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Low dose computed tomography

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321070/primary-malignant-lymphoma-originating-from-the-chest-wall-without-preceding-pleural-disease
#1
Yumi Iwasa, Asuka Okada, Hideaki Takenaka, Terukazu Takahashi, Nobuo Koguchi, Kumiko Katayama, Shinsuke Murakami, Sumito Choh, Koichi Tomoda, Hiroshi Kimura
An 84-year-old woman presented to our hospital with dyspnea on exertion and left back pain. Chest X-ray and chest computed tomography (CT) revealed an irregular pleural mass invading her left chest wall with rib destruction and pleural effusion. CT-guided needle biopsy revealed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Low-dose oral etoposide produced a complete response, and she continued oral chemotherapy for one year after the diagnosis and maintained good performance status. We herein report a very rare case of non-pyothorax-associated lymphoma that nonetheless resulted in great recovery...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320428/a-topology-based-method-to-mitigate-the-dosimetric-uncertainty-caused-by-the-positional-variation-of-the-boost-volume-in-breast-conservative-radiotherapy
#2
Peng-Yi Lee, Chih-Yuan Lin, Shang-Wen Chen, Chun-Ru Chien, Chun-Nan Chu, Hsiu-Ting Hsu, Ji-An Liang, Ying-Jun Lin, An-Cheng Shiau
BACKGROUND: To improve local control rate in patients with breast cancer receiving adjuvant radiotherapy after breast conservative surgery, additional boost dose to the tumor bed could be delivered simultaneously via the simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) modulated technique. However, the position of tumor bed kept changing during the treatment course as the treatment position was aligned to bony anatomy. This study aimed to analyze the positional uncertainties between bony anatomy and tumor bed, and a topology-based approach was derived to stratify patients with high variation in tumor bed localization...
March 20, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303644/applications-of-nonlocal-means-algorithm-in-low-dose-x-ray-ct-image-processing-and-reconstruction-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Hao Zhang, Dong Zeng, Hua Zhang, Jing Wang, Zhengrong Liang, Jianhua Ma
Low-dose X-ray computed tomography (LDCT) imaging is highly recommended for use in the clinic because of growing concerns over excessive radiation exposure. However, the CT images reconstructed by the conventional filtered back-projection (FBP) method from low-dose acquisitions may be severely degraded with noise and streak artifacts due to excessive X-ray quantum noise, or with view-aliasing artifacts due to insufficient angular sampling. In 2005, the nonlocal means (NLM) algorithm was introduced as a non-iterative edge-preserving filter to denoise natural images corrupted by additive Gaussian noise, and showed superior performance...
March 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302592/spectral-detector-ct-for-cardiovascular-applications
#4
Prabhakar Rajiah, Suhny Abbara, Sandra Simon Halliburton
Spectral detector computed tomography (SDCT) is a novel technology that uses two layers of detectors to simultaneously collect low and high energy data. Spectral data is used to generate conventional polyenergetic images as well as dedicated spectral images including virtual monoenergetic and material composition (iodine-only, virtual unenhanced, effective atomic number) images. This paper provides an overview of SDCT technology and a description of some spectral image types. The potential utility of SDCT for cardiovascular imaging and the impact of this new technology on radiation and contrast dose are discussed through presentation of initial patient studies performed on a SDCT scanner...
March 17, 2017: Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology: Official Journal of the Turkish Society of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302568/mutational-profile-from-targeted-ngs-predicts-survival-in-ldct-screening-detected-lung-cancers
#5
Carla Verri, Cristina Borzi, Todd Holscher, Matteo Dugo, Andrea Devecchi, Katherine Drake, Stefano Sestini, Paola Suatoni, Elisa Romeo, Gabriella Sozzi, Ugo Pastorino, Mattia Boeri
BACKGROUND: The issue of overdiagnosis in low-dose computed tomography (LDCT)-screening trials could be addressed by the development of complementary biomarkers able to improve detection of aggressive disease. The mutation profile of LDCT screening-detected lung tumours is currently unknown. METHODS: Targeted next-generation sequencing was performed in 94 LDCT screening-detected lung tumours. Associations with clinicopathologic features, survival and the risk profile of a plasma microRNA signature classifier (MSC) were analyzed...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301535/quantitative-assessment-of-pulmonary-alveolar-proteinosis-pap-with-ultra-dose-ct-and-correlation-with-pulmonary-function-tests-pfts
#6
Xin Sui, Qianni Du, Kai-Feng Xu, Xinlun Tian, Lan Song, Xiao Wang, Xiaoli Xu, Zixing Wang, Yuyan Wang, Jun Gu, Wei Song, Zhengyu Jin
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether ultra-low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) can be used for visual assessment of CT features in patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) and to evaluate the relationship between the quantitative analysis of the ultra-low-dose CT scans and the pulmonary function tests (PFTs). METHODS: Thirty-eight patients (mean [SD] age, 44.47 [12.28] years; 29 males, 9 females) with PAP were enrolled and subjected to two scans each with low-dose CT (reference parameters: 120 kV and 50 mAs) and ultra-low-dose CT (reference parameters, 80 kV, 25 mAs)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299582/complete-tumor-response-with-afatinib-20%C3%A2-mg-daily-in-egfr-mutated-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-case-report
#7
Raffaele Giusti, Marco Mazzotta, Daniela Iacono, Salvatore Lauro, Paolo Marchetti
Afatinib, a second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is efficacious as first-line treatment in patients with EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Dosage reduction is recommended in patients with intolerable adverse events; however, data regarding the efficacy of low-dose afatinib are limited. We report the case of a 71-year-old female patient who was diagnosed with advanced EGFR-mutated NSCLC and started treatment with oral afatinib 40 mg daily. The patient achieved partial tumor response on computed tomography imaging, but developed unacceptable skin-related toxicities requiring dosage reduction to 20 mg daily...
March 15, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298941/in-vivo-feasibility-of-real-time-mr-us-fusion-imaging-lumbar-facet-joint-injections
#8
Riccardo Sartoris, Davide Orlandi, Angelo Corazza, Luca Maria Sconfienza, Alice Arcidiacono, Silvia Perugin Bernardi, Simone Schiaffino, Giovanni Turtulici, Pietro Caruso, Enzo Silvestri
OBJECTIVES: Traditionally, facet joint injections (FJI) are performed under fluoroscopic or computed tomography (CT) guidance, mainly due to the deep anatomical location and the presence of bony landmarks. Fusion imaging technology, which couples the ultrasound scan with the corresponding CT or magnetic resonance (MR) image obtained from the diagnostic examination and reformatted in real time according to the ultrasound scanning plane, allows to combine the panoramic view and the elevated anatomical detail of MR or CT with the ease of use of ultrasound without patient exposure to ionizing radiation...
March 2017: Journal of Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297318/a-qualitative-and-quantitative-analysis-of-radiation-dose-and-image-quality-of-computed-tomography-images-using-adaptive-statistical-iterative-reconstruction
#9
Fahad Ahmed Hussain, Noor Mail, Abdulrahman M Shamy, Suliman Alghamdi, Abdelhamid Saoudi
Image quality is a key issue in radiology, particularly in a clinical setting where it is important to achieve accurate diagnoses while minimizing radiation dose. Some computed tomography (CT) manufacturers have introduced algorithms that claim significant dose reduction. In this study, we assessed CT image quality produced by two reconstruction algorithms provided with GE Healthcare's Discovery 690 Elite positron emission tomography (PET) CT scanner. Image quality was measured for images obtained at various doses with both conventional filtered back-projection (FBP) and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) algorithms...
May 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296730/image-quality-evaluation-for-care-kv-technique-combined-with-iterative-reconstruction-for-chest-computed-tomography-scanning
#10
Bin Yang, Zheng-Liang Li, Yi Gao, Ya-Ying Yang, Wei Zhao
BACKGROUND: To investigate the radiation dose and image quality for iterative reconstruction combined with the CARE kV technique in chest computed tomography (CT) scanning for physical examination. METHODS: A total of 130 patients who underwent chest CT scanning were randomly chosen and the quality reference value was set as 80 mAs. The scanning scheme was set and the patients were randomly divided into groups according to the scanning scheme. Sixty patients underwent a chest scan with 100 kV using the CARE kV technique and SAFIRE reconstruction (value=3) (experimental group) and the other 70 patients underwent chest scanning with 120 kV (control group)...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296304/low-dose-2-5-mv-cone-beam-computed-tomography-with-thick-csi-flat-panel-imager
#11
Grace Tang, Christopher Moussot, Daniel Morf, Edward Seppi, Howard Amols
Most of the treatment units, both new and old models, are equipped with a megavoltage portal imager but its use for volumetric imaging is limited. This is mainly due to the poor image quality produced by the high-energy treatment beam (>6 MV). A linac at our center is equipped with a prototype 2.5 MV imaging beam. This study evaluates the feasibility of low-dose megavoltage cone-beam imaging with the 2.5 MV beam and a thick cesium iodide detector, which is a high-efficiency imager. Basic imaging properties such as spatial resolution and modulation transfer function were assessed for the 2...
July 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296300/experimental-validation-of-a-kv-source-model-and-dose-computation-method-for-cbct-imaging-in-an-anthropomorphic-phantom
#12
Yannick Poirier, Mauro Tambasco
We present an experimental validation of a kilovoltage (kV) X-ray source characterization model in an anthropomorphic phantom to estimate patient-specific absorbed dose from kV cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging procedures and compare these doses to nominal weighted CT-dose index (CTDIw) dose estimates. We simulated the default Varian on-board imager 1.4 (OBI) default CBCT imaging protocols (i.e., standard-dose head, low-dose thorax, pelvis, and pelvis spotlight) using our previously developed and easy to implement X-ray point-source model and source characterization approach...
July 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295413/using-a-handheld-stereo-depth-camera-to-overcome-limited-field-of-view-in-simulation-imaging-for-radiation-therapy-treatment-planning
#13
Cesare Jenkins, Lei Xing, Amy Yu
PURPOSE: A correct body contour is essential for reliable treatment planning in radiation therapy. While modern medical imaging technologies provide highly accurate patient modeling, there are times when a patient's anatomy cannot be fully captured or there is a lack of easy access to computed tomography (CT) simulation. Here we provide a practical solution to the surface contour truncation problem by using a handheld stereo depth camera (HSDC) to obtain the missing surface anatomy and a surface-surface image registration to stich the surface data into the CT dataset for treatment planning...
March 11, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291920/optimal-slice-thickness-for-object-detection-with-longitudinal-partial-volume-effects-in-computed-tomography
#14
Pascal Monnin, Nicolas Sfameni, Achille Gianoli, Sandrine Ding
Longitudinal partial volume effects (z-axial PVE), which occur when an object partly occupies a slice, degrade image resolution and contrast in computed tomography (CT). Z-axial PVE is unavoidable for subslice objects and reduces their contrast according to their fraction contained within the slice. This effect can be countered using a smaller slice thickness, but at the cost of an increased image noise or radiation dose. The aim of this study is to offer a tool for optimizing the reconstruction parameters (slice thickness and slice spacing) in CT protocols in the case of partial volume effects...
January 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290345/first-experiences-with-model-based-iterative-reconstructions-influence-on-quantitative-plaque-volume-and-intensity-measurements-in-coronary-computed-tomography-angiography
#15
H Precht, P H Kitslaar, A Broersen, O Gerke, J Dijkstra, J Thygesen, K Egstrup, J Lambrechtsen
PURPOSE: Investigate the influence of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) and the model-based IR (Veo) reconstruction algorithm in coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) images on quantitative measurements in coronary arteries for plaque volumes and intensities. METHODS: Three patients had three independent dose reduced CCTA performed and reconstructed with 30% ASIR (CTDIvol at 6.7 mGy), 60% ASIR (CTDIvol 4.3 mGy) and Veo (CTDIvol at 1...
February 2017: Radiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288480/the-effect-of-heart-rate-on-exposure-window-and-best-phase-for-stress-perfusion-computed-tomography-lessons-from-the-core320-study
#16
Chloe Steveson, Joanne D Schuijf, Andrea L Vavere, Richard T Mather, Teresa Caton, Vishal Mehra, Aisha Betoko, Christopher Cox, Joao Ac Lima, Richard T George
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of heart rate on exposure window, best phase, and image quality for stress computed tomography perfusion (CTP) in the CORE320 study. METHODS: The CTP data sets were analyzed to determine the best phase for perfusion analysis. A predefined exposure window covering 75% to 95% of the R-R cycle was used. RESULTS: Of the 368 patients included in the analysis, 93% received oral β blockade before the rest scan...
March 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286671/low-dose-ct-pulmonary-angiography-on-a-15-year-old-ct-scanner-a-feasibility-study
#17
Moritz Kaup, Tatjana Gruber-Rouh, Jan E Scholtz, Moritz H Albrecht, Andreas Bucher, Claudia Frellesen, Thomas J Vogl, Martin Beeres
BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) low-dose (LD) imaging is used to lower radiation exposure, especially in vascular imaging; in current literature, this is mostly on latest generation high-end CT systems. PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of reduced tube current on objective and subjective image quality of a 15-year-old 16-slice CT system for pulmonary angiography (CTPA). MATERIAL AND METHODS: CTPA scans from 60 prospectively randomized patients (28 men, 32 women) were examined in this study on a 15-year-old 16-slice CT scanner system...
December 2016: Acta Radiologica Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285790/diagnosis-and-treatment-for-clinically-localized-prostate-cancer-adherence-to-the-european-association-of-urology-clinical-guidelines-in-a-nationwide-population-based-study-gescap-group
#18
F Gómez-Veiga, A Rodríguez-Antolín, B Miñana, C Hernández, J F Suárez, J M Fernández-Gómez, M Unda, J Burgos, A Alcaraz, P Rodríguez, R Medina, J Castiñeiras, C Moreno, E Pedrosa, J M Cózar
OBJECTIVE: To assess the adherence to European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines in the management of prostate cancer (PCa) in Spain. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Epidemiological, population-based, study including a national representative sample of 3,918 incident patients with histopathological confirmation during 2010; 95% of the patient's sample was followed up for at least one year. Diagnosis along with treatment related variables (for localized PCa -low, intermediate, high and locally-advanced by D'Amico risk stratification) was recorded...
March 9, 2017: Actas Urologicas Españolas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285693/high-risk-community-and-primary-care-providers-knowledge-about-and-barriers-to-low-dose-computed-topography-lung-cancer-screening
#19
Vani N Simmons, Jhanelle E Gray, Matthew B Schabath, Lauren E Wilson, Gwendolyn P Quinn
INTRODUCTION: Until recently, there has not been a valid and reliable screening test for lung cancer. As compared to chest X-ray, low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) lung cancer screening has demonstrated greater sensitivity resulting in lung cancer diagnosis at an earlier stage, thereby reducing lung cancer mortality among high-risk individuals by 20%. In the current study, we sought to examine knowledge and attitudes about LDCT screening for lung cancer among an ethnically and racially diverse sample of high risk (HR) community members and primary care providers (PCP)...
April 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285450/computed-tomography-guided-navigation-assisted-percutaneous-ablation-of-osteoid-osteoma-in-a-7-year-old-patient-the-low-dose-approach
#20
Miltiadis Krokidis, Carlo Tappero, Daniel Bogdanovic, Kai Ziebarth, Anna-Christina Stamm
Osteoid osteoma (OO) is a benign tumour that can cause severe pain and functional limitation to children and young adults; the treatment of choice is image-guided ablation. Due to the very small size of the lesion, detection and accurate needle placement may be challenging. Computed tomography (CT) offers very detailed imaging of the skeleton and is the modality of choice for the detection of small OO and for ablation guidance. Nevertheless, CT-guided positioning of the ablation applicator is linked to significant radiation exposure, particularly for the paediatric population...
March 11, 2017: Skeletal Radiology
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