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ceftriaxone in infectious enteritis

Lavan Singh, M P Cariappa
BACKGROUND: Enteric fevers contribute majorly to the burden of morbidity from infectious diseases in the developing world. Due to growing antibiotic resistance seen in their management, Salmonella and its various species are required to be periodically tested for sensitivity and resistance patterns, to guide the clinical management at the local level. This will also enable planning of antibiotic recycling wherever feasible. METHODS: A retrospective study of the results of blood culture isolates covering a period of 27 months was done at a tertiary care hospital...
July 2016: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
Carlos Alexandre Rey Matias, Ingrid Annes Pereira, Eliane Moura Falavina Dos Reis, Dália Dos Prazeres Rodrigues, Salvatore Siciliano
The illegal wildlife trade may increase the risk of infectious disease transmission, and it may not only cause disease outbreaks in humans but also threaten livestock, native wild populations, and ecosystems' health. Bird species may act as carriers in the transmission of enteric pathogens. However, epidemiological studies on zoonotic bacteria in wild birds are rare in Brazil. From March 2011 to March 2012, we investigated the frequency of Enterobacteriaceae in cloacal swab samples from 109 birds of the passerine and Psittacidae families...
October 2016: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Előd Ernő Nagy, Attila Rácz, Edit Urbán, Gabriella Terhes, Timea Berki, Emőke Horváth, Anca M Georgescu, Iringó E Zaharia-Kézdi
The identification and distinction of the pathological conditions underlying acute psychosis are often challenging. We present the case of a 35-year-old ranger who had no history of acute or chronic infectious disease or any previous neuropsychiatric symptoms. He arrived at the Psychiatry Clinic and was admitted as an emergency case, displaying bizarre behavior, hallucinations, paranoid ideation, and delusional faults. These symptoms had first appeared 7 days earlier. An objective examination revealed abnormalities of behavior, anxiety, visual hallucinations, choreiform, and tic-like facial movements...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
E G M Siqueira, S C Rahal, M G Ribeiro, A C Paes, F P Listoni, F G Vassalo
BACKGROUND: Most clinical cases of osteomyelitis in dogs involve infectious agents, especially bacteria and fungi. The characterization of these microorganisms may aid in the prevention and treatment of disease. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate retrospectively microbiological cultures and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility profile of isolates from 52 cases of bacterial osteomyelitis in long bones of dogs over 2000-2013. In 78% of the cases injuries were caused by a motor vehicle accident, but there were a few cases of dog bites (17%) and ascending infection due to pododermatitis (5%)...
2014: Veterinary Quarterly
Faruk İncecik, M Özlem Hergüner, Gülen Mert, Derya Alabaz, Şakir Altunbaşak
Enteric fever is a common infectious disease of the tropical world. Characteristic presenting features include fever, relative bradycardia, diarrhea or constipation, and abdominal pain. Central nervous system involvement is not rare and has a wide spectrum of presentation in enteric fever. Complications such as meningism, delirium, coma, and convulsions have been reported often. However, isolated acute cerebellar ataxia associated with enteric fever is rare. Here, we report a seven-year-old boy with enteric fever who presented with acute cerebellar ataxia...
July 2013: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
Emmanuel E Effa, Hasifa Bukirwa
BACKGROUND: Review status: Current question - no update intended. Azithromycin treatments are included in the review: Fluoroquinolones for treating typhoid and paratyphoid fever (enteric fever). (Thaver D, Zaidi AKM, Critchley JA, Azmatullah A, Madni SA, Bhutta ZA. Fluoroquinolones for treating typhoid and paratyphoid fever (enteric fever). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD004530. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004530.pub3.)   This latter review is being updated, and will be published in late 2011...
2011: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Emmanuel E Effa, Zohra S Lassi, Julia A Critchley, Paul Garner, David Sinclair, Piero L Olliaro, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: Typhoid and paratyphoid are febrile illnesses, due to a bacterial infection, which remain common in many low- and middle-income countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) currently recommends the fluoroquinolone antibiotics in areas with known resistance to the older first-line antibiotics. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate fluoroquinolone antibiotics for treating children and adults with enteric fever. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched The Cochrane Infectious Disease Group Specialized Register (February 2011); Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published in The Cochrane Library (2011, Issue 2); MEDLINE (1966 to February 2011); EMBASE (1974 to February 2011); and LILACS (1982 to February 2011)...
2011: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Palpasa Kansakar, Pankaj Baral, Sarala Malla, Gokarna Raj Ghimire
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the bacterial enteropathogens Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella species and Shigella species were investigated. METHODOLOGY: A total of 877 stool samples were received for culture at the National Public Health Laboratory (NPHL), Kathmandu, Nepal, during January 2002 to December 2004, from diarrhoea patients attending Shukraraj Tropical Infectious Hospital and referral outpatients. All samples collected were processed for isolation and antibiotic susceptibility testing of Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella spp...
March 2011: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Durrane Thaver, Anita K M Zaidi, Julia Critchley, Asma Azmatullah, Syed Ali Madni, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
OBJECTIVES: To review evidence supporting use of fluoroquinolones as first line agents over other antibiotics for treating typhoid and paratyphoid fever (enteric fever). DESIGN: Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. DATA SOURCES: Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group specialised register, CENTRAL (issue 4, 2007), Medline (1966-2007), Embase (1974-2007), LILACS (1982-2007), selected conferences, reference lists, and ongoing trial register (November 2007)...
2009: BMJ: British Medical Journal
R D Kulkarni, G S Ajantha, C Shubhada, P Jain
Nontyphoidal salmonella species are thought to be potentially infectious to humans and many are documented to cause human diseases. We isolated S. Isangi from the blood of a 30-year-old man with complaints of diarrhoea, fever, and altered sensorium. The serotype of the isolate was confirmed at National Salmonella Centre (Vet.), Division of Bacteriology and Mycology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izzatnagar, India. The isolate was not an extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producer and the patient responded well to ceftriaxone...
January 2009: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Alper Akçali, Belkis Levent, Efsun Akbaş, Berrin Esen
Shigella species may lead to large epidemics owing to their low infective doses and frequent transmission from person to person with high secondary attack rates. Shigella sonnei is one of the most prevalent causative agent of infectious gastroenteritis in developing and developed countries and it is the most frequently reported Shigella serotype from Turkey in recent years. The aim of this study was to determine the types of S. sonnei strains isolated in different provinces of Turkey [in Marmara earthquake regions (Izmit, n=5; Adapazari, n=6; Yalova, n=2) in 1999 and in Ankara (n=17) in 1997, 2000 and 2001] according to their antimicrobial resistance and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns...
October 2008: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
D Gendrel, R Cohen
The need to limit unnecessary antibiotic treatments and recent studies with unusual antibiotics in pediatrics (fluoroquinolones) or in digestive tract infections (azithromycin) have led to update the treatment of acute gastro-enteritis. In 2007, the European Society for Pediatric Infectious Diseases and the European Society for Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition have issued guidelines. The proven shigellosis as well as the strong suspicion have to be treated promptly with antibiotics, mainly azithromycin...
October 2008: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Emmanuel E Effa, Hasifa Bukirwa
BACKGROUND: Enteric fever (typhoid and paratyphoid fever) is potentially fatal. Infection with drug-resistant strains of the causative organism Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi or Paratyphi increases morbidity and mortality. Azithromycin may have better outcomes in people with uncomplicated forms of the disease. OBJECTIVES: To compare azithromycin with other antibiotics for treating uncomplicated enteric fever. SEARCH STRATEGY: In August 2008, we searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2008, Issue 3), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and mRCT...
2008: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Durrane Thaver, Anita Km Zaidi, Julia A Critchley, Asma Azmatullah, Syed Ali Madni, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: Fluoroquinolones are recommended as first-line therapy for typhoid and paratyphoid fever (enteric fever), but how they compare with other antibiotics and different fluoroquinolones is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate fluoroquinolone antibiotics for treating enteric fever in children and adults compared with other antibiotics, different fluoroquinolones, and different durations of fluoroquinolone treatment. SEARCH STRATEGY: In November 2007, we searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 4), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, mRCT, conference proceedings, and reference lists...
2008: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Yogesh M Shastri, Nicolas Hoepffner, Angelika Tessmer, Hans Ackermann, Oliver Schroeder, Jürgen Stein
BACKGROUND: Peristomal infections are the most common complications of PEG, despite prophylactic antibiotics. The "introducer" PEG-placement technique avoids the sojourn of a PEG catheter through the oropharynx, and hence minimizes the chances of infectious complications. Despite the obvious potential advantage, this technique failed to gain popularity, mainly as a result of other associated risks and complications. Recently, a modified introducer endoscopic PEG-gastropexy technique was shown to be quite safe...
April 2008: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Laura Saporito, Claudia Colomba, Francesco Scarlata, Vatentina Li Vecchi, Caterina Mammina, Lucina Titone
The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of Salmonella spp in children hospitalised for acute gastroenteritis, and to study clinical and microbiological features of paediatric salmonellosis in our geographical area. In all, 540 patients admitted from March to September 2003 with symptoms of acute enteritis to the Infectious Diseases department of the "G. Di Cristina" hospital in Palermo were enrolled. Stool samples were collected within 48 hours of admission and tested for intestinal pathogens (bacterial, viral, parasites)...
March 2007: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Tsonyo Dimitrov, Eded E Udo, Ossama Albaksami, Shehab Al-Shehab, Abdal Kilani, Medhat Shehab, Aref Al-Nakkas
A retrospective analysis of 135 typhoid cases was conducted to review the clinical, epidemiological and microbiological characteristics of enteric fever cases diagnosed and treated at the Infectious Diseases Hospital, Kuwait, from 2002 to 2005. Diagnosis of patients was based on clinical features, serology and blood culture. The susceptibility testing of the isolates to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid was performed by the disc diffusion method, and MICs of ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin were determined by Etest...
April 2007: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Akira Sugiura, Masaya Fujimoto, Yasuhiko Saida
A 40-year-old Japanese Brazilian admitted to our hospital because of headache and fever. He came to Japan 16 years ago and underwent treatment of strongyloidiasis 3 years ago. He showed neck stiffness. CRP was highly elevated, and anti-HTLV-1 antibody was positive. Examination of CSF demonstrated pleocytosis, and neutrophils were dominant. Culture of CSF yielded Enterococcus faecalis, and we diagnosed his condition as enterococcal meningitis. Enterococcal meningitis was cured by administration of ampicillin and ceftriaxone...
October 2006: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Fiona J Cooke, Martin Day, John Wain, Linda R Ward, E John Threlfall
Although typhoid fever is no longer endemic in most of the developed world, it remains a major infectious disease in less developed regions and imported cases continue to occur in returning travellers, immigrants or migrant workers. We analysed all 692 isolates of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhi from cases in England, Scotland and Wales that were sent to the Laboratory of Enteric Pathogens at the Health Protection Agency, Centre for Infections, London, UK between 2000 and 2003. The country of acquisition was known for 416 isolates (60%), and the majority of these (70%) came from India or Pakistan...
April 2007: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
T S Dimitrov, E E Udo, T Verghese, M Emara, Alla Al-Saleh
OBJECTIVE: To present the first documented case of acute infectious gastroenteritis caused by high-level ceftriaxone-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium in Kuwait. SUBJECT AND METHODS: Isolation from stool specimen and species identification of current enteric pathogen was carried out according to standard methods. Susceptibility to antibiotics was determined by the disc diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were measured with E-test strips...
2006: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
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