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Endogenous Cardiac Stem Cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092181/impaired-redox-environment-modulates-cardiogenic-and-ion-channel-gene-expression-in-cardiac-resident-and-non-resident-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#1
Baskar Subramani, Sellamuthu Subbannagounder, Chithra Ramanathanpullai, Sekar Palanivel, Rajesh Ramasamy
Redox homeostasis plays a crucial role in the regulation of self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells. However, the behavioral actions of mesenchymal stem cells in redox imbalance state remain elusive. In the present study, the effect of redox imbalance that was induced by either hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or ascorbic acid on human cardiac-resident (hC-MSCs) and non-resident (umbilical cord) mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) was evaluated. Both cells were sensitive and responsive when exposed to either H2O2 or ascorbic acid at a concentration of 400 µmol/L...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063988/engineered-extracellular-microenvironment-with-a-tunable-mechanical-property-for-controlling-cell-behavior-and-cardiomyogenic-fate-of-cardiac-stem-cells
#2
Min-Young Choi, Jong-Tae Kim, Won-Jin Lee, Yunki Lee, Kyung Min Park, Young-Il Yang, Ki Dong Park
: Endogenous cardiac stem cells (CSCs) are known to play a certain role in the myocardial homeostasis of the adult heart. The extracellular matrix (ECM) surrounding CSCs provides mechanical signals to regulate a variety of cell behaviors, yet the impact in the adult heart of these mechanical properties of ECM on CSC renewal and fate decisions is mostly unknown. To elucidate CSC mechanoresponses at the individual cell and myocardial level, we used the sol-to-gel transitional gelatin-poly(ethylene glycol)-tyramine (GPT) hydrogel with a tunable mechanical property to construct a three-dimensional (3D) matrix for culturing native myocardium and CSCs...
January 4, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062497/increased-proangiogenic-activity-of-mobilized-cd34-progenitor-cells-of-patients-with-acute-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction-role-of-differential-micro-rna-378-expression
#3
Christian Templin, Julia Volkmann, Maximilian Y Emmert, Pavani Mocharla, Maja Müller, Nicolle Kraenkel, Jelena R Ghadri, Martin Meyer, Beata Styp-Rekowska, Sylvie Briand, Roland Klingenberg, Milosz Jaguszewski, Christian M Matter, Valentin Djonov, Francois Mach, Stephan Windecker, Simon P Hoerstrup, Thomas Thum, Thomas F Lüscher, Ulf Landmesser
OBJECTIVE: Proangiogenic effects of mobilized bone marrow-derived stem/progenitor cells are essential for cardiac repair after myocardial infarction. Micro-RNAs (miRNA/miR) are key regulators of angiogenesis. We investigated the differential regulation of angio-miRs, that is, miRNAs regulating neovascularization, in mobilized CD34(+) progenitor cells obtained from patients with an acute ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) as compared with those with stable coronary artery disease or healthy subjects...
December 29, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941320/necroptosis-induced-by-ad-hgf-activates-endogenous-c-kit-cardiac-stem-cells-and-promotes-cardiomyocyte-proliferation-and-angiogenesis-in-the-infarcted-aged-heart
#4
Jiabao Liu, Peng Wu, Hao Wang, Yunle Wang, Yingqiang Du, Weili Cheng, Zhihui Xu, Ningtian Zhou, Liansheng Wang, Zhijian Yang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The discovery of c-kit+ cardiac stem cells (CSCs) provided us with new therapeutic targets to repair the damaged heart. However, the precise mechanisms regulating CSC proliferation and differentiation in the aged heart remained elusive. Necroptosis, a type of regulated cell death, has recently been shown to occur following myocardial infarction (MI); however, its effect on c-kit+ CSCs remains unknown. We investigated the effects of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and necroptosis on the proliferation and differentiation of endogenous c-kit+ CSCs in aged rat hearts following MI...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922334/ionizing-radiation-impairs-endogenous-regeneration-of-infarcted-heart-an-in-vivo-18-f-fdg-pet-ct-and-99m-tc-tetrofosmin-spect-ct-study-in-mice
#5
Lan Luo, Kodai Nishi, Yoshishige Urata, Chen Yan, Al Shaimaa Hasan, Shinji Goto, Takashi Kudo, Zhao-Lan Li, Tao-Sheng Li
Epidemiological studies have suggested that ionizing radiation increases cardiovascular disease risk, but the relevant mechanism is poorly understood. We recently demonstrated that adult mice exposed to whole-body irradiation with 3 Gy gamma rays significantly decreases the number and quality of cardiac stem cells. To further determine if radiation impairs myocardial regenerative potency, a myocardial infarction model was established in adult C57BL/6 mice by ligating the left anterior descending artery approximately 6 h after sham- or whole-body gamma irradiation (0 or 3 Gy)...
December 6, 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916652/exploring-pericyte-and-cardiac-stem-cell-secretome-unveils-new-tactics-for-drug-discovery
#6
REVIEW
Georgina M Ellison-Hughes, Paolo Madeddu
Ischaemic diseases remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality despite continuous advancements in medical and interventional treatments. Moreover, available drugs reduce symptoms associated with tissue ischaemia, without providing a definitive repair. Cardiovascular regenerative medicine is an expanding field of research that aims to improve the treatment of ischaemic disorders through restorative methods, such as gene therapy, stem cell therapy, and tissue engineering. Stem cell transplantation has salutary effects through direct and indirect actions, the latter being attributable to growth factors and cytokines released by stem cells and influencing the endogenous mechanisms of repair...
December 2, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903222/sustained-elabela-gene-therapy-in-high-salt-induced-hypertensive-rats
#7
Claire A Schreiber, Sara J Holditch, Alex Generous, Yasuhiro Ikeda
BACKGROUND: Elabela (ELA) is a recently identified apelin receptor agonist essential for cardiac development, but its biology and therapeutic potential are unclear. In humans ELA transcripts are detected in embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, kidney, heart and blood vessels. ELA through the apelin receptor promotes angiogenesis in vitro, relaxes murine aortic blood vessels and attenuates high blood pressure in vivo. The apelin receptor when bound to its original ligand, apelin, exerts peripheral vasodilatory and positive inotropic effects, conferring cardioprotection in vivo...
November 21, 2016: Current Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747027/developing-mirna-therapeutics-for-cardiac-repair-in-ischemic-heart-disease
#8
Kai Zhu, Dingqian Liu, Hao Lai, Jun Li, Chunsheng Wang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) families have been found to be powerful regulators in a wide variety of diseases, which enables the possible use of miRNAs in therapeutic strategies for cardiac repair after ischemic heart disease. This review provides some general insights into miRNAs modulation for development of current molecular and cellular therapeutics in cardiac repair, including endogenous regeneration, endogenous repair, stem cells transplantation, and reprogramming. We also review the delivery strategies for miRNAs modulation, and briefly summarize the current bench and clinical efforts that are being made to explore miRNAs as the future therapeutic target...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742846/bioactive-lipids-and-circulating-progenitor-cells-in-patients-with-cardiovascular-disease
#9
Salim S Hayek, Yuri Klyachkin, Ahmed Asfour, Nima Ghasemzadeh, Mosaab Awad, Iraj Hesaroieh, Hina Ahmed, Brandon Gray, Jinhee Kim, Edmund K Waller, Arshed A Quyyumi, Ahmed K Abdel-Latif
: : Bone marrow-derived progenitor cells are mobilized into the peripheral blood after acute myocardial injury and in chronic ischemic heart disease. However, the mechanisms responsible for this mobilization are poorly understood. We examined the relationship between plasma levels of bioactive lipids and number of circulating progenitor cells (CPCs) in patients (N = 437) undergoing elective or emergent cardiac catheterization. Plasma levels of sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P) and ceramide-1 phosphate (C1P) were quantified using mass spectrometry...
October 14, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591224/tnf-receptor-signaling-inhibits-cardiomyogenic-differentiation-of-cardiac-stem-cells-and-promotes-a-neuroadrenergic-like-fate
#10
Tariq Hamid, Yuanyuan Xu, Mohamed Ameen Ismahil, Qianhong Li, Steven P Jones, Aruni Bhatnagar, Roberto Bolli, Sumanth D Prabhu
Despite expansion of resident cardiac stem cells (CSCs; c-kit(+)Lin(-)) after myocardial infarction, endogenous repair processes are insufficient to prevent adverse cardiac remodeling and heart failure (HF). This suggests that the microenvironment in post-ischemic and failing hearts compromises CSC regenerative potential. Inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF), are increased after infarction and in HF; whether they modulate CSC function is unknown. As the effects of TNF are specific to its two receptors (TNFRs), we tested the hypothesis that TNF differentially modulates CSC function in a TNFR-specific manner...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557438/adult-stem-cell-therapy-and-heart-failure-2000-to-2016-a-systematic-review
#11
Patricia K Nguyen, June-Wha Rhee, Joseph C Wu
Importance: Stem cell therapy is a promising treatment strategy for patients with heart failure, which accounts for more than 10% of deaths in the United States annually. Despite more than a decade of research, further investigation is still needed to determine whether stem cell regenerative therapy is an effective treatment strategy and can be routinely implemented in clinical practice. Objective: To describe the progress in cardiac stem cell regenerative therapy using adult stem cells and to highlight the merits and limitations of clinical trials performed to date...
August 24, 2016: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553283/a-long-lasting-cardiomyogenic-gene-expression-by-pei-based-transfection-induces-endogenous-cardiac-mrnas-in-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#12
Eulsoon Park, Koichi Takimoto
Our previous work revealed that a polyethyleneimine (PEI)-based gene delivery causes robust and sustained expression of exogenous genes in human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs). Here we use this method to test whether a single introduction of cDNAs for the three cardiomyogenic reprogramming genes (GATA4, MEF2C, and TBX5) might be sufficient to induce transdifferentiation of hADSCs towards the cardiomyogenic lineage. A single transfection results in sustained expression of the introduced genes for more than two weeks...
October 7, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27551540/cardiac-progenitor-cells-for-heart-repair
#13
REVIEW
Tyl Le, Jjh Chong
Stem cell therapy is being investigated as an innovative and promising strategy to restore cardiac function in patients with heart failure. Several stem cell populations, including adult (multipotent) stem cells from developed organs and tissues, have been tested for cardiac repair with encouraging clinical and pre-clinical results. The heart has been traditionally considered a post-mitotic organ, however, this view has recently changed with the identification of stem/progenitor cells residing within the adult heart...
2016: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521522/chasing-the-recipe-for-a-pro-regenerative-immune-system
#14
REVIEW
James W Godwin, Alexander R Pinto, Nadia A Rosenthal
Identification of the key ingredients and essential processes required to achieve perfect tissue regeneration in humans has so far remained elusive. Injury in vertebrates induces an obligatory wound response that will precede or overlap any regeneration specific program or scarring outcome. This process shapes the cellular and molecular landscape of the tissue, influencing the success of endogenous repair pathways or for potential clinical intervention. The involvement of immune cells is also required for aspects of development extending beyond the initial inflammatory phase of wounding...
August 10, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27484974/cross-talk-between-the-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-and-stromal-cell-derived-factor-1-in-stem-cell-homing-and-myocardial-repair-potential-impact-of-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitors
#15
Marko Anderluh, Gordana Kocic, Katarina Tomovic, Radivoj Kocic, Marina Deljanin-Ilic, Andrija Smelcerovic
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4), glycyl-prolyl-naphthylamidase, is a serine protease that catalyzes the hydrolysis of various proline-containing polypeptides. It is involved in the inactivation of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), having in this way a profound influence on glucose metabolism. During organ damage, stromal and endothelial cells produce a chemokine known as stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), a powerful chemoattractant of stem/progenitor cells...
November 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27468693/activated-c-kit-receptor-in-the-heart-promotes-cardiac-repair-and-regeneration-after-injury
#16
S Di Siena, R Gimmelli, S L Nori, F Barbagallo, F Campolo, S Dolci, P Rossi, M A Venneri, E Giannetta, D Gianfrilli, L Feigenbaum, A Lenzi, F Naro, E Cianflone, T Mancuso, D Torella, A M Isidori, M Pellegrini
The role of endogenous c-Kit receptor activation on cardiac cell homeostasis and repair remains largely unexplored. Transgenic mice carrying an activating point mutation (TgD814Y) in the kinase domain of the c-Kit gene were generated. c-Kit(TgD814Y) receptor was expressed in the heart during embryonic development and postnatal life, in a similar timing and expression pattern to that of the endogenous gene, but not in the hematopoietic compartment allowing the study of a cardiac-specific phenotype. c-Kit(TgD814Y) mutation produced a constitutive active c-Kit receptor in cardiac tissue and cells from transgenic mice as demonstrated by the increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and AKT, which are the main downstream molecular effectors of c-Kit receptor signaling...
2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27461939/acute-catecholamine-exposure-causes-reversible-myocyte-injury-without-cardiac-regeneration
#17
Markus Wallner, Jason M Duran, Sadia Mohsin, Constantine D Troupes, Davy Vanhoutte, Giulia Borghetti, Ronald J Vagnozzi, Polina Gross, Daohai Yu, Danielle M Trappanese, Hajime Kubo, Amir Toib, Thomas E Sharp, Shavonn C Harper, Michael A Volkert, Timothy Starosta, Eric A Feldsott, Remus M Berretta, Tao Wang, Mary F Barbe, Jeffrey D Molkentin, Steven R Houser
RATIONALE: Catecholamines increase cardiac contractility, but exposure to high concentrations or prolonged exposures can cause cardiac injury. A recent study demonstrated that a single subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol (ISO; 200 mg/kg) in mice causes acute myocyte death (8%-10%) with complete cardiac repair within a month. Cardiac regeneration was via endogenous cKit(+) cardiac stem cell-mediated new myocyte formation. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to validate this simple injury/regeneration system and use it to study the biology of newly forming adult cardiac myocytes...
September 16, 2016: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450737/thymosin-%C3%AE-4-roles-in-development-repair-and-engineering-of-the-cardiovascular-system
#18
E D Marks, A Kumar
The burden of cardiovascular disease is a growing worldwide issue that demands attention. While many clinical trials are ongoing to test therapies for treating the heart after myocardial infarction (MI) and heart failure, there are few options doctors able to currently give patients to repair the heart. This eventually leads to decreased ventricular contractility and increased systemic disease, including vascular disorders that could result in stroke. Small peptides such as thymosin β4 (Tβ4) are upregulated in the cardiovascular niche during fetal development and after injuries such as MI, providing increased neovasculogenesis and paracrine signals for endogenous stem cell recruitment to aid in wound repair...
2016: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27341741/challenges-to-success-in-heart-failure-cardiac-cell-therapies-in-patients-with-heart-diseases
#19
Hidemasa Oh, Hiroshi Ito, Shunji Sano
Heart failure remains the leading cause of death worldwide, and is a burgeoning problem in public health due to the limited capacity of postnatal hearts to self-renew. The pathophysiological changes in injured hearts can sometimes be manifested as scar formation or myocardial degradation, rather than supplemental muscle regeneration to replenish lost tissue during the healing processes. Stem cell therapies have been investigated as a possible treatment approach for children and adults with potentially fatal cardiovascular disease that does not respond to current medical therapies...
June 21, 2016: Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27333945/generation-of-induced-cardiospheres-via-reprogramming-of-skin-fibroblasts-for-myocardial-regeneration
#20
Jian-Yong Xu, Yee-Ki Lee, Xinru Ran, Song-Yan Liao, Jiayin Yang, Ka-Wing Au, Wing-Hon Lai, Miguel A Esteban, Hung-Fat Tse
Recent pre-clinical and clinical studies have suggested that endogenous cardiospheres (eCS) are potentially safe and effective for cardiac regeneration following myocardial infarction (MI). Nevertheless the preparation of autologous eCS requires invasive myocardial biopsy with limited yield. We describe a novel approach to generate induced cardiospheres (iCS) from adult skin fibroblasts via somatic reprogramming. After infection with Sox2, Klf4, and Oct4, iCS were generated from mouse adult skin fibroblasts treated with Gsk3β inhibitor-(2'Z,3'E)- 6-Bromoindirubin-3'-oxime and Oncostatin M...
June 22, 2016: Stem Cells
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