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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166127/bat-biology-genomes-and-the-bat1k-project-to-generate-chromosome-level-genomes-for-all-living-bat-species
#1
Emma Teeling, Sonja Vernes, Liliana M Davalos, David A Ray, M Thomas P Gilbert, Eugene Myers, Bat K Consortium
Bats are unique among mammals, possessing some of the rarest mammalian adaptations, including true self-powered flight, laryngeal echolocation, exceptional longevity, unique immunity, contracted genomes, and vocal learning. They provide key ecosystem services, pollinating tropical plants, dispersing seeds, and controlling insect pest populations, thus driving healthy ecosystems. They account for more than 20% of all living mammalian diversity, and their crown-group evolutionary history dates back to the Eocene...
November 20, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165551/evolution-and-ecology-of-plant-architecture-integrating-insights-from-the-fossil-record-extant-morphology-developmental-genetics-and-phylogenies
#2
Guillaume Chomicki, Mario Coiro, Susanne S Renner
Background: In contrast to most animals, plants have an indeterminate body plan, which allows them to add new body parts during their lifetime. A plant's realized modular construction is the result of exogenous constraints and endogenous processes. This review focuses on endogenous processes that shape plant architectures and their evolution. Scope: The phylogenetic distribution of plant growth forms across the phylogeny implies that body architectures have originated and been lost repeatedly, being shaped by a limited set of genetic pathways...
November 19, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164747/a-role-for-fruit-structure-in-seed-survival-and-germination-of-swartzia-langsdorffii-raddi-beyond-dispersal
#3
T A A Vaz, A G Rodrigues-Junior, A C Davide, A T Nakamura, P E Toorop
Diaspore structure has been hypothesized to play a role in seed viability and/or germination of recalcitrant seeds, especially for Swartzia langsdorffii. Thus, this work aims to (1) investigate in situ contribution of pericarp and aril on seed viability and germination, and (2) identify morphoanatomical traits of Swartzia langsdorffii diaspores that aid its desiccation-sensitive seed to remain viable. The role of the pericarp and aril in seed survival and germination was investigated by placing the whole fruit, whole seeds (arillate seed) and bare seeds (without aril) on the soil in the forest understory, assessing germination, emergence, dead, firm and predated seeds; and water content (WC) of pericarps, arils and seeds...
November 22, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163611/genetic-and-cytological-analyses-of-the-natural-variation-of-seed-number-per-pod-in-rapeseed-brassica-napus-l
#4
Yuhua Yang, Ying Wang, Jiepeng Zhan, Jiaqin Shi, Xinfa Wang, Guihua Liu, Hanzhong Wang
Seed number is one of the key traits related to plant evolution/domestication and crop improvement/breeding. In rapeseed germplasm, the seed number per pod (SNPP) shows a very wide variation from several to nearly 30; however, the underlying causations/mechanisms for this variation are poorly known. In the current study, the genetic and cytological bases for the natural variation of SNPP in rapeseed was firstly and systematically investigated using the representative four high-SNPP and five low-SNPP lines. The results of self- or cross-pollination experiment between the high- and low-SNPP lines showed that the natural variation of SNPP was mainly controlled by maternal effect (mean = 0...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163588/genome-wide-analysis-of-japonica-rice-performance-under-limited-water-and-permanent-flooding-conditions
#5
Andrea Volante, Francesca Desiderio, Alessandro Tondelli, Rosaria Perrini, Gabriele Orasen, Chiara Biselli, Paolo Riccardi, Alessandra Vattari, Daniela Cavalluzzo, Simona Urso, Manel Ben Hassen, Agostino Fricano, Pietro Piffanelli, Paolo Cozzi, Filippo Biscarini, Gian Attilio Sacchi, Luigi Cattivelli, Giampiero Valè
A rice GWAS panel of 281 accessions of japonica rice was phenotypically characterized for 26 traits related to phenology, plant and seed morphology, physiology and yield for 2 years in field conditions under permanent flooding (PF) and limited water (LW). A genome-wide analysis uncovered a total of 160 significant marker-trait associations (MTAs), of which 32 were LW-specific, 59 were PF-specific, and 69 were in common between the two water management systems. LW-specific associations were identified for several agronomic traits including days to maturation, days from flowering to maturation, leaf traits, plant height, panicle and seed traits, hundred grain weight, yield and tillering...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163576/quantitative-trait-loci-and-maternal-effects-affecting-the-strong-grain-dormancy-of-wild-barley-hordeum-vulgare-ssp-spontaneum
#6
Shingo Nakamura, Mohammad Pourkheirandish, Hiromi Morishige, Mohammad Sameri, Kazuhiro Sato, Takao Komatsuda
Wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) has strong grain dormancy, a trait that may enhance its survival in non-cultivated environments; by contrast, cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) has weaker dormancy, allowing uniform germination in cultivation. Malting barley cultivars have been bred for especially weak dormancy to optimize their use in malt production. Here, we analyzed the genetic mechanism of this difference in seed dormancy, using recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between the wild barley accession 'H602' and the malting barley cultivar 'Kanto Nakate Gold (KNG)'...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163565/genotypic-variation-in-nitrogen-utilization-efficiency-of-oilseed-rape-brassica-napus-under-contrasting-n-supply-in-pot-and-field-experiments
#7
Huiying He, Rui Yang, Yajun Li, Aisheng Ma, Lanqin Cao, Xiaoming Wu, Biyun Chen, Hui Tian, Yajun Gao
Oilseed rape (Brassica napus) characteristically has high N uptake efficiency and low N utilization efficiency (NUtE, seed yield/shoot N accumulation). Determining the NUtE phenotype of various genotypes in different growth conditions is a way of finding target traits to improve oilseed rape NUtE. The aim of this study was to compare oilseed rape genotypes grown on contrasting N supply rates in pot and field experiments to investigate the genotypic variations of NUtE and to identify indicators of N efficient genotypes...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163563/genetic-dissection-of-the-major-quantitative-trait-locus-qse11-and-its-validation-as-the-major-influence-on-the-rate-of-stigma-exsertion-in-rice-oryza-sativa-l
#8
Md Habibur Rahman, Yingxing Zhang, Keqin Zhang, Md Sazzadur Rahman, Hirendra N Barman, Aamir Riaz, Yuyu Chen, Weixun Wu, Xiaodeng Zhan, Liyong Cao, Shihua Cheng
The rate of stigma exsertion (SE) is an important trait in rice breeding because the efficiency of hybrid rice seed production can be improved by increasing the percentage of stigmas that exsert. In this study, we developed a near isogenic line (NIL) from two parents, XieqingzaoB (XQZB) and Zhonghoi9308 (ZH9308), which have high and low SE rates in that order. In our previous study, we employed 75 chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) and analyzed quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for their influence on SE rate...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162519/meta-analysis-of-regional-white-matter-volume-in-bipolar-disorder-with-replication-in-an-independent-sample-using-coordinates-t-maps-and-individual-mri-data
#9
REVIEW
Stefania Pezzoli, Louise Emsell, Sarah W Yip, Danai Dima, Panteleimon Giannakopoulos, Mojtaba Zarei, Stefania Tognin, Danilo Arnone, Anthony James, Sven Haller, Sophia Frangou, Guy M Goodwin, Colm McDonald, Matthew J Kempton
Converging evidence suggests that bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with white matter (WM) abnormalities. Meta-analyses of voxel based morphometry (VBM) data is commonly performed using published coordinates, however this method is limited since it ignores non-significant data. Obtaining statistical maps from studies (T-maps) as well as raw MRI datasets increases accuracy and allows for a comprehensive analysis of clinical variables. We obtained coordinate data (5-studies), T-Maps (12-studies, including unpublished data) and raw MRI datasets (5-studies) and analysed the 24 studies using Seed-based d Mapping (SDM)...
November 18, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158641/development-of-an-efficient-and-reproducible-regeneration-system-in-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l
#10
Rakesh Kumar, Harohalli Masthigowda Mamrutha, Amandeep Kaur, Karnam Venkatesh, Anita Grewal, Raj Kumar, Vinod Tiwari
The availability of reproducible regeneration system through tissue culture is a major bottleneck in wheat improvement program. The present study has considered to develop an efficient callus induction and regeneration system using mature and immature embryos as explants in recently released agronomically superior spring wheat varieties. An efficient sterilization process was standardized using 0.1% HgCl2 and 70% ethanol for both seeds and embryos. The maximum possible combinations of plant growth regulators (PGRs) were evaluated for their effect on different wheat regeneration processes through tissue culture starting from callus to root induction...
October 2017: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158636/chromosome-segment-detection-for-seed-size-and-shape-traits-using-an-improved-population-of-wild-soybean-chromosome-segment-substitution-lines
#11
Hongyan Yang, Wubin Wang, Qingyuan He, Shihua Xiang, Dong Tian, Tuanjie Zhao, Junyi Gai
Size and shape of soybean seeds are closely related to seed yield and market value. Annual wild soybeans have the potential to improve cultivated soybeans, but their inferior seed characteristics should be excluded. To detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs)/segments of seed size and shape traits in annual wild soybean, its chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) derived from NN1138-2 (recurrent parent, Glycine max) and N24852 (donor parent, Glycine soja) and then modified 2 iterations (coded SojaCSSLP3) were improved further to contain more lines (diagonal segments) and less heterozygous and missing portions...
October 2017: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155492/the-prevalence-of-gluten-free-diet-use-among-preschool-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
Eric Rubenstein, Laura Schieve, Chyrise Bradley, Carolyn DiGuiseppi, Eric Moody, Kathleen Thomas, Julie Daniels
Our objective was to estimate prevalence of current or ever use of a gluten free diet (GFD) in children aged 30-68 months with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and population controls (POP); and to identify characteristics associated with ever having used GFD among children with ASD. We used data from the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED), a multi-site, case-control study of children with ASD. Caregivers reported GFD use by their children through structured questionnaires about diet patterns, gastrointestinal (GI) issues, and ASD-specific treatments...
November 20, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146906/qtl-mapping-and-molecular-characterization-of-the-classical-d-locus-controlling-seed-and-flower-color-in-linum-usitatissimum-flax
#13
Gurudatt Pavagada Sudarshan, Manoj Kulkarni, Leonid Akhov, Paula Ashe, Hamid Shaterian, Sylvie Cloutier, Gordon Rowland, Yangdou Wei, Gopalan Selvaraj
The flowers of flax (linseed) are blue-hued, ephemeral and self-pollinating, and the seeds are typically brown. A century-old interest in natural yellow seed variants and a historical model point to recessive alleles in B1, D and G loci being responsible, but the functional aspects had remained unknown. Here, we characterized the "D" locus by quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping and identified a FLAVONOID 3'5' HYDROXYLASE (F3'5'H) gene therein. It does not belong to the F3'5'H clade, but resembles biochemically characterized F3'Hs (flavonoid 3' hydroxylase) but without F3'H activity...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146258/screening-of-tropically-derived-multi-trait-plant-growth-promoting-rhizobacteria-and-evaluation-of-corn-and-soybean-colonization-ability
#14
Bruna Durante Batista, Paulo Teixeira Lacava, Andrea Ferrari, Natalia Sousa Teixeira-Silva, Maria Letícia Bonatelli, Sarina Tsui, Mateus Mondin, Elliot Watanabe Kitajima, José Odair Pereira, João Lúcio Azevedo, Maria Carolina Quecine
The present study assessed the plant growth-promoting (PGP) traits and diversity of culturable rhizobacteria associated with guarana (Paullinia cupana), a typical tropical plant. Ninety-six bacteria were isolated, subjected to biochemical tests, and identified by partial or total 16S rDNA sequencing. Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were the dominant rhizospheric phyla found, and Burkholderia and Bacillus were the most abundant genera. Thirteen strains exhibited the four PGP traits evaluated, and most of them belonged to the genus Burkholderia...
January 2018: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143671/gwas-of-agronomic-traits-in-soybean-collection-included-in-breeding-pool-in-kazakhstan
#15
Alibek Zatybekov, Saule Abugalieva, Svetlana Didorenko, Yelena Gerasimova, Ivan Sidorik, Shynar Anuarbek, Yerlan Turuspekov
BACKGROUND: In recent years soybean is becoming one of the most important oilseed crops in Kazakhstan. Only within the last ten years (2006-2016), the area under soybean is expanded from 45 thousand hectares (ha) in 2006 to 120 thousand ha in 2016. The general trend of soybean expansion is from south-eastern to eastern and northern regions of the country, where average temperatures are lower and growing seasons are shorter. These new soybean growing territories were poorly examined in terms of general effects on productivity level among the diverse sample of soybean accessions...
November 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143606/metabolic-pathways-and-genes-identified-by-rna-seq-analysis-of-barley-near-isogenic-lines-differing-by-allelic-state-of-the-black-lemma-and-pericarp-blp-gene
#16
Anastasiya Y Glagoleva, Nikolay A Shmakov, Olesya Y Shoeva, Gennady V Vasiliev, Natalia V Shatskaya, Andreas Börner, Dmitry A Afonnikov, Elena K Khlestkina
BACKGROUND: Some plant species have 'melanin-like' black seed pigmentation. However, the chemical and genetic nature of this 'melanin-like' black pigment have not yet been fully explored due to its complex structure and ability to withstand almost all solvents. Nevertheless, identification of genetic networks participating in trait formation is key to understanding metabolic processes involved in the expression of 'melanin-like' black seed pigmentation. The aim of the current study was to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in barley near-isogenic lines (NILs) differing by allelic state of the Blp (black lemma and pericarp) locus...
November 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143349/growth-rate-rather-than-growth-duration-drives-growth-heterosis-in-maize-b104-hybrids
#17
Kim Feys, Kirin Demuynck, Jolien De Block, Anchal Bisht, Alex De Vliegher, Dirk Inzé, Hilde Nelissen
Research in maize is often performed using inbred lines which can be readily transformed, such as B104. However, B104 flowers late so that the kernels not always mature before the end of the growing season, hampering routine seed yield evaluations of biotech traits introduced in B104 at many geographical locations. Therefore, we generated five hybrids by crossing B104 with the early-flowering inbred lines CML91, F7, H99, Mo17 and W153R and showed in three consecutive years that the hybrid lines proved to be suitable to evaluate seed yield under field conditions in a temperate climate...
November 16, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142115/males-harm-females-less-when-competing-with-familiar-relatives
#18
Samuel J Lymbery, Leigh W Simmons
Sexual conflict occurs when reproductive partners have different fitness optima, and can lead to the evolution of traits in one sex that inflict fitness costs on the opposite sex. Recently, it has been proposed that antagonism by males towards females should be reduced when they compete with relatives, because reducing the future productivity of a female would result in an indirect fitness cost for a harmful male. We tested this prediction in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, the males of which harm females with genital spines and pre-copulatory harassment...
November 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137616/foraging-dispersion-of-ryukyu-flying-foxes-and-relationships-with-fig-abundance-in-east-asian-subtropical-island-forests
#19
Ya-Fu Lee, Yen-Min Kuo, Hsin-Yi Chang, Chi-Feng Tsai, Shigeyuki Baba
BACKGROUND: Figs are widely distributed key resources to many tropical-subtropical animals, and flying-foxes are major consumers and seed dispersers of figs. Bat-fig interrelationships, however, may vary among species differing in fruiting traits, i.e., bat- versus bird-dispersed figs. We examined Ryukyu flying-fox foraging dispersion and the relationships with tree species composition and fig abundance in forests of Iriomote Island. RESULTS: Bat foraging dispersion showed no spatial patterns with respect to different areas of the island, and was not explained by heterogeneity, density, or basal area (BA) of total trees, nor by relative density or BA of fruiting trees or total fruiting figs among sites...
November 14, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137491/characterization-of-biochemical-traits-of-dog-rose-rosa-canina-l-ecotypes-in-the-central-part-of-iran
#20
Milad Javanmard, Hossein Ali Asadi-Gharneh, Pejman Nikneshan
Dog rose (Rosa canina L.) is a wild native species in Iran, with a significant genetic diversity. This plant serves as a rich source of vitamin C, anthocyanins, phenolic contents and carotenoids. Rose hips have been used in several food products, as well as perfumery and cosmetics industries. In this research, we investigate biochemical characteristics of five dog rose ecotypes (Kopehjamshid, Zarneh, Miyankish, Aghcheh and Sadeghiyeh), that were collected from the central part of Iran (Isfahan province). Amounts of vitamin C, total carotenoids, total phenolic contents, total anthocyanins, macro and micro minerals were measured...
November 14, 2017: Natural Product Research
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