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Perinatal epidemiology

B Mishra, B Behera
Until now, known as the demure cousin of dengue virus (DENV) inhabiting Africa, Zika virus (ZIKV) has reinvented itself to cause explosive epidemics captivating the Western hemisphere. The outbreak causing potential for ZIKV was realized when it made its way from Africa to Yap Island Micronesia in 2007, and in French Polynesia in 2013. From there, it moved on to Brazil in 2015. Now ZIKV has infected people in more than 33 countries in Central and South America and the Caribbean. Moreover the epidemiological and subsequent virological association with microcephaly cases in Brazil has prompted the World Health Organization to declare a public health emergency of International Concern...
October 2016: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Francesco M Risso, Elio Castagnola, Roberto Bandettini, Diego Minghetti, Laura Pagani, Luca A Ramenghi
PURPOSE: The incidence of late-onset neonatal infection (LONS) group B streptococcus (GBS) in very low birthweight (VLBW) is still matter of debate. In the present 10-years retrospective study we investigated the epidemiology of GBS LONS in VLBW neonates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2006 to July 2015 we conducted a retrospective study in all preterm infants admitted at our third level referral center for neonatal intensive care (NICU). From our database we were able to retrieve all cases of bloodstream infections/meningitis GBS positive...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Lazaros Belbasis, Makrina D Savvidou, Chidimma Kanu, Evangelos Evangelou, Ioanna Tzoulaki
BACKGROUND: Birth weight, a marker of the intrauterine environment, has been extensively studied in epidemiological research in relation to subsequent health and disease. Although numerous meta-analyses have been published examining the association between birth weight and subsequent health-related outcomes, the epidemiological credibility of these associations has not been thoroughly assessed. The objective of this study is to map the diverse health outcomes associated with birth weight and evaluate the credibility and presence of biases in the reported associations...
September 28, 2016: BMC Medicine
Bizu Gelaye, Marta B Rondon, Ricardo Araya, Michelle A Williams
Maternal depression, a non-psychotic depressive episode of mild to major severity, is one of the major contributors of pregnancy-related morbidity and mortality. Maternal depression (antepartum or post partum) has been linked to negative health-related behaviours and adverse outcomes, including psychological and developmental disturbances in infants, children, and adolescents. Despite its enormous burden, maternal depression in low-income and middle-income countries remains under-recognised and undertreated...
October 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
Nahla Khamis Ibrahim
OBJECTIVE: To describe Zika Virus (ZIKV) epidemiology, current phobia, and the required preparedness for its prevention during the upcoming Mass Gathering (MG) events. METHODS: Electronic databases of PubMed, WHO, CDC, Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), Google, and Cochrane library were extensively searched for ZIKV. Articles were reviewed, scrutinized and critically appraised and the most relevant articles were utilized. RESULTS: ZIKV is an emerging Flavivirus which was first isolated from Uganda in 1947...
July 2016: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
Kwesi B Mensah, Charles Ansah
UNLABELLED: Epidemiological studies show clearly that Caesarean birth, perinatal or neonatal irrational antibiotic use is strongly associated with increased risk of obesity and diabetes in later life. Irrational use of antibiotics is a great global public health concern especially in developing economies like Ghana due to poor regulation on medicines. Unfortunately, this concern has been reduced to the fear of development of resistant organisms and the destruction of the world's limited range of antibiotics therapy at the expense of other insidious risks including the development of metabolic and atopic diseases...
June 2016: Ghana Medical Journal
Yi Liu, Ledan Wang, Fang Wang, Changzhong Li
BACKGROUND Fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) has been reported to cause adverse effects on human health. Evidence has shown the association between PM2.5 exposure and adverse perinatal outcomes, and the most common method is epidemiological investigation. We wished to investigate the impact of PM2.5 on placenta and prenatal outcomes and its related mechanisms in a rat model. MATERIAL AND METHODS Pregnant rats were exposed to a low PM2.5 dose (15 mg/kg) with intratracheal instillation at pregnant day 10 and day 18, while the controls received an equivalent volume normal saline...
September 15, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
A Judd, R Lodwick, A Noguera-Julian, D M Gibb, K Butler, D Costagliola, C Sabin, A van Sighem, B Ledergerber, C Torti, A Mocroft, D Podzamczer, M Dorrucci, S De Wit, N Obel, F Dabis, A Cozzi-Lepri, F García, N H Brockmeyer, J Warszawski, M I Gonzalez-Tome, C Mussini, G Touloumi, R Zangerle, J Ghosn, A Castagna, G Fätkenheuer, C Stephan, L Meyer, M A Campbell, G Chene, A Phillips
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine the time to, and risk factors for, triple-class virological failure (TCVF) across age groups for children and adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV infection and older adolescents and adults with heterosexually acquired HIV infection. METHODS: We analysed individual patient data from cohorts in the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe (COHERE). A total of 5972 participants starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) from 1998, aged < 20 years at the start of ART for those with perinatal infection and 15-29 years for those with heterosexual infection, with ART containing at least two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) or a boosted protease inhibitor (bPI), were followed from ART initiation until the most recent viral load (VL) measurement...
September 14, 2016: HIV Medicine
D Sarrouilhe, C Dejean
The etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is believed to be multifactorial and to involve genetic and environmental components. Environmental chemical exposures are increasingly understood to be important in causing neurotoxicity in fetuses and newborns. Recent data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States suggest a substantial increase in ASD prevalence, only partly explicable by factors such as diagnostic substitution. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an ubiquitous xenoestrogen widely employed in a variety of consumer products including plastic and metal food and beverage containers, dental sealants and fillings, medical equipment and thermal receipts...
September 9, 2016: L'Encéphale
Jaime R Torres, Luiza H Falleiros-Arlant, Lourdes Dueñas, Jorge Pleitez-Navarrete, Doris M Salgado, José Brea-Del Castillo
BACKGROUND: During the years 2014 and 2015, the Region of the Americas underwent a devastating epidemic of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) of the Asian genotype, resulting in millions of affected individuals. However, epidemiological and clinical information on this experience is scarce. Prior knowledge of congenital and neonatal illness caused by CHIKV is limited and almost exclusively based on data obtained from a single outbreak of the East/Central/South African (ECSA) genotype. The effect of chikungunya fever (CHIKF) on pregnancy outcomes and its consequences for infants born to infected mothers at the peak of the epidemic wave in Latin America are reviewed herein...
September 13, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
B G Fisher, A Thankamony, I A Hughes, K K Ong, D B Dunger, C L Acerini
STUDY QUESTION: What is the relationship between maternal paracetamol intake during the masculinisation programming window (MPW, 8-14 weeks of gestation) and male infant anogenital distance (AGD), a biomarker for androgen action during the MPW? SUMMARY ANSWER: Intrauterine paracetamol exposure during 8-14 weeks of gestation is associated with shorter AGD from birth to 24 months of age. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN: The increasing prevalence of male reproductive disorders may reflect environmental influences on foetal testicular development during the MPW...
September 8, 2016: Human Reproduction
Veerle Bergink, Natalie Rasgon, Katherine L Wisner
OBJECTIVE: Psychosis or mania after childbirth is a psychiatric emergency with risk for suicide and infanticide. METHOD: The authors reviewed the epidemiologic and genetic research and physiological postpartum triggers (endocrine, immunological, circadian) of psychosis. They also summarized all systematic reviews and synthesized the sparse clinical studies to provide diagnostic recommendations, treatment options, and strategies for prevention. RESULTS: The incidence of first-lifetime onset postpartum psychosis/mania from population-based register studies of psychiatric admissions varies from 0...
September 9, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
Machline Paim Paganella, Rachel A Cohen, D Robert Harris, Ricardo de Souza Kuchenbecker, Rosa Dea Sperhacke, Sergio Kakuta Kato, Carmem Lúcia Oliveira da Silva, Fernanda Tomé Sturzbecher, Ricardo Hugo S Oliveira, Noris Pavía-Ruz, Rohan Hazra
OBJECTIVE(S): To estimate the incidence of lipid and glucose abnormalities and assess their association with exposure to antiretroviral (ARV) regimens among perinatally HIV-infected Latin American children. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study. METHODS: Data were analyzed from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) International Site Development Initiative (NISDI) Pediatric Latin American Countries Epidemiologic Study (PLACES)...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Mary Regina Boland, Nicholas P Tatonetti
Prenatal and perinatal exposures vary seasonally (e.g., sunlight, allergens) and many diseases are linked with variance in exposure. Epidemiologists often measure these changes using birth month as a proxy for seasonal variance. Likewise, Genome-Wide Association Studies have associated or implicated these same diseases with many genes. Both disparate data types (epidemiological and genetic) can provide key insights into the underlying disease biology. We developed an algorithm that links 1) epidemiological data from birth month studies with 2) genetic data from published gene-disease association studies...
2016: AMIA Summits on Translational Science Proceedings
Laura Orsolini, Alessandro Valchera, Roberta Vecchiotti, Carmine Tomasetti, Felice Iasevoli, Michele Fornaro, Domenico De Berardis, Giampaolo Perna, Maurizio Pompili, Cesario Bellantuono
Perinatal period may pose a great challenge for the clinical management and treatment of psychiatric disorders in women. In fact, several mental illnesses can arise during pregnancy and/or following childbirth. Suicide has been considered a relatively rare event during the perinatal period. However, in some mental disorders (i.e., postpartum depression, bipolar disorder, postpartum psychosis, etc.) have been reported a higher risk of suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, or suicide. Therefore, a complete screening of mothers' mental health should also take into account thoughts of suicide and thoughts about harming infants as well...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Ericka L Fink, David K Prince, Jonathan R Kaltman, Dianne L Atkins, Michael Austin, Craig Warden, Jamie Hutchison, Mohamud Daya, Scott Goldberg, Heather Herren, Janice A Tijssen, James Christenson, Christian Vaillancourt, Ronna Miller, Robert H Schmicker, Clifton W Callaway
AIM: Outcomes for pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) are poor. Our objective was to determine temporal trends in incidence and mortality for pediatric OHCA. METHODS: Adjusted incidence and hospital mortality rates of pediatric non-traumatic OHCA patients from 2007-2012 were analyzed using the 9 region Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium-Epidemiological Registry (ROC-Epistry) database. Children were divided into 4 age groups: perinatal (<3 days), infants (3days-1year), children (1-11 years), and adolescents (12-19 years)...
October 2016: Resuscitation
Tiffany A Katz, Qiwei Yang, Lindsey S Treviño, Cheryl Lyn Walker, Ayman Al-Hendy
Uterine fibroids are the most frequent gynecologic tumor, affecting 70% to 80% of women over their lifetime. Although these tumors are benign, they can cause significant morbidity and may require invasive treatments such as myomectomy and hysterectomy. Many risk factors for these tumors have been identified, including environmental exposures to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as genistein and diethylstilbestrol. Uterine development may be a particularly sensitive window to environmental exposures, as some perinatal EDC exposures have been shown to increase tumorigenesis in both rodent models and human epidemiologic studies...
September 15, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
Keiko Tanaka, Yoshihiro Miyake, Shinya Furukawa, Masashi Arakawa
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence regarding the relationship between maternal secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure during pregnancy and postnatal SHS exposure and childhood behavioral problems is scarce. OBJECTIVE: The present prebirth cohort study investigated the association between perinatal smoking exposure and behavioral problems in Japanese children aged 5 years. METHODS: Subjects were 1200 mother-child pairs. Data on variables under study were obtained using parent questionnaires...
August 16, 2016: Environmental Research
Lukas Löfling, Gabriella Bröms, Shahram Bahmanyar, Helle Kieler
BACKGROUND: Data from the Nordic health care registers have been of great value in perinatal epidemiological research. It has been assumed that findings from the Nordic population (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) are applicable to other populations as well, including the population of the US. OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare maternal and infant characteristics between the Nordic and the American populations as recorded in the official statistics...
2016: Clinical Epidemiology
Julia von Ehr, Frauke von Versen-Höynck
In the last decade, numerous epidemiological, clinical and experimental data show that periconceptional, perinatal and postnatal environment determines the offspring's risk for later-life chronic disease. For this phenomenon, the term "fetal" or "perinatal programming" is used. In exposed offspring already in childhood and early adulthood, metabolic and cardiovascular changes can be observed, leading to obesity, diabetes and hypertension. Nowadays, the mode of conception (e.g., in vitro fertilization), maternal metabolic conditions (e...
October 2016: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
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