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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345962/role-of-selected-polymorphisms-in-determining-muscle-fiber-composition-in-japanese-men-and-women
#1
Hiroshi Kumagai, Takuro Tobina, Noriko Ichinoseki-Sekine, Ryo Kakigi, Takamasa Tsuzuki, Hirofumi Zempo, Keisuke Shiose, Eiichi Yoshimura, Hideaki Kumahara, Makoto Ayabe, Yasuki Higaki, Ryo Yamada, Hiroyuki Kobayashi, Akira Kiyonaga, Hisashi Naito, Hiroaki Tanaka, Noriyuki Fuku
Genetic polymorphisms and sex differences are suggested to affect muscle fiber composition; however, no study has investigated the effects of genetic polymorphisms on muscle fiber composition with respect to sex differences. Therefore, the present study examined the effects of genetic polymorphisms on muscle fiber composition with respect to sex differences in Japanese population. The present study included 211 healthy Japanese individuals (102 men and 109 women). Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis to determine the proportion of myosin heavy chain isoforms (MHC-I, MHC-IIa, and MHC-IIx)...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326287/the-apical-scaffold-big-bang-binds-to-spectrins-and-regulates-the-growth-of-drosophila-melanogaster-wing-discs
#2
Elodie Forest, Rémi Logeay, Charles Géminard, Diala Kantar, Florence Frayssinoux, Lisa Heron-Milhavet, Alexandre Djiane
During development, cell numbers are tightly regulated, ensuring that tissues and organs reach their correct size and shape. Recent evidence has highlighted the intricate connections between the cytoskeleton and the regulation of the key growth control Hippo pathway. Looking for apical scaffolds regulating tissue growth, we describe that Drosophila melanogaster big bang (Bbg), a poorly characterized multi-PDZ scaffold, controls epithelial tissue growth without affecting epithelial polarity and architecture...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324450/quantification-of-myosin-heavy-chain-isoform-mrna-transcripts-in-the-supraspinatus-muscle-of-vertical-clinger-primates
#3
Josep Maria Potau, Rosa Artells, Carmen Muñoz, Júlia Arias-Martorell, Juan Francisco Pastor, Félix Jesús de Paz, Mercedes Barbosa, Gaëlle Bello-Hellegouarch, Alejandro Pérez-Pérez
Vertical clinging is a specialized form of locomotion characteristic of the primate family Callitrichidae. Vertical clinging requires these pronograde primates to maintain a vertical posture, so the protraction of their forelimbs must resist gravity. Since pronograde primates usually move as horizontal quadrupeds, we hypothesized that the supraspinatus muscle of vertical clingers would present specific characteristics related to the functional requirements imposed on the shoulder area by vertical clinging. To test this hypothesis, we quantified by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction the mRNA transcripts of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms in the supraspinatus muscle of 15 species of pronograde primates, including vertical clingers...
January 12, 2018: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323185/biogenesis-of-podosome-rosettes-through-fission
#4
Szu-Lin Kuo, Chien-Lin Chen, Yi-Ru Pan, Wen-Tai Chiu, Hong-Chen Chen
Podosomes are dynamic actin-based membrane protrusions that are important for extracellular matrix degradation and invasive cell motility. Individual podosomes are often found to organize into large rosette-like structures in some types of cells, such as osteoclasts, endothelial cells, Src-transformed fibroblasts, and certain highly invasive cancer cells. In this study, we show that new podosome rosettes arise through one of two mechanisms; de novo assembly or fission of a pre-existing podosome rosette in Src-transformed fibroblasts...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321253/role-of-the-hof1-cyk3-interaction-in-cleavage-furrow-ingression-and-primary-septum-formation-during-yeast-cytokinesis
#5
Meng Wang, Ryuichi Nishihama, Masayuki Onishi, John R Pringle
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it is well established that Hof1, Cyk3, and Inn1 contribute to septum formation and cytokinesis. Because hof1∆ and cyk3∆ single mutants have relatively mild defects but hof1∆ cyk3∆ double mutants are nearly dead, it has been hypothesized that these proteins contribute to parallel pathways. However, there is also evidence that they interact physically. In this study, we examined this interaction and its functional significance in detail. Our data indicate that the interaction (i) is mediated by a direct binding of the Hof1 SH3 domain to a proline-rich motif in Cyk3; (ii) occurs specifically at the time of cytokinesis but is independent of the (hyper)phosphorylation of both proteins that occurs at about the same time; (iii) is dispensable for the normal localization of both proteins; (iv) is essential for normal primary-septum formation and a normal rate of cleavage-furrow ingression; and (v) becomes critical for growth when either Inn1 or the type II myosin Myo1 (a key component of the contractile actomyosin ring) is absent...
January 10, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321250/myosin-ii-interacting-guanine-nucleotide-exchange-factor-myogef-promotes-bleb-retraction-via-stimulating-cortex-reassembly-at-the-bleb-membrane
#6
Meng Jiao, Di Wu, Qize Wei
Blebs are involved in various biological processes such as cell migration, cytokinesis, and apoptosis. While the expansion of blebs is largely an intracellular pressure-driven process, the retraction of blebs is believed to be driven by RhoA activation that leads to the reassembly of the actomyosin cortex at the bleb membrane. However, it is still poorly understood how RhoA is activated at the bleb membrane. Here, we provide evidence demonstrating that nonmuscle myosin II-interacting guanine nucleotide exchange factor (MYOGEF) is implicated in bleb retraction via stimulating RhoA activation and the reassembly of an actomyosin network at the bleb membrane during bleb retraction...
January 10, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316444/force-generation-via-%C3%AE-cardiac-myosin-titin-and-%C3%AE-actinin-drives-cardiac-sarcomere-assembly-from-cell-matrix-adhesions
#7
Anant Chopra, Matthew L Kutys, Kehan Zhang, William J Polacheck, Calvin C Sheng, Rebeccah J Luu, Jeroen Eyckmans, J Travis Hinson, Jonathan G Seidman, Christine E Seidman, Christopher S Chen
Truncating mutations in the sarcomere protein titin cause dilated cardiomyopathy due to sarcomere insufficiency. However, it remains mechanistically unclear how these mutations decrease sarcomere content in cardiomyocytes. Utilizing human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes, CRISPR/Cas9, and live microscopy, we characterize the fundamental mechanisms of human cardiac sarcomere formation. We observe that sarcomerogenesis initiates at protocostameres, sites of cell-extracellular matrix adhesion, where nucleation and centripetal assembly of α-actinin-2-containing fibers provide a template for the fusion of Z-disk precursors, Z bodies, and subsequent striation...
January 8, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316327/physical-confinement-alters-cytoskeletal-contributions-towards-human-mesenchymal-stem-cell-migration
#8
Mary T Doolin, Kimberly M Stroka
The in vivo microenvironment is critical for providing physico-chemical signaling cues which ultimately regulate human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) behavior in clinically-relevant applications. hMSCs experience mechanical confinement of the cell body and nucleus in 3D tissues during homing and in porous tissue engineered scaffolds, yet the effects of this mechanical cue on hMSC migration are not known. Here, we use a microchannel device to systematically examine the effect of confinement on hMSC migration and cytoskeletal organization...
January 6, 2018: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306866/mechanical-stress-potentiates-the-differentiation-of-periodontal-ligament-stem-cells-into-keratocytes
#9
Jialin Chen, Wei Zhang, Ludvig J Backman, Peyman Kelk, Patrik Danielson
AIMS: To explore the role of corneal-shaped static mechanical strain on the differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) into keratocytes and the possible synergistic effects of mechanics and inducing medium. METHODS: PDLSCs were exposed to 3% static dome-shaped mechanical strain in a Flexcell Tension System for 3 days and 7 days. Keratocyte phenotype was determined by gene expression of keratocyte markers. Keratocyte differentiation (inducing) medium was introduced in the Flexcell system, either continuously or intermittently combined with mechanical stimulation...
January 6, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295889/the-actin-cytoskeleton-and-actin-based-motility
#10
REVIEW
Tatyana Svitkina
SUMMARYThe actin cytoskeleton-a collection of actin filaments with their accessory and regulatory proteins-is the primary force-generating machinery in the cell. It can produce pushing (protrusive) forces through coordinated polymerization of multiple actin filaments or pulling (contractile) forces through sliding actin filaments along bipolar filaments of myosin II. Both force types are particularly important for whole-cell migration, but they also define and change the cell shape and mechanical properties of the cell surface, drive the intracellular motility and morphogenesis of membrane organelles, and allow cells to form adhesions with each other and with the extracellular matrix...
January 2, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289708/effect-of-ageing-on-the-myosin-heavy-chain-composition-of-the-human-sternocleidomastoid-muscle
#11
M Meznaric, I Eržen, P Karen, E Cvetko
The myosin heavy chain (MyHC) composition of ageing limb muscles is transformed into a slower phenotype and expresses fast-twitch fiber type atrophy, presumably due to age-related motor unit remodeling and a change in the patterns of physical activity. It is not known if ageing affects the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) in a similar way. The goal of the study was to analyze the MyHC composition and the size of muscle fibres in the ageing SCM by immunohistochemical methods and quantitative analysis and stereology using our own software for morphometry...
December 28, 2017: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285133/effects-of-ginkgo-biloba-leaf-extract-on-local-renin-angiotensin-system-through-tlr4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-in-cardiac-myocyte
#12
Hua Jiang, Peng Qu
The present study investigated the effects of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract (GBE50) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway and its effects on angiotensinogen (ATG) and AT1a receptor, so as to explore the mechanism of GBE50 in prevention and treatment of left ventricular remodeling. In vitro cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) were divided into 4 groups including i) control group: DMEM medium; ii) LPS group: iii) LPS + GBE50 group; iv) LPS + caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE, specific inhibitor of NF-κB) group...
December 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282285/crosslinkers-both-drive-and-brake-cytoskeletal-remodeling-and-furrowing-in-cytokinesis
#13
Carlos Patino Descovich, Daniel B Cortes, Sean Ryan, Jazmine Nash, Li Zhang, Paul S Maddox, Francois Nedelec, Amy Shaub Maddox
Cell shape changes such as cytokinesis are driven by the actomyosin contractile cytoskeleton. The molecular rearrangements that bring about contractility in nonmuscle cells are currently debated. Specifically, both filament sliding by myosin motors, as well as cytoskeletal crosslinking by myosins and nonmotor crosslinkers, are thought to promote contractility. Here, we examined how the abundance of motor and nonmotor crosslinkers affects the speed of cytokinetic furrowing. We built a minimal model to simulate contractile dynamics in the C...
December 27, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279543/osteoblasts-preferentially-adhere-to-peaks-on-micro-structured-titanium
#14
Paola Lagonegro, Giovanna Trevisi, Lucia Nasi, Ludovica Parisi, Edoardo Manfredi, Simone Lumetti, Francesca Rossi, Guido M Macaluso, Giancarlo Salviati, Carlo Galli
The aim of the study was to investigate cell adhesion to micro-structured titanium. Osteoblastic MC3T3 cells were cultured on smooth (P) or sand-blasted/acid-etched (SLA) titanium discs and were observed at scanning electron microscope/focused ion beam (SEM/FIB). Myosin II and actin microfilaments were labelled for epifluorescence microscopy. FIB revealed that cell adhesion initiated centrally and expanded to the cell periphery and that cells attached on the substrate by bridging over the titanium irregularities and adhering mostly on surface peaks...
December 27, 2017: Dental Materials Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278358/characterisation-of-l-type-amino-acid-transporter-1-lat1-expression-in-human-skeletal-muscle-by-immunofluorescent-microscopy
#15
Nathan Hodson, Thomas Brown, Sophie Joanisse, Nick Aguirre, Daniel W D West, Daniel R Moore, Keith Baar, Leigh Breen, Andrew Philp
The branch chain amino acid leucine is a potent stimulator of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. Leucine rapidly enters the cell via the L-Type Amino Acid Transporter 1 (LAT1); however, little is known regarding the localisation and distribution of this transporter in human skeletal muscle. Therefore, we applied immunofluorescence staining approaches to visualise LAT1 in wild type (WT) and LAT1 muscle-specific knockout (mKO) mice, in addition to basal human skeletal muscle samples. LAT1 positive staining was visually greater in WT muscles compared to mKO muscle...
December 26, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262413/angiotensin-ii-facilitates-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-mediated-myosin-light-chain-kinase-degradation-in-pressure-overload-induced-cardiac-hypertrophy
#16
Shun Wang, Mian Cheng, Zhengqing Hu, Shan Hu, Qiang Zou, Xin Lai, Beilei Liu, Hong Jiang, Congxin Huang, Gang Wu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Angiotensin II (Ang II) has been shown to promote cardiac remodeling during the process of hypertrophy. Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), a specific kinase for the phosphorylation of myosin light chain 2 (MLC2), plays an important role in regulating cardiac muscle contraction and hypertrophy. However, whether Ang II could facilitate cardiac hypertrophy by altering the expression of MLCK remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate this effect and the underlying mechanisms...
December 14, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249493/exendin-4-improves-cardiovascular-function-and-survival-in-flow-induced-pulmonary-hypertension
#17
Jun-Neng Roan, Chih-Hsin Hsu, Shih-Yuan Fang, Hung-Wen Tsai, Chwan-Yau Luo, Chien-Chi Huang, Chen-Fuh Lam
OBJECTIVES: Systemic left-to-right shunting causes pulmonary arteriopathy, leading to progressive cardiopulmonary failure and a poor prognosis. In this study, we examined the extraglycemic effect of a synthetic glucagon-like peptide, exendin-4, on pulmonary arteriopathy regression and cardiopulmonary function in nondiabetic rats. METHODS: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) was induced by monocrotaline (60 mg/kg, subcutaneous) injection followed by the creation of an aortocaval fistula...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247790/age-related-reduction-in-single-muscle-fiber-calcium-sensitivity-is-associated-with-decreased-muscle-power-in-men-and-women
#18
Chad R Straight, Philip A Ades, Michael J Toth, Mark S Miller
Age-related declines in human skeletal muscle performance may be caused, in part, by decreased responsivity of muscle fibers to calcium (Ca2+). This study examined the contractile properties of single vastus lateralis muscle fibers with various myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms (I, I/IIA, IIA and IIAX) across a range of Ca2+ concentrations in 11 young (24.1±1.1years) and 10 older (68.8±0.8years) men and women. The normalized pCa-force curve shifted rightward with age, leading to decreased activation threshold (pCa10) and/or Ca2+ sensitivity (pCa50) for all MHC isoforms examined...
December 13, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230016/adhesion-forces-and-cortical-tension-couple-cell-proliferation-and-differentiation-to-drive-epidermal-stratification
#19
Yekaterina A Miroshnikova, Huy Q Le, David Schneider, Torsten Thalheim, Matthias Rübsam, Nadine Bremicker, Julien Polleux, Nadine Kamprad, Marco Tarantola, Irène Wang, Martial Balland, Carien M Niessen, Joerg Galle, Sara A Wickström
To establish and maintain organ structure and function, tissues need to balance stem cell proliferation and differentiation rates and coordinate cell fate with position. By quantifying and modelling tissue stress and deformation in the mammalian epidermis, we find that this balance is coordinated through local mechanical forces generated by cell division and delamination. Proliferation within the basal stem/progenitor layer, which displays features of a jammed, solid-like state, leads to crowding, thereby locally distorting cell shape and stress distribution...
January 2018: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214232/hybrid-protein-glycosaminoglycan-hydrogels-promote-chondrogenic-stem-cell-differentiation
#20
Vladimíra Moulisová, Sara Poveda-Reyes, Esther Sanmartín-Masiá, Luis Quintanilla-Sierra, Manuel Salmerón-Sánchez, Gloria Gallego Ferrer
Gelatin-hyaluronic acid (Gel-HA) hybrid hydrogels have been proposed as matrices for tissue engineering because of their ability to mimic the architecture of the extracellular matrix. Our aim was to explore whether tyramine conjugates of Gel and HA, producing injectable hydrogels, are able to induce a particular phenotype of encapsulated human mesenchymal stem cells without the need for growth factors. While pure Gel allowed good cell adhesion without remarkable differentiation and pure HA triggered chondrogenic differentiation without cell spreading, the hybrids, especially those rich in HA, promoted chondrogenic differentiation as well as cell proliferation and adhesion...
November 30, 2017: ACS Omega
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