of the extraordinary sites. Lesions usually initiate with erythematous papules, slowly enlarges and then it ulcerates. The diagnosis of MCL encompasses epidemiological, clinical and laboratory aspects. Usually, the combination of some of these elements is necessary for the final diagnosis...
January 25, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109801/solid-phase-microextraction-sand-flies-oviposition-pheromones-plaster-of-paris-and-siloxanes-what-is-in-common
#12
Thais Marchi Goulart, Christiann Davis Tosta, Vicente Estevam Machado, Flávia Benini da Rocha Silva, Camila Feitosa de Castro, Dennys Ghenry Samillan Ortiz, Wanderson Henrique Cruz Oliveira, Mara Cristina Pinto
Sand flies are natural hosts of various microorganisms. Due to their epidemiological importance, sand fly colonies are kept in laboratories to be studied in terms of their biology and vector/host/parasite interactions. In order to investigate the presence of oviposition pheromones in Nyssomyia neivai, experiments using Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) were performed. However, siloxanes which is an external class of contamination, present in breeding containers made by plaster used to maintain sand flies in colonies, may be hindered the experiments...
January 18, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096483/the-gut-microbiome-of-the-vector-lutzomyia-longipalpis-is-essential-for-survival-of-leishmania-infantum
#13
Patrick H Kelly, Sarah M Bahr, Tiago D Serafim, Nadim J Ajami, Joseph F Petrosino, Claudio Meneses, John R Kirby, Jesus G Valenzuela, Shaden Kamhawi, Mary E Wilson
The vector-borne disease leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania species protozoa, is transmitted to humans by phlebotomine sand flies. Development of Leishmania to infective metacyclic promastigotes in the insect gut, a process termed metacyclogenesis, is an essential prerequisite for transmission. Based on the hypothesis that vector gut microbiota influence the development of virulent parasites, we sequenced midgut microbiomes in the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis with or without Leishmania infantum infection...
January 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095664/cutaneous-leishmaniasis-of-the-eyelids-a-case-series-with-molecular-identification-and-literature-review
#14
Iraj Mohammadpour, Mohammad Hossein Motazedian, Farhad Handjani, Gholam Reza Hatam
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a protozoan disease which is endemic in Iran. It is transmitted by the Phlebotomus sand fly. The eyelid is rarely involved possibly because the movement of the lids impedes the sand fly from biting the skin in this region. Here, we report 6 rare cases of eyelid CL. The patients were diagnosed by skin scraping, culture, and PCR from the lesions. Skin scraping examination showed Leishmania spp. amastigotes in the cytoplasm of macrophages. Culture examination was positive for Leishmania spp...
December 2016: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095465/leishmania-hasp-and-sherp-genes-are-required-for-in-vivo-differentiation-parasite-transmission-and-virulence-attenuation-in-the-host
#15
Johannes S P Doehl, Jovana Sádlová, Hamide Aslan, Kateřina Pružinová, Sonia Metangmo, Jan Votýpka, Shaden Kamhawi, Petr Volf, Deborah F Smith
Differentiation of extracellular Leishmania promastigotes within their sand fly vector, termed metacyclogenesis, is considered to be essential for parasites to regain mammalian host infectivity. Metacyclogenesis is accompanied by changes in the local parasite environment, including secretion of complex glycoconjugates within the promastigote secretory gel and colonization and degradation of the sand fly stomodeal valve. Deletion of the stage-regulated HASP and SHERP genes on chromosome 23 of Leishmania major is known to stall metacyclogenesis in the sand fly but not in in vitro culture...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091623/comparative-genomics-of-canine-isolated-leishmania-leishmania-amazonensis-from-an-endemic-focus-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-governador-valadares-southeastern-brazil
#16
Hugo O Valdivia, Laila V Almeida, Bruno M Roatt, João Luís Reis-Cunha, Agnes Antônia Sampaio Pereira, Celia Gontijo, Ricardo Toshio Fujiwara, Alexandre B Reis, Mandy J Sanders, James A Cotton, Daniella C Bartholomeu
Leishmaniasis is a highly diverse group of diseases caused by kinetoplastid of the genus Leishmania. These parasites are taxonomically diverse, with human pathogenic species separated into two subgenera according to their development site inside the alimentary tract of the sand fly insect vector. The disease encompasses a variable spectrum of clinical manifestations with tegumentary or visceral symptoms. Among the causative species in Brazil, Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis is an important etiological agent of human cutaneous leishmaniasis that accounts for more than 8% of all cases in endemic regions...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055572/practical-guidelines-for-studies-on-sandfly-borne-phleboviruses-part-ii-important-points-to-consider-for-fieldwork-and-subsequent-virological-screening
#17
Hartwig Huemer, Jorian Prudhomme, Fatima Amaro, Amal Baklouti, Gernot Walder, Bulent Alten, Sara Moutailler, Koray Ergunay, Remi N Charrel, Nazli Ayhan
In this series of review articles entitled "Practical guidelines for studies on sandfly-borne phleboviruses," the important points to be considered at the prefieldwork stage were addressed in part I, including parameters to be taken into account to define the geographic area for sand fly trapping and how to organize field collections. Here in part II, the following points have been addressed: (1) factors influencing the efficacy of trapping and the different types of traps with their respective advantages and drawbacks, (2) how to process the trapped sand flies in the field, and (3) how to process the sand flies in the virology laboratory...
January 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040509/integration-of-proteomics-and-metabolomics-to-elucidate-metabolic-adaptation-in-leishmania
#18
Snezhana Akpunarlieva, Stefan Weidt, Dhilia Lamasudin, Christina Naula, David Henderson, Michael Barrett, Karl Burgess, Richard Burchmore
Leishmania parasites multiply and develop in the gut of a sand fly vector in order to be transmitted to a vertebrate host. During this process they encounter and exploit various nutrients, including sugars, and amino and fatty acids. We have previously generated a mutant Leishmania line that is deficient in glucose transport and which displays some biologically important phenotypic changes such as reduced growth in axenic culture, reduced biosynthesis of hexose-containing virulence factors, increased sensitivity to oxidative stress, and dramatically reduced parasite burden in both insect vector and macrophage host cells...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032114/sandfly-fever-with-skin-lesions-a-case-series-from-turkey
#19
Fatih Temocin, Tugba Sari, Necla Tulek
Sand fly fever (SF) is an arthropod-borne viral disease, also known as "Phlebotomus fever", "mosquito fever", three-day fever or "Papatacci fever". It is transmitted by Phlebotomus papatasi, starts with acute onset of high fever, and lasts for three days. We present first cases in a different district of Turkey with the clinical findings of fever, myalgia-arthralgia, headache, gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhoea and nausea-vomiting and skin lesions (in two of them). All the patients were treated symptomatically and discharged with complete cure...
December 2016: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032108/faunal-distribution-and-seasonal-bio-ecology-of-naturally-infected-sand-flies-in-a-new-endemic-zoonotic-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-focus-of-southern-iran
#20
Kourosh Azizi, Hayedeh Parvinjahromi, Mohammad Djaefar Moemenbellah-Fard, Bahador Sarkari, Mohammad Reza Fakoorziba
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a major health problem in Iran in spite of implementation of control program. This infectious disease caused morbidity in less than 27000 people in 2010. This study was set to determine some ecological aspects of sand flies in Fasa district, Fars Province, southern Iran during 2011-2012. METHODS: A total of 4792 sand flies were captured by means of sticky paper and CDC miniature light traps in 10 selected villages from the beginning to the end of the active season, from which 1115 specimens were captured for abundance study and 3677 specimens captured for monitoring monthly activities in Fasa...
December 2016: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
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