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Low dose computed tomography

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545681/survey-of-uk-imaging-practice-for-the-investigation-of-pulmonary-embolism-in-pregnancy
#1
L Armstrong, F Gleeson, L Mackillop, S Mutch, A Beale
AIM: To determine the utilisation of computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) and lung scintigraphy in the UK, and to assess their diagnostic qualities in the investigation of suspected pulmonary embolism (PE) in pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected via electronic questionnaire in the UK from 24 sites. Data on the choice of imaging technique, radiation dose, technical adequacy, weeks' gestation, presenting symptoms, and further management of patients with indeterminate imaging were collected...
May 22, 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543102/low-flow-low-gradient-aortic-stenosis-still-a-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-challenge
#2
REVIEW
Anja Vogelgesang, Gerd Hasenfuss, Claudius Jacobshagen
Aortic stenosis (AS) is the most frequently observed valvular heart disease. During the symptomatic stage, the rate of death increases dramatically, so that a precise diagnostic approach is taken to guide therapeutic options. Of patients with severe AS, 30% to 50% present with low-flow/low-gradient AS (LF/LGAS) status. This review focuses on LF/LGAS and the best diagnostic and therapeutic management in either classic LF/LGAS with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) or paradoxical LF/LGAS with preserved LVEF...
May 23, 2017: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541749/multilevel-barriers-to-the-successful-implementation-of-lung-cancer-screening-why-does-it-have-to-be-so-hard
#3
Lisa Carter-Harris, Michael K Gould
The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography for long-term current and former smokers. However, lung cancer screening and its implementation is a complex issue. Screening has associated risks and potential harms that complicate the decision to screen for the patient, add to the already time-constrained clinical encounter for the provider, and present logistical and sociopolitical challenges in creating and implementing lung cancer screening programs for the health care system...
May 25, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533799/definitive-three-dimensional-high-dose-rate-brachytherapy-for-inoperable-endometrial-cancer
#4
Lorena Draghini, Ernesto Maranzano, Michelina Casale, Fabio Trippa, Paola Anselmo, Fabio Arcidiacono, Stefania Fabiani, Marco Italiani, Luigia Chirico, Marco Muti
PURPOSE: To report our experience on high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) in patients with stage I-III endometrial cancer unfit to surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventeen patients underwent HDR-BT as definitive treatment. Median age was 79 years (range, 60-95), median Karnofsky performance status 90% (range, 60-100). Histology was endometrial adenocarcinoma in 14 (82%), and non-endometrial in 3 (18%) patients. In 15 (88%) patients, clinical stage was I and in remaining 2 (12%) was III...
April 2017: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533050/dual-core-steered-non-rigid-registration-for-multi-modal-images-via-bi-directional-image-synthesis
#5
Xiaohuan Cao, Jianhua Yang, Yaozong Gao, Yanrong Guo, Guorong Wu, Dinggang Shen
In prostate cancer radiotherapy, computed tomography (CT) is widely used for dose planning purposes. However, because CT has low soft tissue contrast, it makes manual contouring difficult for major pelvic organs. In contrast, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides high soft tissue contrast, which makes it ideal for accurate manual contouring. Therefore, the contouring accuracy on CT can be significantly improved if the contours in MRI can be mapped to CT domain by registering MRI with CT of the same subject, which would eventually lead to high treatment efficacy...
May 13, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531567/impact-of-body-composition-parameters-on-clinical-outcomes-in-patients-with-metastatic-castrate-resistant-prostate-cancer-treated-with-docetaxel
#6
Samantha J Cushen, Derek G Power, Kevin P Murphy, Ray McDermott, Brendan T Griffin, Marvin Lim, Louise Daly, Peter MacEneaney, Kathleen O' Sullivan, Carla M Prado, Aoife M Ryan
BACKGROUND: Body composition may influence clinical outcomes of certain chemotherapeutic agents. We examined the prognostic significance of skeletal muscle mass and adipose tissue on docetaxel toxicity and overall survival in patients with metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). METHODS: A retrospective review of patients medical records with mCRPC, treated with docetaxel was conducted. Body composition parameters (skeletal muscle mass, muscle attenuation [MA], visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue) were measured at L3 by computed tomography (CT) and defined using previously established cut points...
June 2016: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522401/comparison-of-the-osteogenesis-and-fusion-rates-between-activin-a-bmp-2-chimera-ab204-and-rhbmp-2-in-a-beagle-s-posterolateral-lumbar-spine-model
#7
Guang Bin Zheng, Byung-Hak Yoon, Jae Hyup Lee
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Activin A/BMP-2 chimera (AB204) could promote bone healing more effectively than recombinant bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) with much lower dose in rodent model, but there is no report about the effectiveness of AB204 in a large animal model. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the osteogenesis and fusion rate between AB204 and rhBMP-2 using biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) as a carrier in beagle's posterolateral lumbar fusion model...
May 15, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521182/should-nonsmokers-be-excluded-from-early-lung-cancer-screening-with-low-dose-spiral-computed-tomography-community-based-practice-in-shanghai
#8
Xiaoyang Luo, Shanbo Zheng, Quan Liu, Shengping Wang, Yuan Li, Lei Shen, Guodong Li, Wentao Li, Yanping Zhao, Huilin Xu, Jing Wang, Xiaohua Liu, Yunjian Pan, Hong Hu, Yihua Sun, Haiyan Yang, Su Xu, Haiquan Chen
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the efficacy of early lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral computed tomography(LDCT) in both smokers and nonsmokers based on the current situation of community health service, with integration of superior resources of medical institutions at all levels in Shanghai. METHODS: From August 2013 to August 2014, we screened 11,332 (male 7144; female 4188) high-risk individuals in selected communities of Minhang, Shanghai City, for early diagnosis of lung cancer with LDCT combined with multidisciplinary comprehensive treatment pattern including minimally invasive surgery, exploring the medical service network covering prevention, diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation, and follow-up...
May 15, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513211/image-quality-of-low-radiation-dose-left-atrial-ct-using-filtered-back-projection-and-an-iterative-reconstruction-algorithm-intra-individual-comparison-in-unselected-patients-undergoing-pulmonary-vein-isolation
#9
Ute Lina Fahlenkamp, Ivan Diaz Ramirez, Moritz Wagner, Carsten Schwenke, Alexander Huppertz, Bernd Hamm, Alexander Lembcke
Background Computed tomography (CT) of the left atrium (LA) is performed prior to pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) to improve success of circumferential ablation for atrial fibrillation. The ablation procedure itself exposes patients to substantial radiation doses, therefore radiation dose reduction in pre-ablational imaging is of concern. Purpose To assess and compare diagnostic performance of low-radiation dose preprocedural CT in patients scheduled for PVI using two types of reconstruction algorithms. Material and Methods Forty-six patients (61 ± 10 years) scheduled for PVI were enrolled in this study irrespective of body-mass-index or cardiac rhythm at examination...
January 1, 2017: Acta Radiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511585/three-phase-adaptive-radiation-therapy-for-patients-with-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-undergoing-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy-dosimetric-analysis
#10
Shan Deng, Xu Liu, Heming Lu, Huixian Huang, Liuyang Shu, Hailan Jiang, Jinjian Cheng, Luxing Peng, Qiang Pang, Junzhao Gu, Jian Qin, Zhiping Lu, Ying Mo, Danling Wu, Yinglin Wei
Patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma undergoing intensity-modulated radiation therapy may experience significant anatomic changes throughout the entire treatment course, and adaptive radiation therapy may be necessary to maintain optimal dose delivered both to the targets and to the critical structures. The timing of adaptive radiation therapy, however, is largely unknown. This study was to evaluate the dosimetric benefits of a 3-phase adaptive radiation therapy technique for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Twenty patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy were recruited prospectively...
January 1, 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506470/coronary-ct-angiography-in-the-emergency-department-utilizing-second-and-third-generation-dual-source-ct
#11
Nandini M Meyersohn, Balint Szilveszter, Pedro V Staziaki, Jan-Erik Scholtz, Richard A P Takx, Udo Hoffmann, Brian B Ghoshhajra
BACKGROUND: Coronary computed tomography angiography (coronary CTA) allows efficient triage of low to intermediate risk patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in the emergency department (ED). Techniques for coronary CTA acquisition in the ED continue to evolve with the establishment of standardized scan protocols and the introduction of newer generations of CT hardware. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate qualitative and quantitative image quality and radiation dose exposure of coronary CTA acquired on 2nd versus 3rd generation dual source CT (DSCT) scanners using a standardized institutional scan protocol designed for the ED...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500985/low-dose-computed-tomography-pulmonary-angiography-protocol-for-imaging-pregnant-patients-can-dose-reduction-be-achieved-without-reducing-image-quality
#12
Darragh Halpenny, Brian Park, Jeffrey Alpert, Larry Latson, Nancy Kim, James Babb, Maria Shiau, Jane Ko
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of low dose computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) on radiation dose in pregnant patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An old CTPA protocol for pregnant patients was compared to a new protocol. Protocol changes included: decreased kVp; increased contrast injection rate; imaging after shallow inspiration. Patients undergoing CTPA before (phase 1 group) or after (phase 2 group) the protocol change, were assessed. RESULTS: Effective dose was lower in the phase 2 group (0...
April 7, 2017: Clinical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500874/effects-of-intermittent-low-dose-parathyroid-hormone-treatment-on-rapid-mandibular-distraction-osteogenesis-in-rabbits
#13
Bin Ye, Yunfeng Li, Songsong Zhu, Shengjun Sun, Jing Hu, Shujuan Zou
PURPOSE: To determine whether low-dose recombinant human parathyroid hormone (rhPTH) would have a beneficial effect on regenerate healing and surrounding bone in a rabbit model of rapid mandibular distraction osteogenesis (DO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-eight rabbits underwent unilateral mandibular lengthening at a rapid rate of 2 mm per day for 5 days. From the first day of DO, the experimental group received daily subcutaneous injections of rhPTH 10 μg/kg for 30 days and the control group received the same volume of saline (n = 14 in each group)...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500370/long-term-prognostic-performance-of-low-dose-coronary-computed-tomography-angiography-with-prospective-electrocardiogram-triggering
#14
Olivier F Clerc, Basil P Kaufmann, Mathias Possner, Riccardo Liga, Jan Vontobel, Fran Mikulicic, Christoph Gräni, Dominik C Benz, Tobias A Fuchs, Julia Stehli, Aju P Pazhenkottil, Oliver Gaemperli, Philipp A Kaufmann, Ronny R Buechel
OBJECTIVES: To assess long-term prognosis after low-dose 64-slice coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) using prospective electrocardiogram-triggering. METHODS: We included 434 consecutive patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease referred for low-dose CCTA. Patients were classified as normal, with non-obstructive or obstructive lesions, or previously revascularized. Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) was assessed in 223 patients. Follow-up was obtained regarding major adverse cardiac events (MACE): cardiac death, myocardial infarction and elective revascularization...
May 12, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498448/sanguinarine-protects-against-ovariectomy%C3%A2-induced-osteoporosis-in-mice
#15
Yan Ma, Junjie Chu, Jianjun Ma, Lei Ning, Ke Zhou, Xiangqian Fang
Natural compounds are alternative agents that have therapeutic potential for preventing and treating osteoporosis. Traditionally, sanguinarine has been used clinically due to its diverse biological properties, including antimicrobial, anti‑inflammatory and anticancer effects. Recently, for the first time, it was reported that sanguinarine inhibits osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption by suppressing the tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 11‑induced nuclear factor‑κB and extracellular signal‑regulated kinase signaling pathways in vitro...
May 11, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497937/cone-beam-volumetric-imaging-in-craniofacial-medicine
#16
Dario Bertossi, Pietro Fiorino, Claudia Corega, Luca Sbricoli, Daniele DE Santis, Dario Donadello, Giulia Ricciardi, Umberto Luciano, Eriberto Bressan, Alessia Pardo, Massimo Albanese, Alessandro Zangani
With the development of x-ray computed tomography (CT) in the 1960s and its first use for clinical studies in 1972 by Sir Godfrey Hounsfield, radiological tomography attained widespread use and today is one of the essential imaging techniques in medical radiology. It is a technically mature and clinically widely accepted method and complements classical x-ray panoramic radiography in many areas. The technology is frequently used in craniofacial radiology, because of its characteristic low radiation dose, high spatial resolution and lower cost compared with CT...
May 12, 2017: Minerva Stomatologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495911/intratumoral-injection-of-hsv1716-an-oncolytic-herpes-virus-is-safe-and-shows-evidence-of-immune-response-and-viral-replication-in-young-cancer-patients
#17
Keri A Streby, James I Geller, Mark A Currier, Patrick S Warren, John M Racadio, Alexander J Towbin, Michele R Vaughan, Melinda Triplet, Kristy Ott-Napier, Devon J Dishman, Lori R Backus, Beth Stockman, Marianne Brunner, Kathleen Simpson, Robert Spavin, Joe Conner, Timothy P Cripe
Purpose: HSV1716 is an oncolytic herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) studied in adults via injection into the brain and superficial tumors. To determine the safety of administering HSV1716 to pediatric patients with cancer, we conducted a phase I trial of image-guided injection in young patients with relapsed or refractory extracranial cancers.Experimental Design: We delivered a single dose of 10(5) to 10(7) infectious units of HSV1716 via computed tomography-guided intratumoral injection and measured tumor responses by imaging...
May 11, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492571/-teamwork-for-cardiac-imaging-coronary-computed-tomography-angiography-and-low-dose-radiation-exposure-a-cardiology-center-experience
#18
Massimo Magnacca, Rosa Poddighe, Jacopo Del Meglio, Alessio Lilli, Marco Tullio Baratto, Maria Laura Canale, Carlo Tessa, Luca Salvatori, Alessandra Niespolo, Claudio Vignali, Giancarlo Casolo
BACKGROUND: Multidetector coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is increasingly used for noninvasive imaging of the coronary arteries. Radiation exposure, however, is a potential limitation to a more extensive use of this imaging modality. We aimed to demonstrate that a professional teamwork approach, including a cardiologist and a radiologist in performing CCTA, may allow to obtain best quality exams with very low radiation doses. METHODS: A total of 998 consecutive patients underwent CCTA in accordance with the most recent guidelines...
April 2017: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490470/metal-artifact-reduction-of-ct-scans-to-improve-pet-ct
#19
Charlotte S van der Vos, Anne Ij Arens, Jim Hamill, Christian Hofmann, Vladimir Y Panin, Antoi Pw Meeuwis, Eric P Visser, Lioe-Fee de Geus-Oei
In recent years different metal artifact reduction (MAR) methods have been developed for computed tomography (CT). These methods have only recently been introduced for positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) even though they could be beneficial for interpretation, segmentation and quantification of the PET/CT images. In this study, phantom and patient scans were analyzed visually and quantitatively to measure the effect on PET images of iterative metal artifact reduction (iMAR) of CT data...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488124/hypomyopathic-dermatomyositis-associated-with-interstitial-lung-disease-and-good-response-to-mycophenolate-mofetil-case-based-review
#20
REVIEW
Roberta Vilela Lopes Koyama, Tiago Kiyoshi Kitabayashi Braga, George Alberto da Silva Dias, Satomi Fujihara, Hellen Thais Fuzii, Gilberto Toshimitsu Yoshikawa
Hypomyopathic dermatomyositis (HDM) is a rare form of dermatomyositis (DM). Interstitial lung disease (ILD) associated with clinically amyopathic DM (CADM-ILD) or hypomyopathic DM (HDM-ILD) is a rare condition with a more unfavorable prognosis than ILD associated with classic DM (CDM-ILD). There is no effective treatment for HDM-ILD. A 62-year-old woman with a 6-month history of chronic polyarthritis and myalgia presented skin lesions characteristic of DM (erythematous lesion on extensor surface of elbows, Gottron's papules, V-neck sign) with no clinical muscle impairment (global muscle strength: grade 5)...
May 9, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
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