Read by QxMD icon Read

Sand fly

Magdalena Jancarova, Jana Hlavacova, Jan Votypka, Petr Volf
BACKGROUND: In mosquitoes, it has previously been shown that rearing conditions of immature stages have an effect on the vector competence of adults. Here, we studied the impact of different larval rearing temperatures (27 °C versus 32 °C) on the sand fly Phlebotomus sergenti Parrot, 1917 and its susceptibility to two parasites: Leishmania tropica Wright, 1903, a dixenous trypanosomatid transmissible from sand flies to humans, and Psychodiella sergenti Lantova, Volf & Votypka, 2010, a monoxenous sand fly gregarine...
October 18, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Allison T Neal, Max S Ross, Jos J Schall, Anne M Vardo-Zalik
BACKGROUND: The geographic scale and degree of genetic differentiation for arthropod vectors that transmit parasites play an important role in the distribution, prevalence and coevolution of pathogens of human and wildlife significance. We determined the genetic diversity and population structure of the sand fly Lutzomyia vexator over spatial scales from 0.56 to 3.79 km at a study region in northern California. The study was provoked by observations of differentiation at fine spatial scales of a lizard malaria parasite vectored by Lu...
October 18, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Atchara Phumee, Apiwat Tawatsin, Usavadee Thavara, Theerakamol Pengsakul, Suwich Thammapalo, Jérôme Depaquit, Frédérick Gay, Padet Siriyasatien
Although female sand flies are best known as the vectors of Leishmania parasites and viruses, several previous reports have demonstrated that these insects can also act as vectors for the trypanosomes of bats, lizards, and snakes. In this report, we created an inventory of Phlebotomine sand flies from southern Thailand. A novel trypanosome was found in a specimen of Phlebotomus stantoni, and two sand fly species newly recorded in the country, Sergentomyia khawi and Sergentomyia hivernus, were described. PCR primer pairs specific for the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and the small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) gene of trypanosomatids were used to demonstrate the presence of the parasite in the sand fly...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Abhijit Deka, Sreedeep Sekharan
It is important to determine the contaminant retention characteristics of materials when assessing their suitability for use as liners in landfill sites. Sand-bentonite mixtures are commonly used as liners in the construction of landfill sites for industrial and hazardous wastes. Sand is considered to be a passive material with a negligible chemical retention capacity; fly ash, however, offers the additional advantage of adsorbing the heavy metals present in landfill leachates. There have been few studies of the contaminant retention characteristics of fly ash-bentonite mixes...
October 14, 2016: Waste Management & Research
Maria J Pons, Cláudia Gomes, Juana Del Valle-Mendoza, Joaquim Ruiz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
D Bravo-Barriga, R Parreira, C Maia, M O Afonso, J Blanco-Ciudad, F J Serrano, J E Pérez-Martín, L Gómez-Gordo, L Campino, D Reina, E Frontera
Leishmaniosis caused by Leishmania infantum is present in Mediterranean countries, with high prevalence in areas of the center and south of Spain. However, in some regions such as Extremadura (in southwest of Spain), data has not been updated since 1997. The aim of this work was (i) to provide information about the distribution of phlebotomine sand fly species in western of Spain (Extremadura region), (ii) to determine risk factors for the presence of sand fly vectors and (iii) to detect Leishmania DNA and identify blood meal sources in wild caught females...
October 5, 2016: Acta Tropica
T Tharmatha, K Gajapathy, R Ramasamy, S N Surendran
The correct identification of sand fly vectors of leishmaniasis is important for controlling the disease. Genetic, particularly DNA sequence data, has lately become an important adjunct to the use of morphological criteria for this purpose. A recent DNA sequencing study revealed the presence of two cryptic species in the Sergentomyia bailyi species complex in India. The present study was undertaken to ascertain the presence of cryptic species in the Se. bailyi complex in Sri Lanka using morphological characteristics and DNA sequences from cytochrome c oxidase subunits...
October 10, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
M Mamun Huda, Vijay Kumar, Murari Lal Das, Debashis Ghosh, Jyoti Priyanka, Pradeep Das, Abdul Alim, Greg Matlashewski, Axel Kroeger, Eduardo Alfonso-Sierra, Dinesh Mondal
BACKGROUND: New methods for controlling sand fly are highly desired by the Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) elimination program of Bangladesh, India and Nepal for its consolidation and maintenance phases. To support the program we investigated safety, efficacy and cost of Durable Wall Lining to control sand fly. METHODS: This multicentre randomized controlled study in Bangladesh, India and Nepal included randomized two intervention clusters and one control cluster. Each cluster had 50 households except full wall surface coverage (DWL-FWSC) cluster in Nepal which had 46 households...
October 6, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Abedin Saghafipour, Hassan Vatandoost, Ali Reza Zahraei-Ramazani, Mohammad Reza Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Yavar Rassi, Mohammad Reza Shirzadi, Amir Ahmad Akhavan
Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) is transmitted to humans by phlebotomine sand fly bites. ZCL is a major health problem in Iran, where basic knowledge gaps about sand fly species diversity persist in some ZCL-endemic areas. This paper describes the richness and spatial distribution of sand fly species, collected with sticky traps, in Qom province, a ZCL-endemic area in central Iran, where sand fly fauna has been poorly studied. Collected species were mapped on urban and rural digital maps based on a scale of 1/50,000...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
J O M Infran, D A Souza, W S Fernandes, A E Casaril, G U Eguchi, E T Oshiro, C E S Fernandes, A C Paranhos Filho, A G Oliveira
Recording the nycthemeral rhythm of sand flies allows the evaluation of the daily activity in different ecotypes, the period of greatest activity, and their degree of anthropophily. We investigated the fauna and the rhythm of sand fly activity in an ecotourism region in Mato Grosso do Sul (MS) state, Brazil. Sand flies were captured monthly, using a Shannon trap for 24 h periods between July 2012 and June 2014. We collected 1,815 sand flies, in which Lutzomyia whitmani (=Nyssomyia whitmani, sensu Galati) and Lutzomyia longipalpis were the most abundant species during the dry season, with activity from 5 p...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Lorna MacLean, Helen Price, Peter O'Toole
Leishmania major is a human-infective protozoan parasite transmitted by the bite of the female phlebotomine sand fly. The L. major hydrophilic acylated surface protein B (HASPB) is only expressed in infective parasite stages suggesting a role in parasite virulence. HASPB is a "nonclassically" secreted protein that lacks a conventional signal peptide, reaching the cell surface by an alternative route to the classical ER-Golgi pathway. Instead HASPB trafficking to and exposure on the parasite plasma membrane requires dual N-terminal acylation...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Emmanouil Dokianakis, Nikolaos Tsirigotakis, Vasiliki Christodoulou, Nikos Poulakakis, Maria Antoniou
Many Phlebotomine sand fly species (Diptera, Psychodidae) are vectors of the protozoan parasite Leishmania causing a group of diseases called the leishmaniases. The subgenus Larroussius includes sand fly vectors found in South East Mediterranean Basin responsible for Visceral (VL) and Cutaneous human leishmaniasis (CL). It is important to monitor these medically important insects in order to safely predict possible Leishmania transmission cycles. Leishmania infantum is endemic in the islands of Crete and Cyprus with increasing VL cases in humans and dogs and in Cyprus the newly introduced Leishmania donovani causes both VL and CL in humans...
September 5, 2016: Acta Tropica
Moosa Khosravani, Mohammad Djaefar Moemenbellah-Fard, Mehdi Sharafi, Azam Rafat-Panah
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is the first and most important vector-borne zoonotic disease transmitted by sand flies in Iran. As a parasitic disease in the Old World, it is a complex zoonosis with multiple vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors of pathogenic flagellate protozoan in the genus of Leishmania in different parts of its range. Phlebotomine sand flies are proven as vectors of this parasite which can be transmitted through the bite of an infected female sand fly distributed in almost all parts of Iran...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Sergio C F Mendonça
The leishmaniases are a group of diseases caused by different species of the protozoan genus Leishmania and transmitted by sand fly vectors. They are a major public health problem in almost all continents. There is no effective control of leishmaniasis and its geographical distribution is expanding in many countries. Great effort has been made by many scientists to develop a vaccine against leishmaniasis, but, so far, there is still no effective vaccine against the disease. The only way to generate protective immunity against leishmaniasis in humans is leishmanization, consisting of the inoculation of live virulent Leishmania as a means to acquire long-lasting immunity against subsequent infections...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Pedro J Alcolea, Gabriel I L Tuñón, Ana Alonso, Francisco García-Tabares, Sergio Ciordia, María C Mena, Roseane N S Campos, Roque P Almeida, Vicente Larraga
PURPOSE: Leishmania chagasi is the causative agent of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. Domestic and stray dogs are the main reservoirs. The life cycle of the parasite involves two stages. Promastigotes are extracellular and develop within the sand fly gut. Amastigotes survive inside the harsh environment of the phagolysosome of mammalian host phagocytes, which display the nitric oxide defense mechanism. Surprisingly, we were able to isolate promastigotes that are also resistant to NO...
September 7, 2016: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
Manuela S Solcà, Bruno B Andrade, Melissa Moura Costa Abbehusen, Clarissa R Teixeira, Ricardo Khouri, Jesus G Valenzuela, Shaden Kamhawi, Patrícia Torres Bozza, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé Fraga, Valeria Matos Borges, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares Veras, Claudia Ida Brodskyn
Clinical manifestations in canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) have not been clearly associated with immunological status or disease progression. We simultaneously assessed biomarkers of inflammation, immune activation, oxidative stress, and anti-sand fly saliva IgG concentrations in dog sera with different clinical manifestations to characterize a biosignature associated with CVL severity. In a cross-sectional exploratory study, a random population of 70 dogs from an endemic area in Brazil was classified according to CVL clinical severity and parasitological evaluation...
2016: Scientific Reports
Rodrigo Espíndola Godoy, Antônio Luís Ferreira de Santana, Carina Graser, Elizabeth Ferreira Rangel, Maurício Luiz Vilela
In Brazil, American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) ecology involves a diversity of Leishmania species transmitted by different sand fly species. Workers involved in agricultural activities are those mainly affected by ACL in some regions from Tocantins State (TO), Brazil, where the disease can be established in new settlements. The objective of this study was to examine the seasonal and hourly frequency of sand fly species, focusing on the potential vectors of ACL, in a settlement in Guaraí (TO), an ACL transmission area...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Carolina Cunha Monteiro, Luis Eduardo Martinez Villegas, Thais Bonifácio Campolina, Ana Clara Machado Araújo Pires, Jose Carlos Miranda, Paulo Filemon Paolucci Pimenta, Nagila Francinete Costa Secundino
BACKGROUND: Parasites of the genus Leishmania cause a broad spectrum of diseases, collectively known as leishmaniasis, in humans worldwide. American cutaneous leishmaniasis is a neglected disease transmitted by sand fly vectors including Lutzomyia intermedia, a proven vector. The female sand fly can acquire or deliver Leishmania spp. parasites while feeding on a blood meal, which is required for nutrition, egg development and survival. The microbiota composition and abundance varies by food source, life stages and physiological conditions...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
A M Campos, C L C Dos Santos, R Stumpp, L H D Da Silva, R A Maia, A P Paglia, J D Andrade Filho
Caves are unique habitats that are inhabited by a diverse and singular biota. Among these inhabitants are sand flies, which are of great epidemiological interest in the Neotropical region because they are vectors of Leishmania The period of activity of these insects is usually crepuscular and nocturnal, but there are reports of diurnal activity of sand flies in caves. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the periodicity of daily activity of sand flies in cave environments in the municipality of Pains, Minas Gerais...
August 23, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Lucilene Aparecida Resende, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira Aguiar-Soares, Henrique Gama-Ker, Bruno Mendes Roatt, Ludmila Zanandreis de Mendonça, Marina Luiza Rodrigues Alves, Denise da Silveira-Lemos, Rodrigo Corrêa-Oliveira, Olindo Assis Martins-Filho, Márcio Sobreira Silva Araújo, Ricardo Toshio Fujiwara, Nelder Figueiredo Gontijo, Alexandre Barbosa Reis, Rodolfo Cordeiro Giunchetti
Dogs represent the most important domestic reservoir of L. chagasi (syn. L. infantum). A vaccine against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) would be an important tool for decreasing the anxiety related to possible L. chagasi infection and for controlling human visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Because the sand fly salivary proteins are potent immunogens obligatorily co-deposited during transmission of Leishmania parasites, their inclusion in an anti-Leishmania vaccine has been investigated in past decades. We investigated the immunogenicity of the "LbSapSal" vaccine (L...
2016: PloS One
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"