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Myosin II

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545680/a-role-for-tropomyosins-in-activity-dependent-bulk-endocytosis
#1
REVIEW
R S Gormal, N Valmas, T Fath, F A Meunier
Bulk endocytosis allows stimulated neurons to take up a large portion of the presynaptic plasma membrane in order to regenerate synaptic vesicle pools. Actin, one of the most abundant proteins in eukaryotic cells, plays an important role in this process, but a detailed mechanistic understanding of the involvement of the cortical actin network is still lacking, in part due to the relatively small size of nerve terminals and the limitation of optical microscopy. We recently discovered that neurosecretory cells display a similar, albeit much larger, form of bulk endocytosis in response to secretagogue stimulation...
May 22, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539835/the-myosin-ii-inhibitor-blebbistatin-ameliorates-fecl3-induced-arterial-thrombosis-via-the-gsk3%C3%AE-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#2
Yuanyuan Zhang, Long Li, Yazheng Zhao, Han Han, Yang Hu, Di Liang, Boyang Yu, Junping Kou
Arterial thrombosis and its related diseases are major healthcare problems worldwide. Blebbistatin is an inhibitor of myosin II, which plays an important role in thrombosis. The aim of our study is to explore the effect and potential mechanism of blebbistatin on arterial thrombosis. A ferric chloride (FeCl3) solution at a concentration of 5% was used to induce carotid artery thrombosis in mice. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining were used to detect the expression or activation of non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIA (NMMHC IIA), tissue factor (TF), GSK3β and NF-κB...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537220/patterned-cortical-tension-mediated-by-n-cadherin-controls-cell-geometric-order-in-the-drosophila-eye
#3
Eunice HoYee Chan, Pruthvi Chavadimane Shivakumar, Raphaël Clément, Edith Laugier, Pierre-François Lenne
Adhesion molecules hold cells together but also couple cell membranes to a contractile actomyosin network, which limits the expansion of cell contacts. Despite their fundamental role in tissue morphogenesis and tissue homeostasis, how adhesion molecules control cell shapes and cell patterns in tissues remains unclear. Here we address this question in vivo using the Drosophila eye. We show that cone cell shapes depend little on adhesion bonds and mostly on contractile forces. However, N-cadherin has an indirect control on cell shape...
May 24, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536424/a-microfluidic-chamber-based-approach-to-map-the-shear-moduli-of-vascular-cells-and-other-soft-materials
#4
Béla Suki, Yingying Hu, Naohiko Murata, Jasmin Imsirovic, Jarred R Mondoñedo, Claudio L N de Oliveira, Niccole Schaible, Philip G Allen, Ramaswamy Krishnan, Erzsébet Bartolák-Suki
There is growing interest in quantifying vascular cell and tissue stiffness. Most measurement approaches, however, are incapable of assessing stiffness in the presence of physiological flows. We developed a microfluidic approach which allows measurement of shear modulus (G) during flow. The design included a chamber with glass windows allowing imaging with upright or inverted microscopes. Flow was controlled gravitationally to push culture media through the chamber. Fluorescent beads were conjugated to the sample surface and imaged before and during flow...
May 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534911/cellular-orientation-is-guided-by-strain-gradients
#5
Sophie Chagnon-Lessard, Hubert Jean-Ruel, Michel Godin, Andrew E Pelling
The strain-induced reorientation response of cyclically stretched cells has been well characterized in uniform strain fields. In the present study, we comprehensively analyse the behaviour of human fibroblasts subjected to a highly non-uniform strain field within a polymethylsiloxane microdevice. Our results indicate that the strain gradient amplitude and direction regulate cell reorientation through a coordinated gradient avoidance response. We provide critical evidence that strain gradient is a key physical cue that can guide cell organization...
May 23, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530245/shifting-the-optimal-stiffness-for-cell-migration
#6
Benjamin L Bangasser, Ghaidan A Shamsan, Clarence E Chan, Kwaku N Opoku, Erkan Tüzel, Benjamin W Schlichtmann, Jesse A Kasim, Benjamin J Fuller, Brannon R McCullough, Steven S Rosenfeld, David J Odde
Cell migration, which is central to many biological processes including wound healing and cancer progression, is sensitive to environmental stiffness, and many cell types exhibit a stiffness optimum, at which migration is maximal. Here we present a cell migration simulator that predicts a stiffness optimum that can be shifted by altering the number of active molecular motors and clutches. This prediction is verified experimentally by comparing cell traction and F-actin retrograde flow for two cell types with differing amounts of active motors and clutches: embryonic chick forebrain neurons (ECFNs; optimum ∼1 kPa) and U251 glioma cells (optimum ∼100 kPa)...
May 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524745/actin-cytoskeleton-regulates-functional-anchorage-migration-switch-during-t-cadherin-induced-phenotype-modulation-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#7
Agne Frismantiene, Emmanouil Kyriakakis, Boris Dasen, Paul Erne, Therese J Resink, Maria Philippova
Vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) switching between differentiated and dedifferentiated phenotypes is reversible and accompanied by morphological and functional alterations that require reconfiguration of cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion networks. Studies attempting to explore changes in overall composition of the adhesion nexus during SMC phenotype transition are lacking. We have previously demonstrated that T-cadherin knockdown enforces SMC differentiation, whereas T-cadherin upregulation promotes SMC dedifferentiation...
May 19, 2017: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512143/diverse-roles-of-guanine-nucleotide-exchange-factors-in-regulating-collective-cell-migration
#8
Assaf Zaritsky, Yun-Yu Tseng, M Angeles Rabadán, Shefali Krishna, Michael Overholtzer, Gaudenz Danuser, Alan Hall
Efficient collective migration depends on a balance between contractility and cytoskeletal rearrangements, adhesion, and mechanical cell-cell communication, all controlled by GTPases of the RHO family. By comprehensive screening of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) in human bronchial epithelial cell monolayers, we identified GEFs that are required for collective migration at large, such as SOS1 and β-PIX, and RHOA GEFs that are implicated in intercellular communication. Down-regulation of the latter GEFs differentially enhanced front-to-back propagation of guidance cues through the monolayer and was mirrored by down-regulation of RHOA expression and myosin II activity...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512027/insights-into-the-myosin-ii-inhibitory-potency-of-a-ring-modified-s-blebbistatin-analogs
#9
Sigrid Verhasselt, Christian V Stevens, Tom Van den Broecke, Marc E Bracke, Bart I Roman
Myosin II is an interesting target for therapeutic intervention, as it is involved in a large number of motility-based diseases. (S)-Blebbistatin is a known micromolar inhibitor of this protein. A new series of (S)-blebbistatin derivatives with a modified A-ring was synthesized and the myosin II inhibitory properties were evaluated in vitro. In this way, we gained insight into the influence of structural modifications in this part of the scaffold on myosin II inhibitory potency. Our results indicate there are few possibilities for potency enhancement via ring A modification of the blebbistatin scaffold...
May 4, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490501/dynamic-microtubules-regulate-cellular-contractility-during-t-cell-activation
#10
King Lam Hui, Arpita Upadhyaya
T-cell receptor (TCR) triggering and subsequent T-cell activation are essential for the adaptive immune response. Recently, multiple lines of evidence have shown that force transduction across the TCR complex is involved during TCR triggering, and that the T cell might use its force-generation machinery to probe the mechanical properties of the opposing antigen-presenting cell, giving rise to different signaling and physiological responses. Mechanistically, actin polymerization and turnover have been shown to be essential for force generation by T cells, but how these actin dynamics are regulated spatiotemporally remains poorly understood...
May 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486210/improved-synthesis-and-comparative-analysis-of-the-tool-properties-of-new-and-existing-d-ring-modified-s-blebbistatin-analogs
#11
Sigrid Verhasselt, Bart I Roman, Marc E Bracke, Christian V Stevens
(S)-Blebbistatin is a widely used research tool to study myosin II, an important regulator of many motility based diseases. Its potency is too low to be of clinical relevance, but identification of analogs with enhanced potency could deliver leads for targeted pharmacotherapeutics. This, however, requires a profound insight into the structure-activity relationship of the (S)-blebbistatin scaffold. Therefore, new D-ring modified (S)-blebbistatin derivatives were prepared to extend the existing small library of analogs...
April 27, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486133/rhod-inhibits-rhoc-rock-dependent-cell-contraction-via-pak6
#12
Charlotte H Durkin, Flavia Leite, João V Cordeiro, Yutaka Handa, Yoshiki Arakawa, Ferran Valderrama, Michael Way
RhoA-mediated regulation of myosin-II activity in the actin cortex controls the ability of cells to contract and bleb during a variety of cellular processes, including cell migration and division. Cell contraction and blebbing also frequently occur as part of the cytopathic effect seen during many different viral infections. We now demonstrate that the vaccinia virus protein F11, which localizes to the plasma membrane, is required for ROCK-mediated cell contraction from 2 hr post infection. Curiously, F11-induced cell contraction is dependent on RhoC and not RhoA signaling to ROCK...
May 8, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478799/role-of-microrna-124-in-cardiomyocyte-hypertrophy-inducedby-angiotensin-ii
#13
Q Bao, L Chen, J Li, M Zhao, S Wu, W Wu, X Liu
Cardiac hypertrophy is a crucial predictor of heart failure and is regulated by microRNAs. MicroRNA-124 (miR-124) is regarded as a prognostic indicator for outcomes after cardiac arrest. However, whether miR-124 participates in cardiac hypertrophy remains unclear. Therefore, our study aimed to determine the role of miR-124 in angiotensin II(AngII)-induced myocardial hypertrophy and the possible mechanism. Primary cultured rat neonatal cardiomyocytes(NCMs) were transfected with miR-124 mimics or inhibitor, followed by AngII stimulation...
April 29, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459445/egfr-and-her2-activate-rigidity-sensing-only-on-rigid-matrices
#14
Mayur Saxena, Shuaimin Liu, Bo Yang, Cynthia Hajal, Rishita Changede, Junqiang Hu, Haguy Wolfenson, James Hone, Michael P Sheetz
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) interacts with integrins during cell spreading and motility, but little is known about the role of EGFR in these mechanosensing processes. Here we show, using two different cell lines, that in serum- and EGF-free conditions, EGFR or HER2 activity increase spreading and rigidity-sensing contractions on rigid, but not soft, substrates. Contractions peak after 15-20 min, but diminish by tenfold after 4 h. Addition of EGF at that point increases spreading and contractions, but this can be blocked by myosin-II inhibition...
May 1, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455843/does-the-intercept-of-the-heat-stress-relation-provide-an-accurate-estimate-of-cardiac-activation-heat
#15
Toan Pham, Kenneth Tran, Kimberley M Mellor, Anthony Hickey, Amelia Power, Marie-Louise Ward, Andrew Taberner, June-Chiew Han, Denis Loiselle
Activation heat arises from two sources during the contraction of striated muscle. It reflects the metabolic expenditure associated with Ca(2+) pumping by the sarcoplasmic reticular Ca(2+)  ATPase and Ca(2+) translocation by the Na(+) -Ca(2+) exchanger coupled to the Na(+) -K(+ ) ATPase. In cardiac preparations, investigators are constrained to estimate its magnitude by reducing muscle length to the point where macroscopic twitch force vanishes. But this experimental protocol has been criticised since, at zero force, the observed heat may be contaminated by residual cross-bridge cycling activity...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453955/acoustic-tweezing-cytometry-enhances-osteogenesis-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-through-cytoskeletal-contractility-and-yap-activation
#16
Xufeng Xue, Xiaowei Hong, Zida Li, Cheri X Deng, Jianping Fu
Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have great potential for cell-based therapies for treating degenerative bone diseases. It is known that mechanical cues in the cell microenvironment play an important role in regulating osteogenic (bone) differentiation of hMSCs. However, mechanoregulation of lineage commitment of hMSCs in conventional two-dimensional (2D) monocultures or bioengineered three-dimensional (3D) tissue constructs remains suboptimal due to complex biomaterial design criteria for hMSC culture...
April 22, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452088/myosin-ii-activity-is-required-for-structural-plasticity-at-the-axon-initial-segment
#17
Mark D Evans, Candida Tufo, Adna S Dumitrescu, Matthew S Grubb
In neurons, axons possess a molecularly defined and highly organised proximal region - the axon initial segment (AIS) - that is a key regulator of both electrical excitability and cellular polarity. Despite existing as a large, dense structure with specialised cytoskeletal architecture, the AIS is surprisingly plastic, with sustained alterations in neuronal activity bringing about significant alterations to its position, length or molecular composition. However, although the upstream activity-dependent signalling pathways that lead to such plasticity have begun to be elucidated, the downstream mechanisms that produce structural changes at the AIS are completely unknown...
April 27, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452077/structure-and-function-of-human-muscle-fibres-and-muscle-proteome-in-physically-active-older-men
#18
Lorenza Brocca, Jamie S McPhee, Emanuela Longa, Monica Canepari, Olivier Seynnes, Giuseppe De Vito, Maria Antonietta Pellegrino, Marco Narici, Roberto Bottinelli
Contradictory results have been reported on the impact of ageing on structure and functions of skeletal muscle fibres likely due to complex interplay between ageing and other phenomena such as disuse and diseases. Here we recruited healthy, physically and socially active young (YO) and elderly (EL) men in order to study aging per se without the confounding effects of impaired physical function. In vivo analyses of quadriceps and in vitro analyses of vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were performed. In EL subjects, our results show that: (i) quadriceps volume, maximum voluntary torque (MVC), and patellar tendon force (Ft) were significantly lower; (ii) muscle fibres went through significant atrophy and impairment of specific force (Po/CSA) and unloaded shortening velocity (Vo); (iii) myosin/actin ratio and myosin content in individual muscle fibres were not altered; (iv) muscle proteome went through quantitative adaptations, namely an up-regulation of the content of several groups of proteins among which myofibrillar proteins and antioxidant defence systems; (v) muscle proteome went through qualitative adaptations, namely phosphorylation of several proteins, including Myosin Light Chain-2 slow and Troponin T and carbonylation of Myosin Heavy Chains...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450866/impact-of-non-human-leukocyte-antigen-specific-antibodies-in-kidney-and-heart-transplantation
#19
REVIEW
Xiaohai Zhang, Nancy L Reinsmoen
The presence of donor human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-specific antibodies has been shown to be associated with graft loss and decreased patient survival, but it is not uncommon that donor-specific HLA antibodies are absent in patients with biopsy-proven antibody-mediated rejection. In this review, we focus on the latest findings on antibodies against non-HLA antigens in kidney and heart transplantation. These non-HLA antigens include myosin, vimentin, Kα1 tubulin, collagen, and angiotensin II type 1 receptor...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448785/a-class-ii-myosin-is-required-for-growth-conidiation-cell-wall-integrity-and-pathogenicity-of-magnaporthe-oryzae
#20
Min Guo, Leyong Tan, Xiang Nie, Zhengguang Zhang
In eukaryotic organisms, myosin proteins are the major ring components that are involved in cytokinesis. To date, little is known about the biological functions of myosin proteins in Magnaporthe oryzae. In this study, insertional mutagenesis conducted in M. oryzae led to identification of Momyo2, a pathogenicity gene predicted to encode a class-II myosin protein homologous to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Myo1. According to qRT-PCR, Momyo2 is highly expressed during early infectious stage. When this gene was disrupted, the resultant mutant isolates were attenuated in virulence on rice and barley...
April 27, 2017: Virulence
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