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Low dose computed tomography

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816658/discriminative-feature-representation-to-improve-projection-data-inconsistency-for-low-dose-ct-imaging
#1
Jin Liu, Jianhua Ma, Yi Zhang, Yang Chen, Jian Yang, Huazhong Shu, Limin Luo, Gouenou Coatrieux, Wei Yang, Qianjin Feng, Wufan Chen
In low dose computed tomography (LDCT) imaging, the data inconsistency of measured noisy projections can significantly deteriorate reconstruction images. To deal with this problem, we propose here a new sinogram restoration approach, the Sinogram- Discriminative Feature Representation (S-DFR) method. Different from other sinogram restoration methods, the proposed method works through a 3-D representation based feature decomposition of the projected attenuation component and the noise component using a well-designed composite dictionary containing atoms with discriminative features...
August 14, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814848/pathophysiological-mechanism-of-long-term-noninvasive-ventilation-in-stable-hypercapnic-patients-with-copd-using-functional-respiratory-imaging
#2
Bita Hajian, Jan De Backer, Claire Sneyers, Francisca Ferreira, Katherine C Barboza, Glenn Leemans, Wim Vos, Wilfried De Backer
INTRODUCTION: Patients with severe COPD often develop chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure. Their prognosis worsens and they are more likely to develop exacerbations. This has major influence on the health-related quality of life. Currently, there is no information about the success of long-term noninvasive ventilation (NIV) among patients who receive NIV in acute settings. Also, little is known about the pathophysiological mechanism of NIV. METHODS: Ten Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease stage III and IV COPD patients with respiratory failure who were hospitalized following acute exacerbation were treated with NIV using a Synchrony BiPAP device for 6 months...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813112/what-do-cochrane-systematic-reviews-say-about-the-clinical-effectiveness-of-screening-and-diagnostic-tests-for-cancer
#3
André Tito Pereira Bueno, Vladimir Lisboa Capelasso, Rafael Leite Pacheco, Carolina de Oliveira Cruz Latorraca, Tiago Biachi de Castria, Daniela Vianna Pachito, Rachel Riera
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The purpose of screening tests for cancer is to detect it at an early stage in order to increase the chances of treatment. However, their unrestrained use may lead to unnecessary examinations, overdiagnosis and higher costs. It is thus necessary to evaluate their clinical effects in terms of benefits and harm. DESIGN AND SETTING: Review of Cochrane systematic reviews, carried out in the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo...
July 2017: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811997/estimation-of-kidneys-and-urinary-bladder-doses-based-on-the-region-of-interest-in-18-fluorine-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-examination-a-preliminary-study
#4
Farida Aimi Mustapha, Farahnaz Ahmad Anwar Bashah, Ihsan M Yassin, Ahmad Saad Fathinul Fikri, Abdul Jalil Nordin, Hairil Rashmizal Abdul Razak
BACKGROUND: Kidneys and urinary bladder are common physiologic uptake sites of 18fluorine-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) causing increased exposure of low energy ionizing radiation to these organs. Accurate measurement of organ dose is vital as (18)F-FDG is directly exposed to the organs. Organ dose from (18)F-FDG PET is calculated according to the injected (18)F-FDG activity with the application of dose coefficients established by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)...
June 2017: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810576/application-of-low-dose-dual-source-computed-tomography-angiography-in-children-with-complex-congenital-heart-disease
#5
Xian-Feng Chen, Fan Jiang, Lin Li, Yan Chen, Xin Chen, Yan-Yan Jiang, Li Xiang, Xiao-Jing Ma
The objective of the present study was to evaluate image quality and radiation dosage using a low-dose prospectively electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated computed tomography (CT) protocol for dual-source angiography in children with complex congenital heart disease. A total of 206 patients with complex congenital heart disease were equally assigned into two groups at random. The children in group A underwent low-dose retrospective ECG-gated CT scanning with an ECG-pulsing technique, and group B underwent prospective ECG-gated scanning with an ECG-pulsing technique...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808488/predictive-factors-for-a-successful-diagnostic-bronchoscopy-of-ground-glass-nodules
#6
Toshiyuki Nakai, Yuji Matsumoto, Fumi Suzuk, Takaaki Tsuchida, Takehiro Izumo
INTRODUCTION: Since the National Lung Screening Trial demonstrated the utility of low-dose computed tomography screening for lung cancer, the detection rate of ground-glass nodules (GGNs) has increased. Endobronchial ultrasound with a guide sheath (EBUS-GS) is widely performed to diagnose peripheral pulmonary lesions, but there are not enough reports on the predictive ability of EBUS-GS in diagnosing GGNs. The aim of this study is to investigate the predictive factors for a successful diagnostic bronchoscopy for GGNs...
July 2017: Annals of Thoracic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808487/gaining-access-to-the-periphery-of-the-lung-bronchoscopic-and-transthoracic-approaches
#7
REVIEW
Abdelfattah Ahmed Touman, Vlasios V Vitsas, Nickolaos G Koulouris, Grigoris K Stratakos
Globally, lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related death. Annual low-dose computed tomography has been recommended as a screening test for early detection of lung cancers. Implementing this screening strategy is expected to challenge pulmonologist to confirm the nature of the increasing number of detected pulmonary nodules. Clinicians are obliged to use the less invasive and most efficient and safe means to set diagnoses. Hence, the field of diagnostic modalities, especially the advanced diagnostic bronchoscopy is witnessing rapid evolution to fulfill these unmet needs...
July 2017: Annals of Thoracic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803773/low-dose-versus-high-dose-tranexamic-acid-reduces-the-risk-of-nonischemic-seizures-after-cardiac-surgery-with-cardiopulmonary-bypass
#8
Pierre Couture, Jean-Sébastien Lebon, Éric Laliberté, Georges Desjardins, Marie-Ève Chamberland, Christian Ayoub, Antoine Rochon, Jennifer Cogan, André Denault, Alain Deschamps
OBJECTIVE: The incidence of postoperative nonischemic seizures associated with the use of tranexamic acid (TXA) and the possibility of prevention with a low-dose regimen of TXA were evaluated. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Tertiary care university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 12,195 patients who underwent cardiac surgical procedures under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were evaluated. INTERVENTIONS: The files of every clinical seizure case diagnosed in the surgical intensive care unit between April 2006 and April 2014 were reviewed...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803255/panel-of-serum-metabolites-discriminates-cancer-patients-and-healthy-participants-of-lung-cancer-screening-a-pilot-study
#9
Małgorzata Roś-Mazurczyk, Anna Wojakowska, Łukasz Marczak, Krzysztof Polański, Monika Pietrowska, Joanna Polanska, Rafał Dziadziuszko, Jacek Jassem, Witold Rzyman, Piotr Widlak
INTRODUCTION: Blood biomarkers may support early diagnosis of lung cancer by enabling pre-selection of candidates for computed tomography screening or discrimination between benign and malignant screening-detected nodules. We aimed to identify features of serum metabolome distinguishing individuals with early-detected lung cancer from healthy participants of the lung cancer screening program. METHODS: Blood samples were collected in the course of a low-dose computed tomography screening program performed in the Gdansk district (Northern Poland)...
August 12, 2017: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800951/evaluation-of-a-high-concentrated-contrast-media-injection-protocol-in-combination-with-low-tube-current-for-dose-reduction-in-coronary-computed-tomography-angiography-a-randomized-two-center-prospective-study
#10
Yibo Sun, Yanqing Hua, Mingpeng Wang, Dingbiao Mao, Xiu Jin, Cheng Li, Kailei Shi, Jianrong Xu
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to prospectively evaluate the radiation dose reduction potential and image quality (IQ) of a high-concentration contrast media (HCCM) injection protocol in combination with a low tube current (mAs) in coronary computed tomography angiography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-one consecutive patients (mean age: 62 years; 34 females; body mass index: 18-31) were included and randomized-assigned into two groups. All computed tomography (CT) examinations were performed in two groups with the same tube voltage (100 kV), flow rate of contrast medium (5...
August 8, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796857/association-of-systemic-inflammation-and-sarcopenia-with-survival-in-nonmetastatic-colorectal-cancer-results-from-the-c-scans-study
#11
Elizabeth M Cespedes Feliciano, Candyce H Kroenke, Jeffrey A Meyerhardt, Carla M Prado, Patrick T Bradshaw, Marilyn L Kwan, Jingjie Xiao, Stacey Alexeeff, Douglas Corley, Erin Weltzien, Adrienne L Castillo, Bette J Caan
Importance: Systemic inflammation and sarcopenia are easily evaluated, predict mortality in many cancers, and are potentially modifiable. The combination of inflammation and sarcopenia may be able to identify patients with early-stage colorectal cancer (CRC) with poor prognosis. Objective: To examine associations of prediagnostic systemic inflammation with at-diagnosis sarcopenia, and determine whether these factors interact to predict CRC survival, adjusting for age, ethnicity, sex, body mass index, stage, and cancer site...
August 10, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794867/rapid-onset-of-amiodarone-induced-pulmonary-toxicity-after-lung-lobe-resection-a-case-report-and-review-of-recent-literature
#12
Heiko Baumann, Phillip Fichtenkamm, Thomas Schneider, Jürgen Biscoping, Michael Henrich
Amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity (APT) is a severe side effect that can lead to lung fibrosis or fatal respiratory failure. Usually APT occurs during long term therapy after administration of prolonged loading doses or high cumulative doses. We present the case of a 58 year old woman who underwent thoracic surgery with lobe resection. She developed atrial fibrillation with hemodynamic-instability on the first post-operative day. We initiated amiodarone therapy and four days later she developed respiratory failure...
September 2017: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781098/recent-advances-in-surgical-management-of-early-lung-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Shun-Mao Yang, Hsao-Hsun Hsu, Jin-Shing Chen
The broad application of low-dose computed tomography screening has resulted in the detection of many more cases of early lung cancer than ever before in modern history. Recent advances in the management of early-stage non-small cell lung cancer have focused on making therapy less traumatic, enhancing recovery, and preserving lung function. In this review, we discuss several new modalities associated with minimally invasive surgery for lung cancer. Firstly, less lung parenchyma resection via sublobar resection has become an acceptable alternative to lobectomy in patients with tumors less than 2 cm in size or with poor cardiopulmonary reserve...
August 3, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777467/optimizing-window-settings-for-improved-presentation-of-virtual-monoenergetic-images-in-dual-energy-computed-tomography
#14
Wanyi Fu, Daniele Marin, Juan Carlos Ramirez-Giraldo, Kingshuk Roy Choudhury, Justin Solomon, Christoph Schabel, Bhavik N Patel, Ehsan Samei
PURPOSE: Dual-energy computed tomography virtual monoenergetic imaging (VMI) at 40 keV exhibits superior contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), although practicing radiologists do not consistently prefer it over VMI at 70 keV due to high perceivable noise. We hypothesize that the presentation of 40 keV VMI may be compromised using window settings (i.e., window-level values, W-L values) designed for conventional single-energy CT. This study aimed to devise optimum window settings that reduce the apparent noise and utilize the high CNR of 40 keV VMI, in order to improve the conspicuity of hypervascular liver lesions...
August 4, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772150/low-dose-developmental-exposure-to-bisphenol-a-induces-sex-specific-effects-in-bone-of-fischer-344-rat-offspring
#15
Thomas Lind, Margareta H Lejonklou, Linda Dunder, Annica Rasmusson, Sune Larsson, Håkan Melhus, P Monica Lind
BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA) is a component of polycarbonate plastics to which humans are regularly exposed at low levels, and an endocrine disruptor with effects on several hormonal systems. Bone is a sensitive hormone target tissue, and we have recently shown that in utero and lactational exposure to 25µg BPA/kg BW/day alters femoral geometry in rat offspring. OBJECTIVE: To investigate bone effects in rat offspring after developmental exposure to a BPA dose in the range of human daily exposure (0...
July 31, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771086/exposure-to-low-dose-x-ray-radiation-alters-bone-progenitor-cells-and-bone-microarchitecture
#16
Florence Lima, Joshua M Swift, Elisabeth S Greene, Matthew R Allen, David A Cunningham, Leslie A Braby, Susan A Bloomfield
Exposure to high-dose ionizing radiation during medical treatment exerts well-documented deleterious effects on bone health, reducing bone density and contributing to bone growth retardation in young patients and spontaneous fracture in postmenopausal women. However, the majority of human radiation exposures occur in a much lower dose range than that used in the radiation oncology clinic. Furthermore, very few studies have examined the effects of low-dose ionizing radiation on bone integrity and results have been inconsistent...
August 3, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770455/feasibility-of-a-single-beat-prospective-ecg-gated-cardiac-ct-for-comprehensive-evaluation-of-aortic-valve-disease-using-a-256-detector-row-wide-volume-ct-scanner-an-initial-experience
#17
Jin Young Kim, Young Joo Suh, Suyon Chang, Dong Jin Im, Yoo Jin Hong, Hye-Jeong Lee, Jin Hur, Young Jin Kim, Byoung Wook Choi
The aim of our study was to investigate the feasibility of single-beat prospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated cardiac computed tomography (CT) using a 256-detector row wide-volume CT scanner for functional and anatomical evaluation of the aortic valve (AV) and coronary arteries in patients with AV disease. A total of 50 patients who underwent cardiac CT scan with a wide-volume 256-detector row CT scanner for the evaluation of AV and aorta were retrospectively enrolled. Cardiac CT was performed using the prospective ECG-gated acquisition mode, and AV image quality was analyzed using a four-point grading system...
August 2, 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767732/influence-of-exposure-parameters-and-iterative-reconstruction-on-automatic-airway-segmentation-and-analysis-on-mdct-an-ex-vivo-phantom-study
#18
Patricia Leutz-Schmidt, Oliver Weinheimer, Bertram J Jobst, Julien Dinkel, Jürgen Biederer, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Michael U Puderbach, Mark O Wielpütz
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the influence of exposure parameters and raw-data-based iterative reconstruction (IR) on computer-aided segmentation and quantitative analysis of the tracheobronchial tree on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: 10 porcine heart-lung-explants were mounted inside a dedicated chest phantom. MDCT was performed at 120kV and 80kV with 120, 60, 30 and 12 mAs each. All scans were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) or IR, resulting in a total of 160 datasets...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766981/image-quality-and-radiation-dose-of-ct-venography-with-double-dose-reduction-using-model-based-iterative-reconstruction-comparison-with-conventional-ct-venography-using-filtered-back-projection
#19
Yeo-Jin Jeong, Ki Seok Choo, Kyung Jin Nam, Ji Won Lee, Jin You Kim, Hyuk Jae Jung, Soo Jin Lim
Background Computed tomography venography (CTV) at low kVp using model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) can enhance vascular enhancement with noise reduction. Purpose To evaluate image qualities and radiation doses of CTV at 80 kVp using MBIR and a small iodine contrast media (CM) dose and to compare these with those of CTV performed using a conventional protocol. Material and Methods Sixty-five patients (mean age = 58.1 ± 7.2 years) that underwent CTV for the evaluation of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and varicose veins were enrolled in this study...
January 1, 2017: Acta Radiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766885/technical-note-construction-of-heterogeneous-head-phantom-for-quality-control-in-stereotactic-radiosurgery
#20
Mohsen Najafi, Javad Teimouri, Alireza Shirazi, Ghazaleh Geraily, Mahbod Esfahani, Mostafa Shafaei
PURPOSE: Stereotactic radiosurgery is a high precision modality for conformally delivering high doses of radiation to the brain lesion with a large dose volume. Several studies for the quality control of this technique were performed to measure the dose delivered to the target with a homogenous head phantom and some dosimeters. Some studies were also performed with one or two instances of heterogeneity in the head phantom to measure the dose delivered to the target. But these studies assumed the head as a sphere and simple shape heterogeneity...
August 2, 2017: Medical Physics
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