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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334206/polyploid-species-rely-on-vegetative-reproduction-more-than-diploids-a-re-examination-of-the-old-hypothesis
#1
Tomáš Herben, Jan Suda, Jitka Klimešová
Background and Aims: Polyploidy is arguably the single most important genetic mechanism in plant speciation and diversification. It has been repeatedly suggested that polyploids show higher vegetative reproduction than diploids (to by-pass low fertility after the polyploidization), but there are no rigorous tests of it. Methods: Data were analysed by phylogenetic regressions of clonal growth parameters, and vegetative reproduction in culture on the ploidy status of a large set of species (approx...
February 27, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334139/environmental-filtering-drives-the-shape-and-breadth-of-the-seed-germination-niche-in-coastal-plant-communities
#2
Eduardo Fernández-Pascual, Adrián Pérez-Arcoiza, José Alberto Prieto, Tomás E Díaz
Background and Aims: A phylogenetic comparative analysis of the seed germination niche was conducted in coastal plant communities of western Europe. Two hypotheses were tested, that (1) the germination niche shape (i.e. the preference for a set of germination cues as opposed to another) would differ between beaches and cliffs to prevent seedling emergence in the less favourable season (winter and summer, respectively); and (2) the germination niche breadth (i.e. the amplitude of germination cues) would be narrower in the seawards communities, where environmental filtering is stronger...
February 27, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332746/global-analysis-of-canola-genes-targeted-by-short-hypocotyl-under-blue-1-during-endosperm-and-embryo-development
#3
Huanan Zhang, Feng Cheng, Yu-Guo Xiao, Xiao-Jun Kang, Xiaowu Wang, Rui Kuang, Min Ni
Seed development in dicots undergoes an early endosperm proliferation, followed by the growth of embryo to replace the endosperm. Endosperm proliferation in dicots not only provides nutrient supplies for subsequent embryo development but also enforces a space limitation to influence the final seed size. Overexpression of Arabidopsis SHORT HYPOCOTYL UNDER BLUE1::GUS (SHB1:GUS) in canola produced large seeds. We performed global analysis of canola genes that were expressed and influenced by SHB1 during early endosperm proliferation at 8 days after pollination (DAP) and late embryo development at 13 DAP...
March 23, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331579/an-ssr-based-approach-incorporating-a-novel-algorithm-for-identification-of-rare-maize-genotypes-facilitates-criteria-for-landrace-conservation-in-mexico
#4
Corina Hayano-Kanashiro, Octavio Martínez de la Vega, M Humberto Reyes-Valdés, José-Luis Pons-Hernández, Fernando Hernández-Godinez, Emigdia Alfaro-Laguna, José Luis Herrera-Ayala, Ma Cristina Vega-Sánchez, José Alfredo Carrera-Valtierra, June Simpson
As maize was domesticated in Mexico around 9,000 years ago, local farmers have selected and maintained seed stocks with particular traits and adapted to local conditions. In the present day, many of these landraces are still cultivated; however, increased urbanization and migration from rural areas implies a risk that this invaluable maize germplasm may be lost. In order to implement an efficient mechanism of conservation in situ, the diversity of these landrace populations must be estimated. Development of a method to select the minimum number of samples that would include the maximum number of alleles and identify germplasm harboring rare combinations of particular alleles will also safeguard the efficient ex-situ conservation of this germplasm...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330146/mapping-of-stripe-rust-resistance-qtl-in-cappelle-desprez%C3%A2-%C3%A3-%C3%A2-pbw343-ril-population-effective-in-northern-wheat-belt-of-india
#5
Sushma Kumari Pawar, Davinder Sharma, Joginder Singh Duhan, Mahender Singh Saharan, Ratan Tiwari, Indu Sharma
Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici is most important and devastating disease of wheat worldwide, which affects the grain yields, quality and nutrition. To elucidate, the genetic basis of resistance, a mapping population of recombinant inbred lines was developed from a cross between resistant Cappelle-Desprez and susceptible cultivar PBW343 using single-seed descent. Variety PBW343 had been one of the most popular cultivars of North Western Plains Zone, for more than a decade, before succumbing to the stripe rust...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326434/genetic-architecture-of-male-fertility-restoration-of-triticum-timopheevii-cytoplasm-and-fine-mapping-of-the-major-restorer-locus-rf3-on-chromosome-1b
#6
Tobias Würschum, Willmar L Leiser, Sigrid Weissmann, Hans Peter Maurer
Restoration of fertility in the cytoplasmic male sterility-inducing Triticum timopheevii cytoplasm can be achieved with the major restorer locus Rf3 located on chromosome 1B, but is also dependent on modifier loci. Hybrid breeding relies on a hybrid mechanism enabling a cost-efficient hybrid seed production. In wheat and triticale, cytoplasmic male sterility based on the T. timopheevii cytoplasm is commonly used, and the aim of this study was to dissect the genetic architecture underlying fertility restoration...
March 21, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322089/biological-changes-of-green-pea-pisum-sativum-l-by-selenium-enrichment
#7
Farzaneh Garousi, Béla Kovács, Éva Domokos-Szabolcsy, Szilvia Veres
Supplement of common fertilizers with selenium (Se) for crop production will be an effective way to produce selenium-rich food and feed. The value of green pea seeds and forages as alternative protein source can be improved by using agronomic biofortification. Therefore, biological changes of green pea (Pisum sativum L.) and influences of inorganic forms of Se (sodium selenite and sodium selenate) at different concentrations on the accumulation of magnesium (Mg) and phosphorus (P) were investigated in greenhouse experiment...
March 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317110/atlantic-frugivory-a-plant-frugivore-interaction-dataset-for-the-atlantic-forest
#8
Carolina Bello, Mauro Galetti, Denise Montan, Marco A Pizo, Tatiane C Mariguela, Laurence Culot, Felipe Bufalo, Fabio Labecca, Felipe Pedrosa, Rafaela Constantini, Carine Emer, Wesley R Silva, Fernanda R da Silva, Otso Ovaskainen, Pedro Jordano
The dataset provided here includes 8320 frugivory interactions (records of pairwise interactions between plant and frugivore species) reported for the Atlantic Forest. The dataset includes interactions between 331 vertebrate species (232 birds, 90 mammals, five fishes, one amphibian and three reptiles) and 788 plant species. We also present information on traits directly related to the frugivory process (endozoochory), such as the size of fruits and seeds and the body mass and gape size of frugivores. Data were extracted from 166 published and unpublished sources spanning from 1961 to 2016...
March 19, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316609/shoot-and-root-traits-contribute-to-drought-resistance-in-recombinant-inbred-lines-of-md-23-24-%C3%A3-sea-5-of-common-bean
#9
Jose Polania, Idupulapati M Rao, Cesar Cajiao, Miguel Grajales, Mariela Rivera, Federico Velasquez, Bodo Raatz, Stephen E Beebe
Drought is the major abiotic stress factor limiting yield of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in smallholder systems in Latin America and eastern and southern Africa; where it is a main source of protein in the daily diet. Identification of shoot and root traits associated with drought resistance contributes to improving the process of designing bean genotypes adapted to drought. Field and greenhouse studies were conducted at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Palmira, Colombia to determine the relationship between grain yield and different shoot and root traits using a recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population (MD23-24 × SEA 5) of common bean...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316606/a-comprehensive-phenotypic-investigation-of-the-pod-shattering-syndrome-in-common-bean
#10
Maria L Murgia, Giovanna Attene, Monica Rodriguez, Elena Bitocchi, Elisa Bellucci, Davide Fois, Laura Nanni, Tania Gioia, Diego M Albani, Roberto Papa, Domenico Rau
Seed shattering in crops is a key domestication trait due to its relevance for seed dispersal, yield, and fundamental questions in evolution (e.g., convergent evolution). Here, we focused on pod shattering in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), the most important legume crop for human consuption in the world. With this main aim, we developed a methodological pipeline that comprises a thorough characterization under field conditions, including also the chemical composition and histological analysis of the pod valves...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316076/provenance-by-environment-interaction-of-reproductive-traits-in-the-invasion-of-spartina-alterniflora-in-china
#11
Wenwen Liu, Donald R Strong, Steven C Pennings, Yihui Zhang
Ecological invasions are facilitated by pre-adaptation and phenotypic plasticity, upon which evolution can act. The rapid invasion of the intertidal grass Spartina alterniflora in China during the last 36 years is a test case for the roles of these mechanisms. A previous study of S. alterniflora in China found strong latitudinal clines in vegetative and sexual traits and concluded that most of this variation was due to phenotypic plasticity. Recent observations suggested provenance by environment interactions, and we employed common gardens at multiple latitudes as a test of this idea...
March 17, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314933/major-genes-determining-yield-related-traits-in-wheat-and-barley
#12
REVIEW
Anna Nadolska-Orczyk, Izabela K Rajchel, Wacław Orczyk, Sebastian Gasparis
Current development of advanced biotechnology tools allows us to characterize the role of key genes in plant productivity. The implementation of this knowledge in breeding strategies might accelerate the progress in obtaining high-yielding cultivars. The achievements of the Green Revolution were based on a specific plant ideotype, determined by a single gene involved in gibberellin signaling or metabolism. Compared with the 1950s, an enormous increase in our knowledge about the biological basis of plant productivity has opened new avenues for novel breeding strategies...
March 17, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303636/variation-in-seed-packaging-of-a-fleshy-fruited-conifer-provides-insights-into-the-ecology-and-evolution-of-multi-seeded-fruits
#13
Lucía DeSoto, Rubén Torices, Susana Rodríguez-Echeverría, Cristina Nabais
The study of intraspecific seed packaging (i.e. seed size/number strategy) variation across different populations may allow a better understanding of the ecological forces that drive seed evolution in plants. Juniperus thurifera (Cupressaceae) provides a good model to study this due to the existence of two subspecies differentiated by phenotypic traits, such as seed size and cone seediness (number of seeds inside a cone) across its range. The aim of this study was to analyse seed packaging (seed mass and cone seediness) variation at different scales (subspecies, populations and individuals) and the relationship between cone and seed traits in European and African J...
March 17, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303149/qtl-hotspots-for-early-vigor-and-related-traits-under-dry-direct-seeded-system-in-rice-oryza-sativa-l
#14
Uma M Singh, Shailesh Yadav, Shilpi Dixit, P Janaki Ramayya, M Nagamallika Devi, K Anitha Raman, Arvind Kumar
Strong seedling vigor is desirable trait in dry direct-seeded rice (DSR) for enhancing crop establishment and the ability to compete against weeds. A set of 253 BC3F4 lines derived from cross between Swarna and Moroberekan was phenotyped for early vigor (EV) and 8 related traits viz., early uniform emergence (EUE), shoot length (SHL), stem length (SL), shoot fresh weight (SFW), total fresh weight (TFW), shoot dry weight (SDW), total dry weight (TDW), and root dry weight (RDW). Composite interval mapping analysis using genotypic data from 194 SNP markers identified six genomic regions associated with traits on chromosomes 3, 4, 5, and 6 with phenotypic variance ranging from 2...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303054/genetic-variability-for-iron-and-zinc-as-well-as-antinutrients-affecting-bioavailability-in-black-gram-vigna-mungo-l-hepper
#15
Jagdish Singh, Rajani Kanaujia, A K Srivastava, G P Dixit, N P Singh
The mineral content of pulses is generally high, but the bioavailability is poor due to the presence of phytate and polyphenols which inhibits Fe absorption. In the present study, the genetic variability and heritability for seed Fe and Zn content was studied. The effect of genotypes was significant for all the quality traits indicating presence of enough variability among the blackgram genotypes for the traits. The Fe content in 26 blackgram genotypes ranged from 71.02 to 100.20 ppm, whereas Zn content ranged from 18...
March 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301580/deep-roots-delay-flowering-and-relax-the-impact-of-floral-traits-and-associated-pollinators-in-steppe-plants
#16
Rachda Berrached, Leila Kadik, Hocine Ait Mouheb, Andreas Prinzing
Strong seasonality in abiotic harshness and pollinator availability shape the reproductive success of plants. Plant species can avoid or can tolerate harsh abiotic conditions and can attract different pollinators, but it remains unknown (i) which of these capacities is most important for flowering phenology, (ii) whether tolerance/avoidance of abiotic harshness reinforces or relaxes the phenological differentiation of species attracting different pollinators. We assembled possibly the first functional trait database for a North African steppe covering 104 species...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300078/altered-expression-of-maize-plastochron1-enhances-biomass-and-seed-yield-by-extending-cell-division-duration
#17
Xiaohuan Sun, James Cahill, Tom Van Hautegem, Kim Feys, Clinton Whipple, Ondrej Novák, Sofie Delbare, Charlot Versteele, Kirin Demuynck, Jolien De Block, Veronique Storme, Hannes Claeys, Mieke Van Lijsebettens, Griet Coussens, Karin Ljung, Alex De Vliegher, Michael Muszynski, Dirk Inzé, Hilde Nelissen
Maize is the highest yielding cereal crop grown worldwide for grain or silage. Here, we show that modulating the expression of the maize PLASTOCHRON1 (ZmPLA1) gene, encoding a cytochrome P450 (CYP78A1), results in increased organ growth, seedling vigour, stover biomass and seed yield. The engineered trait is robust as it improves yield in an inbred as well as in a panel of hybrids, at several locations and over multiple seasons in the field. Transcriptome studies, hormone measurements and the expression of the auxin responsive DR5rev:mRFPer marker suggest that PLA1 may function through an increase in auxin...
March 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296913/breeding-jatropha-curcas-by-genomic-selection-a-pilot-assessment-of-the-accuracy-of-predictive-models
#18
Leonardo de Azevedo Peixoto, Bruno Galvêas Laviola, Alexandre Alonso Alves, Tatiana Barbosa Rosado, Leonardo Lopes Bhering
Genomic wide selection is a promising approach for improving the selection accuracy in plant breeding, particularly in species with long life cycles, such as Jatropha. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to estimate the genetic parameters for grain yield (GY) and the weight of 100 seeds (W100S) using restricted maximum likelihood (REML); to compare the performance of GWS methods to predict GY and W100S; and to estimate how many markers are needed to train the GWS model to obtain the maximum accuracy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295817/plasticity-and-innovation-of-regulatory-mechanisms-underlying-seed-oil-content-mediated-by-duplicated-genes-in-the-palaeopolyploid-soybean
#19
Dajian Zhang, Meixia Zhao, Shuai Li, Lianjun Sun, Weidong Wang, Chunmei Cai, Emily C Dierking, Jianxin Ma
Many plants have undergone whole genome duplication (WGD). However, how regulatory networks underlying a particular trait are reshaped in polyploids has not been experimentally investigated. Here we show that the regulatory pathways modulating seed oil content, which involve WRINKLED1 (WRI1), (LEAFY COTYLEDON1) LEC1, and LEC2 in Arabidopsis, have been modified in the palaeopolyploid soybean. Such modifications include functional reduction of GmWRI1b of the GmWRI1a/GmWRI1b homoeologous pair relevant to WRI1, complementary non-allelic dosage effects of the GmLEC1a/GmLEC1b homoeologous pair relevant to LEC1, pseudogenization of the singleton GmLEC2 relevant to LEC2, and the rise of the LEC2-like function of GmABI3b, contrasting to its homoeolog GmABI3a, which maintains the ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3)-like function in modulating seed maturation and dormancy...
March 11, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295656/effect-of-dietary-polyphenol-rich-grape-seed-on-growth-performance-antioxidant-capacity-and-ileal-microflora-in-broiler-chicks
#20
S H Abu Hafsa, S A Ibrahim
In this study, we examined the effect of dietary supplementation with grape seed (GS) on the performance, carcass traits, plasma biochemistry, antioxidant status and ileal microflora in broilers. Experiment diets included a control diet (without additive) and three levels of GS powder (10, 20 and 40 g/kg of diet). Each diet was fed to a total of 300 one-day-old Cobb-500 chicks for 42 days. The addition of 20 g/kg of GS to the basal diet increased final body weight and body weight gain, improved the feed conversion ratio and did not affect feed intake...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
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