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Perinatal epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220656/impact-of-stillbirths-on-international-comparisons-of-preterm-birth-rates-a-secondary-analysis-of-the-who-multi-country-survey-of-maternal-and-newborn-health
#1
N Morisaki, T Ganchimeg, J P Vogel, J Zeitlin, J G Cecatti, J P Souza, C Pileggi Castro, M R Torloni, E Ota, R Mori, S M Dolan, S Tough, S Mittal, V Bataglia, B Yadamsuren, M S Kramer
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the extent to which stillbirths affect international comparisons of preterm birth rates in low- and middle-income countries. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a multi-country cross-sectional study. SETTING: 29 countries participating in the World Health Organization Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health. POPULATION: 258 215 singleton deliveries in 286 hospitals. METHODS: We describe how inclusion or exclusion of stillbirth affect rates of preterm births in 29 countries...
February 20, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214157/causes-and-temporal-changes-in-nationally-collected-stillbirth-audit-data-in-high-resource-settings
#2
REVIEW
Tom Norris, Bradley N Manktelow, Lucy K Smith, Elizabeth S Draper
Few high-income countries have an active national programme of stillbirth audit. From the three national programmes identified (UK, New Zealand, and the Netherlands) steady declines in annual stillbirth rates have been observed over the audit period between 1993 and 2014. Unexplained stillbirth remains the largest group in the classification of stillbirths, with a decline in intrapartum-related stillbirths, which could represent improvements in intrapartum care. All three national audits of stillbirths suggest that up to half of all reviewed stillbirths have elements of care that failed to follow standards and guidance...
February 14, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212062/community-health-agency-administrators-access-to-public-health-data-for-program-planning-evaluation-and-grant-preparation
#3
Sandra D Lane, Donna M Cashman, Robert H Keefe, Lutchmie Narine, Bradford Ducre, Sharon Chesna, Meghan Hall, David Oliver
The Affordable Care Act mandates that public health data be made available for community agency use. Having access to such data allows community agencies to tailor interventions, evaluations, and funding requests more effectively. This study, jointly undertaken by Syracuse University faculty and students with the New York State Perinatal Association, sought to understand community agencies' access to requests for governmental data, as well as to identify areas for improving data access. Results from this survey of administrators from 43 agencies in New York State found that only one-half of their requests for data were successful...
February 2017: Social Work in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196854/hypothalamic-transcriptomic-alterations-in-male-and-female-california-mice-peromyscus-californicus-developmentally-exposed-to-bisphenol-a-or-ethinyl-estradiol
#4
Sarah A Johnson, William G Spollen, Lindsey K Manshack, Nathan J Bivens, Scott A Givan, Cheryl S Rosenfeld
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) prevalent in many household items. Rodent models and human epidemiological studies have linked this chemical to neurobehavior impairments. In California mice, developmental exposure to BPA results in sociosexual disorders at adulthood, including communication and biparental care deficits, behaviors that are primarily regulated by the hypothalamus. Thus, we sought to examine the transcriptomic profile in this brain region of juvenile male and female California mice offspring exposed from periconception through lactation to BPA or ethinyl estradiol (EE, estrogen present in birth control pills and considered a positive estrogen control for BPA studies)...
February 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195851/maternal-infections-that-would-warrant-antibiotic-use-antepartum-or-peripartum-are-not-a-risk-factor-for-the-development-of-ibd-a-population-based-analysis
#5
Charles N Bernstein, Charles Burchill, Laura E Targownik, Harminder Singh, Jean Eric Ghia, Leslie L Roos
BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine whether maternal antenatal or perinatal infections (and thereby use of antibiotics) increase the risk of developing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in their offspring. METHODS: The University of Manitoba IBD Epidemiology Database contains records of all Manitobans diagnosed with IBD from 1984 to 2010. Each individual with IBD is matched to 10 controls. Subjects' medical system contacts are identified using a unique deidentified personal health identification number...
February 10, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170004/inflammation-and-the-neural-diathesis-stress-hypothesis-of-schizophrenia-a-reconceptualization
#6
REVIEW
O D Howes, R McCutcheon
An interaction between external stressors and intrinsic vulnerability is one of the longest standing pathoaetiological explanations for schizophrenia. However, novel lines of evidence from genetics, preclinical studies, epidemiology and imaging have shed new light on the mechanisms that may underlie this, implicating microglia as a key potential mediator. Microglia are the primary immune cells of the central nervous system. They have a central role in the inflammatory response, and are also involved in synaptic pruning and neuronal remodeling...
February 7, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167590/chikungunya-and-neonatal-immunity-fatal-vertically-transmitted-chikungunya-infection
#7
Tracy Evans-Gilbert
Chikungunya is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that has emerged as a global pathogen. The virus can pass vertically from mother to child especially during the perinatal period, with an intrapartum vertical transmission rate of 50%. Approximately half of the neonates infected with chikungunya present with severe symptoms and infrequently death. This report summarizes two severe cases of vertically transmitted neonatal chikungunya infection. One case was confirmed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and the other fulfilled clinical and epidemiological criteria...
February 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166925/-is-universal-screening-for-cervical-length-among-singleton-pregnancies-with-no-history-of-preterm-birth-justified
#8
P Rozenberg
The ultrasonographic measurement of cervical length with a cutoff of 15mm is currently the best method to identify a group of asymptomatic women in the general population at risk of spontaneous preterm birth, especially among asymptomatic patients with a singleton pregnancy with no history of preterm birth. Cerclage and 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17OHP-C) are ineffective to reduce the risk of preterm birth among asymptomatic patients with a short cervix in midtrimester. However, vaginal progesterone (200-mg capsules of micronized progesterone or gel containing 90mg progesterone) has been demonstrated effective in 2 large randomized trials to reduce the risk of preterm birth and possibly the composite morbidity and perinatal mortality associated among asymptomatic women with a short cervix in the general population screened by ultrasound of the cervix in midtrimester...
December 2016: Journal de Gynécologie, Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151819/epidemiology-of-cardiac-arrest-during-hospitalization-for-delivery-in-canada-a-nationwide-study
#9
Mrinalini Balki, Shiliang Liu, Juan Andrés León, Leyla Baghirzada
BACKGROUND: Cardiac arrest in pregnancy is a rare and devastating condition with high mortality and morbidity. The objective of this study was to generate information about maternal cardiac arrest in Canada by examining the frequency, temporal incidence, associated conditions, potential etiologies, and survival rates. METHODS: This retrospective population-based study used hospitalization data from the discharge abstract database of the Canadian Institute for Health Information relating to obstetric deliveries in Canada from April 1, 2002, to March 31, 2015...
March 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145985/left-truncation-bias-to-explain-the-protective-effect-of-smoking-on-preeclampsia-potential-but-how-plausible
#10
Alan C Kinlaw, Jessie P Buckley, Stephanie M Engel, Charles Poole, M Alan Brookhart, Alexander P Keil
BACKGROUND: An inverse association between maternal smoking and preeclampsia has been frequently observed in epidemiologic studies for several decades. In the May 2015 issue of this journal, Lisonkova and Joseph described a simulation study suggesting that bias from left truncation might explain the inverse association. The simulations were based on strong assumptions regarding the underlying mechanisms through which bias might occur. METHODS: To examine the sensitivity of the previous authors' conclusions to these assumptions, we constructed a new Monte Carlo simulation using published estimates to frame our data generating parameters...
January 31, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142100/epilepsy-and-treatment-gap-in-urban-and-rural-areas-of-the-southern-kazakhstan-in-adults
#11
Alla Guekht, Nazira Zharkinbekova, Alexander Shpak, W Allen Hauser
PURPOSE: There are no data in the English literature about the epidemiology of epilepsy in the large countries in the Asian region of the former Soviet Union. This paper presents the results of epidemiological studies of active epilepsy in the population 14years of age and older in the Province of South Kazakhstan. METHODS: The study population consisted of 306.44 thousand persons: 139.42 in the urban Enbekshinskiy district of the city of Shymkent and 167.02 in the rural Sairam district...
January 27, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137381/burden-risk-factors-and-comorbidities-of-behavioural-and-emotional-problems-in-kenyan-children-a-population-based-study
#12
Symon M Kariuki, Amina Abubakar, Martha Kombe, Michael Kazungu, Rachael Odhiambo, Alan Stein, Charles R J C Newton
BACKGROUND: Three-quarters of the burden of mental health problems occurs in low-and-middle-income countries, but few epidemiological studies of these problems in preschool children from sub-Saharan Africa have been published. Behavioural and emotional problems often start in early childhood, and this might be particularly important in Africa, where the incidence of perinatal and early risk factors is high. We therefore aimed to estimate the prevalence and risk factors of behavioural and emotional problems in young children in a rural area on the Kenyan coast...
February 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134474/risk-of-cerebral-palsy-in-chinese-children-a-n-m-matched-case-control-study
#13
Jing Gao, Bin Zhao, Luna He, Meiling Sun, Xuefeng Yu, Lina Wang
AIM: To estimate epidemiological risk factors for cerebral palsy (CP) in children. METHODS: A N:M matched case control study was conducted in 114 persons with CP and 1286 controls. Relevant data were collected using a maternal self-design questionnaire. Univariate logistic regression and multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses were performed using SPSS. RESULTS: Univariate analysis has yielded 20 significant risk factors for CP...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126366/testing-for-zika-virus-infection-in-pregnancy-key-concepts-to-deal-with-an-emerging-epidemic
#14
REVIEW
Catherine Eppes, Martha Rac, James Dunn, James Versalovic, Kristy O Murray, Melissa A Suter, Magda Sanz Cortes, Jimmy Espinoza, Maxim D Seferovic, Wesley Lee, Peter Hotez, Joan Mastrobattista, Steven L Clark, Michael A Belfort, Kjersti M Aagaard
Zika virus is an emerging mosquito-borne (Aedes genus) arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family. Following epidemics in Micronesia and French Polynesia during the past decade, more recent Zika virus infection outbreaks were first reported in South America as early as May 2013 and spread to now 50 countries throughout the Americas. Although no other flavivirus has previously been known to cause major fetal malformations following perinatal infection, reports of a causal link between Zika virus and microcephaly, brain and ocular malformations, and fetal loss emerged from hard-hit regions of Brazil by October 2015...
January 23, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125983/fathers-views-and-experiences-of-their-own-mental-health-during-pregnancy-and-the-first-postnatal-year-a-qualitative-interview-study-of-men-participating-in-the-uk-born-and-bred-in-yorkshire-baby-cohort
#15
Z Darwin, P Galdas, S Hinchliff, E Littlewood, D McMillan, L McGowan, S Gilbody
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of fathers' depression and anxiety in the perinatal period (i.e. from conception to 1 year after birth) is approximately 5-10%, and 5-15%, respectively; their children face increased risk of adverse emotional and behavioural outcomes, independent of maternal mental health. Critically, fathers can be protective against the development of maternal perinatal mental health problems and their effects on child outcomes. Preventing and treating paternal mental health problems and promoting paternal psychological wellbeing may therefore benefit the family as a whole...
January 26, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114647/clinical-characteristics-risk-factors-and-outcomes-associated-with-neonatal-hemorrhagic-stroke-a-population-based-case-control-study
#16
Lauran Cole, Deborah Dewey, Nicole Letourneau, Bonnie J Kaplan, Kathleen Chaput, Clare Gallagher, Jacquie Hodge, Amalia Floer, Adam Kirton
Importance: Hemorrhage into the brain of term newborns often results in major injury and lifelong disability. The clinical epidemiology of neonatal hemorrhagic stroke (NHS) remains undefined, hindering the development of strategies to improve outcomes. Objective: To characterize the incidence, types, presentations, associated factors, and outcomes of neonatal hemorrhagic stroke. Design, Setting, and Participants: Population-based, nested case-control study...
January 17, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107350/maternal-and-newborn-health-in-karnataka-state-india-the-community-level-interventions-for-pre-eclampsia-clip-trial-s-baseline-study-results
#17
Mrutynjaya B Bellad, Marianne Vidler, Narayan V Honnungar, Ashalata Mallapur, Umesh Ramadurg, Umesh Charanthimath, Geetanjali Katageri, Shashidhar Bannale, Avinash Kavi, Chandrashekhar Karadiguddi, Sumedha Sharma, Tang Lee, Jing Li, Beth Payne, Laura Magee, Peter von Dadelszen, Richard Derman, Shivaprasad S Goudar
Existing vital health statistics registries in India have been unable to provide reliable estimates of maternal and newborn mortality and morbidity, and region-specific health estimates are essential to the planning and monitoring of health interventions. This study was designed to assess baseline rates as the precursor to a community-based cluster randomized control trial (cRCT)-Community Level Interventions for Pre-eclampsia (CLIP) Trial (NCT01911494; CTRI/2014/01/004352). The objective was to describe baseline demographics and health outcomes prior to initiation of the CLIP trial and to improve knowledge of population-level health, in particular of maternal and neonatal outcomes related to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, in northern districts the state of Karnataka, India...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067303/prevalence-of-antepartum-hemorrhage-in-women-with-placenta-previa-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Dazhi Fan, Song Wu, Li Liu, Qing Xia, Wen Wang, Xiaoling Guo, Zhengping Liu
Antepartum hemorrhage (APH) is an important cause of perinatal mortality and maternal morbidity in pregnant women with placenta previa in the world. However, the epidemiological characteristics are not completely understood. We performed an initial systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the prevalence of APH in pregnant women with placenta previa. It was totally performed following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis statement. PubMed, Elsevier Science Direct, and the Cochrane Library were searched before April 2016...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029701/paediatric-and-perinatal-epidemiology-where-we-stand-and-where-are-we-headed
#19
EDITORIAL
Cande V Ananth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004625/pregnancy-perinatal-and-postpartum-complications-as-determinants-of-postpartum-depression-the-rhea-mother-child-cohort-in-crete-greece
#20
K Koutra, M Vassilaki, V Georgiou, A Koutis, P Bitsios, M Kogevinas, L Chatzi
AIMS: Few epidemiological studies evaluated associations between perinatal complications and maternal mood at the early postpartum period and the findings are inconsistent. We aimed at investigating a wide range of complications during pregnancy, at delivery, and at the early postpartum period as determinants of postpartum depression (PPD) at 8 weeks postpartum. METHODS: A total of 1037 women who enrolled in the Rhea mother-child cohort in Crete, Greece participated in the present study...
December 22, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
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