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Scott H Medina, Megan S Michie, Stephen E Miller, Martin J Schnermann, Joel P Schneider
Here, we report the design, synthesis and efficacy of a new class of ultrasound (US)-sensitive self-assembled peptide-based nanoparticle. Peptisomes are prepared via templated assembly of a de novo designed peptide at the interface of fluorinated nanodroplets. Utilizing peptide assembly allows for facile particle synthesis, direct incorporation of bioactive sequences displayed from the particle corona, and the ability to easily encapsulate biologics during particle preparation using a mild solvent exchange procedure...
August 16, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Payam Hashemi, Luise Luckau, Petra Mischnick, Sarah Schmidt, Rainer Stosch, Bettina Wünsch
Nucleic acids, proteins, and polysaccharides are the most important classes of biopolymers. The inherent properties of biomacromolecules are contrary to those of well-defined small molecules consequently raising a number of specific challenges which become particularly apparent if biomacromolecules are treated as objects in quantitative analysis. At the same time, their specific functional ability of molecular recognition and self-organization (e.g., enzymes, antibodies, DNA) enables us to make biomacromolecules serving as molecular tools in biochemistry and molecular biology, or as precisely controllable dimensional platforms for nanometrological applications...
August 14, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Arash Hatefi, Zahra Karjoo, Alireza Nomani
The objective of this study was to genetically engineer a fully functional single chain fusion peptide composed of motifs from diverse biological and synthetic origins that can perform multiple tasks including DNA condensation, cell targeting, cell transfection, particle shielding from immune system and effective gene transfer to prostate tumors. To achieve the objective, a single chain biomacromolecule (vector) consisted of four repetative units of histone H2A peptide, fusogenic peptide GALA, short elastin-like peptide and PC-3 cell targeting peptide was designed...
August 14, 2017: Biomacromolecules
Adrian B Li, Jonathan A Kluge, Miaochan Zhi, Marcus T Cicerone, Fiorenzo G Omenetto, David L Kaplan
Preliminary studies have shown that silk fibroin protein can protect biomacromolecules from thermal degradation, but the deeper understanding of underlying mechanisms needed to fully leverage the stabilizing potential of this matrix has not been realized. In this study, we investigate stabilization of plasma C-reactive protein, a diagnostic biomarker implicated in cardiovascular health, to gain insight into stabilizing mechanisms of silk. We observed that the addition of antiplasticizing additives that suppress β-relaxation amplitudes in silk matrices resulted in enhanced stability of plasma CRP...
August 4, 2017: Biomacromolecules
Saiman Zhang, Huilong Ou, Chunyun Liu, Yuan Zhang, Samir Mitragotri, Dexiang Wang, Ming Chen
We report the development of sponge Haliclona sp. spicules, referred to as SHS, and its topical application in skin delivery of hydrophilic biomacromolecules, a series of Fluorescein isothiocyanate-Dextrans (FDs). SHS are silicious oxeas which are sharp-edged and rod-shaped (~120 μm in length and ~7 μm in diameter). SHS can physically disrupt skin in a dose-dependent manner and retain within the skin over at least 72 hours, which allows sustained skin penetration of hydrophilic biomacromolecules. The magnitude of enhancement of FD delivery into skin induced by SHS treatment was dependent on its molecular weight...
August 1, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Kazuyoshi Murata, Matthias Wolf
BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of what became today's standard for cryo-embedding of biological macromolecules at native conditions more than 30years ago, techniques and equipment have been drastically improved and the structure of biomolecules can now be studied at near atomic resolution by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) while capturing multiple dynamic states. Here we review the recent progress in cryo-EM for structural studies of dynamic biological macromolecules. SCOPE OF REVIEW: We provide an overview of the cryo-EM method and introduce contemporary studies to investigate biomolecular structure and dynamics, including examples from the recent literature...
July 27, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Ming Chen, Zhonghua Wang, Jinxia Shu, Xiaohui Jiang, Wei Wang, Zhen-Hua Shi, Ying-Wu Lin
Inorganic nanomaterials-based artificial enzymes (nanozymes) have received considerable attention over the past years. However, the substrates studied for nanozymes have so far been limited to small organic molecules. The catalytic oxidation of biomacromolecules, such as proteins, by nanozymes has not yet been reported to date. In this study, we report that cuprous oxide nanoparticles (Cu2O NPs) possess cytochrome c oxidase (CcO)-like activity and catalyze the oxidation of cytochrome c (Cyt c), converting it from the ferrous state to the ferric state under atmospheric oxygen conditions...
July 28, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Maryam Sharifi, Jafar Ezzati Nazhad Dolatabadi, Farzaneh Fathi, Mostafa Zakariazadeh, Abolfazl Barzegar, Mohammad Rashidi, Habib Tajalli, Mohammad-Reza Rashidi
Introduction: The interactions between biomacromolecules such as serum albumin (SA) and various drugs have attracted increasing research attention in recent years. However, the study of SA with those drugs that have relatively high hydrophilicity and a lower affinity for SA could be a challenging issue. At the present study, the interaction of bovine SA (BSA) with neomycin as a hydrophilic drug has been investigated using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and molecular docking methods. Methods: BSA was immobilized on the carboxymethyl dextran hydrogel sensor chip after activation of carboxylic groups through NHS/EDC and, then, the neomycin interaction with BSA at different concentrations (1-128 µM) was investigated...
2017: BioImpacts: BI
Anne-Marie Caminade
From biomaterials to imaging, and from drug delivery to drugs by themselves, phosphorus-containing dendrimers offer a large palette of biological properties, depending essentially on their types of terminal functions. The most salient examples of phosphorus dendrimers used for the elaboration of bio-chips and of supports for cell cultures, for imaging biological events, and for carrying and delivering drugs or biomacromolecules are presented in this feature article. Several phosphorus dendrimers can be considered also as drugs per se (by themselves) in particular to fight against cancers, neurodegenerative diseases, and inflammation, both in vitro and in vivo...
July 26, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Anna V Tugarova, Alexander A Kamnev
Biogenic formation of nano-sized particles composed of various materials (in particular, selenium) by live microorganisms is widespread in nature. This phenomenon has been increasingly attracting the attention of researchers over the last decade not only owing to a range of diverse applications of such nanoparticles (NPs) in nanobiotechnology, but also because of the specificity of methodologies and mechanisms of NPs formation related to "green synthesis". In this mini-review, recent data are discussed on the multifaceted role of proteins in the processes of microbial reduction of selenium oxyanions and the formation of Se NPs...
November 1, 2017: Talanta
Robert W Newberry, Ronald T Raines
The carbonyl group holds a prominent position in chemistry and biology not only because it allows diverse transformations but also because it supports key intermolecular interactions, including hydrogen bonding. More recently, carbonyl groups have been found to interact with a variety of nucleophiles, including other carbonyl groups, in what we have termed an n→π* interaction. In an n→π* interaction, a nucleophile donates lone-pair (n) electron density into the empty π* orbital of a nearby carbonyl group...
August 15, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
A Sheikhi, T G M van de Ven
A brick-and-mortar-like ultrasoft nanocomposite metallogel is formed by crosslinking cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) with ammonium zirconium carbonate (AZC) to trap and reconfigure dextran, a model biomacromolecule. The bricks (CNC) reinforce the metallogel, compete with dextran in reacting with AZC, and decouple long-time dextran dynamics from network formation, while the mortar (AZC) imparts bimodality to the dextran diffusion.
July 20, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Mei Zhang, Cheng-Cheng Song, Fu-Sheng Du, Zi-Chen Li
Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-responsive polymers and hydrogels represent an emerging family of intelligent materials owing to the key functions of ROS in physiological processes or pathological diseases. Nonetheless, the weaknesses such as low sensitivity, slow response, instability, and low mechanical strength are associated with the limited ROS-responsive polymeric or supramolecular hydrogels. In this study, a novel type of oxidation-responsive degradable hydrogels was fabricated by the redox-initiated radical polymerization of a 4-arm-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) acrylic macromonomer that possesses a H2O2-cleavable phenylboronic acid linker in each of the arms...
August 9, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Aimin Huang, Bangzhi Wei, Junyong Mo, Yajing Wang, Lin Ma
Polyethyleneimine (PEI) has long been considered as "golden standard" for polymeric gene delivery carriers. However the molecular basis of the cytotoxicity of PEI is poorly understood. Little is known about the effects of PEI on the structure and functions of biomacromolecules. In this work, fluorescence, UV-vis absorption, circular dichroism spectroscopy were conducted to investigate the influence of PEI of average molecular weight 25, 10 and 1.8kDa (denoted as PEI25k, PEI10k and PEI1.8k) on the conformation of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and its catalytic efficiency...
July 1, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Pronab Kundu, Nitin Chattopadhyay
Deoxyribonuclic acid (DNA) is the most relevant intracellular target for a wide variety of anticancer and antibiotic drugs. Elucidating the binding interaction of small bioactive molecules with DNA provides a structural guideline for designing new drugs with improved selectivity and superior clinical efficacy. In the present work interaction of a newly synthesized biologically relevant fluorophore, namely, (E)-1,5-diphenyl-3-styryl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole (DSDP) with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) has been investigated vividly through a number of in vitro studies...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Hemei Song, Zengxian Sun
Both hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia are major risk factors for the development of coronary artery diseases and atherosclerosis, and therefore therapeutic drugs must be developed for treatment of them. Pumpkin polysaccharides (PPs) are biomacromolecules with varying bioactivities. In this study, PPs were extracted with commercial thermostable α-amylase, and their hypolipidaemic and hypoglycaemic activities were evaluated. Twenty four KKAy mice were divided into two groups: control was fed with high-fat diet; while the PP group was fed with high-fat diet with the addition of PPs at the same time, for 6 weeks...
July 2017: 3 Biotech
Mark Kastantin, David Faulón Marruecos, Navdeep Grover, Sean Yu McLoughlin, Daniel K Schwartz, Joel L Kaar
Specific binding between biomolecules, i.e., molecular recognition, controls virtually all biological processes including the interactions between cells and biointerfaces, both natural and synthetic. Such binding often relies on the conformation of biomacromolecules, which can be highly heterogeneous and sensitive to environmental perturbations, and therefore difficult to characterize and control. An approach is demonstrated here that directly connects the binding kinetics and stability of the protein receptor integrin αvβ3 to the conformation of the ligand fibronectin (FN), which are believed to control cellular mechanosensing...
July 12, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Gerard Lligadas, Mojtaba Enayati, Silvia Grama, Rauan Smail, Samuel E Sherman, Virgil Percec
To continue expanding the use of Single Electron Transfer-Living Radical Polymerization (SET-LRP) in applications at the interface between macromolecular science, biomacromolecules, biology and medicine, it is essential to develop novel initiators that do not compromise the structural stability of synthesized polymers in biological environments. Here, we report that stable 2-bromopropionyl peptoid-type initiators such as 1,4-bis(2-bromopropionyl)piperazine and 4-(2-bromopropionyl)morpholine are an alternative that meets the standards reached by the well-known secondary and tertiary α-haloester-type initiators in terms of excellent control over molecular weight evolution and distribution as well as polymer chain ends...
July 10, 2017: Biomacromolecules
Cristina de Mattos Pimenta Vidal, Ariene Arcas Leme-Kraus, Momina Rahman, Ana Paula Farina, Ana K Bedran-Russo
OBJECTIVE: Proteoglycans (PGs) are multifunctional biomacromolecules of the extracellular matrix of collagen-based tissues. In teeth, besides a pivotal regulatory role on dentin biomineralization, PGs provide mechanical support to the mineralized tissue and compressive strength to the biosystem. This study assessed enzymatic protocols for selective PGs removal from demineralized dentin to determine the roles of these biomacromolecules in the bulk mechanical properties and biostability of type I collagen...
June 16, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
Assaf Gal, Richard Wirth, Zahava Barkay, Noam Eliaz, André Scheffel, Damien Faivre
The formation of intricately shaped crystalline minerals by organisms is orchestrated by specialized biomacromolecules. The macromolecules associated with coccoliths, nanometer-sized calcite crystal arrays produced by marine microalgae, can form a distinct calcium-rich phase via macromolecular recognition. Here, we show that this calcium-rich phase can be mineralized into a thin film of single-crystalline calcite by the balanced addition of carbonate ions. Such a crystallization process provides a strategy to direct crystalline products via local interactions between soluble macromolecules and compatible templates...
July 6, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
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