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Myosin II

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784822/%C3%AE-catenin-dependent-mechanotransduction-dates-back-to-the-common-ancestor-of-cnidaria-and-bilateria
#1
Ekaterina Pukhlyakova, Andrew J Aman, Kareem Elsayad, Ulrich Technau
Although the genetic regulation of cellular differentiation processes is well established, recent studies have revealed the role of mechanotransduction on a variety of biological processes, including regulation of gene expression. However, it remains unclear how universal and widespread mechanotransduction is in embryonic development of animals. Here, we investigate mechanosensitive gene expression during gastrulation of the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis , a cnidarian model organism. We show that the blastoporal marker gene brachyury is down-regulated by blocking myosin II-dependent gastrulation movements...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782633/macrothrombocytopenia-renal-dysfunction-and-nephrotic-syndrome-in-a-young-male-patient-a-case-report-of-myh9-related-disease
#2
Gabriela Sevignani, Giovana Memari Pavanelli, Sibele Sauzem Milano, Bianca Ramos Ferronato, Maria Aparecida Pachaly, Hae Ii Cheong, Mauricio de Carvalho, Fellype Carvalho Barreto
MYH9-related disease is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations of the MYH9 gene, which encodes the non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIA on chromosome 22q12. It is characterized by congenital macrothrombocytopenia, bleeding tendency, hearing loss, and cataracts. Nephropathy occurs in approximately 30% of MYH9-related disease in a male patient carrier of a de novo missense mutation in exon 1 of the MYH9 gene [c.287C > T; p.Ser(TCG)96(TTG)Leu]. He presented all phenotypic manifestations of the disease, but cataracts...
May 17, 2018: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781112/identification-of-toefaz1-interacting-proteins-reveals-key-regulators-of-trypanosoma-brucei-cytokinesis
#3
Nicholas A Hilton, Thomas E Sladewski, Jenna A Perry, Zemplen Pataki, Amy N Sinclair-Davis, Richard S Muniz, Holly L Tran, Jenna I Wurster, Jiwon Seo, Christopher L de Graffenried
The protist parasite Trypanosoma brucei is an obligate extracellular pathogen that retains its highly-polarized morphology during cell division and has evolved a novel cytokinetic process independent of non-muscle myosin II. The polo-like kinase homolog TbPLK is essential for transmission of cell polarity during division and for cytokinesis. We previously identified a putative TbPLK substrate named Tip of the Extending FAZ 1 (TOEFAZ1) as an essential kinetoplastid-specific component of the T. brucei cytokinetic machinery...
May 21, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781105/nonmuscle-myosin-ii-in-cardiac-and-skeletal-muscle-cells
#4
Jushuo Wang, Yingli Fan, Jean M Sanger, Joseph W Sanger
De novo assembly of contractile myofibrils begins with the formation of premyofibrils where filaments of non-muscle myosin (NM II), and actin organize in sarcomeric patterns with Z-Bodies containing muscle-specific alpha-actinin. Interactions of muscle specific myosin (MM II) with NM II occur in a nascent myofibril stage that precedes the assembly of mature myofibrils. By the final stage of myofibrillogenesis, the only myosin II present in the mature myofibrils is MM II. In this current study of myofibril assembly, the three vertebrate isoforms of NM II (A, B, and C) and sarcomeric alpha-actinin, ligated to GFP family proteins, were coexpressed in avian embryonic skeletal and cardiac muscle cells...
May 21, 2018: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768059/pentabromopseudilin-a-myosin-v-inhibitor-suppresses-tgf-%C3%AE-activity-by-recruiting-the-type-ii-tgf-%C3%AE-receptor-to-lysosomal-degradation
#5
Wang Shih-Wei, Chung Chih-Ling, Yu-Chen Kao, René Martin, Hans-Joachim Knölker, Meng-Shin Shiao, Chun-Lin Chen
Pentabromopseudilin (PBrP) is a marine antibiotic isolated from the marine bacteria Pseudomonas bromoutilis and Alteromonas luteoviolaceus. PBrP exhibits antimicrobial, anti-tumour, and phytotoxic activities. In mammalian cells, PBrP is known to act as a reversible and allosteric inhibitor of myosin Va (MyoVa). In this study, we report that PBrP is a potent inhibitor of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) activity. PBrP inhibits TGF-β-stimulated Smad2/3 phosphorylation, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) protein production and blocks TGF-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in epithelial cells...
December 2018: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748378/myosin-1c-promotes-e-cadherin-tension-and-force-dependent-recruitment-of-%C3%AE-actinin-4-to-the-epithelial-cell-junction
#6
Nivetha Kannan, Vivian W Tang
Actomyosin II contractility in epithelial cell plays an essential role in tension-dependent adhesion strengthening. One key unsettling question is how cellular contraction transmits force to the nascent cell-cell adhesion when there is no stable attachment between the nascent adhesion complex and actin filament. Here, we show that myosin-1c is localized to the lateral membrane of polarized epithelial cells and facilitates the coupling between actin and cell-cell adhesion. Knockdown of myosin-1c compromised the integrity of the lateral membrane, reduced the generation of tension at E-cadherin, decreased the strength of cell-cell cohesion in an epithelial cell monolayer, and prevented force-dependent recruitment of junctional α-actinin-4...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745813/pleiotropic-function-of-dlx3-in-amelogenesis-from-regulating-ph-and-keratin-expression-to-controlling-enamel-rod-decussation
#7
Olivier Duverger, Maria I Morasso
DLX3 is essential for tooth enamel development and is so far the only transcription factor known to be mutated in a syndromic form of amelogenesis imperfecta. Through conditional deletion of Dlx3 in the dental epithelium in mouse, we have previously established the involvement of DLX3 in enamel pH regulation, as well as in controlling the expression of sets of keratins that contribute to enamel rod sheath formation. Here, we show that the decussation pattern of enamel rods was lost in conditional knockout animals, suggesting that DLX3 controls the coordinated migration of ameloblasts during enamel secretion...
December 2018: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731302/quantitative-control-of-gpcr-organization-and-signaling-by-endocytosis-in-epithelial-morphogenesis
#8
Ankita Jha, Thomas S van Zanten, Jean-Marc Philippe, Satyajit Mayor, Thomas Lecuit
Tissue morphogenesis arises from controlled cell deformations in response to cellular contractility. During Drosophila gastrulation, apical activation of the actomyosin networks drives apical constriction in the invaginating mesoderm and cell-cell intercalation in the extending ectoderm. Myosin II (MyoII) is activated by cell-surface G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), such as Smog and Mist, that activate G proteins, the small GTPase Rho1, and the kinase Rok. Quantitative control over GPCR and Rho1 activation underlies differences in deformation of mesoderm and ectoderm cells...
April 25, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709890/solo-and-keratin-filaments-regulate-epithelial-tubule-morphology
#9
Ryosuke Nishimura, Kagayaki Kato, Sachiko Fujiwara, Kazumasa Ohashi, Kensaku Mizuno
Epithelial tubules, consisting of the epithelial cell sheet with a central lumen, are the basic structure of many organs. Mechanical forces play an important role in epithelial tubulogenesis; however, little is known about the mechanisms controlling the mechanical forces during epithelial tubule morphogenesis. Solo (also known as ARHGEF40) is a RhoA-targeting guanine-nucleotide exchange factor that is involved in mechanical force-induced RhoA activation and stress fiber formation. Solo binds to keratin-8/keratin-18 (K8/K18) filaments, and this interaction plays a crucial role in mechanotransduction...
April 28, 2018: Cell Structure and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709591/molecular-characterization-of-glutaminyl-peptide-cyclotransferase-qpct-in-scylla-paramamosain-and-its-role-in-vibrio-alginolyticus-and-white-spot-syndrome-virus-wssv-infection
#10
Ziyan Wang, Baozhen Sun, Fei Zhu
Glutaminyl-peptide cyclotransferase (QPCT) catalyzes the posttranslational modification of an N-terminal glutamate of proteins to pyroglutamate. This renders the protein more resistant to protease degradation, more susceptible to hydrophobic interactions, aggregation, and neurotoxic. In this study, we evaluated the influence of QPCT in the crab Scylla paramamosain infected with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) or with Vibrio alginolyticus. A cDNA clone, encompassing the entire 2445 bp of the S. paramamosain QPCT gene, containing a 1113 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 370 amino acid protein was cloned from S...
April 27, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707029/cardiac-myosin-activators-for-heart-failure-therapy-focus-on-omecamtiv-mecarbil
#11
REVIEW
Edgardo Kaplinsky, Gordon Mallarkey
Heart failure continues to be a major global health problem with a pronounced impact on morbidity and mortality and very limited drug treatment options especially with regard to inotropic therapy. Omecamtiv mecarbil is a first-in-class cardiac myosin activator, which increases the proportion of myosin heads that are tightly bound to actin and creates a force-producing state that is not associated with cytosolic calcium accumulation. Phase I and phase II studies have shown that it is safe and well tolerated...
2018: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698429/a-comprehensive-comparison-of-four-species-of-onchidiidae-provides-insights-on-the-morphological-and-molecular-adaptations-of-invertebrates-from-shallow-seas-to-wetlands
#12
Guolv Xu, Tiezhu Yang, Dongfeng Wang, Jie Li, Xin Liu, Xin Wu, Heding Shen
The Onchidiidae family is ideal for studying the evolution of marine invertebrate species from sea to wetland environments. However, comparative studies of Onchidiidae species are rare. A total of 40 samples were collected from four species (10 specimens per onchidiid), and their histological and molecular differences were systematically evaluated to elucidate the morphological foundations underlying the adaptations of these species. A histological analysis was performed to compare the structures of respiratory organs (gill, lung sac, dorsal skin) among onchidiids, and transcriptome sequencing of four representative onchidiids was performed to investigate the molecular mechanisms associated with their respective habitats...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694711/the-involvement-of-phosphorylation-of-myosin-phosphatase-targeting-subunit1-mypt1-and-mypt1-isoform-expression-in-no-cgmp-mediated-differential-vasoregulation-of-cerebral-arteries-compared-to-systemic-arteries
#13
Lubomir T Lubomirov, Symeon Papadopoulos, Dilyana Filipova, Sufian Baransi, Daniel Todorović, Philipp Lake, Doris Metzler, Silvia Hilsdorf, Rudolf Schubert, Mechthild M Schroeter, Gabriele Pfitzer
AIM: Constitutive release of NO blunts intrinsic and stimulated contractile activity in cerebral arteries (CA). Here, we explored the involvement of phosphorylation and expression levels of the PKG sensitive, leucine zipper positive (LZ+ ) splice variants of the regulatory subunit of myosin phosphatase (MYPT1) and whether its expression is associated with higher cGMP sensitivity. METHODS: Vascular contractility was investigated by wire-myography. Phosphorylation of MYPT1 was determined by western blotting...
April 25, 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691404/capping-protein-controlled-actin-polymerization-shapes-lipid-membranes
#14
Katharina Dürre, Felix C Keber, Philip Bleicher, Fridtjof Brauns, Christian J Cyron, Jan Faix, Andreas R Bausch
Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin assembly at cell membranes drives the formation of protrusions or endocytic vesicles. To identify the mechanism by which different membrane deformations can be achieved, we reconstitute the basic membrane deformation modes of inward and outward bending in a confined geometry by encapsulating a minimal set of cytoskeletal proteins into giant unilamellar vesicles. Formation of membrane protrusions is favoured at low capping protein (CP) concentrations, whereas the formation of negatively bent domains is promoted at high CP concentrations...
April 24, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691225/suppression-of-epithelial-folding-at-actomyosin-enriched-compartment-boundaries-downstream-of-wingless-signalling-in-drosophila
#15
Jose M Urbano, Huw W Naylor, Elena Scarpa, Leila Muresan, Bénédicte Sanson
Epithelial folding shapes embryos and tissues during development. Here, we investigate the coupling between epithelial folding and actomyosin-enriched compartmental boundaries. The mechanistic relationship between the two is unclear, because actomyosin-enriched boundaries are not necessarily associated with folds. Also, some cases of epithelial folding occur independently of actomyosin contractility. We investigated the shallow folds called parasegment grooves that form at boundaries between anterior and posterior compartments in the early Drosophila embryo...
April 24, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689230/membrane-traffic-in-the-late-steps-of-cytokinesis
#16
REVIEW
Stéphane Frémont, Arnaud Echard
Cells don't simply separate at cytokinesis. While furrow contraction critically relies on myosin-II and F-actin, post-furrowing steps are less understood but involve the constriction of ESCRT-III polymer-dependent helices on the side of the midbody, which likely drive final abscission. The first evidence that animal cell cytokinesis requires membrane traffic, as in plant cells, was provided about 15 years ago. Since then, it has become increasingly clear that fusion of vesicles to the cytokinetic furrow is essential in large embryonic cells, and that membrane traffic within the intercellular bridge is crucial for its stability and successful abscission in all animal cells...
April 23, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689194/morphogenesis-and-compartmentalization-of-the-intestinal-crypt
#17
Kaelyn D Sumigray, Michael Terwilliger, Terry Lechler
The adult mammalian intestine is composed of two connected structures, the absorptive villi and the crypts, which house progenitor cells. Mouse crypts develop postnatally and are the architectural unit of the stem cell niche, yet the pathways that drive their formation are not known. Here, we combine transcriptomic, quantitative morphometric, and genetic analyses to identify mechanisms of crypt development. We uncover the upregulation of a contractility gene network at the earliest stage of crypt formation, which drives myosin II-dependent apical constriction and invagination of the crypt progenitor cells...
April 23, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684587/trpm7-controls-mesenchymal-features-of-breast-cancer-cells-by-tensional-regulation-of-sox4
#18
Arthur J Kuipers, Jeroen Middelbeek, Kirsten Vrenken, Carlos Pérez-González, Geert Poelmans, Jeffrey Klarenbeek, Kees Jalink, Xavier Trepat, Frank N van Leeuwen
Mechanically induced signaling pathways are important drivers of tumor progression. However, if and how mechanical signals affect metastasis or therapy response remains poorly understood. We previously found that the channel-kinase TRPM7, a regulator of cellular tension implicated in mechano-sensory processes, is required for breast cancer metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Here, we show that TRPM7 contributes to maintaining a mesenchymal phenotype in breast cancer cells by tensional regulation of the EMT transcription factor SOX4...
April 20, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676609/generation-of-life-in-a-test-tube-albert-szent-gyorgyi-bruno-straub-and-the-discovery-of-actin
#19
Jack A Rall
This is a story about a great scientist, luck, great discovery that changed the future direction of muscle research, war, a clandestine war mission, postwar politics, and an attempt to rewrite scientific history. Albert Szent-Gyorgyi, at 44 yr of age, won the Nobel Prize in 1937 for his work on vitamin C and the establishment of the groundwork of the citric acid cycle. He now wanted to investigate one of the fundamental aspects of life and settled on the study of muscle contraction. The Szent-Gyorgyi laboratory in Hungary during World War II demonstrated that contraction could be reproduced in vitro by threads consisting of just two proteins, myosin and the newly discovered protein by Bruno Straub that they called actin...
June 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664925/actin-and-myosin-ii-modulate-differentiation-of-pluripotent-stem-cells
#20
Liana C Boraas, Emma T Pineda, Tabassum Ahsan
Use of stem cell-based therapies in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is hindered by efficient means of directed differentiation. For pluripotent stem cells, an initial critical differentiation event is specification to one of three germ lineages: endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. Differentiation is known to be regulated by numerous extracellular and intracellular factors, but the role of the cytoskeleton during specification, or early differentiation, is still unknown. In these studies, we used agonists and antagonists to modulate actin polymerization and the actin-myosin molecular motor during spontaneous differentiation of embryonic stem cells in embryoid bodies...
2018: PloS One
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