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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551236/variability-of-traits-and-bioactive-compounds-in-the-fruit-and-pulp-of-six-mamey-apple-mammea-americana-l-accessions
#1
Armelle Péroumal, Sandra Adenet, Katia Rochefort, Louis Fahrasmane, Guylène Aurore
Our objective was to compare fruit morphology, physico-chemistry and bioactive compounds content of the edible pulp of six Mammea americana accessions. The results showed that this fruit was rather big, weighing on average 600 to 1100g depending on the accession, and spherical to oblate-shaped. The pulp represented between 50 and 70% of the weight of the whole fruit. The pulp adhered only partially to the seeds in 5 of the 6 accessions studied, while the last one exhibited full adherence. The fresh pulp was acidic, sweet, succulent and crunchy...
November 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549080/life-history-traits-influence-the-strength-of-distance-and-density-dependence-at-different-life-stages-of-two-amazonian-palms
#2
Juanita Choo, Cecilia Carasco, Patricia Alvarez-Loayza, Beryl B Simpson, Evan P Economo
Background and Aims: Natural enemies are known to be important in regulating plant populations and contributing to species coexistence (Janzen-Connell effects). The strength of Janzen-Connell effects (both distance- and density-effects) varies across species, but the life history traits that may mediate such a variation are not well understood. This study examined Janzen-Connell effects across the life stages (seed through adult stages) of two sympatric palm species with distinct phenologies and shade tolerances, two traits that may mediate the strength and timing of Janzen-Connell effects...
May 26, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545577/proanthocyanidin-accumulation-and-transcriptional-responses-in-the-seed-coat-of-cranberry-beans-phaseolus-vulgaris-l-with-different-susceptibility-to-postharvest-darkening
#3
José A Freixas Coutin, Seth Munholland, Anjali Silva, Sanjeena Subedi, Lewis Lukens, William L Crosby, K Peter Pauls, Gale G Bozzo
BACKGROUND: Edible dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) that darken during postharvest storage are graded lower and are less marketable than their non-darkened counterparts. Seed coat darkening in susceptible genotypes is dependent upon the availability of proanthocyanidins, and their subsequent oxidation to reactive quinones. Mature cranberry beans lacking this postharvest darkening trait tend to be proanthocyanidin-deficient, although the underlying molecular and biochemical determinants for this metabolic phenomenon are unknown...
May 25, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543965/joint-evolution-of-differential-seed-dispersal-and-self-fertilization
#4
Ryosuke Iritani, Pierre-Olivier Cheptou
Differential seed dispersal, in which selfed and outcrossed seeds possess different dispersal propensities, represents a potentially important individual-level association. A variety of traits can mediate differential seed dispersal, including inflorescence and seed size variation. However, how natural selection shapes such associations is poorly known. Here, we developed theoretical models for the evolution of mating system and differential seed dispersal in metapopulations, incorporating heterogeneous pollination, dispersal cost, cost of outcrossing, and environment-dependent inbreeding depression...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542815/phenotypic-selection-varies-with-pollination-intensity-across-populations-of-sabatia-angularis
#5
Sarah L Emel, Steven J Franks, Rachel B Spigler
Pollinators are considered primary selective agents acting on plant traits, and thus variation in the strength of the plant-pollinator interaction might drive variation in the opportunity for selection and selection intensity across plant populations. Here, we examine whether these critical evolutionary parameters covary with pollination intensity across wild populations of the biennial Sabatia angularis. We quantified pollination intensity in each of nine S. angularis populations as mean stigmatic pollen load per population...
May 25, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539510/sexual-conflict-and-correlated-evolution-between-male-persistence-and-female-resistance-traits-in-the-seed-beetle-callosobruchus-maculatus
#6
Liam R Dougherty, Emile van Lieshout, Kathryn B McNamara, Joe A Moschilla, Göran Arnqvist, Leigh W Simmons
Traumatic mating (or copulatory wounding) is an extreme form of sexual conflict whereby male genitalia physically harm females during mating. In such species females are expected to evolve counter-adaptations to reduce male-induced harm. Importantly, female counter-adaptations may include both genital and non-genital traits. In this study, we examine evolutionary associations between harmful male genital morphology and female reproductive tract morphology and immune function across 13 populations of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus We detected positive correlated evolution between the injuriousness of male genitalia and putative female resistance adaptations across populations...
May 31, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536596/sorghum-landrace-collections-from-cooler-regions-of-the-world-exhibit-magnificent-genetic-differentiation-and-early-season-cold-tolerance
#7
Frank Maulana, Dilooshi Weerasooriya, Tesfaye Tesso
Cold temperature is an important abiotic stress affecting sorghum production in temperate regions. It reduces seed germination, seedling emergence and seedling vigor thus limiting the production of the crop both temporally and spatially. The objectives of this study were (1) to assess early season cold temperature stress response of sorghum germplasm from cooler environments and identify sources of tolerance for use in breeding programs, (2) to determine population structure and marker-trait association among these germplasms for eventual development of marker tools for improving cold tolerance...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536592/trait-associations-in-diversity-panels-of-the-two-common-bean-phaseolus-vulgaris-l-gene-pools-grown-under-well-watered-and-water-stress-conditions
#8
Asrat Asfaw, Daniel Ambachew, Trushar Shah, Matthew W Blair
Common beans are a warm-season, food legume cultivated in areas prone to water limitation throughout their growing season. This study assessed the magnitude and pattern of trait associations for a total of 202 common bean genotypes divided into panels of 81 Andean and 121 Mesoamerican gene pool accessions grown under contrasting treatments of well-watered, non-stress, and water-limited, terminal drought-stress conditions. Linear correlation, complex path coefficient, and genetic divergence analyses were used to dissect the relationship dynamics between traits and the relative contribution of adaptive traits to differentiation among gene pools and genotypes based on drought stress...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536585/exploring-niches-for-short-season-grain-legumes-in-semi-arid-eastern-kenya-coping-with-the-impacts-of-climate-variability
#9
Anne Sennhenn, Donald M G Njarui, Brigitte L Maass, Anthony M Whitbread
Climate variability is the major risk to agricultural production in semi-arid agroecosystems and the key challenge to sustain farm livelihoods for the 500 million people who inhabit these areas worldwide. Short-season grain legumes have great potential to address this challenge and help to design more resilient and productive farming systems. However, grain legumes display a great diversity and differ widely in growth, development, and resource use efficiency. Three contrasting short season grain legumes common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536581/optimization-of-nitrogen-rate-and-planting-density-for-improving-yield-nitrogen-use-efficiency-and-lodging-resistance-in-oilseed-rape
#10
Shahbaz Khan, Sumera Anwar, Jie Kuai, Sana Ullah, Shah Fahad, Guangsheng Zhou
Yield and lodging related traits are essential for improving rapeseed production. The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of plant density (D) and nitrogen (N) rates on morphological and physiological traits related to yield and lodging in rapeseed. We evaluated Huayouza 9 for two consecutive growing seasons (2014-2016) under three plant densities (LD, 10 plants m(-2); MD, 30 plants m(-2); HD, 60 plants m(-2)) and four N rates (0, 60, 120, and 180 kg ha(-1)). Experiment was laid out in split plot design using density as a main factor and N as sub-plot factor with three replications each...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533896/sex-specific-differences-in-functional-traits-and-resource-acquisition-in-five-cycad-species
#11
Christopher Krieg, James E Watkins, Sally Chambers, Chad E Husby
Selective pressures acting on plant life histories can drive extreme specialization. One example of such specialization is the evolution of dioecious breeding systems. Evolutionary and ecological theory posits that dioecy may subject male and female individuals to different selective pressures and result in unique sex-mediated adaptive traits related to resource allocation and ecophysiology. Cycads are the earliest diverging lineage of seed plants with strict dioecy, yet we know almost nothing about the ecology and physiology of this group...
March 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533203/floral-traits-influencing-plant-attractiveness-to-three-bee-species-consequences-for-plant-reproductive-success
#12
Austin A Bauer, Murray K Clayton, Johanne Brunet
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The ability to attract pollinators is crucial to plants that rely on insects for pollination. We contrasted the roles of floral display size and flower color in attracting three bee species and determined the relationships between plant attractiveness (number of pollinator visits) and seed set for each bee species. METHODS: We recorded pollinator visits to plants, measured plant traits, and quantified plant reproductive success. A zero-inflated Poisson regression model indicated plant traits associated with pollinator attraction...
May 21, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531954/arbuscular-mycorrhiza-fungi-facilitate-rapid-adaptation-of-elsholtzia-splendens-to-copper
#13
Junmin Li, Huijuan Liang, Ming Yan, Luxi Chen, Huating Zhang, Jie Liu, Suizi Wang, Zexin Jin
Closely associated microbes have been shown to drive local adaptation of plants. However, few studies provide direct evidence, disclosing the role of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) in their rapid adaptation of plants toward heavy metal tolerance. Elsholtzia splendens is a Cu-tolerant plant that was used as a model plant to study seed morphological traits as well as traits related to seed germination and seedling growth. This was achieved after acclimation for two generations with 1000mg/kg CuSO4 in either absence or presence of AMF...
May 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530677/whole-genome-resequencing-of-292-pigeonpea-accessions-identifies-genomic-regions-associated-with-domestication-and-agronomic-traits
#14
Rajeev K Varshney, Rachit K Saxena, Hari D Upadhyaya, Aamir W Khan, Yue Yu, Changhoon Kim, Abhishek Rathore, Dongseon Kim, Jihun Kim, Shaun An, Vinay Kumar, Ghanta Anuradha, Kalinati Narasimhan Yamini, Wei Zhang, Sonnappa Muniswamy, Jong-So Kim, R Varma Penmetsa, Eric von Wettberg, Swapan K Datta
Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan), a tropical grain legume with low input requirements, is expected to continue to have an important role in supplying food and nutritional security in developing countries in Asia, Africa and the tropical Americas. From whole-genome resequencing of 292 Cajanus accessions encompassing breeding lines, landraces and wild species, we characterize genome-wide variation. On the basis of a scan for selective sweeps, we find several genomic regions that were likely targets of domestication and breeding...
May 22, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529515/changes-in-leaf-anatomical-traits-enhanced-photosynthetic-activity-of-soybean-grown-in-hydroponics-with-plant-growth-promoting-microorganisms
#15
Roberta Paradiso, Carmen Arena, Veronica De Micco, Maria Giordano, Giovanna Aronne, Stefania De Pascale
The use of hydroponic systems for cultivation in controlled climatic conditions and the selection of suitable genotypes for the specific environment help improving crop growth and yield. We hypothesized that plant performance in hydroponics could be further maximized by exploiting the action of plant growth-promoting organisms (PGPMs). However, the effects of PGPMs on plant physiology have been scarcely investigated in hydroponics. Within a series of experiments aimed to identify the best protocol for hydroponic cultivation of soybean [Glycine max (L...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526984/reduced-weed-seed-shattering-by-silencing-a-cultivated-rice-gene-strategic-mitigation-for-escaped-transgenes
#16
Huanxin Yan, Lei Li, Ping Liu, Xiaoqi Jiang, Lei Wang, Jia Fang, Zhimin Lin, Feng Wang, Jun Su, Bao-Rong Lu
Transgene flow form a genetically engineered (GE) crop to its wild relatives may result in unwanted environmental consequences. Mitigating transgenes via introducing a gene that is disadvantageous to wild relatives but beneficial to crops, and is tightly-linked with the target transgenes, may provide a promising solution to limit the spread of transgenes in wild/weedy populations. Here we demonstrate a novel system with significantly reduced seed shattering in crop-weed hybrid descendants by partially silenced expression of the seed-shattering gene SH4 in cultivated rice, using artificial microRNA and antisense RNA techniques...
May 19, 2017: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520770/life-history-trade-off-moderates-model-predictions-of-diversity-loss-from-climate-change
#17
Helen Moor
Climate change can trigger species range shifts, local extinctions and changes in diversity. Species interactions and dispersal capacity are important mediators of community responses to climate change. The interaction between multispecies competition and variation in dispersal capacity has recently been shown to exacerbate the effects of climate change on diversity and to increase predictions of extinction risk dramatically. Dispersal capacity, however, is part of a species' overall ecological strategy and are likely to trade off with other aspects of its life history that influence population growth and persistence...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517023/shifts-in-water-availability-mediate-plant-pollinator-interactions
#18
M Kate Gallagher, Diane R Campbell
Altered precipitation patterns associated with anthropogenic climate change are expected to have many effects on plants and insect pollinators, but it is unknown if effects on pollination are mediated by changes in water availability. We tested the hypothesis that impacts of climate on plant-pollinator interactions operate through changes in water availability, and specifically that such effects occur through alteration of floral attractants. We manipulated water availability in two naturally occurring Mertensia ciliata (Boraginaceae) populations using water addition, water reduction and control plots and measured effects on vegetative and floral traits, pollinator visitation and seed set...
May 18, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516383/genetic-analysis-of-the-lf1-gene-that-controls-leaflet-number-in-soybean
#19
Soon-Chun Jeong, Ji Hong Kim, Dong Nyuk Bae
A high-resolution genetic map that was constructed for the Lf1 -residing region will provide valuable information for map-based cloning and genetic improvement efforts in soybean. Changes in leaf architecture as photosynthesis factories remain a major challenge for the improvement of crop productivity. Unlike most soybeans, which have compound leaves comprising three leaflets, the soybean Lf1 mutant has a high frequency of compound leaves with five leaflets in a partially dominant manner. Here, we generated a fine genetic map to determine the genetic basis of this multifoliolate leaf trait...
May 17, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513104/novelty-seeking-and-reward-dependence-related-large-scale-brain-networks-functional-connectivity-variation-during-salience-expectancy
#20
Shijia Li, Liliana Ramona Demenescu, Catherine M Sweeney-Reed, Anna Linda Krause, Coraline D Metzger, Martin Walter
A salience network (SN) anchored in the anterior insula (AI) and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) plays a key role in switching between brain networks during salience detection and attention regulation. Previous fMRI studies have associated expectancy behaviors and SN activation with novelty seeking (NS) and reward dependence (RD) personality traits. To address the question of how functional connectivity (FC) in the SN is modulated by internal (expectancy-related) salience assignment and different personality traits, 68 healthy participants performed a salience expectancy task using functional magnetic resonance imaging, and psychophysiological interaction analysis (PPI) was conducted to determine salience-related connectivity changes during these anticipation periods...
May 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
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