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Sand fly

Iva Rohoušová, Dalit Talmi-Frank, Michaela Vlková, Tatiana Spitzová, Koranit Rishpon, Charles L Jaffe, Petr Volf, Gad Baneth, Moshe Efrat
Leishmania spp. are medically important unicellular parasites transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies. The World Health Organization recently highlighted the importance of reliable diagnostic tools for leishmaniasis. Our study of human infection was conducted in two endemic foci of Leishmania tropica in the Galilee region, northern Israel. Elevated anti-Leishmania antibodies were present in the majority (78.6%) of L. tropica-PCR positive individuals. Moreover, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed high sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values (ranging between 73% and 79%), thus fulfilling the basic requirement for future development of a serodiagnostic and screening tool...
October 23, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Jérôme Depaquit, Bernard Pesson, Denis Augot, James Gordon Campbell Hamilton, Phillip Lawyer, Nicole Léger, Phillip Lawyer, Mireille Killick-Kendrick, Tobin Rowland, Edgar Rowton, Petr Volf
Laboratory colonies of phlebotomine sand flies are necessary for experimental study of their biology, behaviour and mutual relations with disease agents and for testing new methods of vector control. They are indispensable in genetic studies and controlled observations on the physiology and behaviour of sand flies, neglected subjects of high priority. Colonies are of particular value for screening insecticides. Colonized sand flies are used as live vector models in a diverse array of research projects, including xenodiagnosis, that are directed toward control of leishmaniasis and other sand fly-associated diseases...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
Aparna Jadhav, RadhaCharan Dash, Raj Hirwani, Malik Abdin
Despite the wide medical importance of serine protease inhibitors, many of kazal type proteins are still to be explored. These thrombin inhibiting proteins are found in the digestive system of hematophagous organisms mainly Arthropods. We studied one of such protein i.e. Kazal type-1 protein from sand-fly Phlebotomus papatasi as its structure and interaction with thrombin is unclear. Initially, Dipetalin a kazal-follistasin domain protein was run through PSI-BLAST to retrieve related sequences. Using this set of sequence a phylogenetic tree was constructed, which identified a distantly related kazal type-1 protein...
November 9, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
C Muñoz, J Risueño, A Yilmaz, P Pérez-Cutillas, E Goyena, M Ortuño, L J Bernal, J Ortiz, B Alten, E Berriatua
The spatial and temporal distribution of Phlebotomus perniciosus (Diptera: Psychodidae) (Newstead, 1911), the sand fly vector of pathogens of public and animal health importance, was investigated in a high sand fly density rural area in Spain using light-attraction and sticky-interception traps. Traps were placed inside animal buildings and outside at increasing distance from animals. A total of 8506 sand flies were collected, 87% with light traps. Species frequency differed between trap types. The abundance of P...
November 7, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Victor Zorrilla, Maxy B De Los Santos, Liz Espada, Rocío Del Pilar Santos, Roberto Fernandez, Albino Urquia, Craig A Stoops, Sarah-Blythe Ballard, Andres G Lescano, Gissella M Vásquez, Hugo O Valdivia
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an important health problem in the New World affecting civilian and military populations that are frequently exposed in endemic settings. The Peruvian region of Madre de Dios located near the border with Brazil is one of the most endemic CL regions in South America with more than 4,451 reported cases between 2010 and 2015 according to the Peruvian epidemiology directorate. However, little is known regarding the diversity and distribution of sand fly vectors in this region...
November 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Najoua Haouas, Omar Amer, Fawwaz Freih Alshammri, Shorooq Al-Shammari, Latifa Remadi, Ibrahim Ashankyty
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a vector-borne disease transmitted by the bite of an infected sand fly. This disease is highly prevalent in Saudi Arabia where Leishmania major and L. tropica are the etiological agents. In the region of Hail, northwestern of Saudi Arabia, the incidence is about 183 cases/year. However, the epidemiology of the disease in this area is not well understood. Thus, an epidemiological survey was conducted in 2015-2016 to identify the circulating parasite and the sand fly fauna in the region of Hail...
November 2, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Mehmet Karakuş, Burçin Karabey, Şaban Orçun Kalkan, Güven Özdemir, Gizem Oğuz, Özge Erişöz Kasap, Bülent Alten, Seray Töz, Yusuf Özbel
Phlebotomine sand flies are hematophagous insects that harbor bacterial, viral and parasitic agents like Bartonella sp., Phleboviruses and Leishmania spp., respectively. There are few reports on bacterial microbiota of Phlebotomus (P.) papatasi but no data available for natural populations of Turkey, where leishmaniasis is endemic. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the midgut bacterial flora of different populations of P. papatasi. Sand flies were collected from different towns (Karaburun, Urla, Ayvacik and Başçayır) located in the western part of Turkey...
November 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
William H Wheat, Erik N Arthun, John S Spencer, Daniel P Regan, Richard G Titus, Steven W Dow
Leishmaniasis is an arthropod vectored disease causing considerable human morbidity and mortality. Vaccination remains the most realistic and practical means to interrupt the growing number and diversity of sand fly vectors and reservoirs of Leishmania. Since transmission of Leishmania is achieved exclusively by sand fly vectors via immune-modulating salivary substances, conventional vaccination requiring an unmodified host immune response for success are potentially destined to fail unless immunomodulatory factors are somehow neutralized...
October 24, 2017: Vaccine
Juliana Ide Aoki, Sandra Marcia Muxel, Ricardo Andrade Zampieri, Maria Fernanda Laranjeira-Silva, Karl Erik Müller, Audun Helge Nerland, Lucile Maria Floeter-Winter
BACKGROUND: Leishmania is a protozoan parasite that alternates its life cycle between the sand-fly vector and the mammalian host. This alternation involves environmental changes and leads the parasite to dynamic modifications in morphology, metabolism, cellular signaling and regulation of gene expression to allow for a rapid adaptation to new conditions. The L-arginine pathway in L. amazonensis is important during the parasite life cycle and interferes in the establishment and maintenance of the infection in mammalian macrophages...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Aymen Tlili, Soumaya Marzouki, Emna Chabaane, Maha Abdeladhim, Wafa Kammoun-Rebai, Rahma Sakkouhi, Nabil Belhadj Hmida, Fabiano Oliveira, Shaden Kamhawi, Hechmi Louzir, Jesus G Valenzuela, Melika Ben Ahmed
Nowadays, there is no available vaccine for human leishmaniasis. Animal experiments demonstrate that pre-exposure to sand fly saliva confers protection against leishmaniasis. Our preceding work in humans indicates that Phlebotomus (P) papatasi saliva, induce the production of IL-10 by CD8+ T lymphocytes. The neutralization of IL-10 enhanced the activation of a T cells CD4+ population producing IFN-γ. Herein, we used a biochemical and functional genomics approach to identify the sand fly salivary components that are responsible for the activation of the Th1 immune response in humans therefore constituting potential vaccine candidates against leishmaniasis...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Orin Courtenay, Nathan C Peters, Matthew E Rogers, Caryn Bern
Quantitation of the nonlinear heterogeneities in Leishmania parasites, sand fly vectors, and mammalian host relationships provides insights to better understand leishmanial transmission epidemiology towards improving its control. The parasite manipulates the sand fly via production of promastigote secretory gel (PSG), leading to the "blocked sand fly" phenotype, persistent feeding attempts, and feeding on multiple hosts. PSG is injected into the mammalian host with the parasite and promotes the establishment of infection...
October 2017: PLoS Pathogens
L Posada-López, F Galvis-Ovallos, E A B Galati
A new species of phlebotomine sand fly, Trichophoromyia velezbernali sp. n. Posada-López, Galvis & Galati, from Colombian Amazonia is described with illustrations and images of male and female adults.
October 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
R E Godoy, A E F L Cunha, E A B Galati
Brazil presents great sand fly species diversity, with new species constantly being described, as new areas are surveyed to monitor sand flies. In captures undertaken in Porto Velho, Rondônia state-Brazil, a new species, Evandromyia (Aldamyia) piperiformissp. nov. (Godoy, Cunha & Galati 2017), was found and is here described. Both sexes of this new species may be distinguished from those of the Aldamyia subgenus through morphometric and morphological characters. Further, we present an identification key for the subgenus Aldamyia...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
Jurema M Cunha, Melissa Abbehusen, Martha Suarez, Jesus Valenzuela, Clarissa R Teixeira, Cláudia I Brodskyn
Leishmania is transmitted in the presence of sand fly saliva. Protective immunity generated by saliva has encouraged identification of a vector salivary-based vaccine. Previous studies have shown that immunization with LJM11, a salivary protein from Lutzomyia longipalpis, is able to induce a Th1 immune response and protect mice against bites of Leishmania major-infected Lutzomyia longipalpis. Here, we further investigate if immunization with LJM11 recombinant protein is able to confer cross-protection against infection with Leishmania braziliensis associated with salivary gland sonicate (SGS) from Lutzomyia intermedia or Lu...
October 14, 2017: Acta Tropica
Metin Pekağırbaş, Mehmet Karakuş, Suha Kenan Arserim, Salih Doğan, Hasan Eren, Seray Töz, Yusuf Özbel
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to report the presence of the parasitic mite Eustigmaeus johnstoni Zhang - Gerson (E. johnstoni) on the sand fly species Phlebotomus papatasi (P. papatasi) collected in Aydın province, Turkey. METHODS: Sand flies were collected from nature by CDC light traps in Nazilli town in Aydın province and were separated according to collection localities. Head and genital areas were cut and mounted for species identification, and midgut contents were checked for the possible presence of Leishmania parasites under a light microscope...
September 2017: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
Kamel Eddine Benallal, Razika Benikhlef, Rafik Garni, Brahim Gassen, Jean-Pierre Dedet, Zoubir Harrat
BACKGROUND: Phlebotomus perniciosus and Phlebotomus longicuspis are two phlebotomine sand fly species morphologically similar and differing in males only by the shape of the copulatory valves which are bifurcated in P. perniciosus, tip long and tapered in P. longicuspis. METHODS: A count of the median coxite setae was carried out on 208 specimens from the collections of Dedet and of Parrot, identified previously as P. longicuspis and on 38 P. perniciosus male sand flies captured during the year 2012-2013, in order to seek the presence of atypical P...
March 2017: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
Mehmet Karakus, Bayram Gocmen, Yusuf Özbel
BACKGROUND: In Turkey, vector control programs are mainly based on indoor residual spraying with pyrethroids against mosquitoes. No special control program is available for sand flies. Most insecticide susceptibility tests were done for mosquitoes but not for sand flies. We therefore aimed to determine the insecticide susceptibility against two commonly used insecticides; deltamethrin and permethrin, on wild-caught sand fly populations collected in two geographically separated leishmaniasis endemic areas...
March 2017: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
Wafa Kammoun-Rebai, Narges Bahi-Jaber, Ikbel Naouar, Amine Toumi, Afif Ben Salah, Hechmi Louzir, Amel Meddeb-Garnaoui
BACKGROUND: Sand fly saliva compounds are able to elicit specific immune responses that have a significant role in Leishmania parasite establishment and disease outcome. Characterizing anti-saliva immune responses in individuals living in well defined leishmaniasis endemic areas would provide valuable insights regarding their effect on parasite transmission and establishment in humans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We explored the cellular and humoral immune responses to Phlebotomus (P...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Bethan V Purse, Dario Masante, Nicholas Golding, David Pigott, John C Day, Sergio Ibañez-Bernal, Melanie Kolb, Laurence Jones
The enormous global burden of vector-borne diseases disproportionately affects poor people in tropical, developing countries. Changes in vector-borne disease impacts are often linked to human modification of ecosystems as well as climate change. For tropical ecosystems, the health impacts of future environmental and developmental policy depend on how vector-borne disease risks trade off against other ecosystem services across heterogeneous landscapes. By linking future socio-economic and climate change pathways to dynamic land use models, this study is amongst the first to analyse and project impacts of both land use and climate change on continental-scale patterns in vector-borne diseases...
2017: PloS One
Ali Mehrabi-Tavana
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
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