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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922405/assessment-on-induced-genetic-variability-and-divergence-in-the-mutagenized-lentil-populations-of-microsperma-and-macrosperma-cultivars-developed-using-physical-and-chemical-mutagenesis
#1
Rafiul Amin Laskar, Samiullah Khan
Induced mutagenesis was employed to create genetic variation in the lentil cultivars for yield improvement. The assessments were made on genetic variability, character association, and genetic divergence among the twelve mutagenized populations and one parent population of each of the two lentil cultivars, developed by single and combination treatments with gamma rays and hydrazine hydrates. Analysis of variance revealed significant inter-population differences for the observed quantitative phenotypic traits...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921766/effects-of-zoochory-on-the-spatial-genetic-structure-of-plant-populations
#2
Tiziana A Gelmi-Candusso, Eckhard W Heymann, Katrin Heer
Spatial genetic structure (SGS) of plants results from the non-random distribution of related individuals. SGS provides information on gene flow and spatial patterns of genetic diversity within populations. Seed dispersal creates the spatial template for plant distribution. Thus, in zoochorous plants, dispersal mode and disperser behavior might have a strong impact on SGS. However, many studies only report the taxonomic group of seed dispersers, without further details. The recent increase in studies on SGS provides the opportunity to review findings and test for the influence of dispersal mode, taxonomic affiliation of dispersers and their behavior...
September 16, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917144/silicon-improves-seed-germination-and-alleviates-drought-stress-in-lentil-crops-by-regulating-osmolytes-hydrolytic-enzymes-and-antioxidant-defense-system
#3
Sajitha Biju, Sigfredo Fuentes, Dorin Gupta
Silicon (Si) has been widely reported to have beneficial effect on mitigating drought stress in plants. However, the effect of Si on seed germination under drought conditions is still poorly understood. This research was carried out to ascertain the role of Si to abate polyethylene glycol-6000 mediated drought stress on seed germination and seedling growth of lentil. Results showed that drought stress significantly decreased the seed germination traits and increased the concentration of osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine and soluble sugars), reactive oxygen species (hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion) and lipid peroxides in lentil seedlings...
September 5, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904775/how-shrub-encroachment-under-climate-change-could-threaten-pollination-services-for-alpine-wildflowers-a-case-study-using-the-alpine-skypilot-polemonium-viscosum
#4
Jessica A Kettenbach, Nicole Miller-Struttmann, Zoë Moffett, Candace Galen
Under climate change, shrubs encroaching into high altitude plant communities disrupt ecosystem processes. Yet effects of encroachment on pollination mutualisms are poorly understood. Here, we probe potential fitness impacts of interference from encroaching Salix (willows) on pollination quality of the alpine skypilot, Polemonium viscosum. Overlap in flowering time of Salix and Polemonium is a precondition for interference and was surveyed in four extant and 25 historic contact zones. Pollinator sharing was ascertained from observations of willow pollen on bumble bees visiting Polemonium flowers and on Polemonium pistils...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904774/phenotypic-differentiation-of-the-solidago-virgaurea-complex-along-an-elevational-gradient-insights-from-a-common-garden-experiment-and-population-genetics
#5
Masaaki Hirano, Shota Sakaguchi, Koichi Takahashi
Plant species distributed along wide elevational or latitudinal gradients show phenotypic variation due to their heterogeneous habitats. This study investigated whether phenotypic variation in populations of the Solidago virgaurea complex along an elevational gradient is caused by genetic differentiation. A common garden experiment was based on seeds collected from nine populations of the S. virgaurea complex growing at elevations from 1,597 m to 2,779 m a.s.l. on Mt. Norikura in central Japan. Population genetic analyses with microsatellite markers were used to infer the genetic structure and levels of gene flow between populations...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903734/transcriptomic-profiling-of-genes-in-matured-dimorphic-seeds-of-euhalophyte-suaeda-salsa
#6
Yange Xu, Yuanqin Zhao, Huimin Duan, Na Sui, Fang Yuan, Jie Song
BACKGROUND: Suaeda salsa (S. salsa) is a euhalophyte with high economic value. S. salsa can produce dimorphic seeds. Brown seeds are more salt tolerant, can germinate quickly and maintain the fitness of the species under high saline conditions. Black seeds are less salt tolerant, may become part of the seed bank and germinate when soil salinity is reduced. Previous reports have mainly focused on the ecophysiological traits of seed germination and production under saline conditions in this species...
September 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902454/early-flowering-and-rapid-grain-filling-determine-early-maturity-and-escape-from-harvesting-in-weedy-rice
#7
Can Zhao, Wenrong Xu, Song Xiaoling, Weimin Dai, Lei Dai, Zheng Zhang, Qiang Sheng
BACKGROUND: Early maturity is an important trait that is essential to the survival of weedy rice. To explore the mechanism of early maturity in weedy rice, the reproductive development of a large sample of weedy rice accessions and cultivars was compared in a common garden study. A selected sample of both weedy and cultivated rices was sown at different dates in two years to study in more detail their flowering and grain filling patterns. RESULTS: The weedy rice from three major cropping regions matured 7-8 d earlier than their associated cultivars...
September 13, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900434/contrasting-effects-of-extreme-drought-and-snowmelt-patterns-on-mountain-plants-along-an-elevation-gradient
#8
Sergey Rosbakh, Annette Leingärtner, Bernhard Hoiss, Jochen Krauss, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter, Peter Poschlod
Despite the evidence that increased frequency and magnitude of extreme climate events (ECE) considerably affect plant performance, there is still a lack of knowledge about how these events affect mountain plant biodiversity and mountain ecosystem functioning. Here, we assessed the short-term (one vegetation period) effects of simulated ECEs [extreme drought (DR), advanced and delayed snowmelt (AD and DE), respectively] on the performance of 42 plant species occurring in the Bavarian Alps (Germany) along an elevational gradient of 600-2000 m a...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900432/assessing-and-exploiting-functional-diversity-in-germplasm-pools-to-enhance-abiotic-stress-adaptation-and-yield-in-cereals-and-food-legumes
#9
REVIEW
Sangam L Dwivedi, Armin Scheben, David Edwards, Charles Spillane, Rodomiro Ortiz
There is a need to accelerate crop improvement by introducing alleles conferring host plant resistance, abiotic stress adaptation, and high yield potential. Elite cultivars, landraces and wild relatives harbor useful genetic variation that needs to be more easily utilized in plant breeding. We review genome-wide approaches for assessing and identifying alleles associated with desirable agronomic traits in diverse germplasm pools of cereals and legumes. Major quantitative trait loci and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with desirable agronomic traits have been deployed to enhance crop productivity and resilience...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900140/seed-germination-of-caragana-species-from-different-regions-is-strongly-driven-by-environmental-cues-and-not-phylogenetic-signals
#10
Xiang-Wen Fang, Juan-Juan Zhang, Dang-Hui Xu, Jiayin Pang, Tian-Peng Gao, Chun-Hui Zhang, Feng-Min Li, Neil C Turner
Seed germination behavior is an important factor in the distribution of species. Many studies have shown that germination is controlled by phylogenetic constraints, however, it is not clear whether phylogenetic constraints or environmental cues explain seed germination of a genus from a common ancestor. In this study, seed germination under different temperature- and water-regimes [induced by different osmotic potentials of polyethylene glycol (PEG)] was investigated in the phylogenetically-related Caragana species that thrive in arid, semiarid, semihumid and humid environments...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895046/characterization-of-cadmium-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-mcc-3091-promoted-rice-seedling-growth-by-alleviating-phytotoxicity-of-cadmium
#11
Krishnendu Pramanik, Soumik Mitra, Anumita Sarkar, Tithi Soren, Tushar Kanti Maiti
Cadmium (Cd) phytotoxicity in agricultural land is a major global concern now-a-days resulting in very poor yield. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR)-mediated bioremediation is one of the convenient strategies for detoxification of Cd from the soil and for plant growth promotion under Cd stress. The selected strain K5 was identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae based on MALDI-TOF MS ribosomal protein and 16S rDNA sequence-based homology. The strain possessed several PGP traits viz. IAA production (3413 μg/mL), phosphate solubilization (80...
September 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893189/differentially-expressed-genes-during-the-imbibition-of-dormant-and-after-ripened-seeds-a-reverse-genetics-approach
#12
Farzaneh Yazdanpanah, Johannes Hanson, Henk W M Hilhorst, Leónie Bentsink
BACKGROUND: Seed dormancy, defined as the incapability of a viable seed to germinate under favourable conditions, is an important trait in nature and agriculture. Despite extensive research on dormancy and germination, many questions about the molecular mechanisms controlling these traits remain unanswered, likely due to its genetic complexity and the large environmental effects which are characteristic of these quantitative traits. To boost research towards revealing mechanisms in the control of seed dormancy and germination we depend on the identification of genes controlling those traits...
September 11, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892151/the-genetic-breakdown-of-sporophytic-self-incompatibility-in-tolpis-coronopifolia-asteraceae
#13
Boryana Koseva, Daniel J Crawford, Keely E Brown, Mark E Mort, John K Kelly
Angiosperm diversity has been shaped by mating system evolution, with the most common transition from outcrossing to self-fertilizing. To investigate the genetic basis of this transition, we performed crosses between two species endemic to the Canary Islands, the self-compatible (SC) species Tolpis coronopifolia and its self-incompatible (SI) relative Tolpis santosii. We scored self-compatibility as self-seed set of recombinant plants within two F2 populations. To map and genetically characterize the breakdown of SI, we built a draft genome sequence of T...
September 11, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887653/rodent-herbivory-differentially-affects-mortality-rates-of-14-native-plant-species-with-contrasting-life-history-and-growth-form-traits
#14
Tiffanny R Sharp Bowman, Brock R McMillan, Samuel B St Clair
Ecosystems are transformed by changes in disturbance regimes including wildfire and herbivory. Rodent consumers can have strong top-down effects on plant community assembly through seed predation, but their impacts on post-germination seedling establishment via seedling herbivory need better characterization, particularly in deserts. To test the legacy effects of fire history, and native rodent consumers on seedling establishment, we evaluated factorial combinations of experimental exclusion of rodents and fire history (burned vs...
September 8, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887557/identification-of-purple-acid-phosphatases-in-chickpea-and-potential-roles-of-capap7-in-seed-phytate-accumulation
#15
Jyoti Bhadouria, Ajit Pal Singh, Poonam Mehra, Lokesh Verma, Rishi Srivastawa, Swarup K Parida, Jitender Giri
Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) play important roles in phosphate (Pi) acquisition and utilization. These PAPs hydrolyze organic Phosphorus (P) containing compounds in rhizosphere as well as inside the plant cell. However, roles of PAPs in one of the most widely cultivated legumes, chickpea (Cicer arietnum L.), have not been unraveled so far. In the present study, we identified 25 putative PAPs in chickpea (CaPAPs) which possess functional PAP motifs and domains. Differential regulation of CaPAPs under different nutrient deficiencies revealed their roles under multiple nutrient stresses including Pi deficiency...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886910/challenges-towards-revitalizing-hemp-a-multifaceted-crop
#16
REVIEW
Craig Schluttenhofer, Ling Yuan
Hemp has been an important crop throughout human history for food, fiber, and medicine. Despite significant progress made by the international research community, the basic biology of hemp plants remains insufficiently understood. Clear objectives are needed to guide future research. As a semi-domesticated plant, hemp has many desirable traits that require improvement, including eliminating seed shattering, enhancing the quantity and quality of stem fiber, and increasing the accumulation of phytocannabinoids...
September 5, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883825/seed-carotenoid-and-tocochromanol-composition-of-wild-fabaceae-species-is-shaped-by-phylogeny-and-ecological-factors
#17
Beatriz Fernández-Marín, Fátima Míguez, Leire Méndez-Fernández, Agustí Agut, José M Becerril, José I García-Plazaola, Ilse Kranner, Louise Colville
Carotenoids distribution and function in seeds have been very scarcely studied, notwithstanding their pivotal roles in plants that include photosynthesis and phytohormone synthesis, pigmentation, membrane stabilization and antioxidant activity. Their relationship with tocochromanols, whose critical role in maintaining seed viability has already been evidenced, and with chlorophylls, whose retention in mature seed is thought to have negative effects on storability, remain also unexplored. Here, we aimed at elucidating seed carotenoids relationship with tocochromanols and chlorophylls with regard to phylogenetic and ecological traits and at understanding their changes during germination...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878785/phenotypic-stability-of-zea-mays-grain-yield-and-its-attributing-traits-under-drought-stress
#18
Fawad Ali, Muhammad Ahsan, Qurban Ali, Naila Kanwal
Phenotypic stability under stress environment facilitate the fitness of genotype and opens new horizons to explore the cryptic genetic variation. Variation in tolerance to drought stress, a major grain yield constraint to global maize production, was identified, at the phenotypic and genotypic level. Here we found a prominent hybrid H9 that showed fitness over four growing seasons for grain yield under water stress conditions. Genotypic and phenotypic correlation of yield attributing traits over four seasons demonstrated that cobs per plant, 100 seed weight, number of grains rows per cob, total dry matter, cob diameter had positive association (r(2) = 0...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878505/analysis-of-an-intraspecific-ril-population-uncovers-genomic-segments-harbouring-multiple-qtl-for-seed-relevant-traits-in-lentil-lens-culinaris-l
#19
Rintu Jha, Abhishek Bohra, Uday Chand Jha, Maneet Rana, Rakesh Kumar Chahota, Shiv Kumar, Tilak Raj Sharma
Improving seed related traits remains key objective in lentil breeding. In recent years, genomic resources have shown great promise to accelerate crop improvement. However, limited genomic resources in lentil greatly restrict the use of genomics assisted breeding. The present investigation aims to build an intraspecific genetic linkage map and identify the QTL associated with important seed relevant traits using 94 recombinant inbreds (WA 8649090 × Precoz). A total of 288 polymorphic DNA markers including simple sequence repeat (SSR), inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) were assayed on mapping population...
July 2017: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873690/nutritional-compound-analysis-and-morphological-characterization-of-spider-plant-cleome-gynandra-an-african-indigenous-leafy-vegetable
#20
Emmanuel O Omondi, Christof Engels, Godfrey Nambafu, Monika Schreiner, Susanne Neugart, Mary Abukutsa-Onyango, Traud Winkelmann
Spider plant is among the important indigenous African leafy vegetables having the potential to contribute to food and nutritional security in sub-Saharan Africa. The main objective of this study was to quantify the mineral concentration, to identify and quantify glucosinolates and flavonoids in spider plant and further to characterize spider plant entries using important morphological traits. Thirty spider plant entries from different African countries, comprising of farmers' cultivars, gene bank accessions and advanced lines were grown in a field experiment and harvested for leaves, stems, flowers and siliques at different developmental stages...
October 2017: Food Research International
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