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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646330/-imaging-of-vessels-supplying-the-brain
#1
REVIEW
S M Schellong, N Abolmaali, B Voigts, C Stelzner
Nowadays, several technically validated modalities are available for imaging both the extracranial and intracranial segments of arteries supplying blood to the brain. In the acute stroke setting, computed tomography (CT) angiography is of utmost importance because it provides the key diagnostic criteria indicative for the use of catheter-based recanalization techniques. Ultrasound imaging of extracranial arteries is most suitable for detecting an underlying stenosis of the internal carotid artery (ICA) in patients with stroke, transient ischemic attacks (TIA), retinal vessel occlusion and amaurosis fugax...
June 23, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606950/pathophysiology-of-takotsubo-syndrome
#2
REVIEW
Francesco Pelliccia, Juan Carlos Kaski, Filippo Crea, Paolo G Camici
Originally described by Japanese authors in the 1990s, Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) generally presents as an acute myocardial infarction characterized by severe left ventricular dysfunction. TTS, however, differs from an acute coronary syndrome because patients have generally a normal coronary angiogram and left ventricular dysfunction, which extends beyond the territory subtended by a single coronary artery and recovers within days or weeks. The prognosis was initially thought to be benign, but subsequent studies have demonstrated that both short-term mortality and long-term mortality are higher than previously recognized...
June 13, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596462/-pure-amnesia
#3
Koichi Tagawa, Haruki Tokida
Pure amnesia (amnesic syndrome) is an organic brain syndrome characterized by impairment in episodic memory, with either an anterograde or sometimes retrograde loss of memories. Although episodic memory is impaired, semantic memory, immediate memory, and procedural memory are preserved. The Papez circuit is a network of nerve fibers and nerve centers that starts and ends in the hippocampus travelling by way of the fornix, mammillary bodies, anterior thalamic nuclei, cingulate gyrus, and parahippocampal gyrus...
June 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596191/perfusion-mr-imaging-using-a-3d-pulsed-continuous-arterial-spin-labeling-method-for-acute-cerebral-infarction-classified-as-branch-atheromatous-disease-involving-the-lenticulostriate-artery-territory
#4
Y Shinohara, A Kato, K Kuya, K Okuda, M Sakamoto, H Kowa, T Ogawa
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Branch atheromatous disease is a stroke subtype considered a risk factor for early neurologic deterioration. Meanwhile, crossed cerebellar diaschisis is thought to be influenced by the degree and location of supratentorial perfusion abnormalities and is associated with the clinical outcome in the case of an ischemic stroke. In this article, our aim was to clarify the utility of using a whole-brain 3D pulsed continuous arterial spin-labeling method as an imaging biomarker for predicting neurologic severity in branch atheromatous disease...
June 8, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552738/dumbbell-shape-hydatid-cyst-of-meckel-s-cave-extending-to-the-cerebellopontine-angle-and-middle-fossa-surgical-technique-and-outcome-of-a-rare-case
#5
Mousa Taghipour, Arash Saffarrian, Fariborz Ghaffarpasand, Negar Azarpira
BACKGROUND: Cerebral hydatid cyst is among the rare presentations of echinococcosis. Almost all the reported cases of the intracranial hydatid cysts are in cortical regions (parietal lobe in the territory of the middle cerebral artery) and all have been removed surgically using water jet dissection technique. However, in locations in which there are several neuronal structures such as cerebellopontine angle this method might not be applicable. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 62-year-old lady presented to our outpatient clinic with left sided facial deviation, inability to close the eyes and diplopia since a month before...
May 25, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542605/voxelwise-distribution-of-acute-ischemic-stroke-lesions-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-atrial-fibrillation-trigger-of-arrhythmia-or-only-target-of-embolism
#6
Timolaos Rizos, Andreas J Bartsch, Timothy D Johnson, Felix Dittgen, Thomas E Nichols, Uwe Malzahn, Roland Veltkamp
OBJECTIVE: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is frequently detected after ischemic stroke for the first time, and brain regions involved in autonomic control have been suspected to trigger AF. We examined whether specific brain regions are associated with newly detected AF after ischemic stroke. METHODS: Patients with acute cerebral infarctions on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging were included in this lesion mapping study. Lesions were mapped and modeled voxelwise using Bayesian Spatial Generalised Linear Mixed Modeling to determine differences in infarct locations between stroke patients with new AF, without AF and with AF already known before the stroke...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535201/regulatory-t-cells-ameliorate-tissue-plasminogen-activator-induced-brain-haemorrhage-after-stroke
#7
Leilei Mao, Peiying Li, Wen Zhu, Wei Cai, Zongjian Liu, Yanling Wang, Wenli Luo, Ruth A Stetler, Rehana K Leak, Weifeng Yu, Yanqin Gao, Jun Chen, Gang Chen, Xiaoming Hu
Delayed thrombolytic treatment with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) may exacerbate blood-brain barrier breakdown after ischaemic stroke and lead to lethal haemorrhagic transformation. The immune system is a dynamic modulator of stroke response, and excessive immune cell accumulation in the cerebral vasculature is associated with compromised integrity of the blood-brain barrier. We previously reported that regulatory T cells, which function to suppress excessive immune responses, ameliorated blood-brain barrier damage after cerebral ischaemia...
May 22, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527587/relationship-between-carotid-computed-tomography-dual-energy-and-brain-leukoaraiosis
#8
Luca Saba, Roberto Sanfilippo, Antonella Balestrieri, Fulvio Zaccagna, Giovanni Maria Argiolas, Jasjit S Suri, Roberto Montisci
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to assess if there is a correlation between the carotid computed tomography (CT) Hounsfield unit (HU)-based plaque attenuation values measured using dual-energy CT (DECT) scanner and brain leukoaraiosis (LA). METHODS: Fifty consecutive patients (34 males, 16 females; mean age, 69 years; age range, 46-84 years) who underwent carotid CT and brain magnetic resonance imaging were included in the study. CT examinations were performed with a DECT scanner, and LA lesion volume quantification was performed using a semiautomated segmentation technique...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526762/exacerbation-of-thromboinflammation-by-hyperglycemia-precipitates-cerebral-infarct-growth-and-hemorrhagic-transformation
#9
Jean-Philippe Desilles, Varouna Syvannarath, Véronique Ollivier, Clément Journé, Sandrine Delbosc, Célina Ducroux, William Boisseau, Liliane Louedec, Lucas Di Meglio, Stéphane Loyau, Martine Jandrot-Perrus, Louis Potier, Jean-Baptiste Michel, Mikael Mazighi, Benoit Ho-Tin-Noé
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Admission hyperglycemia is associated with a poor outcome in acute ischemic stroke. How hyperglycemia impacts the pathophysiology of acute ischemic stroke remains largely unknown. We investigated how preexisting hyperglycemia increases ischemia/reperfusion cerebral injury. METHODS: Normoglycemic and streptozotocin-treated hyperglycemic rats were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Infarct growth and brain perfusion were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging...
May 19, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506213/voxel-wise-correlations-between-cognition-and-cerebral-blood-flow-using-arterial-spin-labeled-perfusion-mri-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-a-cross-sectional-study
#10
Tomohiro Kaneta, Omi Katsuse, Takamasa Hirano, Matsuyoshi Ogawa, Ayako Shihikura-Hino, Keisuke Yoshida, Toshinari Odawara, Yoshio Hirayasu, Tomio Inoue
BACKGROUND: To analyze voxel-wise correlation between cerebral blood flow (CBF) measured using ASL-MRI and cognition in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: Forty-one patients diagnosed with AD or mild cognitive impairment due to AD were recruited for this study. CBF images were obtained using ASL-MRI (n = 41) with a post-labeling delay (PLD) of 1.5 and 2.5 s (PLD1.5 and PLD2.5, respectively) using a 3 T scanner, in addition to brain perfusion SPECT with N-isopropyl-4-[I-123]iodoamphetamine (n = 28)...
May 15, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500300/alterations-of-cerebral-perfusion-in-asymptomatic-internal-carotid-artery-steno-occlusive-disease
#11
Ya-Fang Chen, Sung-Chun Tang, Wen-Chau Wu, Hsien-Li Kao, Yen-Shu Kuo, Shun-Chung Yang
Patients with asymptomatic occlusion in the internal carotid arteries (ICA) have been shown to have a better preserved hemodynamic status of the brain as compared to patients with symptoms. This study was aimed to explore the cerebral perfusion alterations in asymptomatic patients using multi-parametric arterial spin-labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Forty-two patients diagnosed with asymptomatic ICA stenosis/occlusion were prospectively included and divided into high-grade (ultrasonographic stenosis ≥70%, N = 20) and low-grade groups (N = 22)...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481786/optimal-brain-99mtc-ethyl-cysteinate-dimer-spect-imaging-and-analysis-to-detect-misery-perfusion-on-15o-pet-imaging-in-patients-with-chronic-occlusive-disease-of-unilateral-major-cerebral-artery
#12
Yoshiyasu Matsumoto, Kohki Oikawa, Jun-Ichi Nomura, Daigo Kojima, Sotaro Oshida, Masakazu Kobayashi, Kazunori Terasaki, Yoshitaka Kubo, Kuniaki Ogasawara
PURPOSE: Misery perfusion is defined as marginally sufficient cerebral blood supply relative to cerebral metabolic demand. The aim of the present study was to determine the optimal brain Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT imaging and analysis to detect misery perfusion on O PET imaging in patients with chronic occlusive disease of unilateral internal carotid or middle cerebral artery (MCA). METHODS: For 97 patients, cerebral blood flow, cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen, and oxygen extraction fraction were measured using O PET; Tc-ECD SPECT was performed using dynamic scanning with a scan duration of 10 minutes each for 50 minutes after tracer administration...
July 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472090/test-repositioning-for-functional-assessment-of-neurological-outcome-after-experimental-stroke-in-mice
#13
Macarena Hernández-Jiménez, Carolina Peña-Martínez, María Del Carmen Godino, Jaime Díaz-Guzmán, María Ángeles Moro, Ignacio Lizasoain
Stroke is a cerebrovascular pathology for which the only approved treatment is fibrinolysis. Several studies have focused on the development of new drugs but none has led to effective therapies to date, due, among others, to the difficulty to evaluate clinical deficits in experimental animal models. The present study aims to explore the applicability of known behavioral tests not commonly used in ischemia for the neurological assessment of mice after experimental stroke in different brain areas. A total of 225 CD1 male mice were randomly assigned to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion by ligature (pMCAO) or permanent anterior cerebral artery occlusion by photothrombosis (pACAO) models...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471899/angioinvasive-aspergillus-associated-stroke-in-an-immunocompetent-host-following-cardiac-surgery-and-ecmo
#14
Tapan Kavi, Nikhil Madan, Tamara Majic, Axel Rosengart, Marcel Maya, Serguei Bannykh, Shouri Lahiri
INTRODUCTION: Invasive cerebral aspergillosis is an uncommon cause of stroke among immunocompetent patients and has not been reported in association with cardiac surgery or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). We report the case of an immunocompetent host who developed aspergillus-associated stroke following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and ECMO. CASE REPORT: A 59-year-old woman developed cardiogenic shock after 3-vessel-CABG requiring intra-aortic balloon pump placement and subsequent veno-arterial ECMO...
May 2017: Neurologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465268/intracranial-blood-flow-changes-in-patients-with-high-grade-severe-carotid-artery-stenosis-after-stenting
#15
Lei Huang, Wenjie Cao, Liang Ge, Gang Lu, Xiaolong Zhang, Daoying Geng
OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether the cerebral hemodynamic changes of pre- and poststenting in patients with severe carotid stenosis differ by stenosis grades. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively recruited patients who underwent carotid artery stenting (CAS) after acute ischemic stroke from June 2014 to December 2015. We compared the mean relative cerebral blood flow changes (rCBF) (measured by whole-brain computed tomography [CT] perfusion) pre- and poststenting in patients with high-grade severe stenosis (HGSS 90%-99%) versus patients with low-grade severe stenosis (LGSS 70%-89%)...
April 29, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458702/study-of-the-involved-vascular-territories-in-patients-with-ischemic-stroke-in-kerman-iran
#16
Hossein Ali Ebrahimi, Mohammad Saba, Behnaz Sedighi, Hoda Kamali
BACKGROUND: The races show different cerebrovascular involvements, for example, the involvement of intracranial arteries are higher among Asians than Caucasians. The aim of this study was to investigate the cerebrovascular stenosis pattern by computed tomography angiography (CTA), which is unprecedented in Iran. METHODS: In this study, patients with brain stroke (thrombosis), confirmed by CT scanning and cardiac assessments, who referred to Shafa Hospital in Kerman, Iran, underwent brain and cervical arteries CT angiography to assess involved cerebrovascular territories and also its risk factors from June 2012 to June 2013...
September 2016: ARYA Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445914/clinical-significance-of-intraluminal-contrast-enhancement-in-patients-with-spontaneous-cervical-artery-dissection-a%C3%A2-black-blood-mri-study
#17
Eva Coppenrath, Olga Lenz, Nora Sommer, Nina Lummel, Jennifer Linn, Karla Treitl, Fabian Bamberg, Maximilian Reiser, Thomas Pfefferkorn, Tobias Saam
Purpose Recent studies have suggested that intraluminal thrombi show contrast enhancement on carotid black-blood T1w MRI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of intraluminal contrast enhancement (iCE) regarding symptom status in patients with spontaneous cervical artery dissection (sCAD). Methods 33 consecutive patients (19 men) with sCAD received a brain MRI (DIFF, T2w, T2*w, FLAIR) and a multi-sequence 3T-MRI with fat-saturated high-resolution black-blood T1w-sequences pre- and post-contrast, contrast-enhanced MR angiography and TOF images of carotid and vertebral arteries...
July 2017: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431954/isolated-intracranial-fibromuscular-dysplasia-of-the-posterior-cerebral-artery
#18
Min-Ju Yeo, Ho-Yeong Jeon, Min-Ju Cha, Hye-Yeon Jang, Sang-Gil Lee, Ji Seon Kim, Sung-Hyun Lee, Sang-Soo Lee, Dong-Ick Shin
Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a nonatherosclerotic, noninflammatory arterial disease that most commonly affects the renal and internal carotid arteries, but intracranial FMD is very rare. We report a patient with FMD involving the posterior cerebral arteries (PCAs). A 24year old female was presented with a 4day history of right homonymous hemianopsia with throbbing headache in the left temporo-occipital area. The brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an acute ischemic stroke in the left PCA territory, while the Time of Flight (TOF) magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) showed segmental luminal irregularities in the left proximal PCA...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431614/permeability-surface-area-product-analysis-in-malignant-brain-edema-prediction-a-pilot-study
#19
O Volny, P Cimflova, T-Y Lee, B K Menon, C D d'Esterre
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Using an extended CT perfusion acquisition (150s), we sought to determine the association between perfusion parameters and malignant edema after ischemic stroke. METHODS: Patients (from prospective study PROVE-IT, NCT02184936) with terminal internal carotid artery±proximal middle cerebral occlusion were involved. CTA was assessed for clot location and status of leptomeningeal collaterals. The following CTP parameters were calculated within the ischemic territory and contralaterally: permeability surface area product (PS), cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV)...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424016/acute-brain-injury-following-illicit-drug-abuse-in-adolescent-and-young-adult-patients-spectrum-of-neuroimaging-findings
#20
Shai Shrot, Andrea Poretti, Elizabeth W Tucker, Bruno P Soares, Thierry Agm Huisman
The use of illicit drugs is currently a major medical problem among adolescents. Several illicit drugs have a high abuse potential and can be neurotoxic causing high morbidity and mortality. The clinical manifestation of adolescents with acute drug-induced neurotoxicity is often characterized by non-specific symptoms and findings. Early diagnosis is important to prevent death and permanent long-term neurological impairments. We report on clinical and neuroimaging findings in five adolescents with acute brain imaging following illicit drug intoxication to highlight the role of neuroimaging findings in the diagnostic work-up of pediatric acute drug-induced neurotoxicity...
April 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
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