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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214580/localization-of-oxytocin-receptors-in-the-prairie-vole-microtus-ochrogaster-neocortex
#1
Auriane Duchemin, Adele M H Seelke, Trenton C Simmons, Sara M Freeman, Karen L Bales
Early experience and social context interact to alter the phenotype of complex social behaviors. These early experiences can also result in alterations to cortical organization and connections. Given the ability of the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) to modulate social and reproductive behavior, OT is likely involved in these cortical processes. However, little is known about the distribution of OT and OT receptors (OTR) within the neocortex. Using autoradiographic and neuroanatomical techniques, we characterized the cortical distribution of oxytocin receptors (OTR) in prairie voles, a socially monogamous rodent species...
February 15, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214432/degree-of-target-utilization-influences-the-location-of-movement-endpoint-distributions
#2
Andrew B Slifkin, Jeffrey R Eder
According to dominant theories of motor control, speed and accuracy are optimized when, on the average, movement endpoints are located at the target center and when the variability of the movement endpoint distributions is matched to the width of the target (viz., Meyer, Abrams, Kornblum, Wright & Smith, 1988). The current study tested those predictions. According to the speed-accuracy trade-off, expanding the range of variability to the amount permitted by the limits of the target boundaries allows for maximization of movement speed while centering the distribution on the target center prevents movement errors that would have occurred had the distribution been off center...
February 15, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210407/a-single-center-review-of-radiologically-diagnosed-maxillofacial-fractures-etiology-and-distribution
#3
Jordan N Halsey, Ian C Hoppe, Mark S Granick, Edward S Lee
The etiology of fractures of the maxillofacial skeleton varies among studies, with motor vehicle accidents and assaults oftentimes the most common. The number of males outnumbers females throughout most studies. Fractures of the zygoma, orbit, and mandible are usually cited as most common fracture types. This study examines a single center's experience with regards to etiology and distribution of fractures. A retrospective review of all radiologically confirmed facial fractures in a level 1 trauma center in an urban environment was performed for the years 2000 to 2012...
March 2017: Craniomaxillofacial Trauma & Reconstruction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207658/association-between-paraspinal-muscle-morphology-clinical-symptoms-and-functional-status-in-patients-with-degenerative-cervical-myelopathy
#4
Maryse Fortin, Octavian Dobrescu, Matthew Courtemanche, Carolyn J Sparrey, Carlo Santaguida, Michael G Fehlings, Michael H Weber
STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess fatty infiltration and asymmetry of the multifidus (MF), semispinalis cervicis (SCer), semispinalis capitis (SCap), and splenius capitis (SPL) muscles in patients with degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM), and evaluate their correlations with clinical symptoms and functional scores. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Cervical muscle alterations have been reported in patients with chronic neck pain, but the assessment of cervical muscle morphology has been overlooked in patients with DCM...
February 15, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196073/a-horse-s-locomotor-signature-cop-path-determined-by-the-individual-limb
#5
Sandra Nauwelaerts, Sarah Jane Hobbs, Willem Back
INTRODUCTION: Ground reaction forces in sound horses with asymmetric hooves show systematic differences in the horizontal braking force and relative timing of break-over. The Center Of Pressure (COP) path quantifies the dynamic load distribution under the hoof in a moving horse. The objective was to test whether anatomical asymmetry, quantified by the difference in dorsal wall angle between the left and right forelimbs, correlates with asymmetry in the COP path between these limbs. In addition, repeatability of the COP path was investigated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194266/serum-albumin-levels-and-their-correlates-among-individuals-with-motor-disorders-at-five-institutions-in-japan
#6
Hiroko Ohwada, Takeo Nakayama, Yuki Kanaya, Yuki Tanaka
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The level of serum albumin is an index of nourishment care and management. However, the distribution and correlates of serum albumin levels among individuals with motor disorders have not been reported until now. Therefore, we examined the distribution and correlates of serum albumin levels among individuals with motor disorders. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A cross-sectional study on 249 individuals with motor disabilities (144 men, mean age: 51.4 years; 105 women, mean age: 51...
February 2017: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193714/contributors-to-pedestrian-distraction-and-risky-behaviours-during-road-crossings-in-romania
#7
Cara Hamann, Diana Dulf, Erika Baragan-Andrada, Morgan Price, Corinne Peek-Asa
OBJECTIVE: Pedestrian fatalities due to collisions with motor vehicles are a large public health problem in Romania, ranking them among the highest in Eastern Europe. The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of crash factors by examining how roadway and environmental characteristics contribute to pedestrian distraction and risky behaviours at pedestrian MVC (PMVC) locations in Cluj County, Romania. METHODS: A sample of PMVC locations was selected from the 2010 Cluj County police reported crash database for on-site examination...
February 13, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192482/characterization-of-the-disruption-of-neural-control-strategies-for-dynamic-fingertip-forces-from-attractor-reconstruction
#8
Lorenzo Peppoloni, Emily L Lawrence, Emanuele Ruffaldi, Francisco J Valero-Cuevas
The Strength-Dexterity (SD) test measures the ability of the pulps of the thumb and index finger to compress a compliant and slender spring prone to buckling at low forces (<3N). We know that factors such as aging and neurodegenerative conditions bring deteriorating physiological changes (e.g., at the level of motor cortex, cerebellum, and basal ganglia), which lead to an overall loss of dexterous ability. However, little is known about how these changes reflect upon the dynamics of the underlying biological system...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191598/diacylglycerol-kinase-%C3%AE%C2%B5-localizes-to-subsurface-cisterns-of-cerebellar-purkinje-cells
#9
Yasukazu Hozumi, Hiroki Fujiwara, Kenya Kaneko, Satoshi Fujii, Matthew K Topham, Masahiko Watanabe, Kaoru Goto
Following activation of Gq protein-coupled receptors, phospholipase C yields a pair of second messengers: diacylglycerol (DG) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) phosphorylates DG to produce phosphatidic acid, another second messenger. Of the DGK family, DGKε is the only DGK isoform that exhibits substrate specificity for DG with an arachidonoyl acyl chain at the sn-2 position. Recently, we demonstrated that hydrophobic residues in the N-terminus of DGKε play an important role in targeting the endoplasmic reticulum in transfected cells...
February 13, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184211/disrupted-saccade-control-in-chronic-cerebral-injury-upper-motor-neuron-like-disinhibition-in-the-ocular-motor-system
#10
John-Ross Rizzo, Todd E Hudson, Andrew Abdou, Yvonne W Lui, Janet C Rucker, Preeti Raghavan, Michael S Landy
Saccades rapidly direct the line of sight to targets of interest to make use of the high acuity foveal region of the retina. These fast eye movements are instrumental for scanning visual scenes, foveating targets, and, ultimately, serve to guide manual motor control, including eye-hand coordination. Cerebral injury has long been known to impair ocular motor control. Recently, it has been suggested that alterations in control may be useful as a marker for recovery. We measured eye movement control in a saccade task in subjects with chronic middle cerebral artery stroke with both cortical and substantial basal ganglia involvement and in healthy controls...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181190/distribution-of-alox15-in-the-rat-brain-and-its-role-in-prefrontal-cortical-resolvin-d1-formation-and-spatial-working-memory
#11
Suku-Maran Shalini, Christabel Fung-Yih Ho, Yee-Kong Ng, Jie-Xin Tong, Eng-Shi Ong, Deron R Herr, Gavin S Dawe, Wei-Yi Ong
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is enriched in membrane phospholipids of the central nervous system (CNS) and has a role in aging and neuropsychiatric disorders. DHA is metabolized by the enzyme Alox15 to 17S-hydroxy-DHA, which is then converted to 7S-hydroperoxy,17S-hydroxy-DHA by a 5-lipoxygenase, and thence via epoxy intermediates to the anti-inflammatory molecule, resolvin D1 (RvD1 or 7S,8R,17S-trihydroxy-docosa-Z,9E,11E,13Z,15E,19Z-hexaenoic acid). In this study, we investigated the distribution and function of Alox15 in the CNS...
February 8, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180961/dermal-phospho-alpha-synuclein-deposits-confirm-rem-sleep-behaviour-disorder-as-prodromal-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Kathrin Doppler, Hanna-Maria Jentschke, Lena Schulmeyer, David Vadasz, Annette Janzen, Markus Luster, Helmut Höffken, Geert Mayer, Joachim Brumberg, Jan Booij, Thomas Musacchio, Stephan Klebe, Elisabeth Sittig-Wiegand, Jens Volkmann, Claudia Sommer, Wolfgang H Oertel
Phosphorylated alpha-synuclein (p-alpha-syn) deposits, one of the neuropathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD), have recently been detected in dermal nerve fibres in PD patients with good specificity and sensitivity. Here, we studied whether p-alpha-syn may serve as a biomarker in patients with a high risk of developing PD, such as those with REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD). We compared the presence and distribution of p-alpha-syn deposits in dermal nerve fibres in 18 patients with RBD, 25 patients with early PD and 20 normal controls...
February 8, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177571/optimizing-for-generalization-in-the-decoding-of-internally-generated-activity-in-the-hippocampus
#13
Matthijs A A van der Meer, Alyssa A Carey, Youki Tanaka
The decoding of a sensory or motor variable from neural activity benefits from a known ground truth against which decoding performance can be compared. In contrast, the decoding of covert, cognitive neural activity, such as occurs in memory recall or planning, typically cannot be compared to a known ground truth. As a result, it is unclear how decoders of such internally generated activity should be configured in practice. We suggest that if the true code for covert activity is unknown, decoders should be optimized for generalization performance using cross-validation...
February 8, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176012/implicit-learning-of-a-finger-motor-sequence-by-patients-with-cerebral-palsy-after-neurofeedback
#14
Ana Alves-Pinto, Varvara Turova, Tobias Blumenstein, Conny Hantuschke, Renée Lampe
Facilitation of implicit learning of a hand motor sequence after a single session of neurofeedback training of alpha power recorded from the motor cortex has been shown in healthy individuals (Ros et al., Biological Psychology 95:54-58, 2014). This facilitation effect could be potentially applied to improve the outcome of rehabilitation in patients with impaired hand motor function. In the current study a group of ten patients diagnosed with cerebral palsy trained reduction of alpha power derived from brain activity recorded from right and left motor areas...
February 7, 2017: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174481/what-do-the-relationships-between-functional-classification-systems-of-children-with-cerebral-palsy-tell-us
#15
Akmer Mutlu, Pelin Pistav-Akmese, Bilge Nur Yardımcı, Tuncay Ogretmen
[Purpose] To examine the distribution of and relationship between the Gross Motor Function, Manual Ability, and Communication Function Classification Systems in different limbs of children with spastic cerebral palsy. We also investigated whether the four predicting variables of gender, age, manual ability, and gross motor classifications could significantly predict effective and non-effective communicator groups in communication function. [Subjects and Methods] This retrospective cross-sectional study included 327 children with a mean age of 10...
December 2016: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171798/distribution-of-bupivacaine-hydrochloride-after-sciatic-and-femoral-nerve-blocks-in-cats-a-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#16
Marina C Evangelista, Julie de Lassalle, Christine Chevrier, Eric N Carmel, Denise T Fantoni, Paulo V M Steagall
The objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution of bupivacaine hydrochloride using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after electrical nerve stimulator (ENS)-guided sciatic (ScN) and femoral (FN) nerve blocks in cats. Six adult cats (body weight 4.8±0.6kg) were anesthetized with acepromazine-buprenorphine-propofol-isoflurane. Transverse and sagittal plan sequences of pelvic limbs were obtained using a high-field magnet (1.5T). Afterwards, the ScN and FN blocks (one block per limb) were performed using 0...
January 27, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169146/interventions-to-improve-fundamental-motor-skills-in-pre-school-aged-children-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Abbey Van Capelle, Carolyn R Broderick, Nancy van Doorn, Rachel E Ward, Belinda J Parmenter
OBJECTIVES: Mastery in -fundamental motor skills (FMS) is associated with increased physical activity (PA) in school-aged children; however, there is limited research on pre-schoolers (3-5 years). We aimed to evaluate interventions for improving FMS as well as PA. DESIGN/METHODS: A search of electronic databases was conducted for controlled trials using PA interventions with FMS as outcomes in healthy pre-schoolers. Standardised mean difference (SMD), 95% confidence intervals and publication bias were calculated for each outcome using Revman 5...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167432/comparison-of-psychopathological-dimensions-between-major-depressive-disorder-and-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-focusing-on-language-affectivity-and-motor-behavior
#18
Sarah Steinau, Katharina Stegmayer, Fabian U Lang, Markus Jäger, Werner Strik, Sebastian Walther
This study tested whether patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and schizophrenia spectrum disorders would differ in three dimensions of psychopathology (language, affectivity and motor behavior) as assessed by the Bern Psychopathology Scale (BPS) in a cohort of 58 patients with MDD and 146 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The overall estimation of severity of each of the three dimensions was rated on a seven-point Likert scale from severely inhibited to severely disinhibited. Here, more than half of the patients endorsed ratings that showed normal or mildly (dis-)inhibited behavior...
January 31, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163573/effect-of-private-versus-emergency-medical-systems-transportation-in-motor-vehicle-accident-victims-trauma-center-experience-in-saudi-arabia
#19
Mohammed S Alshahrani
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of the mode of transportation of trauma patients (emergency medical service [EMS] vs. non-EMS) on their final clinical outcome in terms of mortality and length of hospital stay. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study included all patients who were involved in motor vehicle crashes, and who were transferred immediately to an emergency department of a trauma care center from December 2008 to December 2012. Patients were classified into two groups: those brought through EMS and those brought by non-EMS (private transport)...
January 2017: Journal of Family & Community Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162257/-intramedullary-astrocytomas-a-french-retrospective-multicenter-study
#20
F Parker, C Campello, J-P Lejeune, P David, A Herbrecht, N Aghakhani, M Messerer
AIM: The authors report the results of a multicenter retrospective series with a long-term follow-up and the analysis of clinical, radiological, surgical data as well as the complementary treatments in patients with intramedullary astrocytomas (IA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of all the patients with IA operated on between 1984 and 2011 at 7 French centers (Kremlin-Bicêtre, Lille, Lyon, Marseille, Montpellier, Nice, and Nîmes)...
February 2, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
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