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Clarice L S Lopes, Paula Pitta Pinheiro, Luzia S Barberena, Guilherme U Eckert
OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of children aged 0-14 years diagnosed with diabetic ketoacidosis and compare the following outcomes between children with prior diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) and children without prior diagnosis of DM1: length of hospital stay, severity on admission, insulin dosage, time of continuous insulin use, volume of fluids infused during treatment, and complications. METHODS: A retrospective descriptive study with review of medical records of patients admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit of a referral hospital from June 2013 to July 2015...
October 19, 2016: Jornal de Pediatria
Hidenori Tsukui, Koji Koinuma, Mitsuaki Morimoto, Hisanaga Horie, Alan Kawarai Lefor, Yuka Kagaya, Haruo Takahashi, Tomonori Yano, Daisuke Matsubara, Hironori Yamamoto, Naohiro Sata
We report the case of a patient with Crohn's disease who initially presented with a ceco-urachal fistula. The patient was a 31-year-old female who underwent an appendectomy 6 years before presenting to our institution. She had a one-year history of diarrhea, and had recently developed polyuria and a sensation of residual urine. She was admitted with fever and lower abdominal pain. Endoscopy and computed tomography revealed a ceco-urachal fistula, which was consistent with Crohn's disease. An urachal resection was performed, which included partial cystectomy and ileocecal resection...
October 20, 2016: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
Fahmy A Mamuya, Jose Luis Cano-Peñalver, Wei U Li, Diego Rodriguez-Puyol, Manuel Rodríguez-Puyol, Dennis Brown, Sergio de Frutos, Hua Jenny Lu
Within the past decade tremendous efforts have been made to understand the mechanism behind aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channel trafficking and recycling, in order to open a path towards effective diabetes insipidus therapeutics. A recent study has shown that Integrin-Linked Kinase (ILK) conditional-knockdown mice developed polyuria along with decreased expression of AQP2. To understand whether ILK also regulates AQP2 trafficking in kidney tubular cells, we performed in vitro analysis using LLCPK1 cells stably expressing rat AQP2 (LLC-AQP2 cells)...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Catriona Boyd, Abdul Moodambail
We describe a case of a 4-year-old boy who presented with acute vomiting, weight loss, loss of appetite, polyuria and polydipsia. Initial investigations revealed a very elevated corrected calcium level which peaked at 4.46 mmol/L. He had a prior diagnosis of autism and his mother had consulted an alternative therapist who had recommended many supplements, including calcium and vitamin D. He required treatment with hyperhydration, calcitonin, furosemide and several doses of pamindronate before his calcium level returned to the normal range 2 weeks later...
October 6, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
Monique Mostert, Anthony Bonavia
BACKGROUND Besides providing anesthesia for surgery, the anesthesiologist's role is to optimize the patient for surgery and for post-surgical recovery. This involves timely identification and treatment of medical comorbidities and abnormal laboratory values that could complicate the patient's perioperative course. There are several potential causes of anion and non-anion gap metabolic acidosis in surgical patients, most of which could profoundly affect a patient's surgical outcome. Thus, the presence of an acute acid-base disturbance requires a thorough workup, the results of which will influence the patient's anesthetic management...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
Ranga M Weerakkody, Pushpa N Lokuliyana, Ruchika D Lanerolle
Hump-nosed viper (Hypnale hypnale; HNV) is one of the six major snake species in Sri Lanka that cause envenomation. Nephrotoxicity, coagulopathy, and neurotoxicity are wellrecognized features of its envenomation. Type 4 renal tubular acidosis (RTA4) has only once been described previously in this condition, and we report two further cases. Two patients aged 53 and 51 presented following HNV bites with acute kidney injury and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia. Both underwent multiple cycles of hemodialysis until the polyuric phase was reached...
September 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Rene Razzak, Todd McMullen, Eric L R Bédard
We report a case involving a female patient with primary hyperparathyroidism arising from a middle mediastinal parathyroid adenoma. Initial diagnosis was made based on a history of polyuria and recurrent renal colic. At the age of 77 she underwent videoscopic assisted mediastinoscopy (VAM) for resection of the adenoma which was localized using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT/CT). This case illustrates the importance for accurate pre-operative localization and intra-operative monitoring to ensure complete surgical removal in order to improve postoperative normocalcemia success rates...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Shusuke Yamamoto, Hideo Hamada, Shoichi Nagai, Satoshi Kuroda
We present a very rare case of suprasellar germinoma that spontaneously regressed before endoscopic biopsy. An 8-year-old boy was admitted to our hospital due to headache, polydipsia, and polyuria. Neurological examination performed on admission revealed bitemporal hemianopia. Enhanced MRI demonstrated a homogeneously enhanced tumor mass in the suprasellar region obstructing the foramen of Monro. Tests for all serum tumor markers were negative. Plain X-ray and CT scan were performed once and twice, respectively, for seven days between admission and endoscopic biopsy...
October 2016: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
Benjamin Derman, Milli Jain, Elizabeth McAninch, Casey Gashti
A 59-year-old man presented with polyuria and polydipsia immediately following his sixth cycle of rituximab and bendamustine for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. He initially compensated by increasing his oral fluid intake at home, but later developed septic shock and was admitted with orders to be kept nil per os (NPO). This prompted an episode of acute hypernatremia during which he exhibited continued polyuria with inappropriately dilute urine. Desmopressin challenge yielded no response in the urine osmolality, indicating a nephrogenic source of his diabetes insipidus (DI)...
October 10, 2016: Clinical Nephrology
Maulee Hiromi Arambewela, Noel P Somasundaram, Chaminda Garusinghe
BACKGROUND: Hypernatremia is a frequent occurrence among hospitalized patients. Severe hypernatremia is associated with mortality rates of over 60 %. Extreme hypernatremia, defined as sodium levels >190 mmol/l, is a rare occurrence. The literature on electrocardiographic changes occurring with this degree of hypernatremia is extremely scarce. We report the case of an 11-year-old Sri Lankan girl who presented with sodium levels of 226 mmol/l following infusion with 3 % hypertonic saline who developed diffuse QT prolongation leading to fatal ventricular tachycardia...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Ramith Ramu, Prithvi S Shirahatti, Shivasharanappa Nayakavadi, Vadivelan R, Farhan Zameer, Bhadrapura Lakkappa Dhananjaya, Nagendra Prasad Mn
Banana is an extensively cultivated plant worldwide, mainly for its fruit, while its ancillary product, the banana pseudostem, is consumed as a vegetable and is highly recommended for diabetics in the traditional Indian medicine system. The present study was aimed at elucidating the mechanism of antihyperglycaemia exerted by the ethanol extract of banana pseudostem (EE) and its isolated compounds viz., stigmasterol (C1) and β-sitosterol (C2), in an alloxan-induced diabetic rat model. Diabetic rats which were administered with C1, C2 and EE (100 and 200 mg per kg b...
September 14, 2016: Food & Function
R Hofmann-Lehmann, N Wagmann, M L Meli, B Riond, M Novacco, D Joekel, F Gentilini, F Marsilio, M G Pennisi, A Lloret, T Carrapiço, F S Boretti
'Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis' is an emerging tick-borne zoonotic agent that primarily affects immunocompromised human patients. Dogs and foxes are frequently exposed to ticks, and both species are in close proximity to humans. This is the first study to systematically investigate the occurrence of 'Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis' in Canidae in Europa. We analyzed 1'739 blood samples from dogs in Switzerland, Italy, Spain and Portugal and 162 blood samples from free-ranging red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Switzerland...
October 2016: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
Ana L Lopes Mendes, Veerle Decalf, Marie A Denys, Andrea Tubaro, Karel Everaert
BACKGROUND: Bladder dysfunctions often express the presence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and are common in older people. Aim of this study is to analyse the Micturition, Incontinence and Residual in older people, evaluating the role of Nocturnal Polyuria. METHODS: 86 patients with at least 65 years old and invalidating LUTS were hospitalized for 24 hours. The Maximum Bladder Capacity, mean Micturition Volume, Post Voiding Residual and Incontinence Volume were recorded and analysed day-time and night-time...
October 5, 2016: Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica, the Italian Journal of Urology and Nephrology
Shilpa Rao, Anita Mahadevan, Tanmoy Maiti, Manish Ranjan, Shivayogi Durgad Shwetha, Arimappamagan Arivazhagan, Jitender Saini
Hypophysitis includes three histopathologically distinct entities - granulomatous, lymphocytic and xanthomatous forms. Etiopathogenesis and the immunological differences among these is not well characterized. This study aims to explore the immunopathogenesis of granulomatous and lymphocytic forms of hypophysitis. Demographic, clinical, endocrine function and radiological features of 33 histologically confirmed cases of hypophysitis were reviewed. Immunophenotyping of inflammatory component was performed in 13/33 cases...
October 5, 2016: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
Wandee Thiangtum, J Thomas Schonewille, Martin Wa Verstegen, Supot Arsawakulsudhi, Theera Rukkwamsuk, Wouter H Hendriks
BACKGROUND: Factorial determination of the sodium (Na) requirement of heat stressed lactating cows is hindered by accurate estimates of the Na losses through sweat. Direct studies, therefore, may be needed requiring information on the time course of healthy animals to become Na depleted and the subsequent rate of repletion. The rate of Na depletion and subsequent rate of Na repletion with two levels of dietary Na to lactating dairy cows housed under tropical conditions was investigated using the salivary Na/K...
October 3, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Amit Batla, Natalie Tayim, Mahreen Pakzad, Jalesh N Panicker
Urogenital dysfunction is commonly reported in Parkinson's disease (PD), and history taking and a bladder diary form the cornerstone of evaluation. The assessment of lower urinary tract (LUT) symptoms include urinalysis, ultrasonography, and urodynamic studies and help to evaluate concomitant urological pathologies such as benign prostate enlargement. Antimuscarinic medications are the first line treatment for overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms and solifenacin has been specifically studied in PD. Antimuscarininc drugs may exacerbate PD-related constipation and xerostomia, and caution is advised when using these medications in individuals where cognitive impairment is suspected...
October 2016: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Shachi Tyagi, Subashan Perera, Becky D Clarkson, Stasa D Tadic, Neil M Resnick
PURPOSE: Nocturia is common and bothersome in older adults especially those who are also incontinent. Since nocturnal polyuria (NP) is a major contributor, we examined factors associated with NP in this population to identify those possibly amenable to intervention. METHOD: We analyzed baseline data from two previously-completed studies of urge urinary incontinence (UUI). The studies involved 284 women (mean 72.9 ±7.9 years) who also completed 3-day voiding diaries...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Urology
Masaki Yamamoto, Takahiro Shimizu, Shogo Shimizu, Youichirou Higashi, Kumiko Nakamura, Mikiya Fujieda, Motoaki Saito
Naftopidil, an α1-adrenoceptor antagonist, has been shown to inhibit nocturnal polyuria in patients with lower urinary tract symptom. However, it remains unclear how naftopidil decreases nocturnal urine production. Here, we investigated the effects of naftopidil on arginine-vasopressin (AVP) plasma level and urine production and osmolality in rats centrally administered with noradrenaline (NA). NA (3 or 30 μg/kg) was administered into the left ventricle (i.c.v.) of male Wistar rats 3 h after naftopidil pretreatment (10 or 30 mg/kg, i...
September 2016: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Myriam L Rachid, Sophie Dreux, Isabelle Czerkiewicz, Georges Deschênes, Rosa Vargas-Poussou, Dominique Mahieu-Caputo, Jean-François Oury, Françoise Muller
Bartter syndrome is a severe inherited tubulopathy responsible for renal salt wasting, and hence electrolyte disorders and dehydration. Prenatally, it is characterized by severe polyhydramnios caused by fetal polyuria. We studied for the first time fetal urine in a Bartter syndrome case and demonstrated that the tubulopathy is already present at 24 weeks of gestation.
September 2016: Clinical Case Reports
Fatma Chaker, Melika Chihaoui, Meriem Yazidi, Hedia Slimane
The occurrence of polyuria-polydipsia syndrome with hypotonic urine requires careful diagnostic strategy. This study aims to evaluate diagnostic modalities for central diabetes insipidus. We conducted a retrospective study of 41 cases with central diabetes insipidus (CDI). Data were collected at the Department of Endocrinology, University Hospital La Rabta, Tunis, from 1990 to 2013. We identified the circumstances for detecting CDI, the abnormalities in anterior pituitary assessment and pituitary imaging. CDI occurred in the postoperative period in 20 patients...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
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