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Myosin II

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811312/myosin-ii-is-not-required-for-drosophila-tracheal-branch-elongation-and-cell-intercalation
#1
Amanda Ochoa-Espinosa, Stefan Harmansa, Emmanuel Caussinus, Markus Affolter
The Drosophila tracheal system consists of an interconnected network of monolayered epithelial tubes that ensures oxygen transport in the larval and adult body. During tracheal dorsal branch (DB) development, individual DBs elongate as a cluster of cells, led by tip cells at the front and trailing cells in the rear. Branch elongation is accompanied by extensive cell intercalation and cell lengthening of the trailing stalk cells. Although cell intercalation is governed by Myosin II (MyoII)-dependent forces during tissue elongation in the Drosophila embryo that lead to germ-band extension, it remained unclear whether MyoII plays a similar active role during tracheal branch elongation and intercalation...
August 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810262/fetal-sheep-mesenteric-resistance-arteries-functional-and-structural-maturation
#2
Julia J Müller, Matthias Schwab, Charles R Rosenfeld, Iwa Antonow-Schlorke, Peter W Nathanielsz, Florian Rakers, Harald Schubert, Otto W Witte, Sven Rupprecht
BACKGROUND: Fetal blood pressure increases during late gestation; however, the underlying vascular mechanisms are unclear. Knowledge of the maturation of resistance arteries is important to identify the mechanisms and vulnerable periods for the development of vascular dysfunction in adulthood. METHODS: We determined the functional and structural development of fetal sheep mesenteric resistance arteries using wire myography and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Media mass and distribution of myosin heavy-chain isoforms showed no changes between 0...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Vascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808035/fission-yeast-myosin-myo2-is-down-regulated-in-actin-affinity-by-light-chain-phosphorylation
#3
Luther W Pollard, Carol S Bookwalter, Qing Tang, Elena B Krementsova, Kathleen M Trybus, Susan Lowey
Studies in fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe have provided the basis for the most advanced models of the dynamics of the cytokinetic contractile ring. Myo2, a class-II myosin, is the major source of tension in the contractile ring, but how Myo2 is anchored and regulated to produce force is poorly understood. To enable more detailed biochemical/biophysical studies, Myo2 was expressed in the baculovirus/Sf9 insect cell system with its two native light chains, Rlc1 and Cdc4. Milligram yields of soluble, unphosphorylated Myo2 were obtained that exhibited high actin-activated ATPase activity and in vitro actin filament motility...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795988/eltrombopag-to-treat-thrombocytopenia-during-last-month-of-pregnancy-in-a-woman-with-myh9-related-disease-a-case-report
#4
Remi Favier, Celine De Carne, Elisabeth Elefant, Ruxanda Lapusneanu, Vasiliki Gkalea, Agnès Rigouzzo
MYH9-related disease (MYH9-RD) is an inherited rare autosomal dominant macrothrombocytopenia. Patients with MYH9-RD have giant platelets and leukocyte inclusion bodies caused by mutations in the MYH9 gene encoding the non-muscle myosin heavy chain II-A. Before identification of the causative gene, patients were diagnosed as Epstein or Fechtner or Sebastian syndromes or May-Hegglin anomaly. As with other inherited thrombocytopenias, the risk of increased bleeding during perioperative period or delivery is a major concern...
August 8, 2017: A & A Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795554/parallel-compression-is-a-fast-low-cost-assay-for-the-high-throughput-screening-of-mechanosensory-cytoskeletal-proteins-in-cells
#5
Chunguang Miao, Eric Schiffhauer, Evelyn Okeke, Douglas Robinson, Tianzhi Luo
Cellular mechanosensing is critical for many biological processes, including cell differentiation, proliferation, migration and tissue morphogenesis. The actin cytoskeletal proteins play important roles in cellular mechanosensing. Many techniques have been used to investigate the mechanosensory behaviors of these proteins. However, a fast, low-cost assay for the quantitative characterization of these proteins is still lacking. Here, we demonstrate that compression assay using agarose overlay is suitable for the high throughput screening of mechanosensory proteins in live cells while requiring minimal experimental setup...
August 10, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793244/rho-associated-kinases-and-non-muscle-myosin-iis-inhibit-the-differentiation-of-human-ipscs-to-pancreatic-endoderm
#6
Taro Toyoda, Azuma Kimura, Hiromi Tanaka, Tomonaga Ameku, Atsushi Mima, Yurie Hirose, Masahiro Nakamura, Akira Watanabe, Kenji Osafune
There has been increasing success with the generation of pancreatic cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs); however, the molecular mechanisms of the differentiation remain elusive. The purpose of this study was to reveal novel molecular mechanisms for differentiation to PDX1(+)NKX6.1(+) pancreatic endoderm cells, which are pancreatic committed progenitor cells. PDX1(+) posterior foregut cells differentiated from hiPSCs failed to differentiate into pancreatic endoderm cells at low cell density, but Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) or non-muscle myosin II (NM II) inhibitors rescued the differentiation potential...
August 8, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783680/arc-arg3-1-governs-inflammatory-dendritic-cell-migration-from-the-skin-and-thereby-controls-t-cell-activation
#7
Friederike Ufer, Pablo Vargas, Jan Broder Engler, Joseph Tintelnot, Benjamin Schattling, Hana Winkler, Simone Bauer, Nina Kursawe, Anne Willing, Oliver Keminer, Ora Ohana, Gabriela Salinas-Riester, Ole Pless, Dietmar Kuhl, Manuel A Friese
Skin-migratory dendritic cells (migDCs) are pivotal antigen-presenting cells that continuously transport antigens to draining lymph nodes and regulate immune responses. However, identification of migDCs is complicated by the lack of distinguishing markers, and it remains unclear which molecules determine their migratory capacity during inflammation. We show that, in the skin, the neuronal plasticity molecule activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein/activity-regulated gene 3.1 (Arc/Arg3.1) was strictly confined to migDCs...
September 23, 2016: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783415/cadherin-mediated-cell-cell-interactions-in-normal-and-cancer-cells
#8
Natalya A Gloushankova, Svetlana N Rubtsova, Irina Y Zhitnyak
Adherens junctions (AJs) are molecular complexes that mediate cell-cell adhesive interactions and play pivotal roles in maintenance of tissue organization in adult organisms and at various stages of development. AJs consist of cadherin adhesion receptors, providing homophilic ligation with cadherins on adjacent cells, and members of the catenin protein family: p120, β- and α-catenin. α-catenin's linkage with the actin cytoskeleton defines the linear or punctate organization of AJs in different cell types...
July 20, 2017: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782471/tgf-%C3%AE-1-causes-emt-by-regulating-n-acetyl-glucosaminyl-transferases-via-downregulation-of-non-muscle-myosin-ii-a-through-jnk-p38-pi3k-pathway-in-lung-cancer
#9
Ghulam Jilany Khan, Yingsheng Gao, Ming Gu, Lai Wang, Sara Khan, Farah Naeem, Bashir Alsiddig Yousef, Debmalya Roy, Herve Semukunzi, Shengtao Yuan, Li Sun
BACKGROUND: Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a major determinant of cancer metastasis and is closely linked with TGF-β1. Intracellular proteins, including E. Cadherin, N. Cadherin and Vimentin are directly related to EMT that affect cell migration and adhesion; on the other hand, non muscle myosin (NM) has a central role in cytokinesis, migration and adhesion. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore the association of EMT and metastasis with TGF-β1 through regulation of non-muscle myosin II-A (NMII-A) and its interaction with Hexosamine Biosynthesis Pathway (HBP)...
August 7, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777082/crystal-structure-of-the-peg-bound-sh3-domain-of-myosin-ib-from-entamoeba-histolytica-reveals-its-mode-of-ligand-recognition
#10
Gunjan Gautam, Syed Arif Abdul Rehman, Preeti Pandey, Samudrala Gourinath
The versatility in the recognition of various interacting proteins by the SH3 domain drives a variety of cellular functions. Here, the crystal structure of the C-terminal SH3 domain of myosin IB from Entamoeba histolytica (EhMySH3) is reported at a resolution of 1.7 Å in native and PEG-bound states. Comparisons with other structures indicated that the PEG molecules occupy protein-protein interaction pockets similar to those occupied by the peptides in other peptide-bound SH3-domain structures. Also, analysis of the PEG-bound EhMySH3 structure led to the recognition of two additional pockets, apart from the conventional polyproline and specificity pockets, that are important for ligand interaction...
August 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771828/vegfb-vegfr1-ameliorates-ang-ii-induced-cardiomyocyte-hypertrophy-through-ca-2-mediated-pkg-i-pathway
#11
Zhijie Shen, Zhihui Zhang, Xiaoyan Wang, Kan Yang
In response to assorted stimuli, the heart will develop into cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, but sustained cardiomyocyte hypertrophy will finally lead to heart failure. This research is aimed to examine the effect of VEGFB on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by using the cardiomyocyte-derived cell line H9C2 of cultured rates. It turns out that VEGFB can positively prevent the Ang II-induced rising in the size of cardiomyocyte as well as reduce Ang II-induced mRNA and protein levels of β-MHC (β-myosin heavy chain), BNP (brain natriuretic peptide) and ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide)...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760737/docetaxel-reverses-pulmonary-vascular-remodeling-by-decreasing-autophagy-and-resolves-right-ventricular-fibrosis
#12
Yasmine F Ibrahim, Nataliia V Shults, Vladyslava Rybka, Yuichiro J Suzuki
Pulmonary arterial hypertension remains a fatal disease despite the availability of approved vasodilators. Since vascular remodeling contributes to increased pulmonary arterial pressure, new agents that reduce the thickness of pulmonary vascular walls have therapeutic potential. Thus, anti-tumor agents that are capable of killing cells were investigated. Testing of various anti-tumor drugs identified that docetaxel is a superior drug for killing proliferating pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells compared with other drugs including gemcitabine, methotrexate and ifosfamide...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746924/cyclin-dependent-kinase-inhibitor-p21waf1-cip1-facilitates-the-development-of-cardiac-hypertrophy
#13
Yang-Fei Tong, Yan Wang, Yuan-Yuan Ding, Jing-Mei Li, Xi-Chun Pan, Xiao-Lan Lu, Xiao-Hong Chen, Ya Liu, Hai-Gang Zhang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Adult cardiomyocytes can re-enter cell cycle as stimulated by prohypertrophic factors although they withdraw from cell cycle soon after birth. p21WAF1/CIP1, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, has been implicated in cardiac hypertrophy, however, its precise contribution to this process remains largely unclear. METHODS: The gene expression profile in left ventricle (LV) of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats was determined using quantitative PCR array and verified by real-time PCR and Western blotting...
July 24, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742155/acceleration-of-the-sliding-movement-of-actin-filaments-with-the-use-of-a-non-motile-mutant-myosin-in-in-vitro-motility-assays-driven-by-skeletal-muscle-heavy-meromyosin
#14
Kohei Iwase, Masateru Tanaka, Keiko Hirose, Taro Q P Uyeda, Hajime Honda
We examined the movement of an actin filament sliding on a mixture of normal and genetically modified myosin molecules that were attached to a glass surface. For this purpose, we used a Dictyostelium G680V mutant myosin II whose release rates of Pi and ADP were highly suppressed relative to normal myosin, leading to a significantly extended life-time of the strongly bound state with actin and virtually no motility. When the mixing ratio of G680V mutant myosin II to skeletal muscle HMM (heavy myosin) was 0.01%, the actin filaments moved intermittently...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742154/lipopolysaccharide-inhibits-myogenic-differentiation-of-c2c12-myoblasts-through-the-toll-like-receptor-4-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-and-myoblast-derived-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE
#15
Yuko Ono, Kazuho Sakamoto
BACKGROUND: Circulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS) concentrations are often elevated in patients with sepsis or with various endogenous diseases that are associated with metabolic endotoxemia. Involuntary loss of skeletal muscle, termed muscle wasting, is commonly observed in these conditions, suggesting that circulating LPS might play an essential role in its development. Although impairment of muscle regeneration is an important determinant of skeletal muscle wasting, it is unclear whether LPS affects this process and, if so, by what mechanism...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728404/quality-of-steak-restructured-from-beef-trimmings-containing-microbial-transglutaminase-and-impacted-by-freezing-and-grading-by-fat-level
#16
Supaluk Sorapukdee, Pussadee Tangwatcharin
Objective: The objective of this research was to evaluate the physico-chemical, microbiological and sensorial qualities of restructured steaks processed from beef trimmings (grade I and II) and frozen beef (fresh beef as control and frozen beef). Method: Beef trimmings from commercial butcher were collected, designated into 4 treatments differed in beef trimmings grade and freezing, processed into restructured steaks with 1% microbial transglutaminase and then analyzed product quality...
July 17, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721121/does-the-injection-of-platelet-rich-plasma-induce-changes-in-the-gene-expression-and-morphology-of-intact-thoroughbred-skeletal-muscle
#17
Kentaro Fukuda, Hirofumi Miyata, Atsutoshi Kuwano, Taisuke Kuroda, Norihisa Tamura, Yasumitsu Kotoyori, Yoshinori Kasashima
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy is promising for treating skeletal muscle injuries in human athletes by promoting muscle regeneration. It might also be useful for treating muscle injuries in equine athletes. In the present study, muscle regeneration induced by injection of PRP into intact muscle of Thoroughbred was investigated. Autologous PRP and saline were injected twice into intact left and right gluteus medius muscles of seven clinically healthy Thoroughbreds. Muscle samples were collected from the injection sites by needle biopsy at 2 and 7 days after PRP injection...
2017: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717253/prostacyclin-reverses-platelet-stress-fibre-formation-causing-platelet-aggregate-instability
#18
M Z Yusuf, Z Raslan, L Atkinson, A Aburima, S G Thomas, K M Naseem, S D J Calaminus
Prostacyclin (PGI2) modulates platelet activation to regulate haemostasis. Evidence has emerged to suggest that thrombi are dynamic structures with distinct areas of differing platelet activation. It was hypothesised that PGI2 could reverse platelet spreading by actin cytoskeletal modulation, leading to reduced capability of platelet aggregates to withstand a high shear environment. Our data demonstrates that post-flow of PGI2 over activated and spread platelets on fibrinogen, identified a significant reduction in platelet surface area under high shear...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714588/cellular-force-assay-detects-altered-contractility-caused-by-a-nephritis-associated-mutation-in-nonmuscle-myosin-iia
#19
Shota P Fukuda, Tsubasa S Matsui, Takafumi Ichikawa, Taichi Furukawa, Noriyuki Kioka, Shuichiro Fukushima, Shinji Deguchi
Recent progress in understanding the essential roles of mechanical forces in regulating various cellular processes expands the field of biology to one where interdisciplinary approaches with engineering techniques become indispensable. Contractile forces or contractility-inherently present in proliferative cells due to the activity of ubiquitous nonmuscle myosin II (NMII)-are one of such mechano-regulators, but because NMII works downstream of diverse signaling pathways, it is often difficult to predict how the inherent cellular forces change upon perturbations to particular molecules...
July 17, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714309/characterization-of-blebbistatin-inhibition-of-smooth-muscle-myosin-and-nonmuscle-myosin-2
#20
Hai-Man Zhang, Huan-Hong Ji, Tong Ni, Rong-Na Ma, Aibing Wang, Xiang-Dong Li
Blebbistatin is a potent and specific inhibitor of the motor functions of class II myosins, including striated muscle myosin and nonmuscle myosin-2 (NM2). However, the blebbistatin inhibition of NM2c has not been assessed and remains controversial with respect to its efficacy with smooth muscle myosin (SmM), which is highly homologous to NM2. To clarify these issues, we analyzed the effects of blebbistatin on the motor activities of recombinant SmM and three NM2s (NM2a, -2b, and -2c). We found that blebbistatin potently inhibits the actin-activated ATPase activities of SmM and NM2s with following IC50 values: 6...
August 1, 2017: Biochemistry
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