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Endogenous Cardiac Stem Cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350399/biological-functions-of-elabela-a-novel-endogenous-ligand-of-apj-receptor
#1
REVIEW
Jin Xu, Linxi Chen, Zhisheng Jiang, Lanfang Li
The G protein-coupled receptor APJ and its cognate ligand, apelin, are widely expressed throughout human body. They are implicated in different key physiological processes such as angiogenesis, cardiovascular functions, fluid homeostasis and energy metabolism regulation. Recently, a new endogenous peptidic ligand of APJ, named Elabela, has been identified and shown to play a crucial role in embryonic development. In addition, increasing evidences show that Elabela is also intimate associated with a large number of physiological processes in adulthood...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348441/sdf1-gradient-associates-with-the-distribution-of-c-kit-cardiac-cells-in-the-heart
#2
Outi Renko, Anna-Maria Tolonen, Jaana Rysä, Johanna Magga, Erja Mustonen, Heikki Ruskoaho, Raisa Serpi
Identification of the adult cardiac stem cells (CSCs) has offered new therapeutic possibilities for treating ischemic myocardium. CSCs positive for the cell surface antigen c-Kit are known as the primary source for cardiac regeneration. Accumulating evidence shows that chemokines play important roles in stem cell homing. Here we investigated molecular targets to be utilized in modulating the mobility of endogenous CSCs. In a four week follow-up after experimental acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery of Sprague-Dawley rats c-Kit+ CSCs redistributed in the heart...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347847/combining-cell-and-gene-therapy-to-advance-cardiac-regeneration
#3
Pina Marotta, Eleonora Cianflone, Iolanda Aquila, Carla Vicinanza, Mariangela Scalise, Fabiola Marino, Teresa Mancuso, Michele Torella, Ciro Indolfi, Daniele Torella
The characterization of multipotent endogenous cardiac stem cells (eCSCs) and the breakthroughs of somatic cell reprogramming to boost cardiomyocyte replacement have fostered the prospect of achieving functional heart repair/regeneration. Areas covered: Allogeneic CSC therapy through its paracrine stimulation of the endogenous resident reparative/regenerative process produces functional meaningful myocardial regeneration in pre-clinical porcine myocardial infarction models and is currently tested in the first-in-man human trial...
January 19, 2018: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284167/regenerative-medicine-cardiac-cell-therapy-adult-somatic-progenitor-cells
#4
Timo Z Nazari-Shafti, Jörg Kempfert, Volkmar Falk, Wilhelm Röll, Christof Stamm
Preclinical data suggested that somatic stem or progenitor cells derived induce and/or support endogenous repair mechanisms of the myocardium. Such cell populations were clearly shown to promote neovascularization in postischemic tissue, and some evidence also indicated transdifferentiation into cardiomyocytes. In the clinical setting, however, many attempts to regenerate damaged myocardium with a variety of autologous and allogeneic somatic progenitors have failed to generate the expected therapeutic efficacy...
December 28, 2017: Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281682/overexpression-of-map3k7-activates-sinoatrial-node-like-differentiation-in-mouse-es-derived-cardiomyocytes
#5
Kemar Brown, Stephanie Legros, Francis A Ortega, Yunkai Dai, Michael Xavier Doss, David J Christini, Richard B Robinson, Ann C Foley
In vivo, cardiomyocytes comprise a heterogeneous population of contractile cells defined by unique electrophysiologies, molecular markers and morphologies. The mechanisms directing myocardial cells to specific sub-lineages remain poorly understood. Here we report that overexpression of TGFβ-Activated Kinase (TAK1/Map3k7) in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells faithfully directs myocardial differentiation of embryoid body (EB)-derived cardiac cells toward the sinoatrial node (SAN) lineage. Most cardiac cells in Map3k7-overexpressing EBs adopt markers, cellular morphologies, and electrophysiological behaviors characteristic of the SAN...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207135/bfgf-promotes-sca%C3%A2-1-cardiac-stem-cell-migration-through-activation-of-the-pi3k-akt-pathway
#6
Lin Ling, Shaohua Gu, Yan Cheng, Liucheng Ding
Cardiac stem cells (CSCs) are important for improving cardiac function following myocardial infarction, with CSC migration to infarcted or ischemic myocardium important for cardiac regeneration. Strategies to improve cell migration may improve the efficiency of myocardial regeneration. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is an essential molecule in cell migration, but the endogenous bFGF level is too low to be effective. The effect of exogenously delivered bFGF on CSC migration was observed in vitro and in vivo in the present study...
November 28, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206745/cardiosphere-derived-cells-and-ischemic-heart-failure
#7
Carmel Ashur, William H Frishman
After a myocardial infarction, heart tissue becomes irreversibly damaged, leading to scar formation and inevitably ischemic heart failure. Of the many available interventions after a myocardial infarction, such as percutaneous intervention or pharmacological optimization, none can reverse the ischemic insult on the heart and restore cardiac function. Thus, the only available cure for patients with scarred myocardium is allogeneic heart transplantation, which comes with extensive costs, risks, and complications...
January 2018: Cardiology in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192208/endogenous-annexin-a1-regulates-haematopoietic-stem-cell-mobilisation-and-inflammatory-response-post-myocardial-infarction-in-mice-in-vivo
#8
Cheng Xue Qin, Siobhan B Finlayson, Annas Ai-Sharea, Mitchel Tate, Miles J De Blasio, Minh Deo, Sarah Rosli, Darnel Prakoso, Colleen J Thomas, Helen Kiriazis, Eleanor Gould, Yuan H Yang, Eric F Morand, Mauro Perretti, Andrew J Murphy, Xiao-Jun Du, Xiao-Ming Gao, Rebecca H Ritchie
Endogenous anti-inflammatory annexin-A1 (ANX-A1) plays an important role in preserving left ventricular (LV) viability and function after ischaemic insults in vitro, but its long-term cardioprotective actions in vivo are largely unknown. We tested the hypothesis that ANX-A1-deficiency exaggerates inflammation, haematopoietic stem progenitor cell (HSPC) activity and LV remodelling in response to myocardial ischaemia in vivo. Adult ANX - A1 -/- mice subjected to coronary artery occlusion exhibited increased infarct size and LV macrophage content after 24-48 h reperfusion compared with wildtype (WT) counterparts...
November 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175323/isolation-and-characterization-of-ventricular-like-cells-derived-from-nkx2-5egfp-w-and-mlc2vmcherry-w-double-knock-in-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#9
Kaori Yamauchi, Junjun Li, Kumi Morikawa, Liu Li, Yasuaki Shirayoshi, Norio Nakatsuji, David A Elliott, Ichiro Hisatome, Hirofumi Suemori
Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes (CMs) are a promising source for cell transplantation into the damaged heart, which has limited regenerative ability. Many methods have been developed to obtain large amounts of functional CMs from hPSCs for therapeutic applications. However, during the differentiation process, a mixed population of various cardiac cells, including ventricular, atrial, and pacemaker cells, is generated, which hampers the proper functional analysis and evaluation of cell properties...
November 21, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118944/cardiac-progenitor-cells-application-in-cardiovascular-disease
#10
REVIEW
Hassan Amini, Jafar Rezaie, Armin Vosoughi, Reza Rahbarghazi, Mohammad Nouri
Stem cells (SCs) have special potency to differentiate into different types of cells, especially cardiomyocytes. In order to demonstrate the therapeutic applications of these cells, various investigations are recently being developed. Cardiac progenitor cells are endogenous cardiac SCs that found to express tyrosine kinase receptors, c-Kit and other stemness features in adult heart, contributing to the regeneration of cardiac tissue after injury. This lineage is able to efficiently trans-differentiate into different cell types such as cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells...
2017: Journal of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118467/the-light-and-shadow-of-senescence-and-inflammation-in-cardiovascular-pathology-and-regenerative-medicine
#11
REVIEW
Laura Iop, Eleonora Dal Sasso, Leonardo Schirone, Maurizio Forte, Mariangela Peruzzi, Elena Cavarretta, Silvia Palmerio, Gino Gerosa, Sebastiano Sciarretta, Giacomo Frati
Recent epidemiologic studies evidence a dramatic increase of cardiovascular diseases, especially associated with the aging of the world population. During aging, the progressive impairment of the cardiovascular functions results from the compromised tissue abilities to protect the heart against stress. At the molecular level, in fact, a gradual weakening of the cellular processes regulating cardiovascular homeostasis occurs in aging cells. Atherosclerosis and heart failure are particularly correlated with aging-related cardiovascular senescence, that is, the inability of cells to progress in the mitotic program until completion of cytokinesis...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075297/stem-and-progenitor-cells-in-human-cardiopulmonary-development-and-regeneration
#12
REVIEW
Silvana Bardelli, Marco Moccetti
Already during embryonic development, the heart and the lung are thoroughly connected organs. Their interdependence allows our survival in the terrestrial environment by coupling cardiac output and gas exchange. The knowledge on developmental processes involving stem and progenitor cells is crucial to understand the onset of human cardiopulmonary diseases. The precise identification of various adult endogenous progenitors is still incomplete. Thus, caution should be exercised on newly available stem cell-based treatments until specific mechanisms of action are disclosed...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071403/specific-cell-re-programming-approaches-and-perspectives
#13
Frauke Hausburg, Julia Jeannine Jung, Robert David
Many disorders are manifested by dysfunction of key cell types or their disturbed integration in complex organs. Thereby, adult organ systems often bear restricted self-renewal potential and are incapable of achieving functional regeneration. This underlies the need for novel strategies in the field of cell (re-)programming-based regenerative medicine as well as for drug development in vitro. The regenerative field has been hampered by restricted availability of adult stem cells and the potentially hazardous features of pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)...
October 26, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067089/is-biological-repair-of-heart-on-the-horizon
#14
REVIEW
H R Ahmad, Satwat Hashmi
The stem cells keep us young by endogenously repairing us upon need. They do so bysmartly one step forward towards differentiation while another step backward to nurturethe undifferentiated stem cells. They are building blocks for every organ witha differential rate of repair of worn out tissues. Since stem cells can be cultured with a normal karyo type, they could be the ideal source for heart repair after myocardial infarction. As opposed to lower vertebrates and neonatal mice, cardiac regeneration in adult mammalian heart seems to be difficult to assess with a solid evidence of cytokinesis...
July 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064067/stem-cells-in-regenerative-cardiology
#15
Semih Arbatlı, Galip Servet Aslan, Fatih Kocabaş
The common prevalence of heart failure and limitations in its treatment are leading cause of attention and interest towards the induction of cardiac regeneration with novel approaches. Recent studies provide growing evidence regarding bona fide cardiac regeneration post genetic manipulations, administration of stimulatory factors and myocardial injuries in animal models and human studies. To this end, stem cells of different sources have been tested to treat heart failure for the development of cellular therapies...
October 25, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040423/title-therapeutic-strategies-utilising-sdf-1%C3%AE-in-ischaemic-cardiomyopathy
#16
Oliver J Ziff, Daniel I Bromage, Derek M Yellon, Sean M Davidson
Heart failure is rapidly increasing in prevalence and will redraw the global landscape for cardiovascular health. Alleviating and repairing cardiac injury associated with myocardial infarction (MI) is key to improving this burden. Homing signals mobilise and recruit stem cells to the ischaemic myocardium where they exert beneficial paracrine effects. The chemoattractant cytokine SDF-1α and its associated receptor CXCR4 are upregulated after MI and appear to be important in this context. Activation of CXCR4 promotes both cardiomyocyte survival and stem cell migration towards the infarcted myocardium...
October 13, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028220/pediatric-brain-repair-from-endogenous-neural-stem-cells-of-the-subventricular-zone
#17
REVIEW
Yusuke Niimi, Steven W Levison
There is great interest in the regenerative potential of the neural stem cells and progenitors that populate the germinal zones of the immature brain. Studies using animal models of pediatric brain injuries have provided a clearer understanding of the responses of these progenitors to injury. In this review, we have compared and contrasted the responses of the endogenous neural stem cells and progenitors of the subventricular zone in animal models of neonatal cerebral hypoxia-ischemia, neonatal stroke, congenital cardiac disease, and pediatric traumatic brain injury...
November 8, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022259/formation-of-new-cardiomyocytes-in-exercise
#18
Liang Shen, Hui Wang, Yihua Bei, Dragos Cretoiu, Sanda Maria Cretoiu, Junjie Xiao
Heart failure is a life-threatening disorder associated with the loss of cardiomyocytes. The heart has some endogenous although limited regenerative capacity, thus enhancing cardiac regeneration or stimulating endogenous repair mechanism after cardiac injury is of great interest. The benefits of exercise in heart diseases have been recognized for centuries. Besides the promotion of a favorable cardiac function, exercise is also associated with new cardiomyocytes formation. Exercise may lead to cardiomyocytes renewal from pre-existing cardiomyocytes proliferation or cardiac stem/progenitor cells differentiation...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016556/the-current-status-and-future-of-cardiac-stem-progenitor-cell-therapy-for-congenital-heart-defects-from-diabetic-pregnancy
#19
REVIEW
Jianxiang Zhong, Shengbing Wang, Wei-Bin Shen, Sunjay Kaushal, Peixin Yang
Pregestational maternal diabetes induces congenital heart defects (CHDs). Cardiac dysfunction after palliative surgical procedures contributes to the high mortality of CHD patients. Autologous or allogeneic stem cell therapies are effective for improving cardiac function in animal models and clinical trials. c-kit(+) cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs), the most recognized CPCs, have the following basic properties of stem cells: self-renewal, multicellular clone formation, and differentiation into multiple cardiac lineages...
October 10, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971953/rapamycin-and-chir99021-coordinate-robust-cardiomyocyte-differentiation-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-via-reducing-p53-dependent-apoptosis
#20
Xiao-Xu Qiu, Yang Liu, Yi-Fan Zhang, Ya-Na Guan, Qian-Qian Jia, Chen Wang, He Liang, Yong-Qin Li, Huang-Tian Yang, Yong-Wen Qin, Shuang Huang, Xian-Xian Zhao, Qing Jing
BACKGROUND: Cardiomyocytes differentiated from human pluripotent stem cells can serve as an unexhausted source for a cellular cardiac disease model. Although small molecule-mediated cardiomyocyte differentiation methods have been established, the differentiation efficiency is relatively unsatisfactory in multiple lines due to line-to-line variation. Additionally, hurdles including line-specific low expression of endogenous growth factors and the high apoptotic tendency of human pluripotent stem cells also need to be overcome to establish robust and efficient cardiomyocyte differentiation...
October 2, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
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