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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078066/use-it-or-lose-it-tonic-activity-of-slow-motoneurons-promotes-their-survival-and-preferentially-increases-slow-fiber-type-groupings-in-muscles-of-old-lifelong-recreational-sportsmen
#1
Simone Mosole, Ugo Carraro, Helmut Kern, Stefan Loefler, Sandra Zampieri
: Histochemistry, immuno-histochemistry, gel electrophoresis of single muscle fibers and electromyography of aging muscles and nerves suggest that: i) denervation contributes to muscle atrophy, ii) impaired mobility accelerates the process, and iii) lifelong running protects against loss of motor units. Recent corroborating results on the muscle effects of Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) of aged muscles will be also mentioned, but we will in particular discuss how and why a lifelong increased physical activity sustains reinnervation of muscle fibers...
September 15, 2016: European Journal of Translational Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074127/transfer-of-%C3%AE-hydroxy-%C3%AE-methylbutyrate-from-sows-to-their-offspring-and-its-impact-on-muscle-fiber-type-transformation-and-performance-in-pigs
#2
Haifeng Wan, Jiatao Zhu, Caimei Wu, Pan Zhou, Yong Shen, Yan Lin, Shengyu Xu, Lianqiang Che, Bin Feng, Jian Li, Zhengfeng Fang, De Wu
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested that supplementation of lactating sows with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) could improve the performance of weaning pigs, but there were little information in the muscle fiber type transformation of the offspring and the subsequent performance in pigs from weaning through finishing in response to maternal HMB consumption. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of supplementing lactating sows with HMB on skeletal muscle fiber type transformation and growth of the offspring during d 28 and 180 after birth...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070554/marrow-inspired-matrix-cues-rapidly-affect-early-fate-decisions-of-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cells
#3
Ji Sun Choi, Brendan A C Harley
Hematopoiesis is the physiological process where hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) continuously generate the body's complement of blood and immune cells within unique regions of the bone marrow termed niches. Although previous investigations have revealed gradients in cellular and extracellular matrix (ECM) content across the marrow, and matrix elasticity and ligand type are believed to be strong regulators of stem cell fate, the impact of biophysical signals on HSC response is poorly understood. Using marrow-inspired ECM ligand-coated polyacrylamide substrates that present defined stiffness and matrix ligand cues, we demonstrate that the interplay between integrin engagement and myosin II activation processes affects the morphology, proliferation, and myeloid lineage specification of primary murine HSCs within 24 hours ex vivo...
January 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066146/high-fat-diet-confers-vascular-hyper-contractility-against-angiotensin-ii-through-upregulation-of-mlck-and-cpi-17
#4
Jee In Kim
Obesity is a critical risk factor for the hypertension. Although angiotensin II (Ang II) in obese individuals is known to be upregulated in obesity-induced hypertension, direct evidence that explains the underlying mechanism for increased vascular tone and consequent increase in blood pressure (BP) is largely unknown. The purpose of this study is to investigate the novel mechanism underlying Ang II-induced hyper-contractility and hypertension in obese rats. Eight-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with 60% fat diet or normal diet for 4 months...
January 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065318/in-vitro-reactivation-of-the-cytokinetic-contractile-ring-of-fission-yeast-cells
#5
I Mabuchi, J Kashiwazaki, M Mishra
Cytokinesis is a process by which a mother cell is divided into two daughter cells after chromosome segregation. In both animal and fungal cells, cytokinesis is carried out by the constriction of the contractile ring made up of actin, myosin-II, and other conserved proteins. Detailed genetic and cell biological analysis of cytokinesis has led to the identification of various genes involved in the process of cytokinesis including the cytological description of the process. However, detailed biochemical analysis of the process is lacking...
2017: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062031/how-to-measure-load-dependent-kinetics-of-individual-motor-molecules-without-a-force-clamp
#6
J Sung, K I Mortensen, J A Spudich, H Flyvbjerg
Single-molecule force spectroscopy techniques, including optical trapping, magnetic trapping, and atomic force microscopy, have provided unprecedented opportunities to understand biological processes at the smallest biological length scales. For example, they have been used to elucidate the molecular basis of muscle contraction and intracellular cargo transport along cytoskeletal filamentous proteins. Optical trapping is among the most sophisticated single-molecule techniques. With exceptionally high spatial and temporal resolutions, it has been extensively utilized to understand biological functions at the single molecule level, such as conformational changes and force-generation of individual motor proteins or force-dependent kinetics in molecular interactions...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057763/the-ultrastructural-organization-of-actin-and-myosin-ii-filaments-in-the-contractile-ring-new-support-for-an-old-model-of-cytokinesis
#7
John H Henson, Casey E Ditzler, Aphnie Germain, Patrick M Irwin, Eric T Vogt, Shucheng Yang, Xufeng Wu, Charles B Shuster
Despite recent advances in our understanding of the components and spatial regulation of the contractile ring (CR), the precise ultrastructure of actin and myosin II within the animal cell CR remains an unanswered question. We employed super-resolution light microscopy and platinum replica transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to determine the structural organization of actin and myosin II in isolated cortical cytoskeletons prepared from dividing sea urchin embryos. 3D structured illumination microscopy (SIM) indicated that within the CR, actin and myosin II filaments were organized into tightly packed linear arrays oriented along the axis of constriction, and restricted to a narrow zone within the furrow...
January 5, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053086/myosin-iia-heavy-chain-phosphorylation-mediates-adhesion-maturation-and-protrusion-in-3d
#8
Vandana Rai, Dustin G Thomas, Jordan R Beach, Thomas T Egelhoff
Nonmuscle myosin II (NMII) is a conserved force-producing cytoskeletal enzyme with important but poorly understood roles in cell migration. To investigate myosin heavy chain (MHC) phosphorylation roles in 3D migration, we expressed GFP-tagged NMIIA wild type or mutant constructs in cells depleted of endogenous NMIIA protein. We find that individual mutation or double mutation of S1916 or S1943 to alanine potently blocks recruitment of GFP-NM-IIA filaments to leading edge protrusions in 2D, and this in turn blocks maturation of anterior focal adhesions...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051852/artificial-slanted-nanocilia-array-as-a-mechanotransducer-for-controlling-cell-polarity
#9
Hong Nam Kim, Kyung-Jin Jang, Jung-Youn Shin, Daeshik Kang, Sang Moon Kim, Ilkyoo Koh, Yoonmi Hong, Segeun Jang, Min Sung Kim, Byung-Soo Kim, Hoon Eui Jeong, Noo Li Jeon, Pilnam Kim, Kahp-Yang Suh
We present a method to induce cell directional behavior using slanted nanocilia arrays. NIH-3T3 fibroblasts demonstrated bidirectional polarization in a rectangular arrangement on vertical nanocilia arrays and exhibited a transition from a bidirectional to a unidirectional polarization pattern when the angle of the nanocilia was decreased from 90° to 30°. The slanted nanocilia guided and facilitated spreading by allowing the cells to contact the sidewalls of the nanocilia, and the directional migration of the cells opposed the direction of the slant due to the anisotropic bending stiffness of the slanted nanocilia...
January 4, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039755/myosin-phosphorylation-on-stress-fibers-predicts-contact-guidance-behavior-across-diverse-breast-cancer-cells
#10
Juan Wang, Ian C Schneider
During cancer progression the extracellular matrix is remodeled, forming aligned collagen fibers that proceed radially from the tumor, resulting in invasion. We have recently shown that different invasive breast cancer cells respond to epitaxially grown, aligned collagen fibrils differently. This article develops insight into why these cells differ in their contact guidance fidelity. Small changes in contractility or adhesion dramatically alter directional persistence on aligned collagen fibrils, while migration speed remains constant...
November 28, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035903/drosophila-non-muscle-myosin-ii-motor-activity-determines-the-rate-of-tissue-folding
#11
Claudia G Vasquez, Sarah M Heissler, Neil Billington, James R Sellers, Adam C Martin
Non-muscle cell contractility is critical for tissues to adopt shape changes. Although, the non-muscle myosin II holoenzyme (myosin) is a molecular motor that powers contraction of actin cytoskeleton networks, recent studies have questioned the importance of myosin motor activity cell and tissue shape changes. Here, combining the biochemical analysis of enzymatic and motile properties for purified myosin mutants with in vivo measurements of apical constriction for the same mutants, we show that in vivo constriction rate scales with myosin motor activity...
December 30, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028174/dock8-regulates-macrophage-migration-through-cdc42-activation-and-lrap35a-interaction
#12
Akira Shiraishi, Takehito Uruno, Fumiyuki Sanematsu, Miho Ushijima, Daiji Sakata, Toshiro Hara, Yoshinori Fukui
DOCK8 is an atypical guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Cdc42, and its mutations cause combined immunodeficiency in humans. Accumulating evidence indicates that DOCK8 regulates the migration and activation of various subsets of leukocytes, yet its regulatory mechanism is poorly understood. We herein report that DOCK8-deficient macrophages exhibit a migration defect in a two-dimensional (2D) setting. Although DOCK8 deficiency in macrophages did not affect the global Cdc42 activation induced by chemokine stimulation, rescue experiments revealed that the GEF activity of DOCK8 was required for macrophage migration...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025149/substrate-stiffness-promotes-latent-tgf-%C3%AE-1-activation-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#13
Mingshu Pang, Yao Teng, Jianyong Huang, Yuan Yuan, Feng Lin, Chunyang Xiong
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was usually coupled with increased stiffness of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and elevated level of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). However, the mechanism by which substrate rigidity modulated TGF-β1 signaling transduction remained unknown. This paper investigated the molecular mechanism of how matrix stiffness regulating TGF-β1 signaling in HCC cells. By means of stiffness tunable collagen I-coated polyacrylamide (PA) gels, we found that the expressions of β1 integrin, p-FAK (Y397) and p-Smad2 upregulated on stiffer gels as well as the content of TGF-β1 in culture media of HCC cells, which were inhibited by RGD blocking peptides, Y-27632 (ROCK inhibitor) or Blebbistatin (myosin II inhibitor)...
December 24, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013338/colon-cancer-cell-derived-12-s-hete-induces-the-retraction-of-cancer-associated-fibroblast-via-mlc2-rho-rock-and-ca-2-signalling
#14
Serena Stadler, Chi Huu Nguyen, Helga Schachner, Daniela Milovanovic, Silvio Holzner, Stefan Brenner, Julia Eichsteininger, Mira Stadler, Daniel Senfter, Liselotte Krenn, Wolfgang M Schmidt, Nicole Huttary, Sigurd Krieger, Oskar Koperek, Zsuzsanna Bago-Horvath, Konstantin Alexander Brendel, Brigitte Marian, Oliver de Wever, Robert M Mader, Benedikt Giessrigl, Walter Jäger, Helmut Dolznig, Georg Krupitza
Retraction of mesenchymal stromal cells supports the invasion of colorectal cancer cells (CRC) into the adjacent compartment. CRC-secreted 12(S)-HETE enhances the retraction of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and therefore, 12(S)-HETE may enforce invasivity of CRC. Understanding the mechanisms of metastatic CRC is crucial for successful intervention. Therefore, we studied pro-invasive contributions of stromal cells in physiologically relevant three-dimensional in vitro assays consisting of CRC spheroids, CAFs, extracellular matrix and endothelial cells, as well as in reductionist models...
December 24, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007915/podosome-assembly-is-controlled-by-the-gtpase-arf1-and-its-nucleotide-exchange-factor-arno
#15
Nisha Bte Mohd Rafiq, Zi Zhao Lieu, Tingting Jiang, Cheng-Han Yu, Paul Matsudaira, Gareth E Jones, Alexander D Bershadsky
Podosomes represent a class of integrin-mediated cell-matrix adhesions formed by migrating and matrix-degrading cells. We demonstrate that in macrophage-like THP1 cells and fibroblasts stimulated to produce podosomes, down-regulation of the G-protein ARF1 or the ARF1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor, ARNO, by small, interfering RNA or pharmacological inhibitors led to striking podosome elimination. Concomitantly, treatments inducing podosome formation increased the level of guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-bound ARF1...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002815/cortical-actin-alteration-at-the-matrix-side-cytoplasm-in-lung-adenocarcinoma-cells-and-its-significance-in-invasion
#16
Shohei Tomii, Takumi Akashi, Noboru Ando, Tomoki Tamura, Akira Sakurai, Asami Terada, Asuka Furukawa, Yoshimi Suzuki, Kou Kayamori, Kei Sakamoto, Hironori Ishibashi, Yoshinobu Eishi
OBJECTIVES: Cortical actin is a thin layer of filamentous (F-)actin that lies beneath the plasma membrane, and its role in pathophysiology remains unclear. We investigated the subcellular localization of cortical actin by the histopathological and experimental studies of lung adenocarcinomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The subcellular localization of cortical actin was studied in surgically resected lung adenocarcinomas tissues and in 3-dimensionally cultured lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells...
December 22, 2016: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002746/frustrated-phagocytic-spreading-of-j774a-1-macrophages-ends-in-myosin-ii-dependent-contraction
#17
Daniel T Kovari, Wenbin Wei, Patrick Chang, Jan-Simon Toro, Ruth Fogg Beach, Dwight Chambers, Karen Porter, Doyeon Koo, Jennifer E Curtis
Conventional studies of dynamic phagocytic behavior have been limited in terms of spatial and temporal resolution due to the inherent three-dimensionality and small features of phagocytosis. To overcome these issues, we use a series of frustrated phagocytosis assays to quantitatively characterize phagocytic spreading dynamics. Our investigation reveals that frustrated phagocytic spreading occurs in phases and is punctuated by a distinct period of contraction. The spreading duration and peak contact areas are independent of the surface opsonin density, although the opsonin density does affect the likelihood that a cell will spread...
December 20, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995422/entry-of-severe-fever-with-thrombocytopenia-syndrome-virus
#18
REVIEW
Fei Yuan, Aihua Zheng
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is a globe-shaped virus covered by a dense icosahedral array of glycoproteins Gn/Gc that mediate the attachment of the virus to host cells and the fusion of viral and cellular membranes. Several membrane factors are involved in virus entry, including C-type lectins and nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA. The post-fusion crystal structure of the Gc protein suggests that it is a class II membrane fusion protein, similar to the E/E1 protein of flaviviruses and alphaviruses...
December 16, 2016: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989674/non-junctional-e-cadherin-clusters-regulate-the-actomyosin-cortex-in-the-c-%C3%A2-elegans-zygote
#19
Anup Padmanabhan, Hui Ting Ong, Ronen Zaidel-Bar
Classical cadherins are well known for their essential function in mediating cell-cell adhesion via their extra-cellular cadherin domains and intra-cellular connections to the actin cytoskeleton [1-3]. There is evidence, however, of adhesion-independent cadherin clusters existing outside of cell-cell junctions [4-6]. What function, if any, these clusters have is not known. HMR-1, the sole classical cadherin in Caenorhabditis elegans, plays essential roles during gastrulation, blastomere polarity establishment, and epidermal morphogenesis [7-11]...
January 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983984/angiotensin-%C3%A2-induces-the-differentiation-of-mouse-epicardial-progenitor-cells-into-vascular-smooth-muscle-like-cells
#20
Qin Qin, Junhao Wang, Yulin Yan, Xiaodong Jing, Jianlin Du, Songbai Deng, Ling Wu, Yajie Liu, Qiang She
Epicardial progenitor cells (EpiCs) have a crucial role in cardiac development and vasculature formation. Here we detected the expression of Angiotensin II (Ang II) receptors AT1 and AT2 on EpiCs and demonstrated that AngII could increase the expression of smooth muscle specific markers, including α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and myosin heavy chain 11 (Myh11) in EpiCs. Moreover, the expression of α-SMA and Myh11 induced by Ang II was blocked by pretreatment of EpiCs with the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan, but not the AT2 receptor antagonist PD123319...
October 28, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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