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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523425/characterization-of-electrocorticogram-high-gamma-signal-in-response-to-varying-upper-extremity-movement-velocity
#1
Po T Wang, Colin M McCrimmon, Christine E King, Susan J Shaw, David E Millett, Hui Gong, Luis A Chui, Charles Y Liu, Zoran Nenadic, An H Do
The mechanism by which the human primary motor cortex (M1) encodes upper extremity movement kinematics is not fully understood. For example, human electrocorticogram (ECoG) signals have been shown to modulate with upper extremity movements; however, this relationship has not been explicitly characterized. To address this issue, we recorded high-density ECoG signals from patients undergoing epilepsy surgery evaluation as they performed elementary upper extremity movements while systematically varying movement speed and duration...
May 18, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523213/brachial-plexus-magnetic-resonance-imaging-differentiates-between-inflammatory-neuropathies-and-does-not-predict-disease-course
#2
Bas A Jongbloed, Jeroen W Bos, Dirk Rutgers, Willem Ludo van der Pol, Leonard H van den Berg
OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the distribution of brachial plexus magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities and clinical weakness, and to evaluate the value of brachial plexus MRI in predicting disease course and response to treatment in multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN), Lewis-Sumner syndrome (LSS) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP). METHODS: Sixty-seven patients with an inflammatory neuropathy diagnosed at our tertiary referral center for neuromuscular diseases had undergone bilateral T2-weighted short tau inversion recovery (STIR) MRI of the brachial plexus...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521137/a-map-of-anticipatory-activity-in-mouse-motor-cortex
#3
Tsai-Wen Chen, Nuo Li, Kayvon Daie, Karel Svoboda
Activity in the mouse anterior lateral motor cortex (ALM) instructs directional movements, often seconds before movement initiation. It is unknown whether this preparatory activity is localized to ALM or widely distributed within motor cortex. Here we imaged activity across motor cortex while mice performed a whisker-based object localization task with a delayed, directional licking response. During tactile sensation and the delay epoch, object location was represented in motor cortex areas that are medial and posterior relative to ALM, including vibrissal motor cortex...
May 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520679/knee-recurvatum-in-children-with-spastic-diplegic-cerebral-palsy
#4
Jeremy Bauer, K Patrick Do, Jing Feng, Rosemary Pierce, Michael Aiona
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to determine which factors drive patients with diplegic cerebral palsy to walk without knee recurvatum despite hyperextension of the knee on physical examination. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of all data collected in the Gait Analysis Laboratory between 1999 and 2014. Patients with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy and at least 5 degrees of knee extension on clinical examination were identified for the study...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516474/relationship-between-pain-and-motor-and-non-motor-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease
#5
G Defazio, A Antonini, M Tinazzi, A F Gigante, S Pietracupa, R Pellicciari, M Bloise, R Bacchin, A Marcante, G Fabbrini, A Berardelli
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although female gender, depressive symptoms and medical conditions predisposing to pain are more common in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) with pain, no study has yet explored the relationship between pain and other non-motor symptoms (NMS). METHODS: A total of 321 consecutive patients with PD [190 men/131 women aged 68.3 (SD 9.2) years] attending four Italian movement disorder clinics were studied. Demographic/clinical data were obtained by a standardized interview and the NMS scale...
May 18, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515487/functional-interaction-between-fus-and-smn-underlies-sma-like-splicing-changes-in-wild-type-hfus-mice
#6
Alessia Mirra, Simona Rossi, Silvia Scaricamazza, Michela Di Salvio, Illari Salvatori, Cristiana Valle, Paola Rusmini, Angelo Poletti, Gianluca Cestra, Maria Teresa Carrì, Maur O Cozzolino
Several of the identified genetic factors in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) point to dysfunction in RNA processing as a major pathogenic mechanism. However, whether a precise RNA pathway is particularly affected remains unknown. Evidence suggests that FUS, that is mutated in familial ALS, and SMN, the causative factor in Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA), cooperate to the same molecular pathway, i.e. regulation of alternative splicing, and that disturbances in SMN-regulated functions, either caused by depletion of SMN protein (as in the case of SMA) or by pathogenic interactions between FUS and SMN (as in the case of ALS) might be a common theme in both diseases...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515288/motor-recovery-beginning-23-years-after-ischemic-stroke
#7
Peter Sörös, Robert Teasell, Daniel F Hanley, J David Spence
It is widely believed that most stroke recovery occurs within 6 months, with little benefit of physiotherapy or other modalities beyond a year. We report a remarkable case of stroke recovery beginning 23 years after a severe stroke due to embolization from the innominate artery and subclavian artery, resulting from compression of the right subclavian artery by a cervical rib. The patient had a large right fronto-parietal infarction with severe left hemiparesis, and a totally non-functional spastic left hand...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512475/risk-factors-for-road-traffic-injuries-among-different-road-users-in-the-gambia
#8
Edrisa Sanyang, Corinne Peek-Asa, Paul Bass, Tracy L Young, Babanding Daffeh, Laurence J Fuortes
We identified risk factors for road traffic injuries among road users who received treatment at two major trauma hospitals in urban Gambia. The study includes pedestrians, bicyclists, motorcyclists, and drivers/passengers of cars and trucks. We examined distributions of injury by age, gender, collision vehicle types and vehicle category, and driver and environment factors. Two hundred and fifty-four patients were included in the study. Two-thirds were male and one-third female. Two-thirds (67%) of road traffic injuries involved pedestrians, bicyclists, and motorcyclists; and these were more common during weekdays (74%) than weekends...
2017: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512223/kinematics-of-the-lever-arm-swing-in-myosin-vi
#9
Mauro L Mugnai, D Thirumalai
Myosin VI (MVI) is the only known member of the myosin superfamily that, upon dimerization, walks processively toward the pointed end of the actin filament. The leading head of the dimer directs the trailing head forward with a power stroke, a conformational change of the motor domain exaggerated by the lever arm. Using a unique coarse-grained model for the power stroke of a single MVI, we provide the molecular basis for its motility. We show that the power stroke occurs in two major steps. First, the motor domain attains the poststroke conformation without directing the lever arm forward; and second, the lever arm reaches the poststroke orientation by undergoing a rotational diffusion...
May 16, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511128/improving-the-repeatability-of-motor-unit-number-index-munix-by-introducing-additional-epochs-at-low-contraction-levels
#10
Yun Peng, Yingchun Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the repeatability of (Motor Unit Number Index) MUNIX under repeatability conditions, specify the origin of variations and provide strategies for quality control. METHODS: MUNIX calculations were performed on the bicep brachii muscles of eight healthy subjects. Negative effect of suboptimal electrode positions on MUNIX accuracy was eliminated by employing the high-density surface electromyography technique. MUNIX procedures that utilized a variety of surface interferential pattern (SIP) epoch recruitment strategies (including the original MUNIX procedure, two proposed improvement strategies and their combinations) were described...
April 8, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511006/novel-focused-ultrasound-gene-therapy-approach-noninvasively-restores-dopaminergic-neuron-function-in-a-rat-parkinson-s-disease-model
#11
Brian P Mead, Namho Kim, G Wilson Miller, David Hodges, Panagiotis Mastorakos, Alexander L Klibanov, James W Mandell, Jay Hirsh, Jung Soo Suk, Justin Hanes, Richard J Price
Therapies capable of decelerating, or perhaps even halting, neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD) remain elusive. Clinical trials of PD gene therapy testing the delivery of neurotrophic factors, such as the glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), have been largely ineffective due to poor vector distribution throughout the diseased regions in the brain. In addition, current delivery strategies involve invasive procedures that obviate the inclusion of early stage patients who are most likely to benefit from GDNF-based gene therapy...
May 18, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509356/assessments-of-pain-in-children-and-adolescents-with-cerebral-palsy-a-retrospective-population-based-registry-study
#12
Lena Westbom, Amanda Rimstedt, Eva Nordmark
AIM: To explore pain screening in CPUP, a follow-up surveillance programme for people with cerebral palsy (CP), specifically to describe reported pain prevalence, localizations, patterns of distribution; to compare with studies using psychometrically sound assessment instruments; and to assess agreement between pain documented in CPUP and medical records. METHOD: Registry study of a population with CP, born 1993 to 2008, living in Skåne, Sweden in 2013. Descriptive data, cross-tabulations, and chi-square tests to characterize and compare the study groups...
May 16, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507300/minimum-toe-clearance-probing-the-neural-control-of-locomotion
#13
Tim Killeen, Christopher S Easthope, László Demkó, Linard Filli, Lilla Lőrincz, Michael Linnebank, Armin Curt, Björn Zörner, Marc Bolliger
Minimum toe clearance (MTC) occurs during a highly dynamic phase of the gait cycle and is associated with the highest risk of unintentional contact with obstacles or the ground. Age, cognitive function, attention and visual feedback affect foot clearance but how these factors interact to influence MTC control is not fully understood. We measured MTC in 121 healthy individuals aged 20-80 under four treadmill walking conditions; normal walking, lower visual field restriction and two Stroop colour/word naming tasks of two difficulty levels...
May 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507101/human-myosin-viia-is-a-very-slow-processive-motor-protein-on-various-cellular-actin-structures
#14
Osamu Sato, Satoshi Komatsu, Tsuyoshi Sakai, Yoshikazu Tsukasaki, Ryosuke Tanaka, Takeomi Mizutani, Tomonobu M Watanabe, Reiko Ikebe, Mitsuo Ikebe
Human myosin VIIa (MYO7A) is an actin-linked motor protein associated with human Usher syndrome (USH) type 1B, which causes human congenital hearing and visual loss. While it has been thought that the role of human myosin VIIa is critical for USH1 protein tethering with actin and transportation along actin bundles in inner-ear hair cells, myosin VIIa's motor function remains unclear. Here, we studied the motor function of the tail-truncated human myosin VIIa dimer (HM7AΔTail/LZ) at the single-molecule level...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506500/autonomic-and-electrocardiographic-findings-in-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Christopher H Gibbons, David K Simon, Meilin Huang, Barbara Tilley, Michael J Aminoff, Jacquelyn L Bainbridge, Matthew Brodsky, Roy Freeman, John Goudreau, Robert W Hamill, Sheng T Luo, Carlos Singer, Aleksandar Videnovic, Ivan Bodis-Wollner, Pei S Wong
Parkinson disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor and non-motor symptoms and signs. Many reports suggest that diminished heart rate variability occurs early, even prior to the cardinal signs of PD. In a longitudinal study of PD, we evaluated whether heart rate variability (HRV) obtained using a 10-second ECG tracing, and the electrocardiographic QT-interval would be associated with PD severity and progression. Subjects were derived from a longitudinal study of 1741 individuals with early, stable PD...
April 14, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506292/normobaric-hypoxia-overnight-impairs-cognitive-reaction-time
#16
Stephan Pramsohler, Stefan Wimmer, Martin Kopp, Hannes Gatterer, Martin Faulhaber, Martin Burtscher, Nikolaus Cristoph Netzer
BACKGROUND: Impaired reaction time in patients suffering from hypoxia during sleep, caused by sleep breathing disorders, is a well-described phenomenon. High altitude sleep is known to induce periodic breathing with central apneas and oxygen desaturations, even in perfectly healthy subjects. However, deficits in reaction time in mountaineers or workers after just some nights of hypoxia exposure are not sufficiently explored. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the impact of sleep in a normobaric hypoxic environment on reaction time divided by its cognitive and motoric components...
May 15, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506001/motor-cortex-stimulation-does-not-lead-to%C3%A2-functional-recovery-after-experimental-cortical-injury-in-rats
#17
Lisa-Maria Schönfeld, Ali Jahanshahi, Evi Lemmens, Matthias Bauwens, Sarah-Anna Hescham, Sandra Schipper, Melanie Lagiere, Sven Hendrix, Yasin Temel
BACKGROUND: Motor impairments are among the major complications that develop after cortical damage caused by either stroke or traumatic brain injury. Motor cortex stimulation (MCS) can improve motor functions in animal models of stroke by inducing neuroplasticity. OBJECTIVE: In the current study, the therapeutic effect of chronic MCS was assessed in a rat model of severe cortical damage. METHODS: A controlled cortical impact (CCI) was applied to the forelimb area of the motor cortex followed by implantation of a flat electrode covering the lesion area...
May 9, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505371/the-arm-domain-of-armadillo-repeat-kinesin-1-is-not-required-for-microtubule-catastrophe-but-can-negatively-regulate-nima-related-kinase-6-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#18
Ryan C Eng, Laryssa S Halat, Samuel J Livingston, Tatsuya Sakai, Hiroyasu Motose, Geoffrey Wasteneys
Microtubules are dynamic filaments, the assembly and disassembly of which are under precise control of various associated proteins, including motor proteins and regulatory enzymes. In Arabidopsis thaliana, two such proteins are the ARMADILLO-REPEAT KINESIN 1 (ARK1), which promotes microtubule disassembly, and the NIMA-RELATED KINASE 6 (NEK6), which has a role in organizing microtubule arrays. Previous yeast 2-hybrid and in vitro pull-down assays determined that NEK6 can interact with ARK1 through the latter protein's Armadillo-repeat (ARM) cargo domain...
May 13, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503462/predictors-for-depressive-mood-in-geriatric-patients-after-traumatic-brain-injury-a-retrospective-cross-sectional-study
#19
Je Kyung Kim, Na Young Kim, Yong Wook Kim
OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors for depressive mood in geriatric patients after traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: A retrospective review of patients' medical charts was performed in TBI patients who were older than 60 years and referred to the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine at Severance Hospital in 2002-2016. The patients were classified into two groups based on the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS): non-depressive group (0≤GDS≤16) and depressive group (17≤GDS≤30)...
April 2017: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500298/zbp1-phosphorylation-at-serine-181-regulates-its-dendritic-transport-and-the-development-of-dendritic-trees-of-hippocampal-neurons
#20
Anna S Urbanska, Aleksandra Janusz-Kaminska, Katarzyna Switon, Alicia L Hawthorne, Malgorzata Perycz, Malgorzata Urbanska, Gary J Bassell, Jacek Jaworski
Local protein synthesis occurs in axons and dendrites of neurons, enabling fast and spatially restricted responses to a dynamically changing extracellular environment. Prior to local translation, mRNA that is to be translated is packed into ribonucleoprotein particles (RNPs) where RNA binding proteins ensure mRNA silencing and provide a link to molecular motors. ZBP1 is a component of RNP transport particles and is known for its role in the local translation of β-actin mRNA. Its binding to mRNA is regulated by tyrosine 396 phosphorylation, and this particular modification was shown to be vital for axonal growth and dendritic branching...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
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