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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732069/saccharomyces-boulardii-cncm-i-745-supplementation-reduces-gastrointestinal-dysfunction-in-an-animal-model-of-ibs
#1
Paola Brun, Melania Scarpa, Chiara Marchiori, Gloria Sarasin, Valentina Caputi, Andrea Porzionato, Maria Cecilia Giron, Giorgio Palù, Ignazio Castagliuolo
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the effect of Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 on intestinal neuromuscular anomalies in an IBS-type mouse model of gastrointestinal motor dysfunctions elicited by Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) exposure. METHODS: Mice were inoculated intranasally with HSV-1 (102 PFU) or vehicle at time 0 and 4 weeks later by the intragastric (IG) route (108 PFU). Six weeks after IG inoculum, mice were randomly allocated to receive oral gavage with either S...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731841/survey-of-nutrition-management-practices-in-centers-for-pediatric-intestinal-rehabilitation
#2
Anita M Nucci, Kipp Ellsworth, Austin Michalski, Emily Nagel, Jackie Wessel
BACKGROUND: Nutrition management of pediatric intestinal failure (IF) requires interdisciplinary coordination of parenteral nutrition (PN) and enteral nutrition (EN) support. Nutrition strategies used by specialists in pediatric intestinal rehabilitation to promote gut adaptation and manage complications have not been previously summarized. METHODS: A practice survey was distributed to members of the dietitian subgroup of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Pediatric Intestinal Failure Section...
July 1, 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726789/predominant-area-of-brain-lesions-in-neonates-with-herpes-simplex-encephalitis
#3
H Kidokoro, L S de Vries, C Ogawa, Y Ito, A Ohno, F Groenendaal, S Saitoh, A Okumura, Y Ito, J Natsume
OBJECTIVE: Nonspecific manifestations and a varied distribution of brain lesions can delay the diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) in neonates. The aim of this study was to report predominant brain lesions in neonatal HSE, and then to investigate the association between pattern of predominant brain lesions, clinical variables and neurodevelopmental outcome. STUDY DESIGN: A multicenter retrospective study was performed in neonates diagnosed with HSE between 2009 and 2014...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723929/clinical-utility-of-the-structured-observation-of-motor-performance-in-infants-within-the-child-health-services
#4
Kine Johansen, Kristina Persson, Karin Sonnander, Margaretha Magnusson, Anna Sarkadi, Steven Lucas
AIM: This study aimed to evaluate the clinical utility of the Structured Observation of Motor Performance in Infants (SOMP-I) when used by nurses in routine child healthcare by analyzing the nurses' SOMP-I assessments and the actions taken when motor problems were suspected. METHOD: Infants from three child health centers in Uppsala County, Sweden, were consecutively enrolled in a longitudinal study. The 242 infants were assessed using SOMP-I by the nurse responsible for the infant as part of the regular well-child visits at as close to 2, 4, 6 and 10 months of age as possible...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721533/minimum-norm-estimation-of-motor-representations-in-navigated-tms-mappings
#5
Minna Pitkänen, Elisa Kallioniemi, Petro Julkunen, Maria Nazarova, Jaakko O Nieminen, Risto J Ilmoniemi
Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) can be applied to locate and outline cortical motor representations. This may be important, e.g., when planning neurosurgery or focused nTMS therapy, or when assessing plastic changes during neurorehabilitation. Conventionally, a cortical location is considered to belong to the motor cortex if the maximum electric field (E-field) targeted there evokes a motor-evoked potential in a muscle. However, the cortex is affected by a broad E-field distribution, which tends to broaden estimates of representation areas by stimulating also the neighboring areas in addition to the maximum E-field location...
July 18, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720882/cell-type-specific-differences-in-promoter-activity-of-the-als-linked-c9orf72-mouse-ortholog
#6
Abraham J Langseth, Juhyun Kim, Janet E Ugolino, Yajas Shah, Ho-Yon Hwang, Jiou Wang, Dwight E Bergles, Solange P Brown
A hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the C9orf72 gene is the most common cause of inherited forms of the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Both loss-of-function and gain-of-function mechanisms have been proposed to underlie this disease, but the pathogenic pathways are not fully understood. To better understand the involvement of different cell types in the pathogenesis of ALS, we systematically analyzed the distribution of promoter activity of the mouse ortholog of C9orf72 in the central nervous system...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719020/fibrin-ogen-and-neurodegeneration-in-the-progressive-multiple-sclerosis-cortex
#7
Richard L Yates, Margaret M Esiri, Jacqueline Palace, Benjamin Jacobs, Rafael Perera, Gabriele C DeLuca
OBJECTIVE: Neuronal loss, a key substrate of irreversible disability in multiple sclerosis (MS), is a recognised feature of MS cortical pathology of which the cause remains unknown. Fibrin(ogen) deposition is neurotoxic in animal models of MS, but has not been evaluated in human progressive MS cortex. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent and distribution of fibrin(ogen) in progressive MS cortex and elucidate its relationship with neurodegeneration. METHODS: A post-mortem cohort of pathologically confirmed MS (n=47) and control (n=10) cases was used...
July 18, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714503/protective-effects-of-fisetin-and-other-berry-flavonoids-in-parkinson-s-disease
#8
REVIEW
Pamela Maher
Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-associated degenerative disease of the midbrain that results from the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. It initially presents as a movement disorder with cognitive and other behavioral problems appearing later in the progression of the disease. Current therapies for PD only delay the onset or reduce the motor symptoms. There are no treatments to stop the nerve cell death or to cure the disease. It is becoming increasingly clear that neurological diseases such as PD are multi-factorial involving disruptions in multiple cellular systems...
July 17, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713483/the-treadmill-exercise-protects-against-dopaminergic-neuron-loss-and-brain-oxidative-stress-in-parkinsonian-rats
#9
Roberta Oliveira da Costa, Carlos Vinicius Jataí Gadelha-Filho, Ayane Edwiges Moura da Costa, Mariana Lima Feitosa, Dayane Pessoa de Araújo, Jalles Dantas de Lucena, Pedro Everson Alexandre de Aquino, Francisco Arnaldo Viana Lima, Kelly Rose Tavares Neves, Glauce Socorro de Barros Viana
Parkinson's disease (PD), a progressive neurological pathology, presents motor and nonmotor impairments. The objectives were to support data on exercise benefits to PD. Male Wistar rats were distributed into sham-operated (SO) and 6-OHDA-lesioned, both groups without and with exercise. The animals were subjected to treadmill exercises (14 days), 24 h after the stereotaxic surgery and striatal 6-OHDA injection. Those from no-exercise groups stayed on the treadmill for the same period and, afterwards, were subjected to behavioral tests and euthanized for neurochemical and immunohistochemical assays...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710464/analysis-of-mitochondrial-organization-and-function-in-the-drosophila-blastoderm-embryo
#10
Sayali Chowdhary, Darshika Tomer, Dnyanesh Dubal, Devashree Sambre, Richa Rikhy
Mitochondria are inherited maternally as globular and immature organelles in metazoan embryos. We have used the Drosophila blastoderm embryo to characterize their morphology, distribution and functions in embryogenesis. We find that mitochondria are relatively small, dispersed and distinctly distributed along the apico-basal axis in proximity to microtubules by motor protein transport. Live imaging, photobleaching and photoactivation analyses of mitochondrially targeted GFP show that they are mobile in the apico-basal axis along microtubules and are immobile in the lateral plane thereby associating with one syncytial cell...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708868/dynamics-of-tactical-behaviour-in-association-football-when-manipulating-players-space-of-interaction
#11
Angel Ric, Carlota Torrents, Bruno Gonçalves, Lorena Torres-Ronda, Jaime Sampaio, Robert Hristovski
The analysis of positional data in association football allows the spatial distribution of players during matches to be described in order to improve the understanding of tactical-related constraints on the behavioural dynamics of players. The aim of this study was to identify how players' spatial restrictions affected the exploratory tactical behaviour and constrained the perceptual-motor workspace of players in possession of the ball, as well as inter-player passing interactions. Nineteen professional outfield male players were divided into two teams of 10 and 9 players, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707220/application-of-quasi-steady-state-methods-to-nonlinear-models-of-intracellular-transport-by-molecular-motors
#12
Cole Zmurchok, Tim Small, Michael J Ward, Leah Edelstein-Keshet
Molecular motors such as kinesin and dynein are responsible for transporting material along microtubule networks in cells. In many contexts, motor dynamics can be modelled by a system of reaction-advection-diffusion partial differential equations (PDEs). Recently, quasi-steady-state (QSS) methods have been applied to models with linear reactions to approximate the behaviour of the full PDE system. Here, we extend this QSS reduction methodology to certain nonlinear reaction models. The QSS method relies on the assumption that the nonlinear binding and unbinding interactions of the cellular motors occur on a faster timescale than the spatial diffusion and advection processes...
July 13, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704632/measuring-memory-and-attention-to-preview-in-motion
#13
Richard J Jagacinski, Gordon M Hammond, Emanuele Rizzi
Objective Use perceptual-motor responses to perturbations to reveal the spatio-temporal detail of memory for the recent past and attention to preview when participants track a winding roadway. Background Memory of the recently passed roadway can be inferred from feedback control models of the participants' manual movement patterns. Similarly, attention to preview of the upcoming roadway can be inferred from feedforward control models of manual movement patterns. Method Perturbation techniques were used to measure these memory and attention functions...
August 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701774/inhibition-of-%C3%AE-glucocerebrosidase-activity-preserves-motor-unit-integrity-in-a-mouse-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#14
Alexandre Henriques, Mylene Huebecker, Hélène Blasco, Céline Keime, Christian R Andres, Philippe Corcia, David A Priestman, Frances M Platt, Michael Spedding, Jean-Philippe Loeffler
Recent metabolomic reports connect dysregulation of glycosphingolipids, particularly ceramide and glucosylceramide, to neurodegeneration and to motor unit dismantling in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis at late disease stage. We report here altered levels of gangliosides in the cerebrospinal fluid of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients in early disease stage. Conduritol B epoxide is an inhibitor of acid beta-glucosidase, and lowers glucosylceramide degradation. Glucosylceramide is the precursor for all of the more complex glycosphingolipids...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701494/loss-of-phosphodiesterase-4-in-parkinson-disease-relevance-to-cognitive-deficits
#15
Flavia Niccolini, Heather Wilson, Gennaro Pagano, Christopher Coello, Mitul A Mehta, Graham E Searle, Roger N Gunn, Eugenii A Rabiner, Thomas Foltynie, Marios Politis
OBJECTIVE: To assess in vivo the expression of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) and its relevance to cognitive symptoms in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) using [(11)C]rolipram PET. METHODS: We studied 12 levodopa-treated patients with PD with no concurrent diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Their data were compared with those from 12 healthy controls. All participants underwent neuropsychiatric and cognitive assessment using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery...
July 12, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697491/trpc1-trpc3-and-trpc4-in-rat-orofacial-structures
#16
Masatoshi Fujita, Tadasu Sato, Takehiro Yajima, Eiji Masaki, Hiroyuki Ichikawa
TRPC (transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily C) members are nonselective monovalent cation channels and control Ca2+ inflow. In this study, immunohistochemistry for TRPC1, TRPC3, and TRPC4 was performed on rat oral and craniofacial structures to elucidate their distribution and function in the peripheries. In the trigeminal ganglion (TG), 56.1, 84.1, and 68.3% of sensory neurons were immunoreactive (IR) for TRPC1, TRPC3, and TRPC4, respectively. A double immunofluorescence method revealed that small to medium-sized TG neurons co-expressed TRPCs and calcitonin gene-related peptide...
July 12, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691164/pick-s-disease-with-neuronal-four-repeat-tau-accumulation-in-the-basal-ganglia-brain-stem-nuclei-and-cerebellum
#17
Chikako Ikeda, Osamu Yokota, Tomoko Miki, Shintaro Takenoshita, Hideki Ishizu, Yoko Mori, Kiyohiro Yamazaki, Yuki Ozaki, Shu-Ichi Ueno, Takeshi Ishihara, Masato Hasegawa, Seishi Terada, Norihito Yamada
It is very rare that cases of Pick's disease, a representative three-repeat (3R) tauopathy, also have significant four-repeat (4R) tau accumulation. Here, we report a Pick's disease case that clinically showed behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia without motor disturbance during the course, and pathologically had 3R tau-positive Pick bodies as well as numerous 4R tau-positive neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs). Abundant 3R tau-positive 4R tau-negative spherical or horseshoe-shaped Pick bodies were found in the frontotemporal cortex, limbic region, striatum and pontine nucleus...
July 9, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690504/multiple-coordinate-systems-and-motor-strategies-for-reaching-movements-when-eye-and-hand-are-dissociated-in-depth-and-direction
#18
Annalisa Bosco, Valentina Piserchia, Patrizia Fattori
Reaching behavior represents one of the basic aspects of human cognitive abilities important for the interaction with the environment. Reaching movements towards visual objects are controlled by mechanisms based on coordinate systems that transform the spatial information of target location into appropriate motor response. Although recent works have extensively studied the encoding of target position for reaching in three-dimensional space at behavioral level, the combined analysis of reach errors and movement variability has so far been investigated by few studies...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689636/dynamic-transcription-and-expression-patterns-of-kif3a-and-kif3b-genes-during-spermiogenesis-in-the-shrimp-palaemon-carincauda
#19
Yong-Qiang Zhao, Hai-Yan Yang, Dan-Dan Zhang, Ying-Li Han, Cong-Cong Hou, Jun-Quan Zhu
Spermiogenesis is a highly ordered and complex process in the male germ cell differentiation. The microtubule-based motor proteins KIF3A and KIF3B are required for the progression of the stages of spermiogenesis. In this study, the main goal was to determine whether KIF3A and KIF3B have a key role in spermiogenesis in Palaemon carincauda. The complete cDNA of KIF3A/3B from the testis of P. carincauda was cloned by using PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The predicted secondary and tertiary structures of KIF3A/3B contained three domains which were the: a) head region, b) stalk region, and c) tail region...
July 1, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687927/the-distribution-of-cholinergic-neurons-and-their-co-localization-with-fmrfamide-in-central-and-peripheral-neurons-of-the-spider-cupiennius-salei
#20
Ruth Fabian-Fine, Carly M Anderson, Molly A Roush, Jessica A G Johnson, Hongxia Liu, Andrew S French, Päivi H Torkkeli
The spider Cupiennius salei is a well-established model for investigating information processing in arthropod sensory systems. Immunohistochemistry has shown that several neurotransmitters exist in the C. salei nervous system, including GABA, glutamate, histamine, octopamine and FMRFamide, while electrophysiology has found functional roles for some of these transmitters. There is also evidence that acetylcholine (ACh) is present in some C. salei neurons but information about the distribution of cholinergic neurons in spider nervous systems is limited...
July 7, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
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