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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666460/cortical-classification-with-rhythm-entropy-for-error-processing-in-cocktail-party-environment-based-on-scalp-eeg-recording
#1
Yin Tian, Wei Xu, Li Yang
Using single-trial cortical signals calculated by weighted minimum norm solution estimation (WMNE), the present study explored a feature extraction method based on rhythm entropy to classify the scalp electroencephalography (EEG) signals of error response from that of correct response during performing auditory-track tasks in cocktail party environment. The classification rate achieved 89.7% with single-trial (≈700 ms) when using support vector machine(SVM) with the leave-one-out-cross-validation (LOOCV)...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666277/disparate-binding-kinetics-by-an-intrinsically-disordered-domain-enables-temporal-regulation-of-transcriptional-complex-formation
#2
Neil O Robertson, Ngaio C Smith, Athina Manakas, Mahiar Mahjoub, Gordon McDonald, Ann H Kwan, Jacqueline M Matthews
Intrinsically disordered regions are highly represented among mammalian transcription factors, where they often contribute to the formation of multiprotein complexes that regulate gene expression. An example of this occurs with LIM-homeodomain (LIM-HD) proteins in the developing spinal cord. The LIM-HD protein LHX3 and the LIM-HD cofactor LDB1 form a binary complex that gives rise to interneurons, whereas in adjacent cell populations, LHX3 and LDB1 form a rearranged ternary complex with the LIM-HD protein ISL1, resulting in motor neurons...
April 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663384/cortical-connections-of-area-2-and-posterior-parietal-area-5-in-macaque-monkeys
#3
Jeffrey Padberg, Dylan F Cooke, Christina M Cerkevich, Jon H Kaas, Leah Krubitzer
The overarching goal of the current investigation was to examine the connections of anterior parietal area 2 and the medial portion of posterior parietal area 5 in macaque monkeys; two areas that are part of a network involved reaching and grasping in primates. We injected neuroanatomical tracers into specified locations in each field and directly related labeled cells to histologically identified cortical field boundaries. Labeled cells were counted so that the relative density of projections to areas 2 and 5 from other cortical fields could be determined...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662213/encoding-of-error-and-learning-to-correct-that-error-by-the-purkinje-cells-of-the-cerebellum
#4
David J Herzfeld, Yoshiko Kojima, Robijanto Soetedjo, Reza Shadmehr
The primary output cells of the cerebellar cortex, Purkinje cells, make kinematic predictions about ongoing movements via high-frequency simple spikes, but receive sensory error information about that movement via low-frequency complex spikes (CS). How is the vector space of sensory errors encoded by this low-frequency signal? Here we measured Purkinje cell activity in the oculomotor vermis of animals during saccades, then followed the chain of events from experience of visual error, generation of CS, modulation of simple spikes, and ultimately change in motor output...
April 16, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662074/competition-between-microtubule-associated-proteins-directs-motor-transport
#5
Brigette Y Monroy, Danielle L Sawyer, Bryce E Ackermann, Melissa M Borden, Tracy C Tan, Kassandra M Ori-McKenney
Within cells, motor and non-motor microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) simultaneously converge on the microtubule. How the binding activities of non-motor MAPs are coordinated and how they contribute to the balance and distribution of motor transport is unknown. Here, we examine the relationship between MAP7 and tau owing to their antagonistic roles in vivo. We find that MAP7 and tau compete for binding to microtubules, and determine a mechanism by which MAP7 displaces tau from the lattice. MAP7 promotes kinesin-based transport in vivo and strongly recruits kinesin-1 to the microtubule in vitro, providing evidence for direct enhancement of motor motility by a MAP...
April 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660675/improvements-in-event-related-desynchronization-and-classification-performance-of-motor-imagery-using-instructive-dynamic-guidance-and-complex-tasks
#6
Yan Bian, Hongzhi Qi, Li Zhao, Dong Ming, Tong Guo, Xing Fu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The motor-imagery based brain-computer interface supplies a potential approach for motor-impaired patients, not only to control rehabilitation facilities but also to promote recovery from motor dysfunctions. To improve event-related desynchronization during motor imagery and obtain improved brain-computer interface classification accuracy, we introduce dynamic video guidance and complex motor tasks to the motor imagery paradigm. METHODS: Eleven participants were included in the experiment; 64-channel electroencephalographic data were collected and analyzed during four motor imagery tasks with different guidance...
March 30, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659312/anatomical-distribution-of-musculoskeletal-disorders-following-a-road-traffic-collision-in-litigants-presenting-to-physiotherapists-within-a-private-clinic-in-north-east-england
#7
Jennifer Sewell, Cheryl Dixon, Rosie Morris, Samuel Stuart
INTRODUCTION: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are common following a road traffic collision (RTC) in England. Establishing the anatomical distribution of MSDs following RTC that present to physiotherapists may improve understanding and clinical practice. This study examined anatomical distribution of MSDs that present to physiotherapists within a litigant population following a RTC in England. METHODS: A retrospective review of physiotherapy records was conducted at a private practice in North-East England...
April 16, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652247/motor-selection-dynamics-in-fef-explain-the-reaction-time-variance-of-saccades-to-single-targets
#8
Christopher K Hauser, Dantong Zhu, Terrence R Stanford, Emilio Salinas
In studies of voluntary movement, a most elemental quantity is the reaction time (RT) between the onset of a visual stimulus and a saccade toward it. However, this RT demonstrates extremely high variability which, in spite of extensive research, remains unexplained. It is well established that, when a visual target appears, oculomotor activity gradually builds up until a critical level is reached, at which point a saccade is triggered. Here, based on computational work and single-neuron recordings from monkey frontal eye field (FEF), we show that this rise-to-threshold process starts from a dynamic initial state that already contains other incipient, internally-driven motor plans, which compete with the target-driven activity to varying degrees...
April 13, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651998/high-resolution-local-field-potentials-measured-with-deep-brain-stimulation-arrays
#9
Simeng Zhang, Allison T Connolly, Lauren Madden, Jerrold L Vitek, Matthew D Johnson
Local field potential (LFP) recordings along a deep brain stimulation (DBS) lead can provide useful feedback for titrating DBS therapy. However, conventional DBS leads with four cylindrical macroelectrodes likely undersample the spatial distribution of sinks and sources in a given brain region. In this study, we investigated the spectral power and spatial feature sizes of LFP activity in non-human primate subthalamic nucleus and globus pallidus using chronically implanted 32-channel directional DBS arrays.
 
 Approach: Subthalamic nucleus and globus pallidus LFP signals were recorded from directional DBS arrays in the resting state and during a reach-and-retrieval task in two non-human primates in naïve and parkinsonian conditions...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651138/gene-expression-links-functional-networks-across-cortex-and-striatum
#10
Kevin M Anderson, Fenna M Krienen, Eun Young Choi, Jenna M Reinen, B T Thomas Yeo, Avram J Holmes
The human brain is comprised of a complex web of functional networks that link anatomically distinct regions. However, the biological mechanisms supporting network organization remain elusive, particularly across cortical and subcortical territories with vastly divergent cellular and molecular properties. Here, using human and primate brain transcriptional atlases, we demonstrate that spatial patterns of gene expression show strong correspondence with limbic and somato/motor cortico-striatal functional networks...
April 12, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648581/multiple-sclerosis-lesions-affect-intrinsic-functional-connectivity-of-the-spinal-cord
#11
Benjamin N Conrad, Robert L Barry, Baxter P Rogers, Satoshi Maki, Arabinda Mishra, Saakshi Thukral, Subramaniam Sriram, Aashim Bhatia, Siddharama Pawate, John C Gore, Seth A Smith
Patients with multiple sclerosis present with focal lesions throughout the spinal cord. There is a clinical need for non-invasive measurements of spinal cord activity and functional organization in multiple sclerosis, given the cord's critical role in the disease. Recent reports of spontaneous blood oxygenation level-dependent fluctuations in the spinal cord using functional MRI suggest that, like the brain, cord activity at rest is organized into distinct, synchronized functional networks among grey matter regions, likely related to motor and sensory systems...
April 10, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629981/abnormal-gray-matter-asymmetry-in-alcohol-dependence
#12
Jiajia Zhu, Yajun Wang, Haibao Wang, Wenwen Cheng, Zipeng Li, Yinfeng Qian, Xiaohu Li, Xiaoshu Li, Yongqiang Yu
Previous voxel-based morphometry studies have provided evidence that patients with alcohol dependence (AD) have widespread gray matter morphological abnormalities. However, brain structural asymmetry in AD has not been assessed to date. Here, we aimed to use a recently developed voxel-based morphometry-based approach to investigate global and regional gray matter asymmetry alterations in AD. A total of 39 male individuals, including 19 AD patients and 20 age-matched healthy controls, underwent high-resolution structural MRI...
April 6, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629179/the-relationship-of-gross-upper-and-lower-limb-motor-competence-to-measures-of-health-and-fitness-in-adolescents-aged-13-14-years
#13
Benjamin David Weedon, Francesca Liu, Wala Mahmoud, Renske Metz, Kyle Beunder, Anne Delextrat, Martyn G Morris, Patrick Esser, Johnny Collett, Andy Meaney, Ken Howells, Helen Dawes
Introduction: Motor competence (MC) is an important factor in the development of health and fitness in adolescence. Aims: This cross-sectional study aims to explore the distribution of MC across school students aged 13-14 years old and the extent of the relationship of MC to measures of health and fitness across genders. Methods: A total of 718 participants were tested from three different schools in the UK, 311 girls and 407 boys (aged 13-14 years), pairwise deletion for correlation variables reduced this to 555 (245 girls, 310 boys)...
2018: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628591/comparison-of-levobupivacaine-and-levobupivacaine-with-dexmedetomidine-in-infraumbilical-surgeries-under-spinal-anesthesia
#14
Amar Parkash Kataria, Vishal Jarewal, Rajan Kumar, Ankush Kashyap
Introduction: Spinal anesthesia is a widely used technique providing faster onset with effective and uniformly distributed sensory and motor block. Due to decreased cardiovascular and central nervous system toxicity, levobupivacaine is a good alternative for spinal anesthesia. Dexmedetomidine when used intrathecally is associated with prolonged motor and sensory block, hemodynamic stability, and less requirement of rescue analgesia in 24 h. Materials and Methods: A prospective, randomized study was carried out which included 60 adult patients between the age group of 20 and 65 years of physical status American Society of Anesthesiologists Classes I and II who underwent infraumbilical surgeries...
January 2018: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627588/the-multidimensional-representational-space-of-observed-socio-affective-touch-experiences
#15
Haemy Lee Masson, Stien Van De Plas, Nicky Daniels, Hans Op de Beeck
Observed touch interactions provide useful information on how others communicate with the external world. Previous studies revealed shared neural circuits between the direct experience and the passive observation of simple touch, such as being stroked/slapped. Here, we investigate the complexity of the neural representations underlying the understanding of others' socio-affective touch interactions. Importantly, we use a recently developed touch database that contains a larger range of more complex social and non-social touch interactions...
April 5, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627019/intercepting-parkinson-disease-non-motor-subtypes-a-proof-of-principle-study-in-a-clinical-setting
#16
M E Di Battista, I Cova, A Rubino, C P Papi, G Alampi, C Purcaro, N Vanacore, E Pascale, N Locuratolo, F Fattapposta, C Mariani, S Pomati, G Meco
The construct of non-motor symptoms (NMS) subtyping in Parkinson Disease (PD) is emerging as a line of research in the light of its potential role in etiopathological interpretation of PD heterogeneity. Different approaches of NMS subtyping have been proposed: an anatomical model suggests that NMS aggregate according to the underpinning pathology; other researchers find aggregation of NMS according to the motor phenotype; the contribution of genetic background to NMS has also been assessed, primarily focusing on cognitive impairment...
May 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624790/gene-therapy-for-glut1-deficient-mouse-using-an-adeno-associated-virus-vector-with-the-human-intrinsic-glut1-promoter
#17
Sachie Nakamura, Shin-Ichi Muramatsu, Naomi Takino, Mika Ito, Eriko F Jimbo, Kuniko Shimazaki, Tatsushi Onaka, Sumio Ohtsuki, Tetsuya Terasaki, Takanori Yamagata, Hitoshi Osaka
BACKGROUND: We generated an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector in which the human SLC2A1 gene, encoding glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT1), was expressed under the human endogenous GLUT1 promoter (AAV-GLUT1). We examined whether AAV-GLUT1 administration could lead to functional improvement in GLUT1-deficient mice. METHODS: We extrapolated human endogenous GLUT1 promoter sequences from rat minimal Glut1 promoter sequences. We generated a tyrosine-mutant AAV9/3 vector in which human SLC2A1-myc-DDK was expressed under the human GLUT1 promoter (AAV-GLUT1)...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Gene Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624777/de-novo-tetrahydrobiopterin-biosynthesis-is-impaired-in-the-inflammed-striatum-of-parkin-mice
#18
Roberta de Paula Martins, Viviane Glaser, Aderbal S Aguiar, Priscila Maximiliano de Paula Ferreira, Karina Ghisoni, Débora da Luz Scheffer, Laurence Lanfumey, Rita Raisman-Vozari, Olga Corti, Ana Lucia De Paul, Rodrigo Augusto da Silva, Alexandra Latini
Parkinson's disease (PD), the second-most prevalent neurodegenerative disease, is primarily characterized by neurodegeneration in the substantia nigra pars compacta, resulting in motor impairment. Loss-of-function mutations in parkin are the major cause of the early-onset familial form of the disease. Although rodents deficient in parkin (parkin(-/-)) have some dopaminergic system dysfunction associated with central oxidative stress and energy metabolism deficiencies, these animals only display nigrostriatal pathway degeneration under inflammatory conditions...
April 6, 2018: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620511/gray-matter-volume-changes-over-the-whole-brain-in-the-bulbar-and-spinal-onset-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-a-voxel-based-morphometry-study
#19
Zhi-Ye Chen, Meng-Qi Liu, Lin Ma
Objective To investigate cerebral structural signatures of the bulbar- and spinal-onset amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using voxel-based morphometry on magnetic resonance imaging. Methods The MR structural images of the brain were obtained from 65 ALS patients (15 bulbar-onset, 50 spinal-onset) and 65 normal controls (NC) on a 3.0T MRI system. Gray matter (GM) volume changes were investigated by voxel-based morphometry, and the distribution of the brain regions with volume changes was compared between ALS and normal controls, as well as between bulbar-onset and spinal-onset ALS based on Neuromorphometrics atlas...
March 30, 2018: Chinese Medical Sciences Journal, Chung-kuo i Hsüeh K'o Hsüeh Tsa Chih
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620218/quercetin-protects-rat-cortical-neurons-against-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Guoliang Du, Zongmao Zhao, Yonghan Chen, Zonghao Li, Yaohui Tian, Zhifeng Liu, Bin Liu, Jianqiang Song
Previous studies have demonstrated that traumatic brain injury (TBI) may cause neurological deficits and neuronal cell apoptosis. Quercetin, one of the most widely distributed flavonoids, possesses anti‑inflammatory, anti‑blood coagulation, anti‑ischemic and anti‑cancer activities, and neuroprotective effects in the context of brain injury. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of quercetin in TBI. A total of 75 rats were randomly arranged into 3 groups as follows: Sham group (Sham); TBI group (TBI); and TBI + quercetin group (Que)...
March 28, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
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