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Sayak Subhra Panda, Howard E Katz, John D Tovar
The field of organic electronics continues to be driven by new charge-transporting materials that are typically processed from toxic organic solvents incompatible with biological environments. Over the past few decades, powerful examples of electrical transport as mediated through protein-based macromolecules have fueled the emerging area of organic bioelectronics. These attractive bioinspired architectures have enabled several important applications that draw on their functional electrical properties, ranging from field-effect transistors to piezoelectrics...
April 23, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Eunji Cho, Gi-Hoon Nam, Yeonsun Hong, Yoon Kyoung Kim, Dong-Hwee Kim, Yoosoo Yang, In-San Kim
Exosomes are small membrane vesicles secreted by most cell types that play an important role in intercellular communication. Due to the characteristic of transferring their biomacromolecules, exosomes have potential as a new alternative for delivering protein therapeutics. Here, we investigate whether exosomes provide crucial advantages over other nanoparticles, in particular protein nanocage formulations, as a delivery system for membrane protein therapeutics. We characterized membrane-scaffold-based exosomes and protein-scaffold-based ferritin nanocages, both harboring SIRPα (signal regulatory protein α), an antagonist of CD47 on tumor cells...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Naoki Nakatani, Hiroki Sakuta, Masahito Hayashi, Shunsuke Tanaka, Kingo Takiguchi, Kanta Tsumoto, Kenichi Yoshikawa
We examined the effect of binary hydrophilic polymers on a pair of representative biomacromolecules in a living cell. The results showed that these biomacromolecules exhibited specific localization in cell-sized droplets that were spontaneously formed through water/water micro phase-segregation under crowding conditions with coexisting polymers. In our experiments, we used a simple binary polymer system with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and dextran (DEX). Under conditions of micro phase-segregation, DNA was entrapped within cell-sized droplets rich in DEX...
April 19, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Jing-Yi Zhu, Ming-Kang Zhang, Xian-Guang Ding, Wen-Xiu Qiu, Wu-Yang Yu, Jun Feng, Xian-Zheng Zhang
Many viruses have a lipid envelope derived from the host cell membrane that contributes much to the host specificity and the cellular invasion. This study puts forward a virus-inspired technology that allows targeted genetic delivery free from man-made materials. Genetic therapeutics, metal ions, and biologically derived cell membranes are nanointegrated. Vulnerable genetic therapeutics contained in the formed "nanogene" can be well protected from unwanted attacks by blood components and enzymes. The surface envelope composed of cancer cell membrane fragments enables host-specific targeting of the nanogene to the source cancer cells and homologous tumors while effectively inhibiting recognition by macrophages...
April 20, 2018: Advanced Materials
Tong Liu, Xiaolian Zhang, Xiuguo Wang, Dan Chen, Yiqiang Li, Fenglong Wang
Dinotefuran, as the latest generation of neonicotinoid insecticide, has broad application prospects around the world. However, dinotefuran is easily metabolized and the two main metabolites are 1-methyl-3-(tetrahydro-3-furylmethyl) urea (UF) and 1-methyl-3-(tetrahydro-3-furylmethyl) guanidium dihydrogen (DN). In the present study, the risks of UF and DN in soil on typical non-target species earthworm were investigated. In the same time, the degradation in soil and accumulation in earthworms of UF and DN were monitored...
March 2018: Environmental Pollution
Francesca Salis, Ana B Descalzo, Elena Benito-Peña, María C Moreno-Bondi, Guillermo Orellana
Fluorescence immunoassays are popular for achieving high sensitivity, but they display limitations in biological samples due to strong absorption of light, background fluorescence from matrix components, or light scattering by the biomacromolecules. A powerful strategy to overcome these problems is introduced here by using fluorescent magnetic nanobeads doped with two boron-dipyrromethane dyes displaying intense emission in the visible and near-infrared regions, respectively. Careful matching of the emission and absorption features of the dopants leads to a virtual Stokes shift larger than 150 nm achieved by an intraparticle Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) process between the donor and the acceptor dyes...
April 17, 2018: Small
Lei Zhang, Chao Ma, Jing Sun, Baiqi Shao, Giuseppe Portale, Dong Chen, Kai Liu, Andreas Herrmann
Mechanically induced disorder-order transitions have been studied in fluid surfactant solutions or polymer thermotropic liquid crystals. However, the isothermally induced ordered phases do not persist after cessation of shear, which limits their technological applicability to a great extent. Moreover, no such stimuli-responsive materials involving biomacromolecules have been reported although biopolymer liquids are gaining a lot of attention. Here we introduce a new type of biological fluid system in which anionic polypeptides are complexed with cationic surfactants...
April 16, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Kazutaka Hirakawa, Dongyan Ouyang, Yuko Ibuki, Shiho Hirohara, Shigetoshi Okazaki, Eiji Kono, Naohiro Kanayama, Jotaro Nakazaki, Hiroshi Segawa
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a less-invasive treatment for cancer through the administration of less-toxic porphyrins and visible-light irradiation. Photosensitized damage of biomacromolecules through singlet oxygen (1 O2 ) generation induces cancer cell death. However, a large quantity of porphyrin photosensitizer is required, and the treatment effect is restricted under a hypoxic cellular condition. Here we report the phototoxic activity of P(V)porphyrins; dichloroP(V)tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)porphyrin (CLP(V)TMPP), dimethoxyP(V)tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)porphyrin (MEP(V)TMPP), and diethyleneglycoxyP(V)tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)porphyrin (EGP(V)TMPP)...
April 16, 2018: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Tong Liu, Dan Chen, Yiqiang Li, Xiuguo Wang, Fenglong Wang
The enantioselective bioaccumulation and toxicity of dinotefuran in earthworms were studied in this study. The results showed that S-dinotefuran accumulated faster than Rac-dinotefuran and R-dinotefuran in earthworms. The acute toxicity of S-dinotefuran was 1.49 and 2.67 times that of the Rac-dinotefuran and R-dinotefuran in artificial soil during 14 d of exposure. At 1.0 mg/kg, the three tested chemicals inhibited the growth and reproduction as well as induced oxidative stress effects in earthworms; however, the toxic effects induced by S-dinotefuran were the most serious...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Tatyana O Pleshakova, Natalia S Bukharina, Alexander I Archakov, Yuri D Ivanov
This review is focused on the atomic force microscopy (AFM) capabilities to study the properties of protein biomolecules and to detect the proteins in solution. The possibilities of application of a wide range of measuring techniques and modes for visualization of proteins, determination of their stoichiometric characteristics and physicochemical properties, are analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the use of AFM as a molecular detector for detection of proteins in solutions at low concentrations, and also for determination of functional properties of single biomolecules, including the activity of individual molecules of enzymes...
April 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mirao Zha, Ping Lin, Hongwei Yao, Yibing Zhao, Chuanliu Wu
Bicyclic peptides have been attractive scaffolds for developing high affinity reagents for biomacromolecules. Here we report a general phage-screening strategy for the development of bicyclic peptide ligands constrained with isomerically-forbidden disulfide bridges without elaborate chemical modifications and recourses to genetic code reprogramming.
April 5, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Andrey A Kuzhelev, Olesya A Krumkacheva, Georgiy Yu Shevelev, Maxim Yulikov, Matvey V Fedin, Elena G Bagryanskaya
Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) based nanometer distance measurements at ambient temperatures are of particular interest for structural biology applications. The nitroxide spin labels commonly used in EPR reveal relatively short transverse relaxation under these conditions, which limits their use for detecting static dipolar interactions. At the same time, the longitudinal relaxation of nitroxide spin labels is still long enough to allow using them as 'pumped' species in the relaxation induced dipolar modulation enhancement (RIDME) experiment where the detection is carried out on the slower relaxing triarylmethyl (TAM) spin labels...
March 29, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
David C Blakemore, Luis Castro, Ian Churcher, David C Rees, Andrew W Thomas, David M Wilson, Anthony Wood
Despite decades of ground-breaking research in academia, organic synthesis is still a rate-limiting factor in drug-discovery projects. Here we present some current challenges in synthetic organic chemistry from the perspective of the pharmaceutical industry and highlight problematic steps that, if overcome, would find extensive application in the discovery of transformational medicines. Significant synthesis challenges arise from the fact that drug molecules typically contain amines and N-heterocycles, as well as unprotected polar groups...
April 2018: Nature Chemistry
Dawei Li, Alexandar Hansen, Lei Bruschweiler-Li, Rafael Bruschweiler
Many biomolecular NMR applications can benefit from the faster acquisition of multidimensional NMR data with high resolution and their automated analysis and interpretation. In recent years, a number of non-uniform sampling (NUS) approaches have been introduced for the reconstruction of multidimensional NMR spectra, such as compressed sensing, thereby bypassing traditional Fourier-transform processing. Such approaches are applicable to both biomacromolecules and small molecules and their complex mixtures and can be combined with homonuclear decoupling (pure shift) and covariance processing...
March 22, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Anouk S Lubbe, Qing Liu, Sanne J Smith, Jan Willem de Vries, Jos C M Kistemaker, Alex H De Vries, Ignacio Faustino, Zhuojun Meng, Wiktor Szymanski, Andreas Herrmann, Ben L Feringa
Reversible control over the functionality of biological systems via external triggers may be used in future medicine to reduce the need for invasive procedures. Additionally, externally regulated biomacromolecules are now considered as particularly attractive tools in nanoscience and the design of smart materials, due to their highly programmable nature and complex functionality. Incorporation of photoswitches into biomolecules, such as peptides, antibiotics and nucleic acids, has generated exciting results in the past few years...
March 18, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Manisha B Walunj, Arun A Tanpure, Seergazhi G Srivatsan
Pd-catalyzed C-C bond formation, an important vertebra in the spine of synthetic chemistry, is emerging as a valuable chemoselective transformation for post-synthetic functionalization of biomacromolecules. While methods are available for labeling protein and DNA, development of an analogous procedure to label RNA by cross-coupling reactions remains a major challenge. Herein, we describe a new Pd-mediated RNA oligonucleotide (ON) labeling method that involves post-transcriptional functionalization of iodouridine-labeled RNA transcripts by using Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction...
March 13, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Changcheng Shi, Yuting Ma, Jin Zhang, Dongshan Wei, Huabin Wang, Xiaoyu Peng, Mingjie Tang, Shihan Yan, Guokun Zuo, Chunlei Du, Hongliang Cui
Chondroitin sulfate (CS), derived from cartilage tissues, is an important type of biomacromolecule. In this paper, the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) was investigated as a potential method for content detection of CS. With the increase of the CS content, the THz absorption coefficients of the CS/polyethylene mixed samples linearly increase. The refractive indices of the mixed samples also increase when the CS content increases. The extinction coefficient of CS demonstrates the THz frequency dependence to be approximately the power of 1...
March 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Amirhossein Mafi, Srinivas Abbina, Manu Thomas Kalathottukaren, James H Morrissey, Charles Haynes, Jayachandran N Kizhakkedathu, Jim Pfaendtner, Keng C Chou
Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) released by human platelets has recently been shown to activate blood clotting and identified as a potential target for the development of novel antithrombotics. Recent studies have shown that polymers with cationic binding groups (CBGs) inhibit polyP and attenuate thrombosis. However, a good molecular-level understanding of the binding mechanism is lacking for further drug development. While molecular dynamics (MD) simulation can provide molecule-level information, the time scale required to simulate these large biomacromolecules makes classical MD simulation impractical...
March 14, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Bo Zhang, Mouzhe Xie, Lei Bruschweiler-Li, Rafael Brüschweiler
Understanding and harnessing the interactions between nanoparticles and biological molecules is at the forefront of applications of nanotechnology to modern biology. Metabolomics has emerged as a prominent player in systems biology as a complement to genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics. Its focus is the systematic study of metabolite identities and concentration changes in living systems. Despite significant progress over the recent past, important challenges in metabolomics remain, such as the deconvolution of the spectra of complex mixtures with strong overlaps, the sensitive detection of metabolites at low abundance, unambiguous identification of known metabolites, structure determination of unknown metabolites and standardized sample preparation for quantitative comparisons...
March 13, 2018: Metabolites
Matthew A Zambrello, Adam D Schuyler, Mark W Maciejewski, Frank Delaglio, Irina Bezsonova, Jeffrey C Hoch
The development of multidimensional NMR spectroscopy enabled an explosion of structural and dynamical investigations on proteins and other biomacromolecules. Practical limitations on data sampling, based on the Jeener paradigm of parametric sampling of indirect time domains, have long placed limits on resolution in the corresponding frequency dimensions. The emergence of nonuniform sampling (NUS) in indirect time dimensions circumvents those limitations, affording high resolution spectra from short data records collected in practically realized measurement times...
March 6, 2018: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
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