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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913887/transcriptomics-analysis-of-hulless-barley-during-grain-development-with-a-focus-on-starch-biosynthesis
#1
Yawei Tang, Xingquan Zeng, Yulin Wang, Lijun Bai, Qijun Xu, Zexiu Wei, Hongjun Yuan, Tashi Nyima
Hulless barley, with its unique nutritional value and potential health benefits, has increasingly attracted attentions in recent years. However, the transcription dynamics during hulless barley grain development is not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the transcriptome changes during barley grain development using Illumina paired-end RNA-sequencing. Two datasets of the developing grain transcriptomes from two barley landraces with the differential seed starch synthesis traits were generated, and comparative transcriptome approach in both genotypes was performed...
December 2, 2016: Functional & Integrative Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907027/assessment-of-soybean-flowering-and-seed-maturation-time-in-different-latitude-regions-of-kazakhstan
#2
Saule Abugalieva, Svetlana Didorenko, Shynar Anuarbek, Lubov Volkova, Yelena Gerasimova, Ivan Sidorik, Yerlan Turuspekov
Soybean is still a minor crop in Kazakhstan despite an increase in planting area from 4,500 to 11,400 km2 between 2006 and 2014. However, the Government's recently accepted crop diversification policy projects the expansion of soybean cultivation area to more than 40,000 km2 by 2020. The policy is targeting significant expansion of soybean production in South-eastern, Eastern, and Northern regions of Kazakhstan. Successful realization of this policy requires a comprehensive characterization of plant growth parameters to identify optimal genotypes with appropriate adaptive phenotypic traits...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905514/seagrass-posidonia-oceanica-seedlings-in-a-high-co2-world-from-physiology-to-herbivory
#3
Gema Hernán, Laura Ramajo, Lorena Basso, Antonio Delgado, Jorge Terrados, Carlos M Duarte, Fiona Tomas
Under future increased CO2 concentrations, seagrasses are predicted to perform better as a result of increased photosynthesis, but the effects in carbon balance and growth are unclear and remain unexplored for early life stages such as seedlings, which allow plant dispersal and provide the potential for adaptation under changing environmental conditions. Furthermore, the outcome of the concomitant biochemical changes in plant-herbivore interactions has been poorly studied, yet may have important implications in plant communities...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904409/morphological-characterization-and-chemical-composition%C3%A2-of-fruits-of-the-traditional-croatian-chestnut-variety%C3%A2-lovran-marron
#4
Igor Poljak, Nada Vahčić, Milica Gačić, Marilena Idžojtić
'Lovran Marron' is the only known traditional Croatian variety of the sweet chestnut. The objective of this study is to specify qualitative and quantitative morphological characteristics and to analyze the chemical composition of the 'Lovran Marron' fruits as well as to compare them to Marušnjak fruits (trees from the 'Lovran Marron' seed) and fruits from the local natural sweet chestnut population. Seven morphological characteristics were measured: fruit mass, height, width and thickness, scar length and width, and the length of the longest intrusion of the seed coat into the kernel...
June 2016: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902795/genome-wide-association-study-identifies-candidate-loci-underlying-agronomic-traits-in-a-middle-american-diversity-panel-of-common-bean
#5
Samira Mafi Moghaddam, Sujan Mamidi, Juan M Osorno, Rian Lee, Mark Brick, James Kelly, Phillip Miklas, Carlos Urrea, Qijian Song, Perry Cregan, Jane Grimwood, Jeremy Schmutz, Phillip E McClean
Common bean ( L.) breeding programs aim to improve both agronomic and seed characteristics traits. However, the genetic architecture of the many traits that affect common bean production are not completely understood. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) provide an experimental approach to identify genomic regions where important candidate genes are located. A panel of 280 modern bean genotypes from race Mesoamerica, referred to as the Middle American Diversity Panel (MDP), were grown in four US locations, and a GWAS using >150,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (minor allele frequency [MAF] ≥ 5%) was conducted for six agronomic traits...
November 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898947/study-of-bovine-gene-the-temporal-spatial-expression-patterns-polymorphism-and-association-analysis-with-meat-production-traits
#6
E Juszczuk-Kubiak, K Bujko, M Grześ, M Cymer, K Wicińska, A Szostak, M Pierzchała
The gene () encodes a transcription factor belonging to the MEF2 family that plays an important role in myogenesis by transcriptional regulation of genes involved in skeletal muscle growth and development. Despite the established importance of the factors in the muscular growth and development, the temporal-spatial expression and biological function of have not been reported in cattle. The aim of this study was to analyze the level of expression in the developing longissimus dorsi muscle (LM) of 4 cattle breeds (Polish Holstein-Friesian [HF], Limousine [LIM], Hereford [HER], Polish Red [PR]), differing in terms of meat production and utility type, at 6, 9, and 12 mo of age...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898823/genome-wide-association-studies-of-grain-yield-components-in-diverse-sorghum-germplasm
#7
Richard E Boyles, Elizabeth A Cooper, Matthew T Myers, Zachary Brenton, Bradley L Rauh, Geoffrey P Morris, Stephen Kresovich
Grain yield and its primary determinants, grain number and weight, are important traits in cereal crops that have been well studied; however, the genetic basis of and interactions between these traits remain poorly understood. Characterization of grain yield per primary panicle (YPP), grain number per primary panicle (GNP), and 1000-grain weight (TGW) in sorghum [ (L.) Moench], a hardy C cereal with a genome size of ∼730 Mb, was implemented in a diversity panel containing 390 accessions. These accessions were genotyped to obtain 268,830 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)...
July 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898810/genomic-selection-for-processing-and-end-use-quality-traits-in-the-cimmyt-spring-bread-wheat-breeding-program
#8
Sarah D Battenfield, Carlos Guzmán, R Chris Gaynor, Ravi P Singh, Roberto J Peña, Susanne Dreisigacker, Allan K Fritz, Jesse A Poland
Wheat ( L.) cultivars must possess suitable end-use quality for release and consumer acceptability. However, breeding for quality traits is often considered a secondary target relative to yield largely because of amount of seed needed and expense. Without testing and selection, many undesirable materials are advanced, expending additional resources. Here, we develop and validate whole-genome prediction models for end-use quality phenotypes in the CIMMYT bread wheat breeding program. Model accuracy was tested using forward prediction on breeding lines ( = 5520) tested in unbalanced yield trials from 2009 to 2015 at Ciudad Obregon, Sonora, Mexico...
July 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898807/identification-and-validation-of-candidate-genes-associated-with-domesticated-and-improved-traits-in-soybean
#9
Ling Zhou, Longhai Luo, Jian-Fang Zuo, Linfeng Yang, Li Zhang, Xuanmin Guang, Yuan Niu, Jianbo Jian, Qing-Chun Geng, Liping Liang, Qijian Song, Jim M Dunwell, Zhenzhen Wu, Jia Wen, Yu-Qin Liu, Yuan-Ming Zhang
Soybean, an important source of vegetable oils and proteins for humans, has undergone significant phenotypic changes during domestication and improvement. However, there is limited knowledge about genes related to these domesticated and improved traits, such as flowering time, seed development, alkaline-salt tolerance, and seed oil content (SOC). In this study, more than 106,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified by restriction site associated DNA sequencing of 14 wild, 153 landrace, and 119 bred soybean accessions, and 198 candidate domestication regions (CDRs) were identified via multiple genetic diversity analyses...
July 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898806/genome-wide-association-study-for-nine-plant-architecture-traits-in-sorghum
#10
Jing Zhao, Maria B Mantilla Perez, Jieyun Hu, Maria G Salas Fernandez
Sorghum [ (L) Moench], an important grain and forage crop, is receiving significant attention as a lignocellulosic feedstock because of its water-use efficiency and high biomass yield potential. Because of the advancement of genotyping and sequencing technologies, genome-wide association study (GWAS) has become a routinely used method to investigate the genetic mechanisms underlying natural phenotypic variation. In this study, we performed a GWAS for nine grain and biomass-related plant architecture traits to determine their overall genetic architecture and the specific association of allelic variants in gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis and signaling genes with these phenotypes...
July 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898759/establishment-and-optimization-of-genomic-selection-to-accelerate-the-domestication-and-improvement-of-intermediate-wheatgrass
#11
Xiaofei Zhang, Ahmad Sallam, Liangliang Gao, Traci Kantarski, Jesse Poland, Lee R DeHaan, Donald L Wyse, James A Anderson
Intermediate wheatgrass (IWG) is a perennial species and has edible and nutritious grain and desirable agronomic traits, including large seed size, high grain yield, and biomass. It also has the potential to provide ecosystem services and an economic return to farmers. However, because of its allohexaploidy and self-incompatibility, developing molecular markers for genetic analysis and molecular breeding has been challenging. In the present study, using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) technology, 3436 genome-wide markers discovered in a biparental population with 178 genets, were mapped to 21 linkage groups (LG) corresponding to 21 chromosomes of IWG...
March 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894398/mir-488-determines-coat-pigmentation-by-down-regulating-the-pigment-producing-gene-pro-opiomelanocortin
#12
H Wang, S Ma, L Xue, Y Li, J Wang, X He, Z Zhu, C Dong
Coat color is a key economic trait in wool- and fur-producing animals. Coat color is controlled by complex mechanisms. Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) is a gene involved in pigment formation. Previous studies suggested that miR-488 might target the POMC mRNA. This study aimed to determine whether miR-488 could affect coat color by regulating POMC and to explore the regulatory roles of miR-488 on coat color in mammals. A dual fluorescence report vector containing the 3'-UTR of POMC was built to determine whether miR-488 could post-transcriptionally regulate POMC expression...
October 31, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891709/effect-of-dietary-kapok-oil-supplementation-on-growth-performance-carcass-traits-meat-quality-and-sensory-traits-of-pork-in-finishing-pigs
#13
Keisuke Maeda, Kimiko Kohira, Hiroki Kubota, Kousuke Yamanaka, Kaoru Saito, Masakazu Irie
Kapok seed and oil from the tropical zone are widely used as pig feed to harden porcine fat in Japan. This study evaluated the effect of dietary kapok oil supplementation on pork quality and sensory traits. Five Duroc pigs each were assigned to an experimental group supplemented with kapok oil and a control group. Dietary kapok oil supplementation had no effect on growth performance and intramuscular fat content in the Longissimus dorsi muscle (LM). Supplemental kapok oil increased saturated fatty acid contents in subcutaneous and intramuscular fat and decreased monounsaturated fatty acid levels (P < 0...
November 27, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891138/arabidopsis-seed-content-qtl-mapping-using-high-throughput-phenotyping-the-assets-of-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#14
Sophie Jasinski, Alain Lécureuil, Monique Durandet, Patrick Bernard-Moulin, Philippe Guerche
Seed storage compounds are of crucial importance for human diet, feed and industrial uses. In oleo-proteaginous species like rapeseed, seed oil and protein are the qualitative determinants that conferred economic value to the harvested seed. To date, although the biosynthesis pathways of oil and storage protein are rather well-known, the factors that determine how these types of reserves are partitioned in seeds have to be identified. With the aim of implementing a quantitative genetics approach, requiring phenotyping of 100s of plants, our first objective was to establish near-infrared reflectance spectroscopic (NIRS) predictive equations in order to estimate oil, protein, carbon, and nitrogen content in Arabidopsis seed with high-throughput level...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889523/identification-of-target-genes-and-processes-involved-in-erucic-acid-accumulation-during-seed-development-in-the-biodiesel-feedstock-pennycress-thlaspi-arvense-l
#15
Ana Claver, Raquel Rey, M Victoria López, Rafael Picorel, Miguel Alfonso
We studied erucic acid accumulation in the biodiesel feedstock Pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) as a first step towards the development of a sustainable strategy for biofuel production in the EU territory. To that end, two inbred Pennycress lines of European origin, "NASC" and "French," were cultivated in a controlled chamber and in experimental field plots, and their growth, seed production and seed oil characteristics analyzed. Differences in some agronomical traits like vernalization (winter-French versus spring-NASC), flowering time (delayed in the French line) and seed production (higher in the French line) were detected...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886345/estimation-of-genetic-parameters-and-selection-of-high-yielding-upright-common-bean-lines-with-slow-seed-coat-darkening
#16
R C Alvares, F C Silva, L C Melo, P G S Melo, H S Pereira
Slow seed coat darkening is desirable in common bean cultivars and genetic parameters are important to define breeding strategies. The aims of this study were to estimate genetic parameters for plant architecture, grain yield, grain size, and seed-coat darkening in common bean; identify any genetic association among these traits; and select lines that associate desirable phenotypes for these traits. Three experiments were set up in the winter 2012 growing season, in Santo Antônio de Goiás and Brasília, Brazil, including 220 lines obtained from four segregating populations and five parents...
November 21, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881992/molecular-mapping-and-qtl-for-expression-profiles-of-flavonoid-genes-in-brassica-napus
#17
Cunmin Qu, Huiyan Zhao, Fuyou Fu, Kai Zhang, Jianglian Yuan, Liezhao Liu, Rui Wang, Xinfu Xu, Kun Lu, Jia-Na Li
Flavonoids are secondary metabolites that are extensively distributed in the plant kingdom and contribute to seed coat color formation in rapeseed. To decipher the genetic networks underlying flavonoid biosynthesis in rapeseed, we constructed a high-density genetic linkage map with 1089 polymorphic loci (including 464 SSR loci, 97 RAPD loci, 451 SRAP loci, and 75 IBP loci) using recombinant inbred lines (RILs). The map consists of 19 linkage groups and covers 2775 cM of the B. napus genome with an average distance of 2...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880793/seed-quality-traits-can-be-predicted-with-high-accuracy-in-brassica-napus-using-genomic-data
#18
Jun Zou, Yusheng Zhao, Peifa Liu, Lei Shi, Xiaohua Wang, Meng Wang, Jinling Meng, Jochen Christoph Reif
Improving seed oil yield and quality are central targets in rapeseed (Brassica napus) breeding. The primary goal of our study was to examine and compare the potential and the limits of marker-assisted selection and genome-wide prediction of six important seed quality traits of B. napus. Our study is based on a bi-parental population comprising 202 doubled haploid lines and a diverse validation set including 117 B. napus inbred lines derived from interspecific crosses between B. rapa and B. carinata. We used phenotypic data for seed oil, protein, erucic acid, linolenic acid, stearic acid, and glucosinolate content...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875742/map-based-cloning-and-characterization-of-the-novel-yellow-green-leaf-gene-ys83-in-rice-oryza-sativa
#19
Xiaozhi Ma, Xiaoqiu Sun, Chunmei Li, Rui Huan, Changhui Sun, Yang Wang, Fuliang Xiao, Qian Wang, Purui Chen, Furong Ma, Kuan Zhang, Pingrong Wang, Xiaojian Deng
Leaf-color mutants have been extensively studied in rice, and many corresponding genes have been identified up to now. However, leaf-color mutation mechanisms are diverse and still need further research through identification of novel genes. In the present paper, we isolated a leaf-color mutant, ys83, in rice (Oryza sativa). The mutant displayed a yellow-green leaf phenotype at seedling stage, and then slowly turned into light-green leaf from late tillering stage. In its yellow leaves, photosynthetic pigment contents significantly decreased and the chloroplast development was retarded...
November 9, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872558/taxonomic-revision-and-distribution-of-herbaceous-paramollugo-molluginaceae-in-the-eastern-hemisphere
#20
Alexander P Sukhorukov, Maria Kushunina
The genus Paramollugo with the type species Paramollugo nudicaulis (≡Mollugo nudicaulis) has recently been described after molecular investigations. Here we report two new endemic Malagasy species: Paramollugo simulans and Paramollugo elliotii, and transfer a forgotten New Caledonian endemic Mollugo digyna to Paramollugo (Paramollugo digyna). Consequently, the number of Paramollugo species in the Eastern Hemisphere is increased from three to six. Almost all genus representatives (except Paramollugo nudicaulis, which has a wide distribution in Southern Asia, Arabia and tropical Africa) are endemic to Madagascar, Somalia, or New Caledonia...
2016: PhytoKeys
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