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Low dose computed tomography

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938197/a-collagen-membrane-containing-osteogenic-protein-1-facilitates-bone-regeneration-in-a-rat-mandibular-bone-defect
#1
Manami Ozaki, Tadahiro Takayama, Takanobu Yamamoto, Yasumasa Ozawa, Mayu Nagao, Natsuko Tanabe, Akira Nakajima, Naoto Suzuki, Masao Maeno, Seiichi Yamano, Shuichi Sato
OBJECTIVES: Osteogenic protein-1 (OP-1) has shown osteoinductive activities and is useful for clinical treatments, including bone regeneration. Regenerative procedures using a bioabsorbable collagen membrane (BCM) are well established in periodontal and implant dentistry. We evaluated the subsequent effects of the BCM in combination with OP-1 on bone regeneration in a rat mandibular circular critical-sized bone defect in vivo. DESIGN: We used 8 rats that received surgery in both sides of the mandible, and created the total 16 defects which were divided into 4 groups: Group 1; no treatment, as a control, Group 2; BCM alone, Group 3; BCM containing low dose 0...
September 8, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935012/-combining-3d-ctba-and-3d-vats-single-operation-hole-to-%C3%A2-anatomical-segmentectomy-in-the-treatment-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#2
Xiaowei She, Yunbin Gu, Chun Xu, Xinyu Song, Chang Li, Cheng Ding, Jun Chen, Yongsheng Gong, Jun Zhao
BACKGROUND: China is a high-incidence area of lung cancer, and its morbidity and mortality were the highest in malignant tumors. At present, the popularization of low-dose computed tomography (CT) examination has significantly improved the detection rate of early lung cancer, anatomical segmentectomy is currently widely used early in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and those who cannot tolerate lobectomy in patients with lung cancer. However, the anatomical structure of segment and its surgical operation is relatively complex, lead to segmentectomy has a high risk and difficulty...
September 20, 2017: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932154/malpositioned-canine-treatment-with-autotransplantation-and-laser
#3
Serap Keskin Tunc, Mehmet Savas Kayasan, Esma Ozeroglu, Cennet Neslihan Eroglu
Children and young adults often have tooth loss due to congenital tooth deficiency, trauma, or caries. Autotransplantation has many benefits. The transplanted tooth can be moved orthodontically, maintains alveolar bone growth potential during eruption, and functional periodontal ligament function also permits tooth eruption, allows the defected areas to be filled with the bones; gingival contour is much more successful than the one obtained with prosthesis. In this paper, treatment steps and follow-up results of autotransplantation case supported with biostimulation are mentioned...
July 2017: European Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930979/analysis-of-18fdg-pet-ct-imaging-as-a-tool-for-studying-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-and-treatment-in-non-human-primates
#4
Alexander G White, Pauline Maiello, M Teresa Coleman, Jaime A Tomko, L James Frye, Charles A Scanga, Philana Ling Lin, JoAnne L Flynn
Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains the number one infectious agent in the world today. With the emergence of antibiotic resistant strains, new clinically relevant methods are needed that evaluate the disease process and screen for potential antibiotic and vaccine treatments. Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) has been established as a valuable tool for studying a number of afflictions such as cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and inflammation/infection. Outlined here are a number of strategies that have been employed to evaluate PET/CT images in cynomolgus macaques that are infected intrabronchially with low doses of M...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929865/false-positive-screens-and-lung-cancer-risk-in-the-national-lung-screening-trial-implications-for-shared-decision-making
#5
Paul F Pinsky, Christina R Bellinger, David P Miller
Objectives Low-dose computed tomography lung cancer screening has been shown to reduce lung cancer mortality but has a high false-positive rate. The precision medicine approach to low-dose computed tomography screening assesses subjects' benefits versus harms based on their personal lung cancer risk, where harms include false-positive screens and resultant invasive procedures. We assess the relationship between lung cancer risk and the rate of false-positive LDCT screens. Methods The National Lung Screening Trial randomized high-risk subjects to three annual screens with low-dose computed tomography or chest radiographs...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923845/high-sensitivity-cardiac-troponin-i-as-a-gatekeeper-for-coronary-computed-tomography-angiography-and-stress-testing-in-patients-with-acute-chest-pain
#6
Maros Ferencik, Thomas Mayrhofer, Michael T Lu, Pamela K Woodard, Quynh A Truong, W Frank Peacock, Fabian Bamberg, Benjamin C Sun, Jerome L Fleg, John T Nagurney, James E Udelson, Wolfgang Koenig, James L Januzzi, Udo Hoffmann
BACKGROUND: Most patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) undergo noninvasive cardiac testing with a low diagnostic yield. We determined whether a combination of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) and cardiovascular risk factors might improve selection of patients for cardiac testing. METHODS: We included patients from the Rule Out Myocardial Infarction/Ischemia Using Computer Assisted Tomography (ROMICAT) I and II trials who presented to the ED with acute chest pain and were referred for cardiac testing...
September 18, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922116/iterative-low-dose-ct-reconstruction-with-priors-trained-by-artificial-neural-network
#7
Dufan Wu, Kyungsang Kim, Georges El Fakhri, Quanzheng Li
Dose reduction in computed tomography (CT) is essential for decreasing radiation risk in clinical applications. Iterative reconstruction algorithms are one of the most promising way to compensate for the increased noise due to reduction of photon flux. Most iterative reconstruction algorithms incorporate manually designed prior functions of the reconstructed image to suppress noises while maintaining structures of the image. These priors basically rely on smoothness constraints and cannot exploit more complex features of the image...
September 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920898/hybrid-pre-log-and-post-log-image-reconstruction-for-computed-tomography
#8
Guobao Wang, Jian Zhou, Zhou Yu, Wenli Wang, Jinyi Qi
Tomographic image reconstruction for low-dose CT is increasingly challenging as dose continues to reduce in clinical applications. Pre-log domain methods and post-log domain methods have been proposed individually and each method has its own disadvantage. While having the potential to improve image quality for low-dose data by using an accurate imaging model, pre-log domain methods suffer slow convergence in practice due to the nonlinear transformation from the image to measurements. In contrast, post-log domain methods have fast convergence speed but the resulting image quality is suboptimal for low-count CT data because the log transformation is extremely unreliable for low-count measurements and undefined for negative values...
September 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920501/kidney-dosimetry-during-177-lu-dotatate-therapy-in-patients-with-neuroendocrine-tumors-aspects-on-calculation-and-tolerance
#9
Mattias Sandström, Ulrike Garske-Román, Silvia Johansson, Dan Granberg, Anders Sundin, Nanette Freedman
BACKGROUND: Fractionated therapy with (177)Lu-DOTATATE has been reported to be an effective treatment for patients with metastasized neuroendocrine tumors. To optimize the treatment, absorbed doses to risk organs are calculated for the individual patient. For each organ, absorbed dose due to activity in the organ itself (self-dose) and that originating from other organs (cross-dose) are calculated from serial measurements to obtain the activity distribution following treatment. The main aim of the present work were to calculate the cross-dose contribution to the total absorbed kidney dose...
September 18, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918686/sensitivity-of-post-treatment-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-to-detect-inter-fractional-range-variations-in-scanned-ion-beam-therapy
#10
Josefine Handrack, Thomas Tessonnier, Wenjing Chen, Jakob Liebl, Jürgen Debus, Julia Bauer, Katia Parodi
BACKGROUND: Ion therapy, especially with modern scanning beam delivery, offers very sharp dose gradients for highly conformal cancer treatment. However, it is very sensitive to uncertainties of tissue stopping properties as well as to anatomical changes and setup errors, making range verification highly desirable. To this end, positron emission tomography (PET) can be used to measure decay products of β(+)-emitters created in interactions inside the patient. This work investigates the sensitivity of post treatment PET/CT (computed tomography) to detect inter-fractional range variations...
September 18, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910997/paediatric-nuclear-medicine-imaging
#11
Lorenzo Biassoni, Marina Easty
Background: Nuclear medicine imaging explores tissue viability and function by using radiotracers that are taken up at cellular level with different mechanism. This imaging technique can also be used to assess blood flow and transit through tubular organs. Nuclear medicine imaging has been used in paediatrics for decades and this field is continuously evolving. Sources of data: The data presented comes from clinical experience and some milestone papers on the subject...
September 1, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902765/low-dose-90y-pet-ct-imaging-optimized-for-lesion-detectability-and-quantitative-accuracy-a-phantom-study-to-assess-the-feasibility-of-pretherapy-imaging-to-plan-the-therapeutic-dose
#12
Maryam Khazaee, Alireza Kamali-Asl, Parham Geramifar, Arman Rahmim
OBJECTIVE: The overall aim of this work is to optimize the reconstruction parameters for low-dose yttrium-90 (Y) PET/computed tomography (CT) imaging, and to determine Y minimum detectable activity, in an endeavor to investigate the feasibility of performing low-dose Y imaging in-vivo to plan the therapeutic dose in radioembolization. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was carried out using a Siemens Biograph 6 True Point PET/CT scanner. A Jaszczak phantom containing five hot syringes was imaged serially over 15 days...
September 11, 2017: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901622/assessment-of-prior-image-induced-nonlocal-means-regularization-for-low-dose-ct-reconstruction-change-in-anatomy
#13
Hao Zhang, Jianhua Ma, Jing Wang, William Moore, Zhengrong Liang
PURPOSE: Repeated computed tomography (CT) scans are prescribed for some clinical applications such as lung nodule surveillance. Several studies have demonstrated that incorporating a high-quality prior image into the reconstruction of subsequent low-dose CT (LDCT) acquisitions can either improve image quality or reduce data fidelity requirements. Our proposed previous normal-dose image induced nonlocal means (ndiNLM) regularization method for LDCT is an example of such a method. However, one major concern with prior image based methods is that they might produce false information when the prior image and the current LDCT image show different structures (for example, if a lung nodule emerges, grows, shrinks, or disappears over time)...
September 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901621/objective-comparison-of-high-contrast-spatial-resolution-and-low-contrast-detectability-for-various-clinical-protocols-on-multiple-ct-scanners
#14
Damien Racine, Anaïs Viry, Fabio Becce, Sabine Schmidt, Alexandre Ba, François O Bochud, Sue Edyvean, Alexander Schegerer, Francis R Verdun
PURPOSE: We sought to compare objectively computed tomography (CT) scanner performance for three clinically relevant protocols using a task-based image quality assessment method in order to assess the potential for radiation dose reduction. METHODS: Four CT scanners released between 2003 and 2007 by different manufacturers were compared with four CT scanners released between 2012 and 2014 by the same manufacturers using ideal linear model observers (MO): prewhitening (PW) MO and channelized Hotelling (CHO) MO with Laguerre-Gauss channels for high-contrast spatial resolution and low-contrast detectability (LCD) performance, respectively...
September 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901617/dual-rotation-c-arm-cone-beam-computed-tomography-to-increase-low-contrast-detection
#15
Aymeric Reshef, Cyril Riddell, Yves Trousset, Saïd Ladjal, Isabelle Bloch
PURPOSE: This paper investigates the capabilities of a dual-rotation C-arm cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) framework to improve non-contrast-enhanced low-contrast detection for full volume or volume-of-interest (VOI) brain imaging. METHOD: The idea is to associate two C-arm short-scan rotational acquisitions (spins): one over the full detector field of view (FOV) at low dose, and one collimated to deliver a higher dose to the central densest parts of the head...
September 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901610/low-dose-dynamic-myocardial-perfusion-ct-imaging-using-a-motion-adaptive-sparsity-prior
#16
Zhaoying Bian, Dong Zeng, Zhang Zhang, Changfei Gong, Xiumei Tian, Gang Yan, Jing Huang, Hong Guo, Bo Chen, Jing Zhang, Qianjin Feng, Wufan Chen, Jianhua Ma
PURPOSE: Dynamic myocardial perfusion computed tomography (DM-PCT) imaging offers benefits over quantitative assessment of myocardial blood flow (MBF) for diagnosis and risk stratification of coronary artery disease. However, one major drawback of DM-PCT imaging is that a high radiation level is imparted by repeated scanning. To address this issue, in this work, we developed a statistical iterative reconstruction algorithm based on the penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS) scheme by incorporating a motion adaptive sparsity prior (MASP) model to achieve high-quality DM-PCT imaging with low tube current dynamic data acquisition...
September 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900827/lifetime-radiation-exposure-in-patients-with-recurrent-nephrolithiasis
#17
REVIEW
Mohamed A Elkoushy, Sero Andonian
Patients presenting with nephrolithiasis often undergo repeated imaging studies before, during, and after management. Considering the significant risk of stone recurrence in primary stone-formers, repeated imaging studies are not uncommon. Cumulative effects of ionizing radiation exposure from various imaging studies could potentially increase the risk for developing cataracts and solid malignancies in urolithiasis patients. Therefore, practitioners planning or performing imaging studies with ionizing radiation are compelled to keep radiation exposure to humans and the environment as low as possible, thus strictly adhering to the ALARA (As Low as Reasonably Achievable) principles...
September 12, 2017: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894790/aortic-dissection-and-severe-renal-failure-6-years-after-kidney-transplantation
#18
Amaury Dujardin, Awena Le Fur, Diego Cantarovich
We report the case of a patient with long-term history of hypertension, presenting with transient neurological disorders and severe graft failure several years after kidney transplantation. Cause of end-stage renal disease was hypertensive nephrosclerosis. Chronic hemodialysis lasted for 1 year. After transplantation and throughout follow-up, serum creatinine ranged from 200 to 230 μmol/L and maintenance immunosuppression included sirolimus and low-dose steroids. Six years after transplantation, the patient presented with right hip pain radiating to the lower back, transient aphasia, confusion, and hemiparesis...
September 2017: Transplantation Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888094/low-dose-scanning-technology-combined-with-low-concentration-contrast-material-in-renal-computed-tomography-angiography-cta-a-preliminary-study
#19
Sulan Liu, Wei Li, Hao Shi, Huaqiang Sheng, Jingli Fan, Jingzhen He, Hongjun Sun
BACKGROUND This study is to investigate the feasibility of low iodine concentration contrast material (CM) combined with low tube voltage and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) in renal computed tomography angiography (CTA). MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 136 patients were enrolled in this prospective trial, and randomly divided into two groups: group A (n=68) and group B (n=68). Group A received 120-kVp and iopromide (370 mg/mL) with filtered back projection (FBP) reconstruction, and group B received 100-kVp and iodixanol (270 mg/mL) with ASIR 40% (ASIR40)...
September 9, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887726/long-term-follow-up-of-desmoid-fibromatosis-treated-with-pf-03084014-an-oral-gamma-secretase-inhibitor
#20
Victor Manuel Villalobos, Francis Hall, Antonio Jimeno, Lia Gore, Kenneth Kern, Rossano Cesari, Bo Huang, Jeffrey T Schowinsky, Patrick Judson Blatchford, Brianna Hoffner, Anthony Elias, Wells Messersmith
BACKGROUND: Desmoid fibromatosis is a fibroblastic neoplasm driven by aberrations within the WNT pathway, exhibiting mutations in β-catenin or APC. We review the long-term follow-up of patients in a phase I study treated with an oral gamma secretase inhibitor, PF-03084014. METHODS: PF-03084014 was administered orally at doses ranging from 20 to 330 mg twice daily. Tumor assessments were performed using computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (CT/MRI) within 4 weeks of study entry, and every other cycle through cycle 9...
September 8, 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
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