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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712974/diversity-and-altitudinal-distribution-of-phlebotomine-sand-flies-diptera-psychodidae-in-visceral-leishmaniasis-endemic-areas-of-northwest-ethiopia
#1
Solomon Yared, Araya Gebreselassie, Essayas Akililu, Kebede Deribe, Meshesha Balkew, Alon Warburg, Asrat Hailu, Teshome Gebre-Michael
BACKGROUND: The Leishmaniases are caused by the protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania and are transmitted to humans by the bite of infected female phlebotomine sand flies. Both visceral and cutaneous leishmaniases are widely distributed in different parts of Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to determine the diversity and altitudinal distribution of phlebotomine sand flies from Kafta Humera to Gondar town in northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: Seven localities were selected with distinct altitudinal variations between 550m above sea level (m a...
July 13, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707235/adsorptive-removal-of-five-heavy-metals-from-water-using-blast-furnace-slag-and-fly-ash
#2
Thuy Chung Nguyen, Paripurnanda Loganathan, Tien Vinh Nguyen, Jaya Kandasamy, Ravi Naidu, Saravanamuthu Vigneswaran
Heavy metals can be serious pollutants of natural water bodies causing health risks to humans and aquatic organisms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the removal of five heavy metals from water by adsorption onto an iron industry blast furnace slag waste (point of zero charge (PZC) pH 6.0; main constituents, Ca and Fe) and a coal industry fly ash waste (PZC 3.0; main constituents, Si and Al). Batch study revealed that rising pH increased the adsorption of all metals with an abrupt increase at pH 4...
July 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705610/breeding-protocol-for-the-sand-fly-nyssomyia-neivai-diptera-psychodidae-in-laboratory-conditions
#3
Thais Marchi Goulart, Flávia Benini da Rocha Silva, Vicente Estevam Machado, Wanderson Henrique Cruz Oliveira, Camila Feitosa de Castro, Marili Villa Nova Rodrigues, Mara Cristina Pinto
The information in this protocol covers from the basic steps and material necessary to start a sand fly colony up to the specific details which are important to the success of a Nyssomyia neivai colony. The greatest problems in our colony of Ny. neivai were solved with specific care, for instance, using vermiculite and an adequate number of adults in oviposition containers; the control of fungus with the exact amount of diet for the larvae and humidity control; a second blood meal for females and control of the number of times animals are used for blood meals...
July 11, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704370/insights-into-the-sand-fly-saliva-blood-feeding-and-immune-interactions-between-sand-flies-hosts-and-leishmania
#4
REVIEW
Tereza Lestinova, Iva Rohousova, Michal Sima, Camila I de Oliveira, Petr Volf
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniases are parasitic diseases present worldwide that are transmitted to the vertebrate host by the bite of an infected sand fly during a blood feeding. Phlebotomine sand flies inoculate into the mammalian host Leishmania parasites embedded in promastigote secretory gel (PSG) with saliva, which is composed of a diverse group of molecules with pharmacological and immunomodulatory properties. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this review, we focus on 3 main aspects of sand fly salivary molecules: (1) structure and composition of salivary glands, including the properties of salivary molecules related to hemostasis and blood feeding, (2) immunomodulatory properties of salivary molecules and the diverse impacts of these molecules on leishmaniasis, ranging from disease exacerbation to vaccine development, and (3) use of salivary molecules for field applications, including monitoring host exposure to sand flies and the risk of Leishmania transmission...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695834/sand-flies-and-their-control-methods
#5
Hüseyin Çetin, Yusuf Özbel
The main aim of managing arthropod vectors that carry the disease agents is interrupting the infection cycle. Therefore, the management of the disease implies that all precautions related to all elements (i.e., human, arthropod vector, and reservoir) in the infection cycle need to be taken. There are important points that need to be considered while dealing with sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), which in many regions worldwide, particularly in tropical and subtropical areas, are vectors of diseases such as leishmaniasis and sand fly fever and are the arthropods of the infection cycle...
June 2017: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686398/-leishmaniasis-an-infection-of-travellers-and-migrants
#6
Lena Jessen, Benoît Bard, Xavier Grenon, Frank Bally
Leishmaniasis is an infection of the tropical to temperate zone, occasionally imported in our regions by travellers and migrants. Leishmania parasites are transmitted by the sting of a sand fly, Phlebotomus or Lutzomyia, and causes two clinical syndromes with either cutaneous, also mucosal, or disseminated involvement. Clinical suspicion needs a confirmation by the detection of the parasite. The treatment is adapted to the patient, the clinical presentation, the region, the species and the availability. Cutaneous leishmaniasis can be observed only or treated by topical or systemic regimens...
October 12, 2016: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680146/skin-parasite-landscape-determines-host-infectiousness-in-visceral-leishmaniasis
#7
Johannes S P Doehl, Zoe Bright, Shoumit Dey, Helen Davies, John Magson, Najmeeyah Brown, Audrey Romano, Jane E Dalton, Ana I Pinto, Jon W Pitchford, Paul M Kaye
Increasing evidence suggests that the infectiousness of patients for the sand fly vector of visceral leishmaniasis is linked to parasites found in the skin. Using a murine model that supports extensive skin infection with Leishmania donovani, spatial analyses at macro-(quantitative PCR) and micro-(confocal microscopy) scales indicate that parasite distribution is markedly skewed. Mathematical models accounting for this heterogeneity demonstrate that while a patchy distribution reduces the expected number of sand flies acquiring parasites, it increases the infection load for sand flies feeding on a patch, increasing their potential for onward transmission...
July 5, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653450/environmental-risk-modeling-and-potential-sand-fly-vectors-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-chitral-district-a-leishmanial-focal-point-of-mount-tirchmir-pakistan
#8
Farrah Zaidi, Syeda Hira Fatima, Tehmina Jan, Mehreen Fatima, Asad Ali, Muhammad Khisroon, Muhammad Adnan, Syed Basit Rasheed
OBJECTIVE: To provide baseline information about suspected vectors and the incidence, distribution and an active zone of transmission for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) in Chitral, Pakistan using GIS tools; and to investigate the role of environmental factors in the disease dynamics. METHOD: Two surveys in 2014 and 2016 as a basis for chloropleth and environmental risk mapping. RESULTS: 769 captured specimens yielded 18 Phlebotomus and 4 Sergentomyia species including two potential vectors of CL, i...
June 27, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649370/leishmaniasis-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Edoardo Torres-Guerrero, Marco Romano Quintanilla-Cedillo, Julieta Ruiz-Esmenjaud, Roberto Arenas
Leishmaniasis is caused by an intracellular parasite transmitted to humans by the bite of a sand fly. It is endemic in Asia, Africa, the Americas, and the Mediterranean region. Worldwide, 1.5 to 2 million new cases occur each year, 350 million are at risk of acquiring the disease, and leishmaniasis causes 70,000 deaths per year. Clinical features depend on the species of Leishmania involved and the immune response of the host. Manifestations range from the localized cutaneous to the visceral form with potentially fatal outcomes...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647427/first-molecular-detection-of-leishmania-infantum-in-sergentomyia-minuta-diptera-psychodidae-in-alentejo-southern-portugal
#10
S Pereira, D Pita-Pereira, T Araujo-Pereira, C Britto, T Costa-Rego, J Ferrolho, M Vilhena, E F Rangel, M L Vilela, M O Afonso
Protozoan parasites, such as Leishmania spp., are the causative agents of many insect-borne infectious diseases with medical and veterinary importance. Leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania spp., is transmitted by female phlebotomine sand flies. In the Alentejo region of Portugal, located at the north of Algarve, cases of human and canine leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum have been notified. However, no recent studies regarding the sand fly fauna in the region are available. We therefore aimed to explore the phlebotomine sand fly species found in both, Évora and Beja Districts, to gain an insight about the leishmaniasis epidemiology in these areas...
June 21, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647347/differential-activation-of-human-keratinocytes-by-leishmania-spp-causing-localized-or-disseminated-disease
#11
Breanna M Scorza, Mark A Wacker, Kelly Messingham, Peter Kim, Aloysius Klingelhutz, Janet Fairley, Mary E Wilson
All Leishmania spp. parasites are introduced into mammalian skin through a sand fly bite, but different species cause distinct clinical outcomes. Mouse studies suggest early responses are critical determinants of subsequent adaptive immunity in leishmaniasis, yet few studies address the role of keratinocytes, the most abundant cell in the epidermis. We hypothesized Leishmania infection causes keratinocytes to produce immunomodulatory factors that influence the outcome of infection. Incubation of primary or immortalized human keratinocytes with Leishmania infantum or Leishmania major, which cause visceral or cutaneous leishmaniasis, respectively, elicited dramatically different responses...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645315/role-of-inhibitors-of-serine-peptidases-in-protecting-leishmania-donovani-against-the-hydrolytic-peptidases-of-sand-fly-midgut
#12
Sudha Verma, Sushmita Das, Abhishek Mandal, Md Yousuf Ansari, Sujata Kumari, Rani Mansuri, Ajay Kumar, Ruby Singh, Savita Saini, Kumar Abhishek, Vijay Kumar, Ganesh Chandra Sahoo, Pradeep Das
BACKGROUND: In vector-borne diseases such as leishmaniasis, the sand fly midgut is considered to be an important site for vector-parasite interaction. Digestive enzymes including serine peptidases such as trypsin and chymotrypsin, which are secreted in the midgut are one of the obstacles for Leishmania in establishing a successful infection. The presence of some natural inhibitors of serine peptidases (ISPs) has recently been reported in Leishmania. In the present study, we deciphered the role of these ISPs in the survival of Leishmania donovani in the hostile sand fly midgut environment...
June 23, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629171/cutaneous-manifestations-of-human-and-murine-leishmaniasis
#13
REVIEW
Breanna M Scorza, Edgar M Carvalho, Mary E Wilson
The leishmaniases are diseases caused by pathogenic protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Infections are initiated when a sand fly vector inoculates Leishmania parasites into the skin of a mammalian host. Leishmania causes a spectrum of inflammatory cutaneous disease manifestations. The type of cutaneous pathology is determined in part by the infecting Leishmania species, but also by a combination of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory host immune response factors resulting in different clinical outcomes...
June 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628627/the-current-status-of-phlebotomine-sand-flies-in-albania-and-incrimination-of-phlebotomus-neglectus-diptera-psychodidae-as-the-main-vector-of-leishmania-infantum
#14
Enkelejda Velo, Gioia Bongiorno, Perparim Kadriaj, Teita Myrseli, James Crilly, Aldin Lika, Kujtim Mersini, Trentina Di Muccio, Silvia Bino, Marina Gramiccia, Luigi Gradoni, Michele Maroli
The incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Albania is higher than in other countries of southern Europe, however the role of local sand fly species in the transmission of Leishmania infantum was not addressed conclusively. In 2006, a country-wide collection of sand flies performed in 14 sites selected based on recent occurrence of VL cases showed that Phlebotomus neglectus was by far the most prevalent species (95.6%). Furthermore, 15% of pools made from 422 P. neglectus females tested positive for Leishmania sp...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626451/dependency-of-b-1-cells-in-the-maintenance-of-splenic-interleukin-10-producing-cells-and-impairment-of-macrophage-resistance-in-visceral-leishmaniasis
#15
Angélica Fernandes Arcanjo, Dirlei Nico, Gabriellen Menezes Migliani de Castro, Yasmin da Silva Fontes, Paula Saltarelli, Debora Decote-Ricardo, Marise P Nunes, Antônio Ferreira-Pereira, Clarisa B Palatnik-de-Sousa, Célio G Freire-de-Lima, Alexandre Morrot
Visceral leishmaniasis is a neglected disease caused by Leishmania protozoa parasites transmitted by infected sand fly vectors. This disease represents the second in mortality among tropical infections and is associated to a profound immunosuppression state of the host. The hallmark of this infection-induced host immunodeviation is the characteristic high levels of the regulatory interleukin-10 (IL-10) cytokine. In the present study, we investigated the role of B-1 cells in the maintenance of splenic IL-10 levels that could interfere with resistance to parasite infection...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609907/morphology-variation-of-lutzomyia-cruciata-eggs-diptera-psychodidae-phlebotominae-in-southern-mexico
#16
Ana Celia Montes DE Oca-Aguilar, Oscar Mikery-Pacheco, Alfredo Castillo, Eduardo A Rebollar-Téllez, Peter M Piermarini, Sergio Ibáñez-Bernal
The sand fly Lutzomyia cruciata has been associated with the transmission of Leishmania mexicana to humans in Mexico. This species has a wide distribution in Mexico occupying different microhabitats and environments. In this work comparisons of the egg exochorion of Lu. cruciata from different physiographic areas are presented. Study sites are from different states of southern Mexico. Exochorion analysis was carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results show differences in the exochorionic pattern among samples from Veracruz (AVER), Yucatán (HOYU) and Chiapas (TACH)...
May 2, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605988/effect-of-curing-time-on-selected-properties-of-soil-stabilized-with-fly-ash-marble-dust-and-waste-sand-for-road-sub-base-materials
#17
Seyhan Firat, Jamal M Khatib, Gulgun Yilmaz, A T Comert
The properties of sub-base filling materials in highway construction are essential, as they can determine the performance of the road in service. Normally, the existing materials are removed and replaced with new materials that have adequate load-bearing capacity. Rising environmental concern and new environmental legislations have made construction professionals consider other methods. These methods include stabilizing the existing materials with other additives to improve their performance. Additives can be waste materials generated by different industries...
June 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601528/novel-areas-for-prevention-and-control-of-canine-leishmaniosis
#18
REVIEW
Guadalupe Miró, Christine Petersen, Luís Cardoso, Patrick Bourdeau, Gad Baneth, Laia Solano-Gallego, Maria Grazia Pennisi, Lluís Ferrer, Gaetano Oliva
There have been multiple recent advances regarding tools for the control and prevention of canine leishmaniosis (CanL), including new preventative vaccines. In this review, these advances are evaluated based on control targets, including vector and parasite. Leishvet recommendations are provided for control practices based on the dog's risk of infection. New topical insecticide formulations have proven to be effective in preventing sand fly bites, and subsequently infection. Parasite control occurs through chemotherapeutic or immunologic means, which decrease or prevent transmission to other animals, including humans...
June 7, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595622/the-evolution-of-trypanosomatid-taxonomy
#19
REVIEW
Alexa Kaufer, John Ellis, Damien Stark, Joel Barratt
Trypanosomatids are protozoan parasites of the class Kinetoplastida predominately restricted to invertebrate hosts (i.e. possess a monoxenous life-cycle). However, several genera are pathogenic to humans, animals and plants, and have an invertebrate vector that facilitates their transmission (i.e. possess a dixenous life-cycle). Phytomonas is one dixenous genus that includes several plant pathogens transmitted by phytophagous insects. Trypanosoma and Leishmania are dixenous genera that infect vertebrates, including humans, and are transmitted by hematophagous invertebrates...
June 8, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586364/intracellular-zinc-flux-causes-reactive-oxygen-species-mediated-mitochondrial-dysfunction-leading-to-cell-death-in-leishmania-donovani
#20
Anjali Kumari, Krishn Pratap Singh, Abhishek Mandal, Ranjeet Kumar Paswan, Preeti Sinha, Pradeep Das, Vahab Ali, Sanjiva Bimal, Chandra Shekhar Lal
Leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania parasite is a global threat to public health and one of the most neglected tropical diseases. Therefore, the discovery of novel drug targets and effective drug is a major challenge and an important goal. Leishmania is an obligate intracellular parasite that alternates between sand fly and human host. To survive and establish infections, Leishmania parasites scavenge and internalize nutrients from the host. Nevertheless, host cells presents mechanism like nutrient restriction to inhibit microbial growth and control infection...
2017: PloS One
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