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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637346/an-ion-beam-induced-arabidopsis-mutant-with-marked-chromosomal-rearrangement
#1
Ayako N Sakamoto, Vo Thi Thuong Lan, Satoru Fujimoto, Sachihiro Matsunaga, Atsushi Tanaka
Ion beams have been used as an effective tool in mutation breeding for the creation of crops with novel characteristics. Recent analyses have revealed that ion beams induce large chromosomal alterations, in addition to small mutations comprising base changes or frameshifts. In an effort to understand the potential capability of ion beams, we analyzed an Arabidopsis mutant possessing an abnormal genetic trait. The Arabidopsis mutant uvh3-2 is hypersensitive to UVB radiation when photoreactivation is unavailable...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634304/redox-dependent-interaction-between-thaumatin-like-protein-and-%C3%AE-glucan-influences-malting-quality-of-barley
#2
Surinder Singh, Rajiv K Tripathi, Peggy G Lemaux, Bob B Buchanan, Jaswinder Singh
Barley is the cornerstone of the malting and brewing industry. It is known that 250 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of the grain are associated with 19 malting-quality phenotypes. However, only a few of the contributing genetic components have been identified. One of these, on chromosome 4H, contains a major malting QTL, QTL2, located near the telomeric region that accounts, respectively, for 28.9% and 37.6% of the variation in the β-glucan and extract fractions of malt. In the current study, we dissected the QTL2 region using an expression- and microsynteny-based approach...
June 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634255/population-genetic-structure-of-bromus-tectorum-in-the-mountains-of-western-north-america
#3
Spencer Arnesen, Craig E Coleman, Susan E Meyer
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Invasive species are often initially restricted to a narrow range and may then expand through any of multiple mechanisms including phenotypic plasticity, in situ evolution, or selection on traits preadapted for new habitats. Our study used population genetics to explore possible processes by which the highly selfing invasive annual grass Bromus tectorum has expanded into montane environments. METHODS: We used 69 single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers to genotype ca...
June 20, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633353/modulating-role-of-ros-in-re-establishing-desiccation-tolerance-in-germinating-seeds-of-caragana-korshinskii-kom
#4
Long Peng, Sirui Lang, Yu Wang, Hugh W Pritchard, Xiaofeng Wang
In close agreement with visible germination, orthodox seeds lose desiccation tolerance (DT). This trait can be regained under osmotic stress, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, germinating seeds of Caragana korshinskii Kom. were investigated, focusing on the potential modulating roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the re-establishment of DT. Germinating seeds with 2 mm long radicles can be rendered tolerant to desiccation by incubation in a polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution (-1...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633349/colchicine-application-significantly-affects-plant-performance-in-the-second-generation-of-synthetic-polyploids-and-its-effects-vary-between-populations
#5
Zuzana Münzbergová
Background and Aims: Understanding the direct consequences of polyploidization is necessary for assessing the evolutionary significance of this mode of speciation. Previous studies have not studied the degree of between-population variation that occurs due to these effects. Although it is assumed that the effects of the substances that create synthetic polyploids disappear in second-generation synthetic polyploids, this has not been tested. Methods: The direct consequences of polyploidization were assessed and separated from the effects of subsequent evolution in Vicia cracca , a naturally occurring species with diploid and autotetraploid cytotypes...
June 14, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633048/affective-traits-and-history-of-depression-are-related-to-ventral-striatum-connectivity
#6
Sophie R DelDonno, Lisanne M Jenkins, Natania A Crane, Robin Nusslock, Kelly A Ryan, Stewart A Shankman, K Luan Phan, Scott A Langenecker
INTRODUCTION: Studying remitted Major Depressive Disorder (rMDD) facilitates a better understanding of neural mechanisms for risk, given that confounding effects of active symptoms are removed. Disrupted functional connectivity has been reported in multiple networks in MDD. However, no study to date of rMDD has specifically examined connectivity of the ventral striatum (VS), a region highly implicated in reward and motivation. We investigated functional connectivity of the VS in individuals with and without a history of MDD, and in relation to affective personality traits...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630621/development-of-snp-genotyping-assays-for-seed-composition-traits-in-soybean
#7
Gunvant Patil, Juhi Chaudhary, Tri D Vuong, Brian Jenkins, Dan Qiu, Suhas Kadam, Grover J Shannon, Henry T Nguyen
Seed composition is one of the most important determinants of the economic values in soybean. The quality and quantity of different seed components, such as oil, protein, and carbohydrates, are crucial ingredients in food, feed, and numerous industrial products. Soybean researchers have successfully developed and utilized a diverse set of molecular markers for seed trait improvement in soybean breeding programs. It is imperative to design and develop molecular assays that are accurate, robust, high-throughput, cost-effective, and available on a common genotyping platform...
2017: International Journal of Plant Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622646/enhanced-degradation-of-chlorpyrifos-in-rice-oryzasativa-l-by-five-strains-of-endophytic-bacteria-and-their-plant-growth-promotional-ability
#8
Fayun Feng, Jing Ge, Yisong Li, Shuang He, Jianfeng Zhong, Xianjing Liu, Xiangyang Yu
Endophytic bacteria reside in plant tissues, such as roots, stems, leaves and seeds. Most of them can stimulate plant growth or alleviate phytotoxicity of pollutants. There are handful species with dual functions stimulating plant growth and degrading pollutants have been reported. Five endophytic bacteria were isolated from chlorpyrifos (CP) treated rice plants and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain RRA, Bacillus megaterium strain RRB, Sphingobacterium siyangensis strain RSA, Stenotrophomonas pavanii strain RSB and Curtobacterium plantarum strain RSC according to morphological characteristics, physiological and biochemical tests, and 16S rDNA phylogeny...
June 3, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620406/next-generation-sequencing-from-bulked-segregant-analysis-accelerates-the-simultaneous-identification-of-two-qualitative-genes-in-soybean
#9
Jian Song, Zhen Li, Zhangxiong Liu, Yong Guo, Li-Juan Qiu
Next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based bulked-segregant analysis (BSA) approaches have been proven successful for rapidly mapping genes in plant species. However, most such methods are based on mutants and usually only one gene controlling the mutant phenotype is identified. In this study, NGS-based BSA was employed to map simultaneously two qualitative genes controlling cotyledon color of seed in soybean. Yellow-cotyledon (YC) and green-cotyledon (GC) bulks from progenies of a biparental population (Zhonghuang 30 × Jiyu 102) were sequenced...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616170/variation-in-species-level-plant-functional-traits-over-wetland-indicator-status-categories
#10
Miles E McCoy-Sulentic, Thomas E Kolb, David M Merritt, Emily C Palmquist, Barbara E Ralston, Daniel A Sarr
Wetland indicator status (WIS) describes the habitat affinity of plant species and is used in wetland delineations and resource inventories. Understanding how species-level functional traits vary across WIS categories may improve designations, elucidate mechanisms of adaptation, and explain habitat optima and niche. We investigated differences in species-level traits of riparian flora across WIS categories, extending their application to indicate hydrologic habitat. We measured or compiled data on specific leaf area (SLA), stem specific gravity (SSG), seed mass, and mature height of 110 plant species that occur along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613378/genetic-diversity-of-desmanthus-sp-accessions-using-issr-markers-and-morphological-traits
#11
J C Costa, G G M Fracetto, F J C Fracetto, M V F Santos, M A Lira Júnior
Desmanthus is a genus of forage legumes with high nutritional value, productive potential, and ability to obtain nitrogen in association with diazotrophic bacteria. The use of accurate techniques for genotype identification and characterization is essential for breeding programs. Morphological markers are widely used to know the genetic diversity and the molecular markers are fundamental in these studies. We investigated the genetic diversity among Desmanthus sp genotypes in Pernambuco (Brazilian Northeast State), using morphological traits and ISSR markers...
May 31, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612030/effect-of-gamma-rays-on-sophora-davidii-and-detection-of-dna-polymorphism-through-issr-marker
#12
Puchang Wang, Yu Zhang, Lili Zhao, Bentian Mo, Tianqiong Luo
Sophora davidii (Franch.) Kom. ex Pavol is an important medicinal plant and a feeding scrub with ecological value. The effects of different gamma irradiation doses (20-140 Kr) on seed germination and seedling morphology were investigated in S. davidii, and intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were used to identify the DNA polymorphism among mutants. Significant variations were observed for seed germination, stem diameter, and number of branches per plant. The improved agronomic traits, such as stem diameter and number of branches per plant, were recorded at 80 Kr dose and 20 Kr dose for seed germination...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611807/size-and-reproductive-traits-rather-than-leaf-economic-traits-explain-plant-community-composition-in-species-rich-annual-vegetation-along-a-gradient-of-land-use-intensity
#13
Inga Dirks, Rita Dumbur, Patrick Lienin, Michael Kleyer, José M Grünzweig
Agricultural land use imposes a major disturbance on ecosystems worldwide, thus greatly modifying the taxonomic and functional composition of plant communities. However, mechanisms of community assembly, as assessed by plant functional traits, are not well known for dryland ecosystems under agricultural disturbance. Here we investigated trait responses to disturbance intensity and availability of resources to identify the main drivers of changes in composition of semiarid communities under diverging land use intensities...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611796/identification-of-important-physiological-traits-and-moderators-that-are-associated-with-improved-salt-tolerance-in-cbl-and-cipk-overexpressors-through-a-meta-analysis
#14
Yuanchun Ma, Qunkang Cheng, Zongming Cheng, Hui Li, Youhong Chang, Jing Lin
The CBL-CIPK pathway is a plant-specific Ca(2+) sensor relaying pathway that has been shown to be involved in plant response to salt stress. Over-expression of CBL-CIPK network genes has been reported to increase salt tolerance in many studies. The studies on the overexpression of CBL-CIPK network genes, however, have used various indices to evaluate the effect of these genes on salt tolerance and have indicated a variety of roles for the major CBL-CIPK pathway genes. Therefore, it is of great interest to analyze the various effects resulting from the overexpression CBL-CIPK pathway genes and their relation to salt tolerance...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611791/regional-association-analysis-of-metaqtls-delineates-candidate-grain-size-genes-in-rice
#15
Anurag V Daware, Rishi Srivastava, Ashok K Singh, Swarup K Parida, Akhilesh K Tyagi
Molecular mapping studies which aim to identify genetic basis of diverse agronomic traits are vital for marker-assisted crop improvement. Numerous Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) mapped in rice span long genomic intervals with hundreds to thousands of genes, which limits their utilization for marker-assisted genetic enhancement of rice. Although potent, fine mapping of QTLs is challenging task as it requires screening of large number of segregants to identify suitable recombination events. Association mapping offers much higher resolution as compared to QTL mapping, but detects considerable number of spurious QTLs...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610733/comparison-of-fortified-sfursat-and-passito-wines-produced-from-fresh-and-dehydrated-grapes-of-aromatic-black-cv-moscato-nero-vitis-vinifera-l
#16
Carolina Ossola, Simone Giacosa, Fabrizio Torchio, Susana Río Segade, Alberto Caudana, Enzo Cagnasso, Vincenzo Gerbi, Luca Rolle
Moscato nero d'Acqui is an Italian aromatic black winegrape variety characterized by a low content of anthocyanins (mostly tri-substituted), a satisfactory content of high molecular mass tannins, and a fair amount of terpenes. The grapes were subjected to a postharvest dehydration process under controlled thermohygrometric conditions (16-18°C, 55-70 RH%, 0.6m/s air speed) with the aim to produce three different special wine types (fortified, sfursat, and passito) from fresh, partially dehydrated (27°Brix), and withered (36°Brix) grapes, respectively...
August 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608227/bimodality-of-stable-and-plastic-traits-in-plants
#17
Josef Fisher, Elad Bensal, Dani Zamir
We discovered an unexpected mode of bimodal distribution of stable and plastic traits, which was consistent for homologous traits of 32 varieties of seven species both in well-irrigated fields and dry conditions. We challenged archived genetic mapping data for 36 fruit, seed, flower and yield traits in tomato and found an unexpected bimodal distribution in one measure of trait variability, the mean coefficient of variation, with some traits being consistently more variable than others. To determine the degree of conservation of this distribution among higher plants, we compared 18 homologous phenotypes, including yield and seed production, across different crop species grown in a common 'crop garden' experiment...
June 12, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607357/genome-wide-association-study-of-outcrossing-in-cytoplasmic-male-sterile-lines-of-rice
#18
Liang Guo, Fulin Qiu, Harish Gandhi, Suresh Kadaru, Erik Jon De Asis, Jieyun Zhuang, Fangming Xie
Stigma exsertion and panicle enclosure of male sterile lines are two key determinants of outcrossing in hybrid rice seed production. Based on 43,394 single nucleotide polymorphism markers, 217 cytoplasmic male sterile lines were assigned into two subpopulations and a mixed-group where the linkage disequilibrium decay distances varied from 975 to 2,690 kb. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were performed for stigma exsertion rate (SE), panicle enclosure rate (PE) and seed-setting rate (SSR). A total of 154 significant association signals (P < 0...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605980/indoleacetic-acid-production-and-plant-growth-promoting-potential-of-bacterial-endophytes-isolated-from-rice-oryza-sativa-l-seeds
#19
Raheem Shahzad, Muhammad Waqas, Abdul Latif Khan, Khadija Al-Hosni, Sang-Mo Kang, Chang-Woo Seo, In-Jung Lee
Bacterial endophytes from the phyllosphere and rhizosphere have been used to produce bioactive metabolites and to promote plant growth. However, little is known about the endophytes residing in seeds. This study aimed to isolate and identify seed-borne bacterial endophytes from rice and elucidate their potential for phytohormone production and growth enhancement. The isolated endophytes included Micrococcus yunnanensis RWL-2, Micrococcus luteus RWL-3, Enterobacter soli RWL-4, Leclercia adecarboxylata RWL-5, Pantoea dispersa RWL-6, and Staphylococcus epidermidis RWL-7, which were identified using 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis...
June 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604820/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-provides-insights-into-molecular-mechanisms-for-parthenocarpic-fruit-development-in-eggplant-solanum-melongena-l
#20
Xia Chen, Min Zhang, Jie Tan, Shuping Huang, Chunli Wang, Hongyuan Zhang, Taiming Tan
Genetic control of parthenocarpy, a desirable trait in edible fruit with hard seeds, has been extensively studied. However, the molecular mechanism of parthenocarpic fruit development in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is still unclear. To provide insights into eggplant parthenocarpy, the transcriptomic profiles of a natural parthenocarpic (PP05) and two non-parthenocarpic (PnP05 and GnP05) eggplant lines were analyzed using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) technology. These sequences were assembled into 38925 unigenes, of which 22683 had an annotated function and 3419 were predicted as novel genes or from alternative splicing...
2017: PloS One
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