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Low dose computed tomography

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430740/low-dose-computed-tomography-scans-with-automatic-exposure-control-for-patients-of-different-ages-undergoing-cardiac-pet-ct-and-spect-ct
#1
Ching-Ching Yang, Bang-Hung Yang, Chun-Yuan Tu, Tung-Hsin Wu, Shu-Hsin Liu
PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of automatic exposure control (AEC) in order to optimize low-dose computed tomography (CT) protocols for patients of different ages undergoing cardiac PET/CT and single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT). METHODS: One PET/CT and one SPECT/CT were used to acquire CT images for four anthropomorphic phantoms representative of 1-year-old, 5-year-old and 10-year-old children and an adult...
April 20, 2017: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430715/computed-tomography-of-the-head-and-neck-region-for-tumor-staging-comparison-of-dual-source-dual-energy-and-low-kilovolt-single-energy-acquisitions
#2
Matthias Stefan May, Joscha Bruegel, Michael Brand, Marco Wiesmueller, Bernhard Krauss, Thomas Allmendinger, Michael Uder, Wolfgang Wuest
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to intra-individually compare the image quality obtained by dual-source, dual-energy (DSDE) computed tomography (CT) examinations and different virtual monoenergetic reconstructions to a low single-energy (SE) scan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Third-generation DSDE-CT was performed in 49 patients with histologically proven malignant disease of the head and neck region. Weighted average images (WAIs) and virtual monoenergetic images (VMIs) for low (40 and 60 keV) and high (120 and 190 keV) energies were reconstructed...
April 20, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429208/ultra-low-dose-periradicular-infiltration-of-the-lumbar-spine-spot-scanning-and-its-potential-for-further-dose-reduction-by-replacing-helical-planning-ct
#3
Fabian Henry Jürgen Elsholtz, Lars-Arne Schaafs, Christoph Erxleben, Bernd Hamm, Stefan Markus Niehues
PURPOSE: Computed tomography (CT)-guided periradicular infiltration has become an accepted procedure for treating radiculopathy-associated low back pain. The purpose of this study is to compare spot scanning and segmental helical planning CT in terms of dose reduction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-five patients underwent CT-guided single-site lumbar periradicular therapy. Prior imaging was not available for planning. Sixty-three patients were examined with a new dedicated spot scanning technique (group I), and twenty-two patients underwent conventional segmental planning CT examinations with helical image acquisition serving as controls (group II)...
April 20, 2017: La Radiologia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424225/quantitative-assessment-of-airway-pathology-in-subjects-with-copd-using-low-dose-high-resolution-computed-tomography
#4
Huai Chen, Gai-Qun Chen, Qing-Si Zeng, Ting-Ting Xia, Jia-Xuan Zhou, Shi-Jun Qiu
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to correlate airway parameters of COPD determined by low-dose high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) with pulmonary function testing (PFT) results. METHODS: PFT data were collected for subjects with COPD and healthy controls. All subjects received inspiratory and expiratory phase low-dose HRCT. Bronchi in the apical segment of the right upper lobe (RB1), posterior segment of the right lower lobe (RB6), and lower lingual segment of the left upper lobe (LB5) were the target bronchi...
April 19, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420821/use-of-liothyronine-without-levothyroxine-in-the-treatment-of-mild-consumptive-hypothyroidism-caused-by-hepatic-hemangiomas
#5
Shinji Higuchi, Masaki Takagi, Yukihiro Hasegawa
There have been reports of the use of levothyroxine or levothyroxine plus liothyronine for consumptive hypothyroidism caused by hepatic hemangiomas. Administration of levothyroxine without liothyronine can be inadequate to maintain normal levels of both free T3 and free T4 in some patients. However, there is no report of treatment with liothyronine plus propranolol. We herein present a case in which we used liothyronine therapy for multifocal hepatic hemangiomas in a Japanese patient with low free T3 and normal free T4 levels...
April 18, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416207/reflections-on-the-implementation-of-low-dose-computed-tomography-screening-in-individuals-at-high-risk-of-lung-cancer-in-spain
#6
Pilar Garrido, Marcelo Sánchez, José Belda Sanchis, Nicolás Moreno Mata, Ángel Artal, Ángel Gayete, José María Matilla González, José Marcelo Galbis Caravajal, Dolores Isla, Luis Paz-Ares, Luis M Seijo
Lung cancer (LC) is a major public health issue. Despite recent advances in treatment, primary prevention and early diagnosis are key to reducing the incidence and mortality of this disease. A recent clinical trial demonstrated the efficacy of selective screening by low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) in reducing the risk of both lung cancer mortality and all-cause mortality in high-risk individuals. This article contains the reflections of an expert group on the use of LDCT for early diagnosis of LC in high-risk individuals, and how to evaluate its implementation in Spain...
April 14, 2017: Archivos de Bronconeumología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413504/early-initiation-of-argatroban-therapy-in-the-management-of-acute-superior-mesenteric-venous-thrombosis
#7
Qiu Zeng, Qi-Ning Fu, Feng-He Li, Xue-Hu Wang, Hong Liu, Yu Zhao
Acute superior mesenteric venous thrombosis (ASMVT) is an intractable disease with poor prognosis. Argatroban, a direct thrombin inhibitor, may be a novel anticoagulant method in the therapy of ASMVT. The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy and safety of early argatroban therapy in ASMVT patients. The current retrospective study reviewed a consecutive series of ASMVT patients receiving early argatroban therapy during hospitalization between March 2013 and April 2014, with 18 ASMVT patients included in the study...
April 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413071/performance-of-ultra-low-dose-ct-for-the-evaluation-of-coronary-calcification-a-direct-comparison-with-coronary-calcium-score
#8
V V Silveira de Souza, F Soares Torres, B Hochhegger, G Watte, G Sartori, F Lucchese, B Azambuja Gonçalves
AIM: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of ultra-low-dose computed tomography (ULDCT) in comparison to standard coronary calcium score (CCS) acquisition for the evaluation of coronary artery calcification (CAC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Standard CCS acquisition and ULDCT were performed in patients referred for coronary CT angiography for the evaluation of coronary artery disease. CAC in ULDCT was graded subjectively using a four-point scale (from 0, no calcification, to 3, severe calcification) for the complete study and for each individual coronary segment...
April 13, 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410681/simulation-of-scanner-and-patient-specific-low-dose-ct-imaging-from-existing-ct-images
#9
Robiël E Naziroglu, Vincent F van Ravesteijn, Lucas J van Vliet, Geert J Streekstra, Frans M Vos
PURPOSE: Simulating low-dose Computed Tomography (CT) facilitates in-silico studies into the required dose for a diagnostic task. Conventionally, low-dose CT images are created by adding noise to the projection data. However, in practice the raw data is often simply not available. This paper presents a new method for simulating patient-specific, low-dose CT images without the need of the original projection data. METHODS: The low-dose CT simulation method included the following: (1) computation of a virtual sinogram from a high dose CT image through a radon transform; (2) simulation of a 'reduced'-dose sinogram with appropriate amounts of noise; (3) subtraction of the high-dose virtual sinogram from the reduced-dose sinogram; (4) reconstruction of a noise volume via filtered back-projection; (5) addition of the noise image to the original high-dose image...
April 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410679/dual-energy-imaging-method-to-improve-the-image-quality-and-the-accuracy-of-dose-calculation-for-cone-beam-computed-tomography
#10
Kuo Men, Jianrong Dai, Xinyuan Chen, Minghui Li, Ke Zhang, Peng Huang
PURPOSE: To improve the image quality and accuracy of dose calculation for cone-beam computed tomography (CT) images through implementation of a dual-energy cone-beam computed tomography method (DE-CBCT), and evaluate the improvement quantitatively. METHODS: Two sets of CBCT projections were acquired using the X-ray volumetric imaging (XVI) system on a Synergy (Elekta, Stockholm, Sweden) system with 120kV (high) and 70kV (low) X-rays, respectively. Then, the electron density relative to water (relative electron density (RED)) of each voxel was calculated using a projection-based dual-energy decomposition method...
April 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410600/primary-adrenal-non-hodgkin-lymphoma-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#11
Nanik Ram, Owais Rashid, Saad Farooq, Imran Ulhaq, Najmul Islam
BACKGROUND: Lymphomas are cancers that arise from the white blood cells and have been traditionally divided into two large subtypes: Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. B-cell lymphoma is the most common subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma; almost 85% of patients with lymphoma have this variant. Lymphomas can potentially arise from any lymphoid tissue located in the body; however, primary adrenal non-Hodgkin lymphoma is extremely rare. We report the history, examination findings, and laboratory results of a 50-year-old man diagnosed with a primary left adrenal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406442/liposomal-encapsulation-for-systemic-delivery-of-propranolol-via-transdermal-iontophoresis-improves-bone-microarchitecture-in-ovariectomized-rats
#12
Benjamin Teong, Shyh Ming Kuo, Wei-Hsin Tsai, Mei-Ling Ho, Chung-Hwan Chen, Han Hsiang Huang
The stimulatory effects of liposomal propranolol (PRP) on proliferation and differentiation of human osteoblastic cells suggested that the prepared liposomes-encapsulated PRP exerts anabolic effects on bone in vivo. Iontophoresis provides merits such as sustained release of drugs and circumvention of first pass metabolism. This study further investigated and evaluated the anti-osteoporotic effects of liposomal PRP in ovariectomized (OVX) rats via iontophoresis. Rats subjected to OVX were administered with pure or liposomal PRP via iontophoresis or subcutaneous injection twice a week for 12 weeks...
April 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406318/a-low-dose-and-an-ultra-low-dose-contrast-agent-protocol-for-coronary-ct-angiography-in-a-clinical-setting-quantitative-and-qualitative-comparison-to-a-standard-dose-protocol
#13
Dominik C Benz, Christoph Gräni, Beatrice Hirt Moch, Fran Mikulicic, Jan Vontobel, Tobias A Fuchs, Julia Stehli, Olivier F Clerc, Mathias Possner, Aju P Pazhenkottil, Oliver Gaemperli, Ronny R Buechel, Philipp A Kaufmann
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of a low-dose (LD) and an ultra-low-dose (ULD) contrast protocol for coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) on qualitative and quantitative image parameters in a clinical setting. METHODS: We scanned 120 consecutive patients with a 256-slice CT scanner applying a LD (60 patients, 35-55mL) or ULD (60 patients, 25-45mL) contrast protocol adapted to body mass index (BMI). Visually assessed image quality as well as attenuation measured in each coronary segment were retrospectively compared to 20 consecutive patients scanned with a normal-dose (ND, 40-105mL) contrast protocol...
April 13, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406049/evaluation-of-reduced-dose-ct-for-acute-non-traumatic-abdominal-pain-evaluation-of-diagnostic-accuracy-in-comparison-to-standard-dose-ct
#14
Ahmed E Othman, Malte Niklas Bongers, Dominik Zinsser, Christoph Schabel, Julian L Wichmann, Rami Arshid, Mike Notohamiprodjo, Konstantin Nikolaou, Fabian Bamberg
Background Patients with acute non-traumatic abdominal pain often undergo abdominal computed tomography (CT). However, abdominal CT is associated with high radiation exposure. Purpose To evaluate diagnostic performance of a reduced-dose 100 kVp CT protocol with advanced modeled iterative reconstruction as compared to a linearly blended 120 kVp protocol for assessment of acute, non-traumatic abdominal pain. Material and Methods Two radiologists assessed 100 kVp and linearly blended 120 kVp series of 112 consecutive patients with acute non-traumatic pain (onset < 48 h) regarding image quality, noise, and artifacts on a five-point Likert scale...
January 1, 2017: Acta Radiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403040/playing-the-odds-lung-cancer-surveillance-after-curative-surgery
#15
Ching-Fei Chang, Michael Gould
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: After so-called 'curative' resection, many patients are still at risk for further lung cancer, either as a recurrence or a new metachronous primary. In theory, close follow-up should improve survival by catching relapse early - but in reality, many experts feel that surveillance for recurrence is a waste of time and money. In this article, we explore the reasons behind the controversy, what the current guidelines recommend, and what future solutions are in development that may ultimately resolve this debate...
April 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398001/an-update-on-carbon-nanotube-enabled-x-ray-sources-for-biomedical-imaging
#16
REVIEW
Connor Puett, Christina Inscoe, Allison Hartman, Jabari Calliste, Dora K Franceschi, Jianping Lu, Otto Zhou, Yueh Z Lee
A new imaging technology has emerged that uses carbon nanotubes (CNT) as the electron emitter (cathode) for the X-ray tube. Since the performance of the CNT cathode is controlled by simple voltage manipulation, CNT-enabled X-ray sources are ideal for the repetitive imaging steps needed to capture three-dimensional information. As such, they have allowed the development of a gated micro-computed tomography (CT) scanner for small animal research as well as stationary tomosynthesis, an experimental technology for large field-of-view human imaging...
April 11, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395916/strengths-and-limitations-of-coronary-angiography-with-turbo-high-pitch-third-generation-dual-source-ct
#17
M M Ochs, F Andre, G Korosoglou, T Fritz, S Seitz, Y Bogomazov, C L Schlett, R Sokiranski, A Sommer, F Gückel, M Brado, H-U Kauczor, J Görich, H A Katus, S J Buss
AIM: To define practical limitations of diagnostic image quality for recently introduced turbo high-pitch scan mode (THP) in third-generation dual-source computed tomography (CT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred and twenty-nine consecutive patients undergoing CT coronary angiography were included in this retrospective single-centre analysis. A contrast-enhanced volume dataset was acquired in THP. Image quality of coronary segments was classified as diagnostic or non-diagnostic by three blinded readers...
April 8, 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394843/optimizing-radiation-dose-in-computed-tomography-of-articular-fractures
#18
Colin Mansfield, Sayed Ali, Kazimierz Komperda, Huaqing Zhao, Saqib Rehman
OBJECTIVES: Preoperative CT scans of articular fractures can be invaluable, but can also impart a radiation burden on the population. The goal of this study is to determine if a substantially lowered radiation protocol would provide satisfactory information for the surgeon, using the distal tibia as a model. METHODS: 11 adult cadaveric distal tibia specimens were utilized to create AO/OTA 43C distal tibia fractures with varying displacements in 2 planes. Each specimen was scanned at 3 modified protocols, which were then subsequently read by both qualified attending orthopedists and mid-level residents...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392035/lung-cancer-screening-with-low-dose-computed-tomography-is-not-a-question-of-logistics
#19
Alberto Ruano-Ravina, Mariano Provencio-Pulla, Pere Casan Clarà
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 6, 2017: Archivos de Bronconeumología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391605/ablation-zone-visualization-enhancement-by-periodic-contrast-enhancement-computed-tomography-during-microwave-ablation
#20
Po-Hung Wu, Zachary Borden, Chris L Brace
PURPOSE: Intra-procedural contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) has been proposed to monitor the growth of ablation zone in order to evaluate the efficacy of microwave ablation more accurately than post-ablation image. However, the dilemma of keeping image quality or following dose regulation becomes a huge challenge to apply CECT in real-time monitoring. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of applying local highly constrained backprojection reconstruction (HYPR-LR) on periodic CECT image to enhance visualization of ablation zone by statistical and pathological- radiological analysis...
April 9, 2017: Medical Physics
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