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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133625/the-interplay-of-peptide-affinity-and-scaffold-stiffness-on-neuronal-differentiation-of-neural-stem-cells
#1
Jessica M Stukel, Rebecca Kuntz Willits
Cells are sensitive to physical cues in their environment, such as the stiffness of the substrate, peptide density, and peptide affinity. Understanding how neural stem cells (NSCs) sense and respond to these matrix cues has the potential to improve disease outcome, particularly if a regenerative response can be exploited. While the material properties are known to influence other stem cells, little is known about how NSC differentiation is altered by this interplay of mechanical, or bulk properties, with peptide concentration and affinity, or microscale properties...
November 14, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122742/myotube-migration-to-cover-and-shape-the-testis-of-drosophila-depends-on-heartless-cadherin-catenin-and-myosin-ii
#2
Silke Rothenbusch-Fender, Katharina Fritzen, Maik C Bischoff, Detlev Buttgereit, Susanne F Oenel, Renate Renkawitz-Pohl
During Drosophila metamorphosis, nascent testis myotubes migrate from the prospective seminal vesicle of the genital disc onto pupal testes and then further to cover the testes with multinucleated smooth-like muscles. Here we show that DWnt2 is likely required for determination of testis-relevant myoblasts on the genital disc. Knock down of FGFR Heartless by RNAi and a dominant-negative version revealed multiple functions of Heartless, namely regulation of the amount of myoblasts on the genital disc, connection of seminal vesicles and testes, and migration of muscles along the testes...
November 9, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116364/low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-related-protein-1-couples-%C3%AE-1-integrin-activation-to-degradation
#3
Lukasz Wujak, Ralph T Böttcher, Oleg Pak, Helena Frey, Elie El Agha, Ying Chen, Sigrid Schmitt, Saverio Bellusci, Liliana Schaefer, Norbert Weissmann, Reinhard Fässler, Malgorzata Wygrecka
Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) 1 modulates cell adhesion and motility under normal and pathological conditions. Previous studies documented that LRP1 binds several integrin receptors and mediates their trafficking to the cell surface and endocytosis. However, the mechanism by which LRP1 may regulate integrin activation remains unknown. Here we report that LRP1 promotes the activation and subsequent degradation of β1 integrin and thus supports cell adhesion, spreading, migration and integrin signaling on fibronectin...
November 7, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107560/myosin-ii-controls-junction-fluctuations-to-guide-epithelial-tissue-ordering
#4
Scott Curran, Charlotte Strandkvist, Jasper Bathmann, Marc de Gennes, Alexandre Kabla, Guillaume Salbreux, Buzz Baum
Under conditions of homeostasis, dynamic changes in the length of individual adherens junctions (AJs) provide epithelia with the fluidity required to maintain tissue integrity in the face of intrinsic and extrinsic forces. While the contribution of AJ remodeling to developmental morphogenesis has been intensively studied, less is known about AJ dynamics in other circumstances. Here, we study AJ dynamics in an epithelium that undergoes a gradual increase in packing order, without concomitant large-scale changes in tissue size or shape...
October 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106370/cytokinesis-in-vertebrate-cells-initiates-by-contraction-of-an-equatorial-actomyosin-network-composed-of-randomly-oriented-filaments
#5
Felix Spira, Sara Cuylen-Haering, Shalin Mehta, Matthias Samwer, Anne Reversat, Amitabh Verma, Rudolf Oldenbourg, Michael Sixt, Daniel W Gerlich
The actomyosin ring generates force to ingress the cytokinetic cleavage furrow in animal cells, yet its filament organization and the mechanism of contractility is not well understood. We quantified actin filament order in human cells using fluorescence polarization microscopy and found that cleavage furrow ingression initiates by contraction of an equatorial actin network with randomly oriented filaments. The network subsequently gradually reoriented actin filaments along the cell equator. This strictly depended on myosin II activity, suggesting local network reorganization by mechanical forces...
November 6, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101098/regulation-of-cortical-stability-by-rhogef3-in-mitotic-sensory-organ-precursor-cells-in-drosophila
#6
Lydie Couturier, Khalil Mazouni, Fred Bernard, Charlotte Besson, Elodie Reynaud, François Schweisguth
In epithelia, mitotic cells round up and push against their neighbors to divide. Mitotic rounding results from increased assembly of F-actin and cortical recruitment of Myosin II, leading to increased cortical stability. Whether this process is developmentally regulated is not well known. Here, we examined the regulation of cortical stability in Sensory Organ precursor cells (SOPs) in the Drosophila pupal notum. SOPs differed in apical shape and actomyosin dynamics from their epidermal neighbors prior to division and appeared to have a more rigid cortex at mitosis...
November 3, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097687/genome-scale-single-cell-mechanical-phenotyping-reveals-disease-related-genes-involved-in-mitotic-rounding
#7
Yusuke Toyoda, Cedric J Cattin, Martin P Stewart, Ina Poser, Mirko Theis, Teymuras V Kurzchalia, Frank Buchholz, Anthony A Hyman, Daniel J Müller
To divide, most animal cells drastically change shape and round up against extracellular confinement. Mitotic cells facilitate this process by generating intracellular pressure, which the contractile actomyosin cortex directs into shape. Here, we introduce a genome-scale microcantilever- and RNAi-based approach to phenotype the contribution of > 1000 genes to the rounding of single mitotic cells against confinement. Our screen analyzes the rounding force, pressure and volume of mitotic cells and localizes selected proteins...
November 2, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093437/coupling-fission-and-exit-of-rab6-vesicles-at-golgi-hotspots-through-kinesin-myosin-interactions
#8
Stéphanie Miserey-Lenkei, Hugo Bousquet, Olena Pylypenko, Sabine Bardin, Ariane Dimitrov, Gaëlle Bressanelli, Raja Bonifay, Vincent Fraisier, Catherine Guillou, Cécile Bougeret, Anne Houdusse, Arnaud Echard, Bruno Goud
The actin and microtubule cytoskeletons play important roles in Golgi structure and function, but how they are connected remain poorly known. In this study, we investigated whether RAB6 GTPase, a Golgi-associated RAB involved in the regulation of several transport steps at the Golgi level, and two of its effectors, Myosin IIA and KIF20A participate in the coupling between actin and microtubule cytoskeleton. We have previously shown that RAB6-Myosin IIA interaction is critical for the fission of RAB6-positive transport carriers from Golgi/TGN membranes...
November 1, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089333/electrical-pulse-stimulation-induces-glut4-glucose-transporter-translocation-in-c2c12-myotubes-that-depends-on-rab8a-rab13-and-rab14
#9
Zhu Li, Yingying Yue, Fang Hu, Chang Zhang, Xiaofang Ma, Nana Li, Lihong Qiu, Maolong Fu, Liming Chen, Zhi Yao, Philip J Bilan, Amira Klip, Wenyan Niu
The signals mobilizing GLUT4 to the plasma membrane in response to muscle contraction are less known than those elicited by insulin. This disparity is undoubtedly due to lack of suitable in vitro models to study skeletal muscle contraction. We generated C2C12 myotubes stably expressing HA-tagged GLUT4 (C2C12-GLUT4HA) that contract in response to electrical pulse stimulation (EPS) and investigated molecular mechanisms regulating GLUT4HA EPS (60min, 20V, 1Hz, 24ms pulses at 976ms intervals) elicited a gain in surface GLUT4HA (GLUT4 translocation) comparably to insulin or 5-amino imidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR)...
October 31, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079766/coupled-circumferential-and-axial-tension-driven-by-actin-and-myosin-influences-in-vivo-axon-diameter
#10
Anthony Fan, Alireza Tofangchi, Mikhail Kandel, Gabriel Popescu, Taher Saif
It has long been known that neuronal axons are contractile. They actively maintain rest tension along the longitudinal direction both in vitro and in vivo. Here we show evidence that embryonic drosophila axons also actively maintain contractility/tension along the circumferential direction. We used confocal microscopy and spatial light interference microscopy to monitor axonal diameter along their length. We observed a decrease in diameter when microtubules are disrupted and an increase in diameter when actin filaments or myosin II are disrupted...
October 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079589/lysosome-signaling-controls-the-migration-of-dendritic-cells
#11
Marine Bretou, Pablo J Sáez, Doriane Sanséau, Mathieu Maurin, Danielle Lankar, Melanie Chabaud, Carmine Spampanato, Odile Malbec, Lucie Barbier, Shmuel Muallem, Paolo Maiuri, Andrea Ballabio, Julie Helft, Matthieu Piel, Pablo Vargas, Ana-Maria Lennon-Duménil
Dendritic cells (DCs) patrol their environment by linking antigen acquisition by macropinocytosis to cell locomotion. DC activation upon bacterial sensing inhibits macropinocytosis and increases DC migration, thus promoting the arrival of DCs to lymph nodes for antigen presentation to T cells. The signaling events that trigger such changes are not fully understood. We show that lysosome signaling plays a critical role in this process. Upon bacterial sensing, lysosomal calcium is released by the ionic channel TRPML1 (transient receptor potential cation channel, mucolipin subfamily, member 1), which activates the actin-based motor protein myosin II at the cell rear, promoting fast and directional migration...
October 27, 2017: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074566/actomyosin-contractility-regulators-stabilize-the-cytoplasmic-bridge-between-the-two-primordial-germ-cells-during-c-elegans-embryogenesis
#12
Eugénie Goupil, Rana Amini, David H Hall, Jean-Claude Labbé
Stable cytoplasmic bridges arise from failed cytokinesis, the last step of cell division, and are a key feature of syncytial architectures in the germ line of most metazoans. Whereas the C. elegans germ line is syncytial, its formation remains poorly understood. We found that the germline precursor blastomere, P4, fails cytokinesis, leaving a stable cytoplasmic bridge between the two daughter cells, Z2 and Z3 Depletion of several regulators of actomyosin contractility resulted in a regression of the membrane partition between Z2 and Z3, indicating that they are required to stabilize the cytoplasmic bridge...
October 26, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066559/phosphoinositol-4-5-bisphosphate-regulates-auditory-hair-cell-mechanotransduction-channel-pore-properties-and-fast-adaptation
#13
Thomas Effertz, Lars Becker, Anthony W Peng, Anthony J Ricci
Membrane proteins, such as ion channels, interact dynamically with their lipid environment. Phosphoinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) can directly or indirectly modify ion channel properties. In auditory sensory hair cells of rats (Sprague Dawley) of either sex, PIP2 localizes within stereocilia, near stereocilia tips. Modulating the amount of free PIP2 in inner hair cell stereocilia resulted in i) the loss of a fast component of mechano-electric-transduction (MET) current adaptation, ii) an increase in the number of channels open at the hair bundle's resting position, iii) a reduction of single channel conductance, iv) a change in ion selectivity and v) a reduction in calcium pore blocking effects...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064177/microrna-499-gene-expression-in-patients-on-hemodialysis-with-cardiovascular-complications
#14
Magdi El Sharkawy, Amr Mohab, Haitham Ezzat
BACKGROUND: MicroRNA (miRNA) 499 is an evolutionarily conserved muscle-specific miRNA that is encoded by an intron of the myh7 gene and is likely to play a role in myosin gene regulation. It has been shown to be involved in inhibiting apoptosis and myocardial infarction induced by ischemia and anoxia. It is unknown whether levels of miRNAs are affected in patients undergoing hemodialysis. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess circulating levels of miRNA 499 in hemodialysis patients and whether the levels are affected by dialyzer membranes (high flux vs...
October 2017: Hemodialysis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055011/unc-45a-promotes-myosin-folding-and-stress-fiber-assembly
#15
Jaakko I Lehtimäki, Aidan M Fenix, Tommi M Kotila, Giuseppe Balistreri, Lassi Paavolainen, Markku Varjosalo, Dylan T Burnette, Pekka Lappalainen
Contractile actomyosin bundles, stress fibers, are crucial for adhesion, morphogenesis, and mechanosensing in nonmuscle cells. However, the mechanisms by which nonmuscle myosin II (NM-II) is recruited to those structures and assembled into functional bipolar filaments have remained elusive. We report that UNC-45a is a dynamic component of actin stress fibers and functions as a myosin chaperone in vivo. UNC-45a knockout cells display severe defects in stress fiber assembly and consequent abnormalities in cell morphogenesis, polarity, and migration...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046990/active-force-maintains-the-stability-of-a-contractile-ring
#16
Stanard Mebwe Pachong, Kristian K Müller-Nedebock
We investigate a system of sufficiently dense polar actin filaments considered rigid and cross-linked by dimer myosin II protein within the contractile ring. The Langevin dynamics of this system is cast in a functional integral formalism and then transformed into density variables. Using the dynamical Random Phase Approximation (RPA) along with the a one-dimensional Langevin dynamics simulation (LDS), we investigate the structural integrity of the actin bundle network. The active force and the networking force reveal a non-trivial diffusive behaviour of the filaments within the ring...
October 23, 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045871/mapping-cell-membrane-fluctuations-reveals-their-active-regulation-and-transient-heterogeneities
#17
Arikta Biswas, Amal Alex, Bidisha Sinha
Shape fluctuations of the plasma membrane occur in all cells, are incessant, and are proposed to affect membrane functioning. Although studies show how membrane fluctuations are affected by cellular activity in adherent cells, their spatial regulation and the corresponding change in membrane mechanics remain unclear. In this article, we study how ATP-driven activities and actomyosin cytoskeleton impact basal membrane fluctuations in adherent cells. Using interference imaging, we map height fluctuations within single cells and compare the temporal spectra with existing theoretical models to gain insights about the underlying membrane mechanics...
October 17, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044613/effect-of-androgen-deprivation-therapy-on-the-contractile-properties-of-type-i-and-type-ii-skeletal-muscle-fibres-in-men-with-non-metastatic-prostate-cancer
#18
C R Lamboley, H Xu, T L Dutka, E D Hanson, A Hayes, J A Violet, R M Murphy, G D Lamb
The contractile properties of vastus lateralis muscle fibres were examined in prostate cancer (PrCa) patients undergoing androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and in age- and activity-matched healthy male subjects (Control). Mechanically-skinned muscle fibres were exposed to a sequence of heavily Ca(2+) -buffered solutions at progressively higher free [Ca(2+) ] to determine their force-Ca(2+) relationship. Ca(2+) -sensitivity was decreased in both type I and type II muscle fibres of ADT subjects relative to Controls (by -0...
October 17, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044161/apical-surface-supracellular-mechanical-properties-in-polarized-epithelium-using-noninvasive-acoustic-force-spectroscopy
#19
Alexander X Cartagena-Rivera, Christina M Van Itallie, James M Anderson, Richard S Chadwick
Maintenance of epithelial tissue integrity requires coordination between cell-cell adherens junctions, tight junctions (TJ), and the perijunctional actomyosin cytoskeleton. Here we addressed the hypothesis that alterations in TJ structure and remodeling of the actomyosin cytoskeleton modify epithelial mechanics. Current methods to measure supracellular mechanical properties disrupt intact monolayers, therefore, we developed a novel method using noncontact acoustic frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM) and tested it on MDCK polarized monolayers...
October 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038012/the-structure-of-the-actin-smooth-muscle-myosin-motor-domain-complex-in-the-rigor-state
#20
Chaity Banerjee, Zhongjun Hu, Zhong Huang, J Anthony Warrington, Dianne W Taylor, Kathleen M Trybus, Susan Lowey, Kenneth A Taylor
Myosin-based motility utilizes catalysis of ATP to drive the relative sliding of F-actin and myosin. The earliest detailed model based on cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) and X-ray crystallography postulated that higher actin affinity and lever arm movement were coupled to closure of a feature of the myosin head dubbed the actin-binding cleft. Several studies since then using crystallography of myosin-V and cryoEM structures of F-actin bound myosin-I, -II and -V have provided details of this model. The smooth muscle myosin II interaction with F-actin may differ from those for striated and non-muscle myosin II due in part to different lengths of important surface loops...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
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