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Perinatal epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771287/term-or-preterm-cesarean-section-delivery-does-not-lead-to-long-term-detrimental-consequences-in-mice
#1
Morgane Chiesa, Damien Guimond, Roman Tyzio, Alexandre Pons-Bennaceur, Natalia Lozovaya, Nail Burnashev, Diana C Ferrari, Yehezkel Ben-Ari
Epidemiological studies have provided contradictory data on the deleterious sequels of cesarean section (C-section) delivery and their links with developmental brain disorders such as Autism Spectrum Disorders. To gain better insight on these issues, we have now compared physiological, morphological, and behavioral parameters in vaginal, term, and preterm C-section delivered mice. We report that C-section delivery does not lead to long-term behavioral alterations though preterm C-section delivery modifies communicative behaviors in pups...
May 16, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735854/pattern-and-outcome-of-prenatally-diagnosed-major-congenital-anomalies-at-a-nigerian-tertiary-hospital
#2
J A Akinmoladun, G I Ogbole, T A O Oluwasola
Introduction: The prevalence of major congenital anomalies (CAs) shows wide variations depending on geographical location and may range from <1% to 8% and it causes between 20% and 30% of perinatal deaths. In Nigeria, the prevalence of CAs may be underestimated with the general reliance on mostly livebirths ranging between 0.5% and 2.8% exempting cases of miscarriage and abortions. The purpose of this study was to determine the epidemiologic pattern and outcome of major CAs detected prenatally at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria, over a 4-year period...
May 2018: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715697/epidemiology-and-outcome-of-major-congenital-malformations-in-a-large-german-county
#3
Boris Wittekindt, Rolf Schloesser, Nora Doberschuetz, Emilia Salzmann-Manrique, Jasmin Grossmann, Bjoern Misselwitz, Udo Rolle
INTRODUCTION:  Congenital malformations are associated with substantial neonatal morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, only sparse data are available on the modalities of care provided to and the associated clinical outcomes in affected neonates. In this study, we focused on five malformations that require surgery during the neonatal period: duodenal stenosis and atresia (DA), gastroschisis (GA), omphalocele (OM), congenital diaphragmatic herniation (CDH), and esophageal atresia (EA)...
May 1, 2018: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701769/fetal-origins-of-impaired-muscle-growth-and-metabolic-dysfunction-lessons-from-the-heat-stressed-pregnant-ewe
#4
D T Yates, J L Petersen, T B Schmidt, C N Cadaret, T B Barnes, R J Posont, K A Beede
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is the second leading cause of perinatal mortality and predisposes offspring to metabolic disorders at all stages of life. Muscle-centric fetal adaptations reduce growth and yield metabolic parsimony, beneficial for IUGR fetal survival but detrimental to metabolic health after birth. Epidemiological studies have reported that IUGR-born children experience greater prevalence of insulin resistance and obesity, which progresses to diabetes, hypertension, and other metabolic disorders in adulthood that reduce quality of life...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676631/understanding-root-causes-of-asthma-perinatal-environmental-exposures-and-epigenetic-regulation
#5
Rachel L Miller, Jennifer Lawrence
A common explanation for the origins and rising prevalence of asthma is that they involve complex interactions between hereditary predispositions and environmental exposures that are incompletely understood. Yet, emerging evidence substantiates the paradigm that environmental exposures prenatally and during very early childhood induce epigenetic alterations that affect the expression of asthma genes and, thereby, asthma itself. Here, we review much of the key evidence supporting this paradigm. First, we describe evidence that the prenatal and early postnatal periods are key time windows of susceptibility to environmental exposures that may trigger asthma...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669659/perinatal-risk-factors-for-asthma-in-children-with-allergic-rhinitis-and-grass-pollen-sensitization
#6
S Tolga Yavuz, Stephanie Siebert, Onur Akin, Mutluay Arslan, Ersoy Civelek, Soyhan Bagci
BACKGROUND: Results of epidemiologic studies have determined several risk factors for asthma in school-age children. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether parental and perinatal risk factors, along with infantile feeding patterns, were associated with asthma in children with grass pollen allergy and allergic rhinitis. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of our cohort, which consisted of children with allergic rhinitis. Only children with grass pollen sensitization were enrolled...
May 1, 2018: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664691/cost-analysis-of-single-dose-hepatitis-b-revaccination-among-infants-born-to-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-positive-mothers-and-not-responding-to-the-initial-vaccine-series
#7
Eric W Hall, Eli S Rosenberg, Monica Trigg, Noele Nelson, Sarah Schillie
OBJECTIVES: Infants born to mothers who are hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive are at risk for perinatal hepatitis B infection. As prevention, these infants receive a series of 3 or 4 doses of hepatitis B vaccine starting at birth and postvaccination serologic testing. Infants with antibody levels <10 mIU/mL are considered vaccine nonresponders and should be revaccinated. The objective of this cost analysis was to assess a single-dose revaccination strategy among infant nonresponders...
January 1, 2018: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648618/inflammation-in-schizophrenia-pathogenetic-aspects-and-therapeutic-considerations
#8
Norbert Müller
This paper discusses the current evidence from animal and human studies for a central role of inflammation in schizophrenia. In animal models, pre- or perinatal elicitation of the immune response may increase immune reactivity throughout life, and similar findings have been described in humans. Levels of pro-inflammatory markers, such as cytokines, have been found to be increased in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with schizophrenia. Numerous epidemiological and clinical studies have provided evidence that various infectious agents are risk factors for schizophrenia and other psychoses...
April 10, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643765/mirna-long-term-response-to-early-metabolic-environmental-challenge-in-hypothalamic-arcuate-nucleus
#9
Charlotte Benoit, Soraya Doubi-Kadmiri, Xavier Benigni, Delphine Crepin, Laure Riffault, Ghislaine Poizat, Claire-Marie Vacher, Mohammed Taouis, Anne Baroin-Tourancheau, Laurence Amar
Epidemiological reports and studies using rodent models indicate that early exposure to nutrient and/or hormonal challenges can reprogram metabolism at adulthood. Hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) integrates peripheral and central signals to adequately regulate energy homeostasis. microRNAs (miRNAs) participate in the control of gene expression of large regulatory networks including many signaling pathways involved in epigenetics regulations. Here, we have characterized and compared the miRNA population of ARC of adult male rats continuously exposed to a balanced metabolic environment to the one of adult male rats exposed to an unbalanced high-fat/high-carbohydrate/moderate-protein metabolic environment during the perinatal period and/or at adulthood that consequently displayed hyperinsulinemia and/or hyperleptinemia...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597096/a-sustainable-solution-for-the-activities-of-the-european-network-for-surveillance-of-congenital-anomalies-eurocat-as-part-of-the-eu-platform-on-rare-diseases-registration
#10
REVIEW
Agnieszka Kinsner-Ovaskainen, Monica Lanzoni, Ester Garne, Maria Loane, Joan Morris, Amanda Neville, Ciarán Nicholl, Judith Rankin, Anke Rissmann, David Tucker, Simona Martin
The European Commission through its Directorates-General Joint Research Centre (DG JRC) and Health and Food Safety (DG SANTE) is developing the European Platform on Rare Diseases Registration (EU RD Platform) with the objective to set European-level standards for data collection and data sharing. In the field of rare diseases the EU RD Platform will be a source of information on available rare disease patient data with large transnational European coverage. One main function of the EU RD Platform is to enable interoperability for the >600 existing RD registries in Europe...
March 27, 2018: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527406/a-retrospective-database-analysis-of-neonatal-morbidities-to-evaluate-a-composite-endpoint-for-use-in-preterm-labor-clinical-trials
#11
Jeanne M Pimenta, Myla Ebeling, Timothy H Montague, Kathleen J Beach, Jill Abell, Michael T O'Shea, Marcy Powell, Thomas C Hulsey
Objective  To propose and assess a composite endpoint (CE) of neonatal benefit based on neonatal mortality and morbidities by gestational age (GA) for use in preterm labor clinical trials. Study Design  A descriptive, retrospective analysis of the Medical University of South Carolina Perinatal Information System database was conducted. Neonatal morbidities were assessed for inclusion in the CE based on clinical significance/risk of childhood neurodevelopmental impairment, frequency, and association with GA in a mother-neonate linked cohort, comprising women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies delivered at ≥24 weeks' GA...
January 2018: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494593/the-epidemiology-of-adolescents-living-with-perinatally-acquired-hiv-a-cross-region-global-cohort-analysis
#12
Amy L Slogrove, Michael Schomaker, Mary-Ann Davies, Paige Williams, Suna Balkan, Jihane Ben-Farhat, Nancy Calles, Kulkanya Chokephaibulkit, Charlotte Duff, Tanoh François Eboua, Adeodata Kekitiinwa-Rukyalekere, Nicola Maxwell, Jorge Pinto, George Seage, Chloe A Teasdale, Sebastian Wanless, Josiane Warszawski, Kara Wools-Kaloustian, Marcel Yotebieng, Venessa Timmerman, Intira J Collins, Ruth Goodall, Colette Smith, Kunjal Patel, Mary Paul, Diana Gibb, Rachel Vreeman, Elaine J Abrams, Rohan Hazra, Russell Van Dyke, Linda-Gail Bekker, Lynne Mofenson, Marissa Vicari, Shaffiq Essajee, Martina Penazzato, Gabriel Anabwani, Edith Q Mohapi, Peter N Kazembe, Makhosazana Hlatshwayo, Mwita Lumumba, Tessa Goetghebuer, Claire Thorne, Luisa Galli, Annemarie van Rossum, Carlo Giaquinto, Magdalena Marczynska, Laura Marques, Filipa Prata, Luminita Ene, Liubov Okhonskaia, Pablo Rojo, Claudia Fortuny, Lars Naver, Christoph Rudin, Sophie Le Coeur, Alla Volokha, Vanessa Rouzier, Regina Succi, Annette Sohn, Azar Kariminia, Andrew Edmonds, Patricia Lelo, Samuel Ayaya, Patricia Ongwen, Laura F Jefferys, Sam Phiri, Mwangelwa Mubiana-Mbewe, Shobna Sawry, Lorna Renner, Mariam Sylla, Mark J Abzug, Myron Levin, James Oleske, Miriam Chernoff, Shirley Traite, Murli Purswani, Ellen G Chadwick, Ali Judd, Valériane Leroy
BACKGROUND: Globally, the population of adolescents living with perinatally acquired HIV (APHs) continues to expand. In this study, we pooled data from observational pediatric HIV cohorts and cohort networks, allowing comparisons of adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV in "real-life" settings across multiple regions. We describe the geographic and temporal characteristics and mortality outcomes of APHs across multiple regions, including South America and the Caribbean, North America, Europe, sub-Saharan Africa, and South and Southeast Asia...
March 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493111/neonatal-outcomes-following-fresh-as-compared-to-frozen-thawed-embryo-transfer-in-in-vitro-fertilization
#13
REVIEW
Kristin Van Heertum, Rachel Weinerman
In vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo cryopreservation have become increasingly common in recent years. As utilization increases, it is important to understand the clinical effects these technologies have on offspring, as well as the mechanisms behind these effects. Many epidemiologic studies have observed that pregnancies following IVF are more likely to be affected by obstetric complications such as pre-eclampsia, preterm birth, and small for gestational age neonates compared with naturally conceived pregnancies...
May 1, 2018: Birth Defects Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29481862/effects-of-bisphenol-a-on-metabolism-and-evidences-of-a-mode-of-action-mediated-through-endocrine-disruption
#14
REVIEW
Brigitte Le Magueresse-Battistoni, Luc Multigner, Claire Beausoleil, Christophe Rousselle
Based on rodent studies after prenatal and/or perinatal or adult exposure, there is now evidence that BPA may increase metabolic disturbances eventually leading to type-2 diabetes development via an ED MoA. In particular, BPA has been shown to alter insulin synthesis and/or release by pancreatic β-cells, and insulin signaling within insulin-sensitive organs (i.e., liver, muscle, adipose tissues). This resulted in variations in the expression of specific hepatic or adipose tissue markers, which are indicative of a state of insulin resistance...
February 23, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476569/the-role-of-pregnancy-perinatal-factors-and-hormones-in-maternal-cancer-risk-a-review-of-the-evidence
#15
R Troisi, T Bjørge, M Gissler, T Grotmol, C M Kitahara, S M Myrtveit Saether, A G Ording, C Sköld, H T Sørensen, B Trabert, I Glimelius
An understanding of the origin of cancer is critical for cancer prevention and treatment. Complex biological mechanisms promote carcinogenesis, and there is increasing evidence that pregnancy-related exposures influence foetal growth cell division and organ functioning and may have a long-lasting impact on health and disease susceptibility in the mothers and offspring. Nulliparity is an established risk factor for breast, ovarian, endometrial and possibly pancreatic cancer, whilst the risk of kidney cancer is elevated in parous compared with nulliparous women...
May 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453113/epidemiological-profile-of-epilepsy-in-low-income-populations
#16
REVIEW
Camilo Espinosa-Jovel, Rafael Toledano, Ángel Aledo-Serrano, Irene García-Morales, Antonio Gil-Nagel
Epilepsy is a global disease with an unequal distribution. About 80% of the affected individuals reside in low and middle income countries. The incidence and prevalence of epilepsy in low income populations is higher than in the rest of the world, this is partly explained by some risk factors such as head trauma, perinatal injury and CNS infections, which are more common in poor regions, especially in rural areas. Epilepsy is considered a treatable condition with high rates of therapeutic response. About three fourths of patients achieve control of the disease with the use of antiepileptic drugs, however, despite this benign prognosis, over 75% of patients from low income populations do not receive treatment at all...
March 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444788/assessment-of-the-societal-and-individual-preferences-for-fertility-treatment-in-australia-study-protocol-for-stated-preference-discrete-choice-experiments
#17
Willings Botha, Natasha Donnolley, Marian Shanahan, Georgina M Chambers
INTRODUCTION: In Australia, societal and individual preferences for funding fertility treatment remain largely unknown. This has resulted in a lack of evidence about willingness to pay (WTP) for fertility treatment by either the general population (the funders) or infertile individuals (who directly benefit). Using a stated preference discrete choice experiment (SPDCE) approach has been suggested as a more appropriate method to inform economic evaluations of fertility treatment. We outline the protocol for an ongoing study which aims to assess fertility treatment preferences of both the general population and infertile individuals, and indirectly estimate their WTP for fertility treatment...
February 14, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427091/current-clinical-and-bacteriological-profile-of-septic-arthritis-in-young-infants-a-prospective-study-from-a-tertiary-referral-centre
#18
Gireesh Sankaran, Balaji Zacharia, Antony Roy, Sulaikha Puthan Purayil
PURPOSE: The study was carried out to evaluate the clinical and bacteriological profile of SA in young infants (age ≤ 3 months) in a tertiary referral centre and to assess the risk factors and to document the changing trends in the epidemiology. METHODS: This was a prospective descriptive study on all young infants with SA. Clinical and perinatal history, examination, radiological and laboratory findings (blood count, ESR, CRP, blood and joint cultures) were studied...
May 2018: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415586/what-we-know-and-what-we-don-t-know-about-perinatal-zika-virus-infection-a-systematic-review
#19
Antoni Soriano-Arandes, Irene Rivero-Calle, Eleni Nastouli, Maria Espiau, M A Frick, Ana Alarcon, Federico Martinón-Torres
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has caused the most challenging worldwide infectious epidemic outbreak in recent months. ZIKV causes microcephaly and other congenital malformations. There is a need to perform updated systematic reviews on ZIKV infection periodically because this epidemic is bringing up new evidence with extraordinary speed. Areas covered: Evidence related to ZIKV infection in the gestational, perinatal, and early infant periods covering epidemiology, virology, pathogenesis, risk factors, time of infection during pregnancy, newborn symptoms, treatment, and vaccines...
March 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406287/predicting-need-for-follow-up-due-to-severe-anxiety-and-depression-symptoms-after-perinatal-loss
#20
Marianne H Hutti, John A Myers, Lynne A Hall, Barbara J Polivka, Susan White, Janice Hill, Meredith Grisanti, Jaclyn Hayden, Elizabeth Kloenne
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability of the Perinatal Grief Intensity Scale (PGIS) when used within 8 weeks of perinatal loss to predict intense anxiety and severe depression symptoms in women 3 months later (Time 2 [T2]). DESIGN: Prospective survey. SETTING: Participants were recruited from hospitals in Louisville, KY and via the Internet. PARTICIPANTS: Women (N = 103) who experienced perinatal loss. METHODS: Data were collected using the PGIS, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale...
March 2018: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN
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