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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629171/cutaneous-manifestations-of-human-and-murine-leishmaniasis
#1
REVIEW
Breanna M Scorza, Edgar M Carvalho, Mary E Wilson
The leishmaniases are diseases caused by pathogenic protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Infections are initiated when a sand fly vector inoculates Leishmania parasites into the skin of a mammalian host. Leishmania causes a spectrum of inflammatory cutaneous disease manifestations. The type of cutaneous pathology is determined in part by the infecting Leishmania species, but also by a combination of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory host immune response factors resulting in different clinical outcomes...
June 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628627/the-current-status-of-phlebotomine-sand-flies-in-albania-and-incrimination-of-phlebotomus-neglectus-diptera-psychodidae-as-the-main-vector-of-leishmania-infantum
#2
Enkelejda Velo, Gioia Bongiorno, Perparim Kadriaj, Teita Myrseli, James Crilly, Aldin Lika, Kujtim Mersini, Trentina Di Muccio, Silvia Bino, Marina Gramiccia, Luigi Gradoni, Michele Maroli
The incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Albania is higher than in other countries of southern Europe, however the role of local sand fly species in the transmission of Leishmania infantum was not addressed conclusively. In 2006, a country-wide collection of sand flies performed in 14 sites selected based on recent occurrence of VL cases showed that Phlebotomus neglectus was by far the most prevalent species (95.6%). Furthermore, 15% of pools made from 422 P. neglectus females tested positive for Leishmania sp...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626451/dependency-of-b-1-cells-in-the-maintenance-of-splenic-interleukin-10-producing-cells-and-impairment-of-macrophage-resistance-in-visceral-leishmaniasis
#3
Angélica Fernandes Arcanjo, Dirlei Nico, Gabriellen Menezes Migliani de Castro, Yasmin da Silva Fontes, Paula Saltarelli, Debora Decote-Ricardo, Marise P Nunes, Antônio Ferreira-Pereira, Clarisa B Palatnik-de-Sousa, Célio G Freire-de-Lima, Alexandre Morrot
Visceral leishmaniasis is a neglected disease caused by Leishmania protozoa parasites transmitted by infected sand fly vectors. This disease represents the second in mortality among tropical infections and is associated to a profound immunosuppression state of the host. The hallmark of this infection-induced host immunodeviation is the characteristic high levels of the regulatory interleukin-10 (IL-10) cytokine. In the present study, we investigated the role of B-1 cells in the maintenance of splenic IL-10 levels that could interfere with resistance to parasite infection...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609907/morphology-variation-of-lutzomyia-cruciata-eggs-diptera-psychodidae-phlebotominae-in-southern-mexico
#4
Ana Celia Montes DE Oca-Aguilar, Oscar Mikery-Pacheco, Alfredo Castillo, Eduardo A Rebollar-Téllez, Peter M Piermarini, Sergio Ibáñez-Bernal
The sand fly Lutzomyia cruciata has been associated with the transmission of Leishmania mexicana to humans in Mexico. This species has a wide distribution in Mexico occupying different microhabitats and environments. In this work comparisons of the egg exochorion of Lu. cruciata from different physiographic areas are presented. Study sites are from different states of southern Mexico. Exochorion analysis was carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results show differences in the exochorionic pattern among samples from Veracruz (AVER), Yucatán (HOYU) and Chiapas (TACH)...
May 2, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605988/effect-of-curing-time-on-selected-properties-of-soil-stabilized-with-fly-ash-marble-dust-and-waste-sand-for-road-sub-base-materials
#5
Seyhan Firat, Jamal M Khatib, Gulgun Yilmaz, A T Comert
The properties of sub-base filling materials in highway construction are essential, as they can determine the performance of the road in service. Normally, the existing materials are removed and replaced with new materials that have adequate load-bearing capacity. Rising environmental concern and new environmental legislations have made construction professionals consider other methods. These methods include stabilizing the existing materials with other additives to improve their performance. Additives can be waste materials generated by different industries...
June 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601528/novel-areas-for-prevention-and-control-of-canine-leishmaniosis
#6
REVIEW
Guadalupe Miró, Christine Petersen, Luís Cardoso, Patrick Bourdeau, Gad Baneth, Laia Solano-Gallego, Maria Grazia Pennisi, Lluís Ferrer, Gaetano Oliva
There have been multiple recent advances regarding tools for the control and prevention of canine leishmaniosis (CanL), including new preventative vaccines. In this review, these advances are evaluated based on control targets, including vector and parasite. Leishvet recommendations are provided for control practices based on the dog's risk of infection. New topical insecticide formulations have proven to be effective in preventing sand fly bites, and subsequently infection. Parasite control occurs through chemotherapeutic or immunologic means, which decrease or prevent transmission to other animals, including humans...
June 7, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595622/the-evolution-of-trypanosomatid-taxonomy
#7
REVIEW
Alexa Kaufer, John Ellis, Damien Stark, Joel Barratt
Trypanosomatids are protozoan parasites of the class Kinetoplastida predominately restricted to invertebrate hosts (i.e. possess a monoxenous life-cycle). However, several genera are pathogenic to humans, animals and plants, and have an invertebrate vector that facilitates their transmission (i.e. possess a dixenous life-cycle). Phytomonas is one dixenous genus that includes several plant pathogens transmitted by phytophagous insects. Trypanosoma and Leishmania are dixenous genera that infect vertebrates, including humans, and are transmitted by hematophagous invertebrates...
June 8, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586364/intracellular-zinc-flux-causes-reactive-oxygen-species-mediated-mitochondrial-dysfunction-leading-to-cell-death-in-leishmania-donovani
#8
Anjali Kumari, Krishn Pratap Singh, Abhishek Mandal, Ranjeet Kumar Paswan, Preeti Sinha, Pradeep Das, Vahab Ali, Sanjiva Bimal, Chandra Shekhar Lal
Leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania parasite is a global threat to public health and one of the most neglected tropical diseases. Therefore, the discovery of novel drug targets and effective drug is a major challenge and an important goal. Leishmania is an obligate intracellular parasite that alternates between sand fly and human host. To survive and establish infections, Leishmania parasites scavenge and internalize nutrients from the host. Nevertheless, host cells presents mechanism like nutrient restriction to inhibit microbial growth and control infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580630/the-midgut-microbiota-plays-an-essential-role-in-sand-fly-vector-competence-for-leishmania-major
#9
Isabelle Louradour, Carolina Cunha Monteiro, Ehud Inbar, Kashinath Ghosh, Richard Merkhofer, Phillip Lawyer, Andrea Paun, Margery Smelkinson, Nagila Secundino, Michael Lewis, Dinesh Erram, Ludek Zurek, David Sacks
For many arthropod vectors, the diverse bacteria and fungi that inhabit the gut can negatively impact pathogen colonization. Our attempts to exploit antibiotic treatment of colonized Phlebotomus duboscqi sand flies in order to improve their vector competency for Leishmania major resulted instead in flies that were refractory to the development of transmissible infections due to the inability of the parasite to survive and to colonize the anterior midgut with infective, metacyclic stage promastigotes. The parasite survival and development defect could be overcome by feeding the flies on different symbiont bacteria but not by feeding them on bacterial supernatants or replete medium...
June 5, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570640/aspects-of-the-ecology-of-phlebotomine-sand-flies-diptera-psychodidae-in-the-private-natural-heritage-reserve-sanctuary-cara%C3%A3-a
#10
Gabriel Barbosa Tonelli, Aline Tanure, Felipe Dutra Rêgo, Gustavo Mayr de Lima Carvalho, Taynãna César Simões, José Dilermando Andrade Filho
Leishmaniases are a set of parasitic diseases of zoonotic origin that are transmitted by sandfly vectors in wild, rural and urban environments. Their distribution is dependent not only the distribution of vectors, but also on the distribution of mammalian reservoirs. Only by understanding the transmission cycle of these diseases, such as knowing the participating vectors and reservoirs, can one can understand the epidemiology and ecological relationships of leishmaniases. Ecotourism has become an important area of economic growth in Brazil...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567110/indian-visceral-leishmaniasis-with-extensive-lymphadenopathy-an-unusual-presentation-a-case-report-with-literature-review
#11
Poojan Agarwal, Vijay Kumar, Manju Kaushal, Manju Kumari, Arvind Chaudhary
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), also known as kala-azar, is a life-threatening systemic disease caused by the obligate intracellular protozoan, Leishmania, and transmitted to humans by the female phlebotomine sand fly (Phlebotomus argentipes). The disease is fatal, if left untreated. We report a case of a patient clinically suspected of disseminated tuberculosis, but fine needle aspiration cytology of cervical and axillary lymph nodes yielded a diagnosis of leishmaniasis. Diagnosis of VL was challenging as the disease closely mimicked tuberculosis in the setting of extensive lymphadenopathy including conglomerate of mesenteric lymph nodes, on and off fever, and granulomatous lymphadenitis on aspiration...
2017: CytoJournal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558760/ecological-parameters-of-the-s-9-methylgermacrene-b-population-of-the-lutzomyia-longipalpis-complex-in-a-visceral-leishmaniasis-area-in-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-state-brazil
#12
Fredy Galvis-Ovallos, Claudio Casanova, Anaiá da Paixão Sevá, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi Galati
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important public health challenge in Brazil because of the high number of human and canine cases reported annually. Leishmania infantum is the etiological agent of VL and Lutzomyia longipalpis is its main vector. However, evidence suggests that this taxon constitutes a species complex. In Sao Paulo state, there are two populations of Lu. longipalpis, each secreting distinct pheromones, (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B and Cembrene 1; both have been associated with different patterns of VL transmission...
May 30, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555473/epidemiological-aspects-and-spatial-distribution-of-human-and-canine-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-an-endemic-area-in-northeastern-brazil
#13
Roseane Campos, Márcio Santos, Gabriel Tunon, Luana Cunha, Lucas Magalhães, Juliana Moraes, Danielle Ramalho, Sanmy Lima, José Antônio Pacheco, Michael Lipscomb, Amélia Ribeiro de Jesus, Roque Pacheco de Almeida
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a systemic disease endemic in tropical countries and transmitted through sand flies. In particular, Canis familiaris (or domesticated dogs) are believed to be a major urban reservoir for the parasite causing the disease Leishmania. The average number of human VL cases was 58 per year in the state of Sergipe. The city of Aracaju, capital of Sergipe in Northeastern Brazil, had 159 cases of VL in humans. Correlatively, the percentage of serologically positive dogs for leishmaniasis increased from 4...
May 11, 2017: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536289/modulation-of-aneuploidy-in-leishmania-donovani-during-adaptation-to-different-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-environments-and-its-impact-on-gene-expression
#14
F Dumetz, H Imamura, M Sanders, V Seblova, J Myskova, P Pescher, M Vanaerschot, C J Meehan, B Cuypers, G De Muylder, G F Späth, G Bussotti, J R Vermeesch, M Berriman, J A Cotton, P Volf, J C Dujardin, M A Domagalska
Aneuploidy is usually deleterious in multicellular organisms but appears to be tolerated and potentially beneficial in unicellular organisms, including pathogens. Leishmania, a major protozoan parasite, is emerging as a new model for aneuploidy, since in vitro-cultivated strains are highly aneuploid, with interstrain diversity and intrastrain mosaicism. The alternation of two life stages in different environments (extracellular promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes) offers a unique opportunity to study the impact of environment on aneuploidy and gene expression...
May 23, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505264/geographical-information-systems-in-determination-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-spatial-risk-level-based-on-distribution-of-vector-species-in-imamoglu-province-adana
#15
Hakan Kavur, Ozan Artun
The Imamoglu district located in the southeast of Adana province in Turkey is an endemic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) owing to dominancy of Phlebotomus tobbi, which is a probable vector of Leishmania infantum. About 11.26% of CL cases reported each year are from Imamoglu, Adana, and between 2008 and 2015, 223 cases of CL were reported. Leishmania infantum, which may be transmitted by P. tobbi, Phlebotomus neglectus/syriacus, and Phlebotomus perfiliewi, is referred as leishmaniasis factor in Adana. Thus, the aim of this study was to map the risk areas for each sand fly species using remote sensing images based on environmental factors and geographical characteristics...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502644/leishmania-v-braziliensis-infecting-bats-from-pantanal-wetland-brazil-first-records-for-platyrrhinus-lineatus-and-artibeus-planirostris
#16
Eduardo de Castro Ferreira, Agnes Antônio Sampaio Pereira, Maurício Silveira, Carina Margonari, Glaucia Elisete Barbosa Marcon, Adriana de Oliveira França, Ludiele Souza Castro, Marcelo Oscar Bordignon, Erich Fischer, Walfrido Moraes Tomas, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros Dorval, Célia Maria Ferreira Gontijo
In the New World genus Leishmania parasites are etiological agents of neglected zoonoses known as leishmaniasis. Its epidemiology is very complex due to the participation of several species of sand fly vectors and mammalian hosts, and man is an accidental host. Control is very difficult because of the different epidemiological patterns of transmission observed. Studies about Leishmania spp. infection in bats are so scarce, which represents a large gap in knowledge about the role of these animals in the transmission cycle of these pathogens, especially when considering that Chiroptera is one of the most abundant and diverse orders among mammals...
May 11, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472733/in-vitro-inhibition-of-leishmania-attachment-to-sandfly-midguts-and-ll-5-cells-by-divalent-metal-chelators-anti-gp63-and-phosphoglycans
#17
Rodrigo Pedro Soares, Ellen Cristina Félix Altoé, Vítor Ennes-Vidal, Simone M da Costa, Elizabeth Ferreira Rangel, Nataly Araújo de Souza, Vanderlei Campos da Silva, Petr Volf, Claudia Masini d'Avila-Levy
Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania infantum are the causative agents of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, respectively. Several aspects of the vector-parasite interaction involving gp63 and phosphoglycans have been individually assayed in different studies. However, their role under the same experimental conditions was not studied yet. Here, the roles of divalent metal chelators, anti-gp63 antibodies and purified type I phosphoglycans (PGs) were evaluated during in vitro parasite attachment to the midgut of the vector...
July 2017: Protist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465349/genetic-metabolic-complementation-establishes-a-requirement-for-gdp-fucose-in-leishmania
#18
Hongjie Guo, Natalia M Novozhilova, Giulia Bandini, Salvatore J Turco, Michael A J Ferguson, Stephen M Beverley
To survive in its sand fly vector, the trypanosomatid protozoan parasite Leishmania first attaches to the midgut to avoid excretion, but eventually it must detach for transmission by the next bite. In Leishmania major strain Friedlin, this is controlled by modifications of the stage-specific adhesin lipophosphoglycan (LPG). During differentiation to infective metacyclics, D-arabinopyranose (D-Arap) caps the LPG side-chain galactose residues, blocking interaction with the midgut lectin PpGalec, thereby leading to parasite detachment and transmission...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456690/standardization-of-dna-extraction-from-sand-flies-application-to-genotyping-by-next-generation-sequencing
#19
Aline Etelvina Casaril, Liliane Prado de Oliveira, Diego Peres Alonso, Everton Falcão de Oliveira, Suellem Petilim Gomes Barrios, Jucelei de Oliveira Moura Infran, Wagner de Souza Fernandes, Elisa Teruya Oshiro, Alda Maria Teixeira Ferreira, Paulo Eduardo Martins Ribolla, Alessandra Gutierrez de Oliveira
Standardization of the methods for extraction of DNA from sand flies is essential for obtaining high efficiency during subsequent molecular analyses, such as the new sequencing methods. Information obtained using these methods may contribute substantially to taxonomic, evolutionary, and eco-epidemiological studies. The aim of the present study was to standardize and compare two methods for the extraction of genomic DNA from sand flies for obtaining DNA in sufficient quantities for next-generation sequencing...
June 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455239/minimally-invasive-microbiopsies-a-novel-sampling-method-for-identifying-asymptomatic-potentially-infectious-carriers-of-leishmania-donovani
#20
Oscar David Kirstein, Ibrahim Abbasi, Ben Zion Horwitz, Laura Skrip, Asrat Hailu, Charles Jaffe, Lynlee L Li, Tarl W Prow, Alon Warburg
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a potentially lethal, sand fly-borne disease caused by protozoan parasites belonging to the Leishmania donovani species complex. There are several adequate methods for diagnosing VL, but the majority of infected individuals remain asymptomatic, comprising potential parasite reservoirs for transmission of the disease. The gold standard for assessing host infectiousness to biting vector insects is xenodiagnosis (i.e. scoring infection rates among insectary-reared insects that had fed on humans suspected of being infected)...
April 26, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
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