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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651092/role-of-proteoglycans-on-the-biochemical-and-biomechanical-properties-of-dentin-organic-matrix
#1
Cristina de Mattos Pimenta Vidal, Ariene Arcas Leme-Kraus, Momina Rahman, Ana Paula Farina, Ana K Bedran-Russo
OBJECTIVE: Proteoglycans (PGs) are multifunctional biomacromolecules of the extracellular matrix of collagen-based tissues. In teeth, besides a pivotal regulatory role on dentin biomineralization, PGs provide mechanical support to the mineralized tissue and compressive strength to the biosystem. This study assessed enzymatic protocols for selective PGs removal from demineralized dentin to determine the roles of these biomacromolecules in the bulk mechanical properties and biostability of type I collagen...
June 16, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649685/templated-and-self-limiting-calcite-formation-directed-by-coccolith-organic-macromolecules
#2
Assaf Gal, Richard Wirth, Zahava Barkay, Noam Eliaz, André Scheffel, Damien Faivre
The formation of intricately shaped crystalline minerals by organisms is orchestrated by specialized biomacromolecules. The macromolecules associated with coccoliths, nanometer-sized calcite crystal arrays produced by marine microalgae, can form a distinct calcium-rich phase via macromolecular recognition. Here, we show that this calcium-rich phase can be mineralized into a thin film of single-crystalline calcite by the balanced addition of carbonate ions. Such a crystallization process provides a strategy to direct crystalline products via local interactions between soluble macromolecules and compatible templates...
June 26, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648637/xyloglucan-a-functional-biomacromolecule-for-drug-delivery-applications
#3
REVIEW
Abhijeet D Kulkarni, Aditya A Joshi, Chirag L Patil, Prasad D Amale, Harun M Patel, Sanjay J Surana, Veena S Belgamwar, Kapil S Chaudhari, Chandrakantsing V Pardeshi
The near future of drug delivery system would lie in the search of a versatile and innocuous material, based mostly on the natural resources. The tamarind seed xyloglucan (XG) is a natural, hydrophilic polysaccharide consisting of a main chain of glucan backbone with xylose and galactose side chains. XG is endowed with idiosyncratic mucoadhesive and in situ gelling properties which rated XG as an attractive, functional polymer for numerous drug delivery applications. In milieu of this, the present review is designed to underline the plausible potential of XG or XG-based systems in drug delivery...
June 22, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643895/light-switchable-azobenzene-containing-macromolecules-from-uv-to-near-infrared
#4
REVIEW
Philipp Weis, Si Wu
Azobenzene-containing macromolecules (azo-macromolecules) such as azobenzene-containing polymers (azopolymers) and azobenzene-functionalized biomacromolecules are photoswitchable macromolecules. Trans-to-cis photoisomerization in conventional azo-macromolecules is induced by ultraviolet (UV) light. However, UV light cannot penetrate deeply into issue and has a very small fraction in sunlight. Therefore, conventional azo-macromolecules are problematic for biomedical and solar-energy-related applications. In this Feature Article, the strategies for constructing visible and near-infrared (NIR) light-responsive azo-macromolecules are reviewed, and the potential applications of visible- and NIR-light-responsive azo-macromolecules in biomedicine and solar energy conversion are highlighted...
June 23, 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635258/mucin-inspired-lubrication-on-hydrophobic-surfaces
#5
Benjamin Tillmann Käsdorf, Florian Weber, Georgia Petrou, Vaibhav Srivastava, Thomas Crouzier, Oliver Lieleg
In the human body, high molecular weight glycoproteins called mucins play a key role in protecting epithelial surfaces against pathogenic attack, controlling the passage of molecules towards the tissue and enabling boundary lubrication with very low friction coefficients. However, neither the molecular mechanisms nor the chemical motifs of those biomacromolecules involved in these fundamental processes are fully understood. Thus, identifying the key features that render biomacromolecules such as mucins outstanding boundary lubricants could set the stage for creating versatile artificial superlubricants...
June 21, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631866/mg2-dependent-high-mechanical-anisotropy-of-three-way-junction-prna-revealed-by-single-molecule-force-spectroscopy
#6
Yang Sun, Weishuai Di, Yiran Li, Wenmao Huang, Xin Wang, Meng Qin, Wei Wang, Yi Cao
Mechanical anisotropy is ubiquitous in biological tissues but remains hard to be reproduced in synthetic biomaterials. Developing molecular building blocks with anisotropic mechanical response is the key towards engineering anisotropic biomaterials. Here we report that the three-way-junction- (3WJ-) pRNA, derived from φ29 DNA packaging motor, shows strong mechanical anisotropy upon Mg2+ binding. In the absence of Mg2+, 3WJ-pRNA is mechanically weak without noticeable mechanical anisotropy. While in the presence of Mg2+, the unfolding forces can differ by more than 4 folds along different pulling directions, ranging from ~47 pN to ~219 pN...
June 20, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596007/structural-profiling-of-wax-biopolymer-from-pinus-roxburghii-sarg-needles-using-spectroscopic-methods
#7
Pallavi Dubey, Pradeep Sharma, Vineet Kumar
Pinus roxburghii Sarg. is the most abundant species in Himalayan region. The needles of the species largely contribute to the forest biomass and remain the major cause of forest fires leading to climate change, biodiversity loss, etc. Intriguingly, the layer of needles contains wax, a biomacromolecule with potential chemical functionalities for value addition. In the present study, a distinctive approach towards complete structural analysis of the isolated wax in its native state has been done using (1)H, (13)C, HSQC, HMBC, COSY, TOCSY along with GC-MS of the methyl esters of constituent fatty acids...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576004/preparation-of-poly-lactic-co-glycolic-acid-and-chitosan-composite-nanocarriers-via-electrostatic-self-assembly-for-oral-delivery-of-insulin
#8
Bin Xu, Guohua Jiang, Weijiang Yu, Depeng Liu, Yongkun Liu, Xiangdong Kong, Juming Yao
To improve insulin bioavailability and overcome multiple barriers for oral delivery of insulin, the composite nanocarriers (PLGA/FA-CS) prepared from poly(lactide-co-glycoside) (PLGA) and folic acid modified chitosan (FA-CS) were fabricated via electrostatic self-assembly method. The resultant composite nanocarriers exhibited low cytotoxicity against HT-29 cells and excellent stability against protein solution. The chemical stability of loaded insulin against digestive enzyme were established in presence of simulated gastric fluid (SGF) containing pepsin and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) containing pancreatin, respectively...
September 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574712/tracking-single-dna-nanodevices-in-hierarchically-meso-macroporous-antimony-doped-tin-oxide-demonstrates-finite-confinement
#9
Daniel Mieritz, Xiang Li, Alex Volosin, Minghui Liu, Hao Yan, Nils G Walter, Dong-Kyun Seo
Housing bio-nano guest devices based on DNA nanostructures within porous, conducting, inorganic host materials promise valuable applications in solar energy conversion, chemical catalysis, and analyte sensing. Herein, we report a single-template synthetic development of hierarchically porous, transparent conductive metal oxide coatings whose pores are freely accessible by large biomacromolecules. Their hierarchal pore structure is bimodal with a larger number of closely packed open macropores (∼200 nm) at the higher rank and with the remaining space being filled with a gel network of antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles that is highly porous with a broad size range of textual pores mainly from 20-100 nm at the lower rank...
June 14, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567244/foldable-glycoprobes-capable-of-fluorogenic-crosslinking-of-biomacromolecules
#10
Kai-Bin Li, Na Li, Yi Zang, Guo-Rong Chen, Jia Li, Tony D James, Xiao-Peng He, He Tian
Small-molecular probes capable of monitoring and interfering with the activity of biomacromolecules - such as polysaccharides, nucleotides and proteins - are of paramount importance to the advancement of life science. However, such probes that can detect and simultaneously modulate the construction of biomacromolecules are elusive. Here we report a fluorogenic, foldable glycoprobe that can recognize and assemble a protein receptor in a synchronous fashion. The glycoprobe synthesized by introducing a glycoligand (for protein recognition) to a bola-type bis-fluorophore conjugate shows a "self-shielded" fluorescence in the folded state...
October 1, 2016: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553498/aggregation-induced-emission-mechanistic-study-of-the-clusteroluminescence-of-tetrathienylethene
#11
Lucia Viglianti, Nelson L C Leung, Ni Xie, Xinggui Gu, Herman H Y Sung, Qian Miao, Ian D Williams, Emanuela Licandro, Ben Zhong Tang
In this work we have investigated the aggregation-induced emission (AIE) behaviour of 1,1,2,2-tetra(thiophen-2-yl)ethene (tetrathienylethene, TTE). The semi-locked and fully-locked derivatives (sl-TTE and fl-TTE) have been synthesized to better understand the mechanism behind the solid state photoluminescence of TTE. TTE is a typical AIEgen and its luminescence can be explained through the mechanistic understanding of the restriction of intramolecular motions (RIM). The emissive behaviour of TTE in the THF/water aggregates and crystal state have also been studied, revealing a remarkable red-shift of 35 nm...
April 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551020/co-elution-effects-can-influence-molar-mass-determination-of-large-macromolecules-with-asymmetric-flow-field-flow-fractionation-coupled-to-multiangle-light-scattering
#12
Daysi Perez-Rea, Claudia Zielke, Lars Nilsson
Starch and hence, amylopectin is an important biomacromolecule in both the human diet as well as in technical applications. Therefore, accurate and reliable analytical methods for its characterization are needed. A suitable method for analyzing macromolecules with ultra-high molar mass, branched structure and high polydispersity is asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) in combination with multiangle light scattering (MALS) detection. In this paper we illustrate how co-elution of low quantities of very large analytes in AF4 may cause disturbances in the MALS data which, in turn, causes an overestimation of the size...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516998/controllable-design-of-tunable-nanostructures-inside-metal-organic-frameworks
#13
Liyu Chen, Rafael Luque, Yingwei Li
The controllable encapsulation of nanoentities (such as metal nanoparticles, quantum dots, polyoxometalates, organic and metallorganic molecules, biomacromolecules, and metal-organic polyhedra) into metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) to form composite materials has attracted significant research interest in a variety of fields. These composite materials not only exhibit the properties of both the nanoentities and the MOFs but also display unique and synergistic functionalities. Tuning the sizes, compositions, and shapes of nanoentities encapsulated in MOFs enables the final composites to exhibit superior performance to those of the separate constituents for various applications...
May 18, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516950/high-conductance-values-in-%C3%AF-folded-molecular-junctions
#14
Marco Carini, Marta P Ruiz, Imanol Usabiaga, José A Fernández, Emilio J Cocinero, Manuel Melle-Franco, Ismael Diez-Perez, Aurelio Mateo-Alonso
Folding processes play a crucial role in the development of function in biomacromolecules. Recreating this feature on synthetic systems would not only allow understanding and reproducing biological functions but also developing new functions. This has inspired the development of conformationally ordered synthetic oligomers known as foldamers. Herein, a new family of foldamers, consisting of an increasing number of anthracene units that adopt a folded sigmoidal conformation by a combination of intramolecular hydrogen bonds and aromatic interactions, is reported...
May 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511059/development-and-validation-of-a-rapid-reversed-phase-hplc-method-for-the-quantification-of-monoclonal-antibody-bevacizumab-from-polyester-based-nanoparticles
#15
Flávia Sousa, Virgínia M F Gonçalves, Bruno Sarmento
Bevacizumab is a powerful human monoclonal antibody approved worldwide for treatment of several types of cancer and ocular diseases due to its potential as antiangiogenic drug. Nowadays, in order to improve the monoclonal antibody-based therapy, attempts have been focused in the formulation of these biomacromolecules into nanoparticles. Thus, the aim of this work was to develop and validate a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection method for the determination of bevacizumab from nanoparticulate systems, according to the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509549/heterogeneous-backbone-foldamer-mimics-of-zinc-finger-tertiary-structure
#16
Kelly L George, W Seth Horne
A variety of oligomeric backbones with compositions deviating from biomacromolecules can fold in defined ways. Termed "foldamers," these agents have diverse potential applications. A number of protein-inspired secondary structures (e.g., helices, sheets) have been produced from unnatural backbones, yet examples of tertiary folds combining several secondary structural elements in a single entity are rare. One promising strategy to address this challenge is the systematic backbone alteration of natural protein sequences, through which a subset of the native side chains is displayed on an unnatural building block to generate a heterogeneous backbone...
June 5, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496324/preparation-of-zein-nanoparticles-by-using-solution-enhanced-dispersion-with-supercritical-co2-and-elucidation-with-computational-fluid-dynamics
#17
Sining Li, Yaping Zhao
Nanoparticles have attracted more and more attention in the medicinal field. Zein is a biomacromolecule and can be used as a carrier for delivering active ingredients to prepare controlled release drugs. In this article, we presented the preparation of zein nanoparticles by solution-enhanced dispersion by supercritical CO2 (SEDS) approach. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were applied to characterize the size and morphology of the obtained particles. The nozzle structure and the CO2 flow rate greatly affected the morphology and the size of the particles...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494740/nucleic-acids-based-nanotherapeutics-crossing-the-blood-brain-barrier
#18
Noha Nafee, Noha Gouda
The restless endeavors revealing the molecular pathways underlying many neurodegenerative diseases and brain tumors have paved the way for the introduction of the selective exogenous gene-based therapeutics. The implicated active biomolecules encompass mainly negatively-charged nucleic acids ranging from DNA, mRNA, non-coding RNAs (small-interfering RNA, siRNA, and microRNA, miRNA), to antisense oligonucleotides. They selectively interfere with the genes translational and/or transcriptional processes. Although many reviews previously addressed brain targeting, a thorough correlation between the molecular properties of these biomacromolecules, the nature of blood brain barrier (BBB) in the accompanying pathological condition, the intracellular targets, as well as the design of the delivery system which will transport the bioactive cargo to the target cells attempting efficient delivery to the active sites in the brain will be appraised...
May 10, 2017: Current Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494275/synthetic-biological-approaches-for-rna-labelling-and-imaging-design-principles-and-future-opportunities
#19
REVIEW
Steven Pauff, Jamie M Withers, Iain Jw McKean, Simon P Mackay, Glenn A Burley
RNA is the most mercurial of all biomacromolecules. In contrast to DNA, where the predominant role is the storage of genetic information, the biological role of RNA varies; ranging from a template-based intermediary in gene expression to playing a direct role in catalysis. Their high turnover and metabolic lability makes the detection of specific sequences particularly challenging. This review describes the latest synthetic biological developments that enable the direct imaging of RNA both in vitro and in their native cellular environment...
May 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490237/phytochemistry-and-pharmacological-activities-of-the-genus-swertia-gentianaceae-a-review
#20
Jie Li, Yan-Li Zhao, Heng-Yu Huang, Yuan-Zhong Wang
Swertia plants have been considered to be medicinal plants useful for the treatment of various ailments for thousands of years, especially in Asian countries. This is due to the broad variety of chemical compounds that provide multiple ligands for bonding to different endogenous biomacromolecules for patients. Chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of Swertia plants are summarized in this paper. Approximately 419 metabolites and 40 bioactive compounds have been reported from 30 Swertia species, including xanthones, flavonoids, seco-iridiods, iridiods, triterpenoids, alkaloids, volatiles, and other secondary metabolites...
May 11, 2017: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
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