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Endogenous Cardiac Stem Cell

Xiao-Fen Ruan, Yong-Jun Li, Cheng-Wei Ju, Yan Shen, Wei Lei, Can Chen, Yang Li, Hong Yu, Yu-Tao Liu, Il-Man Kim, Xiao-Long Wang, Neal L Weintraub, Yao-Liang Tang
Suxiao Jiuxin Pill (SJP) is a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of acute coronary syndrome in China, which contains two principal components, tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) and borneol (BOR). Thus far, however, the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of SJP on the cardiac microenvironment are unknown. Cardiac mesenchymal stem cells (C-MSCs) communicate with cardiomyocytes (CMs) through the release of microvesicles (exosomes) to restore cardiac homeostasis and elicit repair, in part through epigenetic regulatory mechanisms...
March 15, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Xiao-Fen Ruan, Cheng-Wei Ju, Yan Shen, Yu-Tao Liu, Il-Man Kim, Hong Yu, Neal Weintraub, Xiao-Long Wang, Yao-Liang Tang
Cardiac mesenchymal stem cells (C-MSCs) are endogenous cardiac stromal cells that play a role in heart repair after injury. C-MSC-derived exosomes (Exo) have shown protective effects against apoptosis induced by acute myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. Suxiao Jiuxin pill (SJP) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula used in China for the treatment of acute myocardial ischemia, which contains tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) and borneol (BOR) as major components. In this study, we investigated whether SJP treatment affected exosome release from C-MSCs in vitro...
March 15, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Yoshihisa Yamada, Shohei Wakao, Yoshihiro Kushida, Shingo Minatoguchi, Atsushi Mikami, Kenshi Higashi, Shinya Baba, Taeko Shigemoto, Yasumasa Kuroda, Hiromitsu Kanamori, Mohamad Amin, Masanori Kawasaki, Kazuhiko Nishigaki, Masato Taoka, Toshiaki Isobe, Chisako Muramatsu, Mari Dezawa, Shinya Minatoguchi
<u>Rationale:</u> Muse cells, pluripotent marker SSEA-3+ cells, are non-tumorigenic endogenous pluripotent-like stem cells obtainable from various tissues including the bone marrow (BM). Their therapeutic efficiency has not been validated in the acute myocardial infarction (AMI). <u>Objective:</u> To clarify the efficiency of intravenously infused rabbit autograft, allograft, and xenograft (human) BM-Muse cells in a rabbit AMI model and their mechanisms of tissue repair. <u>Methods and Results:</u> In vivo dynamics of Nano-lantern-labeled Muse cells showed preferential homing of the cells to the post-infarct heart at 3 days and 2 weeks, with ~14...
February 23, 2018: Circulation Research
Yong Sook Kim, Youngkeun Ahn
Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide and regenerative medicine is a promising therapeutic option for this disease. We have developed various techniques to attenuate the cardiac remodeling and to regenerate cardiovascular systems via stem cell application. Besides cell therapy, we are interested in the modulation of pathological inflammation mediated by macrophages in the damaged heart tissue to arouse endogenous reparative responses with biocompatible small molecules. Certainly, current understanding of mechanisms of tissue regeneration will lead to the development of innovative regenerative medicine for cardiovascular disease...
January 2018: Chonnam Medical Journal
Jin Xu, Linxi Chen, Zhisheng Jiang, Lanfang Li
The G protein-coupled receptor APJ and its cognate ligand, apelin, are widely expressed throughout human body. They are implicated in different key physiological processes such as angiogenesis, cardiovascular functions, fluid homeostasis and energy metabolism regulation. Recently, a new endogenous peptidic ligand of APJ, named Elabela, has been identified and shown to play a crucial role in embryonic development. In addition, increasing evidences show that Elabela is also intimate associated with a large number of physiological processes in adulthood...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Outi Renko, Anna-Maria Tolonen, Jaana Rysä, Johanna Magga, Erja Mustonen, Heikki Ruskoaho, Raisa Serpi
Identification of the adult cardiac stem cells (CSCs) has offered new therapeutic possibilities for treating ischemic myocardium. CSCs positive for the cell surface antigen c-Kit are known as the primary source for cardiac regeneration. Accumulating evidence shows that chemokines play important roles in stem cell homing. Here we investigated molecular targets to be utilized in modulating the mobility of endogenous CSCs. In a four week follow-up after experimental acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery of Sprague-Dawley rats c-Kit+ CSCs redistributed in the heart...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Pina Marotta, Eleonora Cianflone, Iolanda Aquila, Carla Vicinanza, Mariangela Scalise, Fabiola Marino, Teresa Mancuso, Michele Torella, Ciro Indolfi, Daniele Torella
The characterization of multipotent endogenous cardiac stem cells (eCSCs) and the breakthroughs of somatic cell reprogramming to boost cardiomyocyte replacement have fostered the prospect of achieving functional heart repair/regeneration. Areas covered: Allogeneic CSC therapy through its paracrine stimulation of the endogenous resident reparative/regenerative process produces functional meaningful myocardial regeneration in pre-clinical porcine myocardial infarction models and is currently tested in the first-in-man human trial...
January 19, 2018: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
Timo Z Nazari-Shafti, Jörg Kempfert, Volkmar Falk, Wilhelm Röll, Christof Stamm
Preclinical data suggested that somatic stem or progenitor cells derived induce and/or support endogenous repair mechanisms of the myocardium. Such cell populations were clearly shown to promote neovascularization in postischemic tissue, and some evidence also indicated transdifferentiation into cardiomyocytes. In the clinical setting, however, many attempts to regenerate damaged myocardium with a variety of autologous and allogeneic somatic progenitors have failed to generate the expected therapeutic efficacy...
January 2018: Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon
Kemar Brown, Stephanie Legros, Francis A Ortega, Yunkai Dai, Michael Xavier Doss, David J Christini, Richard B Robinson, Ann C Foley
In vivo, cardiomyocytes comprise a heterogeneous population of contractile cells defined by unique electrophysiologies, molecular markers and morphologies. The mechanisms directing myocardial cells to specific sub-lineages remain poorly understood. Here we report that overexpression of TGFβ-Activated Kinase (TAK1/Map3k7) in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells faithfully directs myocardial differentiation of embryoid body (EB)-derived cardiac cells toward the sinoatrial node (SAN) lineage. Most cardiac cells in Map3k7-overexpressing EBs adopt markers, cellular morphologies, and electrophysiological behaviors characteristic of the SAN...
2017: PloS One
Lin Ling, Shaohua Gu, Yan Cheng, Liucheng Ding
Cardiac stem cells (CSCs) are important for improving cardiac function following myocardial infarction, with CSC migration to infarcted or ischemic myocardium important for cardiac regeneration. Strategies to improve cell migration may improve the efficiency of myocardial regeneration. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is an essential molecule in cell migration, but the endogenous bFGF level is too low to be effective. The effect of exogenously delivered bFGF on CSC migration was observed in vitro and in vivo in the present study...
February 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Carmel Ashur, William H Frishman
After a myocardial infarction, heart tissue becomes irreversibly damaged, leading to scar formation and inevitably ischemic heart failure. Of the many available interventions after a myocardial infarction, such as percutaneous intervention or pharmacological optimization, none can reverse the ischemic insult on the heart and restore cardiac function. Thus, the only available cure for patients with scarred myocardium is allogeneic heart transplantation, which comes with extensive costs, risks, and complications...
January 2018: Cardiology in Review
Cheng Xue Qin, Siobhan B Finlayson, Annas Ai-Sharea, Mitchel Tate, Miles J De Blasio, Minh Deo, Sarah Rosli, Darnel Prakoso, Colleen J Thomas, Helen Kiriazis, Eleanor Gould, Yuan H Yang, Eric F Morand, Mauro Perretti, Andrew J Murphy, Xiao-Jun Du, Xiao-Ming Gao, Rebecca H Ritchie
Endogenous anti-inflammatory annexin-A1 (ANX-A1) plays an important role in preserving left ventricular (LV) viability and function after ischaemic insults in vitro, but its long-term cardioprotective actions in vivo are largely unknown. We tested the hypothesis that ANX-A1-deficiency exaggerates inflammation, haematopoietic stem progenitor cell (HSPC) activity and LV remodelling in response to myocardial ischaemia in vivo. Adult ANX - A1-/- mice subjected to coronary artery occlusion exhibited increased infarct size and LV macrophage content after 24-48 h reperfusion compared with wildtype (WT) counterparts...
November 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
Kaori Yamauchi, Junjun Li, Kumi Morikawa, Li Liu, Yasuaki Shirayoshi, Norio Nakatsuji, David A Elliott, Ichiro Hisatome, Hirofumi Suemori
Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes (CMs) are a promising source for cell transplantation into the damaged heart, which has limited regenerative ability. Many methods have been developed to obtain large amounts of functional CMs from hPSCs for therapeutic applications. However, during the differentiation process, a mixed population of various cardiac cells, including ventricular, atrial, and pacemaker cells, is generated, which hampers the proper functional analysis and evaluation of cell properties...
January 1, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Hassan Amini, Jafar Rezaie, Armin Vosoughi, Reza Rahbarghazi, Mohammad Nouri
Stem cells (SCs) have special potency to differentiate into different types of cells, especially cardiomyocytes. In order to demonstrate the therapeutic applications of these cells, various investigations are recently being developed. Cardiac progenitor cells are endogenous cardiac SCs that found to express tyrosine kinase receptors, c-Kit and other stemness features in adult heart, contributing to the regeneration of cardiac tissue after injury. This lineage is able to efficiently trans-differentiate into different cell types such as cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells...
2017: Journal of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Research
Laura Iop, Eleonora Dal Sasso, Leonardo Schirone, Maurizio Forte, Mariangela Peruzzi, Elena Cavarretta, Silvia Palmerio, Gino Gerosa, Sebastiano Sciarretta, Giacomo Frati
Recent epidemiologic studies evidence a dramatic increase of cardiovascular diseases, especially associated with the aging of the world population. During aging, the progressive impairment of the cardiovascular functions results from the compromised tissue abilities to protect the heart against stress. At the molecular level, in fact, a gradual weakening of the cellular processes regulating cardiovascular homeostasis occurs in aging cells. Atherosclerosis and heart failure are particularly correlated with aging-related cardiovascular senescence, that is, the inability of cells to progress in the mitotic program until completion of cytokinesis...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
Silvana Bardelli, Marco Moccetti
Already during embryonic development, the heart and the lung are thoroughly connected organs. Their interdependence allows our survival in the terrestrial environment by coupling cardiac output and gas exchange. The knowledge on developmental processes involving stem and progenitor cells is crucial to understand the onset of human cardiopulmonary diseases. The precise identification of various adult endogenous progenitors is still incomplete. Thus, caution should be exercised on newly available stem cell-based treatments until specific mechanisms of action are disclosed...
2017: Stem Cells International
Frauke Hausburg, Julia Jeannine Jung, Robert David
Many disorders are manifested by dysfunction of key cell types or their disturbed integration in complex organs. Thereby, adult organ systems often bear restricted self-renewal potential and are incapable of achieving functional regeneration. This underlies the need for novel strategies in the field of cell (re-)programming-based regenerative medicine as well as for drug development in vitro. The regenerative field has been hampered by restricted availability of adult stem cells and the potentially hazardous features of pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)...
October 26, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
H R Ahmad, Satwat Hashmi
The stem cells keep us young by endogenously repairing us upon need. They do so bysmartly one step forward towards differentiation while another step backward to nurturethe undifferentiated stem cells. They are building blocks for every organ witha differential rate of repair of worn out tissues. Since stem cells can be cultured with a normal karyo type, they could be the ideal source for heart repair after myocardial infarction. As opposed to lower vertebrates and neonatal mice, cardiac regeneration in adult mammalian heart seems to be difficult to assess with a solid evidence of cytokinesis...
July 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
Semih Arbatlı, Galip Servet Aslan, Fatih Kocabaş
The common prevalence of heart failure and limitations in its treatment are leading cause of attention and interest towards the induction of cardiac regeneration with novel approaches. Recent studies provide growing evidence regarding bona fide cardiac regeneration post genetic manipulations, administration of stimulatory factors and myocardial injuries in animal models and human studies. To this end, stem cells of different sources have been tested to treat heart failure for the development of cellular therapies...
October 25, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Oliver J Ziff, Daniel I Bromage, Derek M Yellon, Sean M Davidson
Heart failure is rapidly increasing in prevalence and will redraw the global landscape for cardiovascular health. Alleviating and repairing cardiac injury associated with myocardial infarction (MI) is key to improving this burden. Homing signals mobilise and recruit stem cells to the ischaemic myocardium where they exert beneficial paracrine effects. The chemoattractant cytokine SDF-1α and its associated receptor CXCR4 are upregulated after MI and appear to be important in this context. Activation of CXCR4 promotes both cardiomyocyte survival and stem cell migration towards the infarcted myocardium...
October 13, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
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