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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790263/herbicide-hormesis-can-act-as-a-driver-of-resistance-evolution-in-weeds-ps-ii-target-site-resistance-in-chenopodium-album-l-as-a-case-study
#1
Regina G Belz
BACKGROUND: Herbicide hormesis may play a role in weed resistance evolution by increasing resistance selection. A standard herbicide rate may be subtoxic to resistant plants and make them more fit than untreated plants. If this increase in fitness is ultimately expressed in reproductive traits, resistance genes can accumulate more rapidly and exacerbate resistance evolution by magnifying the selection differential between resistant and sensitive plants. The hypothesis of hormetically enhanced reproductive fitness was studied for a PSII target-site resistant (TSR) biotype of Chenopodium album exposed to the triazinone metamitron in comparison to its wild type...
May 23, 2018: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788539/responses-of-primula-vulgaris-to-light-quality-in-the-maternal-and-germination-environments
#2
M Marin, C Blandino, G Laverack, P Toorop, A A Powell
In the model species Arabidopsis thaliana phytochromes mediate dormancy and germination responses to seasonal cues experienced during seed maturation on the maternal plants. However, the effect of the maternal light environment on seed germination in native wild species has not been studied well. This is particularly important given its practical application in the context of environmental restoration, when there can be marked changes in the canopy. Plants of Primula vulgaris were grown in the field over two vegetative seasons under four shading treatments from low to high ratio of red to far-red light (R:FR)...
May 22, 2018: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788216/do-nano-particles-cause-recalcitrant-vulnerability-curves-in-robinia-testing-with-a-four-cuvette-cochard-rotor-and-with-water-extraction-curves
#3
Guangyuan Du, Feng Feng, Yujie Wang, Melvin T Tyree
Cavitation resistance is a key trait for characterizing the drought adaption in plants and is usually presented in terms of vulnerability curves. Three principal techniques have been developed to produce vulnerability curves, but curves generated with centrifugation are reported to suffer from artifacts when applied to long-vesseled species. The main cause of this artifact is the issue of open vessels, resulting in a nano-particle effect that may seed premature embolism. We used two methods to test the potential mechanism behind the nano-particle effect in centrifuge-based vulnerability curves...
May 19, 2018: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785043/effect-of-plant-density-boron-nutrition-and-growth-regulation-on-seed-mass-emergence-and-offspring-growth-plasticity-in-cotton
#4
Ali Zohaib, Tahira Tabassum, Abdul Jabbar, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum, Tasawer Abbas, Azhar Mehmood, Sohail Irshad, Muhammad Kashif, Mohsin Nawaz, Naila Farooq, Irfan Rasool Nasir, Tassadduq Rasool, Mubashar Nadeem, Riaz Ahmad
Seed nutrients reserves have direct relationship with seed functional traits and influence offspring performance. Effects of plant density, foliage boron (B) nutrition and mepiquat chloride (MC) growth regulation on seed nutrients reserves, seed mass and production, and emergence and offspring growth traits of cotton were studied in two years field experiment. Seed nutrients reserves and seed mass were decreased at higher maternal plant density relative to lower plant density with concomitant decrease in emergence and offspring seedling growth...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780174/cereal-progenitors-differ-in-stand-harvest-characteristics-from-related-wild-grasses
#5
Catherine Preece, Natalie F Clamp, Gemma Warham, Michael Charles, Mark Rees, Glynis Jones, Colin P Osborne
The domestication of crops in the Fertile Crescent began approximately 10,000 years ago indicating a change from a hunter-gatherer lifestyle to a sedentary, agriculture-based existence. The exploitation of wild plants changed during this transition, such that a small number of crops were domesticated from the broader range of species gathered from the wild. However, the reasons for this change are unclear.Previous studies have shown unexpectedly that crop progenitors are not consistently higher yielding than related wild grass species, when growing without competition...
May 2018: Journal of Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779965/wheat-seed-transcriptome-reveals-genes-controlling-key-traits-for-human-preference-and-crop-adaptation
#6
REVIEW
Robert J Henry, Agnelo Furtado, Parimalan Rangan
Analysis of the transcriptome of the developing wheat grain has associated expression of genes with traits involving production (e.g. yield) and quality (e.g. bread quality). Photosynthesis in the grain may be important in retaining carbon that would be lost in respiration during grain filling and may contribute to yield in the late stages of seed formation under warm and dry environments. A small number of genes have been identified as having been selected by humans to optimize the performance of wheat for foods such as bread...
May 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779257/linking-seed-germination-and-plant-height-a-case-study-of-a-wetland-community-on-the-eastern-tibet-plateau
#7
Kun Liu, Suzhen Cao, Guozhen Du, Jerry M Baskin, Carol C Baskin, Haiyan Bu, Wei Qi, Ting Liang
Seed germination is the earliest trait expressed in a plant's life history, and it can directly affect the expression of post germination traits. Plant height is central to plant ecological strategies, because it is a major determinant of the ability of a species to compete for light. Thus, linking seed germination and plant height at the community level is very important to understanding plant fitness and community structure. Here, we tested storage condition and temperature requirements for germination of 31 species from a wetland plant community on the eastern Tibet Plateau, and analyzed correlation of germination traits with plant height in relation to storage condition...
May 20, 2018: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779248/analysis-of-intraspecific-seeds-diversity-in-astragalus-aquilanus-fabaceae-endemic-species-of-central-apennine
#8
V Di Cecco, M Di Musciano, A A D'Archivio, A R Frattaroli, L Di Martino
This work aims to study the seeds of the endemic species Astragalus aquilanus from four different populations of Central Italy. We investigated the seed morpho-colorimetric features (shape and size) and chemical differences (through infrared spectroscopy) among populations and between dark and light seeds. Seed morpho-colorimetric quantitative variables, describing shape, size and colour seed traits, were measured using image analysis techniques. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to attempt seed chemical characterization...
May 20, 2018: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775500/endosperm-sugar-accumulation-caused-by-mutation-of-phs8-isa1-leads-to-pre-harvest-sprouting-in-rice
#9
Lin Du, Fan Xu, Jun Fang, Shaopei Gao, Jiuyou Tang, Shuang Fang, Hongru Wang, Hongning Tong, Fengxia Zhang, Jinfang Chu, Guodong Wang, Chengcai Chu
Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) is an unfavorable trait in cereal crops which could seriously decrease grain yield and quality. Although some PHS-associated quantitative trait loci (QTL) or genes in cereals have been reported, the molecular mechanism underlying PHS remains largely elusive. Here, we characterized a rice mutant, phs8, which exhibits PHS phenotype accompanied by sugary endosperm. Map-based cloning revealed that PHS8 encodes a starch debranching enzyme named isoamylase1. Mutation in PHS8 resulted in the phytoglycogen breakdown and sugar accumulation in the endosperm...
May 18, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770964/below-ground-biotic-interactions-moderated-the-postglacial-range-dynamics-of-trees
#10
Jason Pither, Brian J Pickles, Suzanne W Simard, Alejandro Ordonez, John W Williams
Tree range shifts during geohistorical global change events provide a useful real-world model for how future changes in forest biomes may proceed. In North America, during the last deglaciation, the distributions of tree taxa varied significantly as regards the rate and direction of their responses for reasons that remain unclear. Local-scale processes such as establishment, growth, and resilience to environmental stress ultimately influence range dynamics. Despite the fact that interactions between trees and soil biota are known to influence local-scale processes profoundly, evidence linking below-ground interactions to distribution dynamics remains scarce...
May 17, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767744/genome-wide-association-provides-novel-genomic-loci-controlling-rice-grain-yield-and-its-component-traits-under-water-deficit-stress-during-the-reproductive-stage
#11
Niteen N Kadam, Paul C Struik, M C Rebolledo, Xinyou Yin, S V Krishna Jagadish
A diversity panel comprising of 296 indica rice genotypes was phenotyped under non-stress and water-deficit stress conditions during the reproductive stage in 2013 and 2014 dry seasons at IRRI, Philippines. We investigated the genotypic variability for grain yield, yield components and related traits and conducted genome-wide association studies (GWAS) using high-density 45K single nucleotide polymorphisms. We detected 38 loci in 2013 and 64 loci in 2014 for non-stress conditions and 69 loci in 2013 and 55 loci in 2014 for water-deficit stress...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758023/genetic-variability-in-brazilian-capsicum-baccatum-germplasm-collection-assessed-by-morphological-fruit-traits-and-aflp-markers
#12
Rafaella Cardoso, Claudete F Ruas, Renata M Giacomin, Paulo M Ruas, Eduardo A Ruas, Rosa L Barbieri, Rosana Rodrigues, Leandro S A Gonçalves
Capsicum baccatum is one of the main pepper species grown and consumed in South America. In Brazil, it is commonly cultivated by family farmers, using mostly the genotypes bishop's hat genotypes (locally cambuci) and red chili pepper (dedo-de-moça). This study had the objective of characterizing 116 C. baccatum accessions from different regions of Brazil, based on morphological fruit descriptors and AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms) markers. Broad phenotypic variability among the C. baccatum accessions was detected when using morphological fruit descriptors...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755499/genetic-dissection-of-maize-embryonic-callus-regenerative-capacity-using-multi-locus-genome-wide-association-studies
#13
Langlang Ma, Min Liu, Yuanyuan Yan, Chunyan Qing, Xiaoling Zhang, Yanling Zhang, Yun Long, Lei Wang, Lang Pan, Chaoying Zou, Zhaoling Li, Yanli Wang, Huanwei Peng, Guangtang Pan, Zhou Jiang, Yaou Shen
The regenerative capacity of the embryonic callus, a complex quantitative trait, is one of the main limiting factors for maize transformation. This trait was decomposed into five traits, namely, green callus rate (GCR), callus differentiating rate (CDR), callus plantlet number (CPN), callus rooting rate (CRR), and callus browning rate (CBR). To dissect the genetic foundation of maize transformation, in this study multi-locus genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for the five traits were performed in a population of 144 inbred lines genotyped with 43,427 SNPs...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753214/snap-crack-and-pop-of-explosive-fruit
#14
REVIEW
Anahit Galstyan, Angela Hay
There is an increasing appreciation for the role of physical forces in plant development. Mechanics are fundamental to how explosive fruit eject their seeds, and recent studies have successfully combined mechanics with developmental genetics to help explain how these dispersal traits are produced and how they evolved. Computational modeling is used more and more to address developmental questions, and explosive fruit are particularly good systems for combining biology and modeling approaches. Finite element models have been recently used to explore questions such as: Why do touch-me-not species with similar fruits, differ so much in how efficiently they transfer stored energy to eject seeds? And how do popping cress fruits use the expansive force of turgor pressure for tissue contraction?...
May 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752764/analysis-of-gli-d2-locus-identifies-a-genetic-target-for-simultaneously-improving-the-breadmaking-and-health-related-traits-of-common-wheat
#15
Da Li, Huaibing Jin, Kunpu Zhang, Zhaojun Wang, Faming Wang, Yue Zhao, Naxin Huo, Xin Liu, Yong Q Gu, Daowen Wang, Lingli Dong
Gliadins are a major component of wheat seed proteins. However, the complex homoeologous Gli-2 loci (Gli-A2, -B2 and -D2) encoding the α-gliadins in commercial wheat are still poorly understood. Here we analyzed the Gli-D2 locus of Xiaoyan 81 (Xy81), a winter wheat cultivar. A total of 421.091 kb of Gli-D2 sequence was assembled from sequencing multiple bacterial artificial clones, and 10 α-gliadin genes were annotated. Comparative genomic analysis showed that Xy81 carried only eight of the α-gliadin genes of the D genome donor Ae...
May 11, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752522/meta-qtl-analysis-of-seed-iron-and-zinc-concentration-and-content-in-common-bean-phaseolus-vulgaris-l
#16
Paulo Izquierdo, Carolina Astudillo, Matthew W Blair, Asif M Iqbal, Bodo Raatz, Karen A Cichy
Twelve meta-QTL for seed Fe and Zn concentration and/or content were identified from 87 QTL originating from seven population grown in sixteen field trials. These meta-QTL include 2 specific to iron, 2 specific to zinc and 8 that co-localize for iron and zinc concentrations and/or content. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important legume for human consumption worldwide and it is an important source of microelements, especially iron and zinc. Bean biofortification breeding programs develop new varieties with high levels of Fe and Zn targeted for countries with human micronutrient deficiencies...
May 11, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751669/mapping-grain-iron-and-zinc-content-quantitative-trait-loci-in-an-iniadi-derived-immortal-population-of-pearl-millet
#17
Sushil Kumar, Charles Tom Hash, Thirunavukkarasu Nepolean, Mahesh D Mahendrakar, Chellapilla Tara Satyavathi, Govind Singh, Abhishek Rathore, Rattan S Yadav, Rajeev Gupta, Rakesh K Srivastava
Pearl millet is a climate-resilient nutritious crop requiring low inputs and is capable of giving economic returns in marginal agro-ecologies. In this study, we report large-effect iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) content quantitative trait loci ( QTLs) using diversity array technology (DArT) and simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers to generate a genetic linkage map using 317 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from the (ICMS 8511-S1-17-2-1-1-B-P03 × AIMP 92901-S1-183-2-2-B-08) cross. The base map [seven linkage groups (LGs)] of 196 loci was 964...
May 11, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744709/cryopreservation-without-vitrification-suitable-for-large-scale-cryopreservation-of-orchid-seeds
#18
Emily Schofield, Edward P Jones, Viswambharan Sarasan
BACKGROUND: Orchids are under threat from human activities and climate change, with populations limited to small geographic hotspots. This makes them ideal candidates for ex situ conservation. Orchid seeds are desiccation tolerant, but often have poor longevity in seed banks and cryopreservation of orchid protocorms is complex and expensive. Therefore, simple methods for large-scale storage programs are essential to store orchid seeds of different life forms. Seeds of five species representing epiphytic, lithophytic and terrestrial orchids from the Central Highlands of Madagascar were studied to find a simple and effective system of cryopreservation...
May 9, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741132/pumpkin-seed-cake-as-a-fishmeal-substitute-in-fish-nutrition-effects-on-growth-performance-morphological-traits-and-fillet-colour-of-two-freshwater-salmonids-and-two-catfish-species
#19
Alexander Michael Greiling, Christiane Schwarz, Martin Gierus, Markus Rodehutscord
The objectives of this study were to investigate the digestibility of pumpkin seed cake (PSC) for the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792), and effects on performance and product quality traits of four different fish species when PSC partially replaced fishmeal in extruded diets. A digestibility trial was carried out to determine apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) for crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE) and gross energy (GE) of PSC fed to rainbow trout. In subsequent growth trials, effects on performance and morphological traits and fillet colour values of four different fish species [rainbow trout; brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill, 1814); African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822); and wels catfish, Silurus glanis (Linnaeus, 1758)] were evaluated when 60% of fishmeal protein of a reference diet was replaced by PSC protein (based on digestible CP)...
June 2018: Archives of Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736014/resequencing-of-243-diploid-cotton-accessions-based-on-an-updated-a-genome-identifies-the-genetic-basis-of-key-agronomic-traits
#20
Xiongming Du, Gai Huang, Shoupu He, Zhaoen Yang, Gaofei Sun, Xiongfeng Ma, Nan Li, Xueyan Zhang, Junling Sun, Min Liu, Yinhua Jia, Zhaoe Pan, Wenfang Gong, Zhaohui Liu, Heqin Zhu, Lei Ma, Fuyan Liu, Daigang Yang, Fan Wang, Wei Fan, Qian Gong, Zhen Peng, Liru Wang, Xiaoyang Wang, Shuangjiao Xu, Haihong Shang, Cairui Lu, Hongkun Zheng, Sanwen Huang, Tao Lin, Yuxian Zhu, Fuguang Li
The ancestors of Gossypium arboreum and Gossypium herbaceum provided the A subgenome for the modern cultivated allotetraploid cotton. Here, we upgraded the G. arboreum genome assembly by integrating different technologies. We resequenced 243 G. arboreum and G. herbaceum accessions to generate a map of genome variations and found that they are equally diverged from Gossypium raimondii. Independent analysis suggested that Chinese G. arboreum originated in South China and was subsequently introduced to the Yangtze and Yellow River regions...
May 7, 2018: Nature Genetics
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