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Myosin II

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635959/optogenetic-activation-of-plexin-b1-reveals-contact-repulsion-between-osteoclasts-and-osteoblasts
#1
Abhijit Deb Roy, Taofei Yin, Shilpa Choudhary, Vladimir Rodionov, Carol C Pilbeam, Yi I Wu
During bone remodelling, osteoclasts induce chemotaxis of osteoblasts and yet maintain spatial segregation. We show that osteoclasts express the repulsive guidance factor Semaphorin 4D and induce contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL) in osteoblasts through its receptor Plexin-B1. To examine causality and elucidate how localized Plexin-B1 stimulation may spatiotemporally coordinate its downstream targets in guiding cell migration, we develop an optogenetic tool for Plexin-B1 designated optoPlexin. Precise optoPlexin activation at the leading edge of migrating osteoblasts readily induces local retraction and, unexpectedly, distal protrusions to steer cells away...
June 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633918/traction-force-and-its-regulation-during-cytokinesis-in-dictyostelium-cells
#2
Md Golam Sarowar Jahan, Shigehiko Yumura
Cytokinesis is the final stage of cell division. Dictyostelium cells have multiple modes of cytokinesis, including cytokinesis A, B and C. Cytokinesis A is a conventional mode, which depends on myosin II in the contractile ring. Myosin II null cells divide depending on substratum-attachment (cytokinesis B) or in a multi-polar fashion independent of the cell cycle (cytokinesis C). We investigated the traction stress exerted by dividing cells in the three different modes using traction force microscopy. In all cases, the traction forces were directed inward from both poles...
June 12, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630813/mutations-in-the-sh1-helix-alter-the-thermal-properties-of-myosin-ii
#3
Kotomi Shibata, Tsubasa Koyama, Shohei Inde, Sosuke Iwai, Shigeru Chaen
The myosin II SH1 helix is a joint that links the converter subdomain to the rest of the myosin motor domain and possibly plays a key role in the arrangement of the converter/lever arm. Several point mutations within the SH1 helix in human myosin IIs have been shown to cause diseases. To reveal whether these SH1 helix mutations affect not only motile activities but also thermal properties of myosin II, here we introduced the E683K or R686C point mutation into the SH1 helix in Dictyostelium myosin II. Thermal inactivation as well as thermal aggregation rates of these mutant proteins demonstrated that these mutations decreased the thermal stability of myosin II...
2017: Biophysics and Physicobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620932/fiber-type-composition-of-the-palmaris-brevis-muscle-implications-for-palmar-function
#4
Colin W Moore, Tyler S Beveridge, Charles L Rice
The palmaris brevis (PB) is a small muscle of variant morphology located on the ulnar aspect of the palm, superficial to the hypothenar eminence. Functionally, the PB has been proposed to protect the neurovasculature of the ulnar canal from compressive forces during repetitive or intermittent trauma associated with grasping. Although PB function has been inferred from cadaveric observations, it is unknown whether it has the contractile capacity and fatigue-resistance necessary to withstand these functional demands...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620318/extraction-protocols-for-individual-zebrafish-s-ventricle-myosin-and-skeletal-muscle-actin-for-in-vitro-motility-assays
#5
Lisa-Mareike Scheid, Cornelia Weber, Nasrin Bopp, Matias Mosqueira, Rainer H A Fink
The in vitro motility assay (IVMA) is a technique that enables the measurement of the interaction between actin and myosin providing a relatively simple model to understand the mechanical muscle function. For actin-myosin IVMA, myosin is immobilized in a measurement chamber, where it converts chemical energy provided by ATP hydrolysis into mechanical energy. The result is the movement of fluorescently labeled actin filaments that can be recorded microscopically and analyzed quantitatively. Resulting sliding speeds and patterns help to characterize the underlying actin-myosin interaction that can be affected by different factors such as mutations or active compounds...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618653/myosin-regulatory-light-chain-phosphorylation-is-associated-with-leiomyosarcoma-development
#6
Hua-Shan Li, Qian Lin, Jia Wu, Zhi-Hui Jiang, Jia-Bi Zhao, Jian Pan, Wei-Qi He, Juan-Min Zha
Leiomyosarcoma is a rare malignant smooth muscle tumor which can be very unpredictable. Myosin II is involved in many functions, including cell contraction, migration, and adhesion. The phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (MLC) by myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) determines the activity of Myosin II. However, it is still unclear whether MLC phosphorylation is involved in cell proliferation in leiomyosarcoma. In this study, we aimed to explore the role of MLCK-dependent MLC phosphorylation in leiomyosarcoma development...
June 10, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615630/non-muscle-myosin-ii-is-required-for-correct-fate-specification-in-the-caenorhabditis-elegans-seam-cell-divisions
#7
Siyu Serena Ding, Alison Woollard
During development, cell division often generates two daughters with different developmental fates. Distinct daughter identities can result from the physical polarity and size asymmetry itself, as well as the subsequent activation of distinct fate programmes in each daughter. Asymmetric divisions are a feature of the C. elegans seam lineage, in which a series of post-embryonic, stem-like asymmetric divisions give rise to an anterior daughter that differentiates and a posterior daughter that continues to divide...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606474/regulation-of-intracellular-trafficking-and-secretion-of-adiponectin-by-myosin-ii
#8
Deepa Bedi, John C Dennis, Edward E Morrison, Tim D Braden, Robert L Judd
Adiponectin is a protein secreted by white adipocytes that plays an important role in insulin action, energy homeostasis and the development of atherosclerosis. The intracellular localization and trafficking of GLUT4 and leptin in adipocytes has been well studied, but little is known regarding the intracellular trafficking of adiponectin. Recent studies have demonstrated that constitutive adiponectin secretion is dependent on PIP2 levels and the integrity of cortical F-actin. Non-muscle myosin II is an actin-based motor that is associated with membrane vesicles and participates in vesicular trafficking in mammalian cells...
June 9, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600434/concerted-actions-of-distinct-nonmuscle-myosin-ii-isoforms-drive-intracellular-membrane-remodeling-in-live-animals
#9
Oleg Milberg, Akiko Shitara, Seham Ebrahim, Andrius Masedunskas, Muhibullah Tora, Duy T Tran, Yun Chen, Mary Anne Conti, Robert S Adelstein, Kelly G Ten Hagen, Roberto Weigert
Membrane remodeling plays a fundamental role during a variety of biological events. However, the dynamics and the molecular mechanisms regulating this process within cells in mammalian tissues in situ remain largely unknown. In this study, we use intravital subcellular microscopy in live mice to study the role of the actomyosin cytoskeleton in driving the remodeling of membranes of large secretory granules, which are integrated into the plasma membrane during regulated exocytosis. We show that two isoforms of nonmuscle myosin II, NMIIA and NMIIB, control distinct steps of the integration process...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600322/rac1-switching-at-the-right-time-and-location-is-essential-for-fc%C3%AE-receptor-mediated-phagosome-formation
#10
Yuka Ikeda, Katsuhisa Kawai, Akira Ikawa, Kyoko Kawamoto, Youhei Egami, Nobukazu Araki
Lamellipodia are sheet-like cell protrusions driven by actin polymerization mainly through Rac1, a GTPase molecular switch. In Fcγ receptor-mediated phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized erythrocytes (IgG-Es), Rac1 activation is required for lamellipodial extension along the surface of IgG-Es. However, the significance of Rac1 deactivation in phagosome formation is poorly understood. Our live-cell imaging and electron microscopy revealed that RAW264 macrophages expressing a constitutively active Rac1 mutant showed defects in phagocytic cup formation, while lamellipodia were formed around IgG-Es...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595776/filamin-a-promotes-efficient-migration-and-phagocytosis-of-neutrophil-like-hl-60-cells
#11
Heike Roth, Matthias Samereier, Daniela Begandt, Robert Pick, Melanie Salvermoser, Doris Brechtefeld, Michael Schleicher, Barbara Walzog, Annette Müller-Taubenberger
The primary defense machinery to combat inflammation involves neutrophil granulocytes which in order to execute their functions rely on the efficiency of different cellular mechanisms including adhesion, spreading, migration in different environments, and phagocytosis. These functions require an accurately regulated actin network as well as the activation and adjustment of various signaling pathways. Mammalian filamins (FLNs) comprise three highly homologous large actin-binding proteins that are obvious candidates to control these processes as FLNs have been described to play a role in migration, spreading and adhesion in a variety of different cell types...
May 27, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590396/botulinum-toxin-conjugated-with-silk-fibroin-and-4-hexylresorcinol
#12
You-Young Jo, Seong-Gon Kim, Min-Keun Kim
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to evaluate whether silk fibroin (SF) incorporated into 4-hexylresorcinol (4HR) could increase botulinum toxin-A (BTX-A) activity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In total, 30 rats were used for this study. The animals were divided into 6 groups according to the injected materials (SA: saline only; SF; 4HR; B2: 2 units of BTX-A; B2 + SF + 4HR: combination of B2, SF, and 4HR; B5: 5 units of BTX-A). Serial sonography was used for the evaluation of muscle thickness after injection...
June 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588307/irisin-prevents-and-restores-bone-loss-and-muscle-atrophy-in-hind-limb-suspended-mice
#13
Graziana Colaianni, Teresa Mongelli, Concetta Cuscito, Paolo Pignataro, Luciana Lippo, Giovanna Spiro, Angela Notarnicola, Ilenia Severi, Giovanni Passeri, Giorgio Mori, Giacomina Brunetti, Biagio Moretti, Umberto Tarantino, Silvia C Colucci, Janne E Reseland, Roberto Vettor, Saverio Cinti, Maria Grano
We previously showed that Irisin, a myokine released from skeletal muscle after physical exercise, plays a central role in the control of bone mass. Here we report that treatment with recombinant Irisin prevented bone loss in hind-limb suspended mice when administered during suspension (preventive protocol) and induced recovery of bone mass when mice were injected after bone loss due to a suspension period of 4 weeks (curative protocol). MicroCT analysis of femurs showed that r-Irisin preserved both cortical and trabecular bone mineral density, and prevented a dramatic decrease of the trabecular bone volume fraction...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587976/mechanosensing-of-matrix-by-stem-cells-from-contractility-and-matrix-heterogeneity-to-cardiogenesis-and-muscle-stem-cells
#14
REVIEW
Lucas Smith, Sangkyun Cho, Dennis E Discher
Stem cells are particularly 'plastic' cell types that are induced by various cues to become specialized, tissue-functional lineages by switching on the expression of specific gene programs. Matrix stiffness is among the cues that multiple stem cell types can sense and respond to. This seminar-style review focuses on mechanosensing of matrix elasticity in the differentiation or early maturation of a few illustrative stem cell types, with an intended audience of biologists and physical scientists. Contractile forces applied by a cell's acto-myosin cytoskeleton are often resisted by the extracellular matrix and transduced through adhesions and the cytoskeleton ultimately into the nucleus to modulate gene expression...
June 3, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575052/myogenic-differentiation-of-vcp-disease-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-a-novel-platform-for-drug-discovery
#15
Katrina J Llewellyn, Angèle Nalbandian, Lan N Weiss, Isabela Chang, Howard Yu, Bibo Khatib, Baichang Tan, Vanessa Scarfone, Virginia E Kimonis
Valosin Containing Protein (VCP) disease is an autosomal dominant multisystem proteinopathy caused by mutations in the VCP gene, and is primarily associated with progressive muscle weakness, including atrophy of the pelvic and shoulder girdle muscles. Currently, no treatments are available and cardiac and respiratory failures can lead to mortality at an early age. VCP is an AAA ATPase multifunction complex protein and mutations in the VCP gene resulting in disrupted autophagic clearance. Due to the rarity of the disease, the myopathic nature of the disorder, ethical and practical considerations, VCP disease muscle biopsies are difficult to obtain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573735/contraction-and-elongation-mechanics-underlying-cell-boundary-deformations-in-epithelial-tissue
#16
REVIEW
Yusuke Hara
The cell-cell boundaries of epithelial cells form cellular frameworks at the apical side of tissues. Deformations in these boundaries, for example, boundary contraction and elongation, and the associated forces form the mechanical basis of epithelial tissue morphogenesis. In this review, using data from recent Drosophila studies on cell boundary contraction and elongation, I provide an overview of the mechanism underlying the bi-directional deformations in the epithelial cell boundary, that are sustained by biased accumulations of junctional and apico-medial non-muscle myosin II...
June 2, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571594/dual-torcs-driven-and-b56-orchestrated-signaling-network-guides-eukaryotic-cell-migration
#17
Lou W Kim
Different types of eukaryotic cells may adopt seemingly distinct modes of directional cell migration. However, several core aspects are regarded common whether the movement is either ameoboidal or mesenchymal. The region of cells facing the attractive signal is often termed leading edge where lamellipodial structures dominates and the other end of the cell called rear end is often mediating cytoskeletal F-actin contraction involving Myosin-II. Dynamic remodeling of cell-to-matrix adhesion involving integrin is also evident in many types of migrating cells...
June 2, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570123/functional-insights-into-the-magnaporthe-oryzae-class-ii-myosin
#18
Thabiso E Motaung, Toi J Tsilo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559444/t-plastin-is-essential-for-basement-membrane-assembly-and-epidermal-morphogenesis
#19
Eyal Dor-On, Shaul Raviv, Yonatan Cohen, Orit Adir, Krishnanand Padmanabhan, Chen Luxenburg
The establishment of epithelial architecture is a complex process involving cross-talk between cells and the basement membrane. Basement membrane assembly requires integrin activity but the role of the associated actomyosin cytoskeleton is poorly understood. Here, we identify the actin-bundling protein T-plastin (Pls3) as a regulator of basement membrane assembly and epidermal morphogenesis. In utero depletion of Pls3 transcripts in mouse embryos caused basement membrane and polarity defects in the epidermis but had little effect on cell adhesion and differentiation...
May 30, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559160/unrevealed-part-of-myosin-s-powerstroke-accounts-for-high-efficiency-of-muscle-contraction
#20
András Bibó, György Károlyi, Mihály Kovács
BACKGROUND: Myosin II, the motor protein driving muscle contraction, uses energy of ATP hydrolysis to produce movement along actin. The key step of energy transduction is the powerstroke, involving rotation of myosin's lever while myosin is attached to actin. Macroscopic measurements indicated high thermodynamic efficiency for energy conversion. However, single-molecule experiments indicated lower efficiency, provoking a long-standing discrepancy. METHODS: Based on the Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem, we built a sufficiently detailed but low degree-of-freedom model reconstructing the entire mechanoenzymatic cycle...
May 27, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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