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Sand fly

C S Moraes, K Aguiar-Martins, S G Costa, P A Bates, R J Dillon, F A Genta
Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in America. Physiological and molecular mechanisms of Leishmania infection in sand flies have been studied during the first gonotrophic cycle. There are few studies about these interactions during the second gonotrophic cycle mainly because of the difficulties maintaining sand flies through sequential feeds. Here we standardized conditions to perform the second blood feed efficiently, and our results show that oviposition is an essential factor for the success of multiple feeds...
2018: BioMed Research International
Narong Jaturas, Apichat Vitta, Yudthana Samung, Chamnarn Apiwathnasorn, Raxsina Polseela
We investigated the nocturnal activity of cave-dwelling sand flies at different time intervals and determined their species composition and seasonal variation. Sand flies were captured on one night each month using CDC light traps from 18:00-06:00 with the collecting bag being changed every two h between February, 2010 and January, 2011. A total of 18,709 individuals, including 10,740 males and 7,969 females, was collected. The overall ratio between male and female specimens was 1:0.74. The collected specimens included 14 species from four genera, Chinius, Idiophlebotomus, Phlebotomus, and Sergentomyia...
June 2018: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
Luís F S Batista, Yuri T Utsunomiya, Thaís B F Silva, Mariana M Carneiro, Joyr S F Paiva, Rafaela B Silva, Thaíse Y Tomokane, Claudio N Rossi, Acácio D Pacheco, Rafaela B P Torrecilha, Fernando T Silveira, Mary Marcondes, Cáris M Nunes, Márcia D Laurenti
The anti-inflammatory properties of sand fly saliva favor the establishment of the Leishmania infantum infection. In contrast, an antibody response against Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva is often associated with a protective cell-mediated response against canine visceral leishmaniasis. Genetic studies may demonstrate to what extent the ability to secrete anti-saliva antibodies depends on genetic or environmental factors. However, the genetic basis of canine antibody response against sand fly saliva has not been assessed...
2018: PloS One
Jiake Li, Zheng Liang, Yajiao Li, Peng Li, Chunbo Jiang
Excessive phosphorus (P) contributes to eutrophication by degrading water quality and limiting human use of water resources. Identifying economic and convenient methods to control soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) pollution in urban runoff is the key point of rainwater management strategies. Through three series of different tests involving influencing factors, continuous operation and intermittent operation, this study explored the purification effects of bioretention tanks under different experimental conditions, it included nine intermittent tests, single field continuous test with three groups of different fillers (Fly ash mixed with sand, Blast furnace slag, and Soil), and eight intermittent tests with single filler (Blast furnace slag mixed with sand)...
2018: PloS One
Tamy Portillo Rodriguez, Joshua D Mast, Tom Hartl, Tom Lee, Peter Sand, Ethan O Perlstein
N-glycanase 1 (NGLY1) Deficiency is a rare monogenic multi-system disorder first described in 2014. NGLY1 is evolutionarily conserved in model organisms. Here we conducted a natural history study and chemical-modifier screen on the Drosophila melanogaster NGLY1 homolog, Pngl. We generated a new fly model of NGLY1 Deficiency, engineered with a nonsense mutation in Pngl at codon 420 that results in a truncation of the C-terminal carbohydrate-binding PAW domain. Homozygous mutant animals exhibit global development delay, pupal lethality and small body size as adults...
May 7, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Ines Martin-Martin, Andrezza Campos Chagas, Anderson B Guimaraes-Costa, Laura Amo, Fabiano Oliveira, Ian N Moore, Thiago S DeSouza-Vieira, Elda E Sanchez, Montamas Suntravat, Jesus G Valenzuela, Jose M C Ribeiro, Eric Calvo
Salivary components from disease vectors help arthropods to acquire blood and have been shown to enhance pathogen transmission in different model systems. Here we show that two salivary enzymes from Lutzomyia longipalpis have a synergist effect that facilitates a more efficient blood meal intake and diffusion of other sialome components. We have previously shown that Lundep, a highly active endonuclease, enhances parasite infection and prevent blood clotting by inhibiting the intrinsic pathway of coagulation...
May 3, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Benjamin M Dorsey, Craig C McLauchlan, Marjorie A Jones
Leishmaniasis is an endemic disease affecting a diverse spectra of populations, with 1.6 million new cases reported each year. Current treatment options are costly and have harsh side effects. New therapeutic options that have been previously identified, but still underappreciated as potential pharmaceutical targets, are Leishmania secreted acid phosphatases (SAP). These acid phosphatases, which are reported to play a role in the survival of the parasite in the sand fly vector, and in homing to the host macrophage, are inhibited by orthovanadate and decavanadate...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Suradej Siripattanapipong, Saovanee Leelayoova, Ubolrat Ninsaeng, Mathirut Mungthin
In Thailand, leishmaniasis is an emerging vector-borne disease that has become a public health concern. In related epidemiological surveys to identify potential Leishmania vectors in the affected areas, DNA of Leishmania martiniquensis (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) was detected in Sergentomyia (Neophebotomus) gemmea (Diptera: Psychodidae) and Sergentomyia (Parrotomyia) barraudi (Diptera: Psychodidae). Recently, a more elaborate study was conducted in the same areas that included sand fly species identification, screening sand flies for the presence of Leishmania DNA and blood meal analysis to identify potential reservoir hosts directed toward assessing the risk of human infection...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
André Antonio Cutolo, Fredy Galvis-Ovallos, Elisangela de Souza Neves, Fabiano O Silva, S Theodore Chester, Becky Fankhauser
BACKGROUND: Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of Leishmania infantum, the agent of canine and human visceral leishmaniosis in the Americas. Considering that the dog is the main domestic host of the parasite, repellent treatment is a measure that might contribute to the prevention of canine visceral leishmaniosis. The repellent efficacy of a single treatment of a new spot-on topical combination of fipronil and permethrin (Frontline Tri-Act®, Merial, now part of Boehringer-Ingelheim) to repel Lu...
April 16, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Yoshihisa Hashiguchi, Eduardo A Gomez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 12, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Enrique A Szelag, Juan R Rosa, Eunice A B Galati, José D Andrade Filho, Oscar D Salomón
A new species of phlebotomine sand fly is described and illustrated based on male and female specimens collected in rural and semi-urban areas of the Chaco Province, Argentina. A separation of the Cortelezzii series in two species complexes is proposed, as is a species key for its identification. The morphological characters of the new species permit its inclusion in the Cortelezzii series of genus Evandromyia, subgenus Barrettomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae). The species is named Evandromyia chacuensis sp. nov...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
T Liburkin-Dan, D Schlisselberg, R Fischer-Weinberger, P Pescher, E Inbar, M Ephros, D Rentsch, G F Späth, D Zilberstein
Leishmania are obligatory intracellular parasites that cycle between the sand fly midgut (extracellular promastigotes) and mammalian macrophage phagolysosomes (intracellular amastigotes). They have developed mechanisms of adaptation to the distinct environments of host and vector that favor utilization of both proline and alanine. LdAAP24 is the L. donovani proline-alanine transporter. It is a member of Leishmania system A that translocates neutral amino acids. Since system A is promastigote-specific, we aimed to assess whether LdAAP24 is also expressed exclusively in promastigotes...
April 12, 2018: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Feng Lei, Zhang Zhen-Ya, Wen Xiao-Dong, Xin Chao, Hu Dong-Yuan
INTRODUCTION: Concrete structures in shaft linings are apt to deteriorate prematurely and therefore prompt restoration is required. In considering this, desulphurization fly ash and machine-made tuff sand are employed to fabricate a phosphate-based rapid repairing material. METHODS: The long-term efficiency of the material is evaluated based on combined factors, so drying shrinkage, interfacial bonding strength, corrosion resistance, and combustibility of the specimens are tested and researched in this paper...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials
Vanete Thomaz-Soccol, André Luiz Gonçalves, Claudio Adriano Piechnik, Rafael Antunes Baggio, Walter Antônio Boeger, Themis Leão Buchman, Mario Sergio Michaliszyn, Demilson Rodrigues Dos Santos, Adão Celestino, José Aquino, André de Souza Leandro, Otacílio Lopes de Souza da Paz, Marcelo Limont, Alceu Bisetto, Jeffrey Jon Shaw, Zaida Estela Yadon, Oscar Daniel Salomon
Every year about 3 million tourists from around the world visit Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay´s triple border region where the Iguaçu Falls are located. Unfortunately, in recent years an increasing number of autochthonous canine and human visceral leishmaniosis (VL) cases have been reported. The parasite is Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and it is transmitted by sand flies (Phlebotominae). To assess the risk factors favorable for the establishment and spread of potential vectors the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light trap (CDC-light trap) collections were made in the Foz do Iguaçu (FI) and Santa Terezinha de Itaipu (STI) townships and along two transects between them...
April 6, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Jessica E Manning, David M Morens, Shaden Kamhawi, Jesus G Valenzuela, Matthew Memoli
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are taxonomically diverse causes of significant morbidity and mortality. In recent decades, important mosquito-borne viruses such as West Nile, chikungunya, dengue, and Zika have re-emerged and spread widely, in some cases pandemically, to cause serious public health emergencies. There are no licensed vaccines against most of these viruses, and vaccine development and use has been complicated by the number of different viruses to protect against, by subtype and strain variation, and by the inability to predict when and where outbreaks will occur...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Jovana Sadlova, Miroslav Homola, Jitka Myskova, Magda Jancarova, Petr Volf
BACKGROUND: The peritrophic matrix (PM) is an acellular chitin-containing envelope which in most blood sucking insects encloses the ingested blood meal and protects the midgut epithelium. Type I PM present in sand flies and other blood sucking batch feeders is secreted around the meal by the entire midgut in response to feeding. Here we tested the hypothesis that in Sergentomyia schwetzi the PM creates a physical barrier that prevents escape of Leishmania parasites from the endoperitrophic space...
April 4, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Pedro J Alcolea, Ana Alonso, Loren Baugh, Carolyn Paisie, Gowthaman Ramasamy, Aarthi Sekar, Aakash Sur, Maribel Jiménez, Ricardo Molina, Vicente Larraga, Peter J Myler
Leishmania infantum is responsible for human and canine leishmaniasis in the Mediterranean basin, where the major vector is Phlebotomus perniciosus. Because isolation of sufficient parasites from the sand fly gut is technically challenging, axenic cultivation of promastigotes is routinely used to obtain material for biochemical and genetic analyses. Here, we report the use of Spliced Leader RNA-seq (SL-seq) to compare transcript abundance in cultured promastigotes and those obtained from the whole midgut of the sand fly 5 days after infection...
March 30, 2018: Parasitology International
Fredy Galvis-Ovallos, Claudio Casanova, Denise Pimentel Bergamaschi, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi Galati
Zoonotic Visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) is a neglected tropical disease that in the Americas is caused by the infection of Leishmania infantum and the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) is the main parasite reservoir in urban areas. The parasite is mainly transmitted by populations of the sibling species Lutzomyia longipalpis that has been spreading in countries including Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and more recently Uruguay. Although bionomic parameters such as population survival and the duration of the gonotrophic cycle are critical in evaluating vector capacity, field studies have rarely been applied to sand fly populations...
April 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Avi Peretz, Limor Zabari, Nina Pastukh, Nir Avital, Segula Masaphy
We studied the anti-Leishmania activity of a fractionated extract from the mushroom Morchella importuna in an in vitro system. Leishmaniasis is an important infectious disease caused by a range of Leishmania species, which are multihost protozoa parasites transmitted to humans by the sand fly and infecting macrophages. Leishmaniasis is an increasing worldwide health problem, including in the Mediterranean basin. Current chemotherapy treatments are limited by their toxic effects, the need for long-term treatment, and the increasing development of resistance by the parasite cells...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
A K Mandal, Bala Ramudu Paramkusam, O P Sinha
Though the majority of research on fly ash has proved its worth as a construction material, the utility of bottom ash is yet questionable due to its generation during the pulverized combustion process. The bottom ash produced during the fluidized bed combustion (FBC) process is attracting more attention due to the novelty of coal combustion technology. But, to establish its suitability as construction material, it is necessary to characterize it thoroughly with respect to the geotechnical as well as mineralogical points of view...
April 2018: Waste Management & Research
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