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Uremic toxins

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780075/prognostic-utility-of-indoxyl-sulfate-for-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndrome
#1
Ippei Watanabe, Junko Tatebe, Takahiro Fujii, Ryota Noike, Daiga Saito, Hideki Koike, Takayuki Yabe, Ryo Okubo, Rine Nakanishi, Hideo Amano, Mikihito Toda, Takanori Ikeda, Toshisuke Morita
AIM: We investigated whether indoxyl sulfate (IS), a protein-bound uremic toxin, predicts prognosis after acute coronary syndrome (ACS). METHODS: Serum IS level was determined prospectively in 98 patients who underwent successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ACS. Patients on hemodialysis were excluded. The endpoint of this study was six-month composite events including death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, heart failure requiring hospitalization, and adverse bleeding events...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779028/dietary-changes-involving-bifidobacterium-longum-and-other-nutrients-delays-chronic-kidney-disease-progression
#2
Yuko Iwashita, Masaki Ohya, Mitsuru Yashiro, Tomohiro Sonou, Kazuki Kawakami, Yuri Nakashima, Takuro Yano, Yu Iwashita, Toru Mima, Shigeo Negi, Kaoru Kubo, Koichi Tomoda, Toshitaka Odamaki, Takashi Shigematsu
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that prebiotic and/or probiotic treatments ameliorate kidney function in humans and animals by improving the gut environment. However, the gut microbiota and kidney disease interactions remain to be determined. This study investigated whether synbiotics modulate the gut microbiota and ameliorate kidney function using a rat model of chronic kidney disease (CKD). As uremic toxins are associated with CKD-related mineral and bone disorder, the secondary aim was to evaluate the relationship between synbiotics and secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT)...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774464/eculizumab-in-stec-hus-need-for-a-proper-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Sebastian Loos, Jun Oh, Markus J Kemper
Hemolytic uremic syndrome caused by Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC-HUS) is often associated with a severe morbidity including neurological involvement and a mortality of 1-5%. Although STEC-HUS is often self-limited, improvement of treatment strategies is needed for cases with complications and, among others, plasma exchange/plasmapheresis and use of antibiotics have been advocated. With the availability of the complement blocker eculizumab, now a standard treatment of atypical HUS, several series have addressed its use in STEC-HUS, with variable response; randomized controlled trials are lacking...
May 17, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772737/distal-colon-motor-dysfunction-in-mice-with-chronic-kidney-disease-putative-role-of-uremic-toxins
#4
Elsa Hoibian, Nans Florens, Laetitia Koppe, Hubert Vidal, Christophe O Soulage
Although gastrointestinal complications are a common feature of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), the impact of uremia on bowel motility remains poorly understood. The present study was, therefore, designed to investigate the impact of uremia on gut motility. Kidney failure was induced in mice by chemical nephrectomy using an adenine diet (0.25% w/w ). Gastrointestinal transit time and colon motility were explored in vivo and ex vivo . Colons from control mice were incubated with uremic plasma or uremic toxins (urea, indoxyl-sulfate or p-cresyl-sulfate) at concentrations encountered in patients with end-stage renal disease...
May 16, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772660/role-of-uremic-toxins-for-kidney-cardiovascular-and-bone-dysfunction
#5
REVIEW
Hideki Fujii, Shunsuke Goto, Masafumi Fukagawa
With decreasing kidney function, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mineral bone disorders frequently emerge in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). For these patients, in addition to the traditional risk factors, non-traditional CKD-specific risk factors are also associated with such diseases and conditions. One of these non-traditional risk factors is the accumulation of uremic toxins (UTs). In addition, the accumulation of UTs further deteriorates kidney function. Recently, a huge number of UTs have been identified...
May 16, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770083/an-outbreak-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-o121-infections-associated-with-flour-canada-2016-2017-%C3%A2
#6
V Morton, J M Cheng, D Sharma, A Kearney
As of May 23, 2017, 29 cases of a new Escherichia coli O121 infection have been identified in six provinces (Alberta, British Columbia, Newfoundland and Labrador, Ontario, Quebec and Saskatchewan) linked with the consumption of uncooked flour. One additional case was identified in a U.S. resident who traveled to Canada during the exposure period. Patients' ages ranged from 2-79 years (median = 23.5 years) and 50% were female. Eight patients were hospitalized, and one developed hemolytic uremic syndrome. Because of the recent emergence of E...
July 6, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768958/bevacizumab-induced-atypical-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-and-treatment-with-eculizumab
#7
Anusha Vakiti, Daulath Singh, Ravi Pilla, Muhamad A Moustafa, Kelly W Fitzpatrick
Bevacizumab (Avastin) is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody used for the management of various solid malignancies including colorectal, lung, brain, renal, and ovarian cancers as well as age-related macular degeneration of the eye. It is a vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor which exhibits its action by blocking the growth of blood vessels in cancerous tissue. Common side effects include hypertension, fatigue, headaches, and increased risk of infections. Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome is a serious side effect associated with bevacizumab due to its anti-angiogenic effect...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767854/emerging-association-between-parathyroid-hormone-and-anemia-in-hemodialysis-patients
#8
REVIEW
Motoko Tanaka, Hirotaka Komaba, Masafumi Fukagawa
Anemia is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD). There are various causes of renal anemia such as decreased production of erythropoietin, resistance to erythropoietin, shortened survival of red blood cells, and bone marrow fibrosis. Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is a less recognized, but potentially significant cause of renal anemia in CKD patients. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) has been regarded as a uremic toxin that has multiple adverse effects, and its elevated levels have been associated with renal anemia in hemodialysis patients...
May 16, 2018: Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765909/shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-infection-in-j%C3%A3-nk%C3%A3-ping-county-sweden-occurrence-and-molecular-characteristics-in-correlation-with-clinical-symptoms-and-duration-of-stx-shedding
#9
Xiangning Bai, Sara Mernelius, Cecilia Jernberg, Ing-Marie Einemo, Stefan Monecke, Ralf Ehricht, Sture Löfgren, Andreas Matussek
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) cause bloody diarrhea (BD), hemorrhagic colitis (HC), and even hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). In Nordic countries, STEC are widely spread and usually associated with gastrointestinal symptoms and HUS. The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of STEC in Swedish patients over 10 years of age from 2003 through 2015, and to analyze the correlation of critical STEC virulence factors with clinical symptoms and duration of stx shedding. Diarrheal stool samples were screened for presence of stx by real-time PCR...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764003/a-bioartificial-kidney-device-with-polarized-secretion-of-immune-modulators
#10
N V Chevtchik, M Mihajlovic, M Fedecostante, L Bolhuis-Versteeg, J Sastre Toraño, R Masereeuw, D Stamatialis
The accumulation of protein-bound toxins in dialyzed patients is strongly associated with their high morbidity and mortality. The bioartificial kidney device (BAK), containing proximal tubule epithelial cells (PTEC) seeded on functionalized synthetic hollow fiber membranes (HFM), may be a powerful solution for the active removal of those metabolites. In an earlier study, we developed an upscaled BAK containing conditionally immortalized human PTEC (ciPTEC) with functional organic cationic transporter 2 (OCT2)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758204/association-between-hippuric-acid-and-left-ventricular-hypertrophy-in-maintenance-hemodialysis-patients
#11
Teng-Hung Yu, Wei-Hua Tang, Yung-Chuan Lu, Chao-Ping Wang, Wei-Chin Hung, Cheng-Ching Wu, I-Ting Tsai, Fu-Mei Chung, Jer-Yiing Houng, Wen-Chun Lan, Yau-Jiunn Lee
BACKGROUND: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is one of the most common cardiac abnormalities in patients with end-stage renal disease. Hippuric acid (HA), a harmful uremic toxin, is known to be elevated in patients with uremia, and serum HA levels are associated with neurological symptoms, metabolic acidosis, and accelerated renal damage associated with chronic kidney disease. However, the pathophysiological role of HA in patients with uremia remains unclear. We investigated the association between serum HA levels and echocardiographic measurements in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) treatment...
May 11, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753400/updates-on-the-mechanisms-and-the-care-of-cardiovascular-calcification-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#12
REVIEW
Lucie Hénaut, Jean-Marc Chillon, Saïd Kamel, Ziad A Massy
In chronic kidney disease (CKD), the progressive decrease in renal function leads to disturbances of mineral metabolism that generally cause secondary hyperparathyroidism. The increase in serum parathyroid hormone is associated with reduced serum calcium and calcitriol levels and/or increased serum fibroblast growth factor-23 and phosphate levels. The resulting CKD-associated disorder of mineral and bone metabolism is associated with various other metabolic dysregulations such as acidosis, malnutrition, inflammation, and accumulation of uremic toxins...
May 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752692/understanding-and-therapeutic-strategies-of-chinese-medicine-on-gut-derived-uremic-toxins-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#13
Chuan Guo, Xiang-Rong Rao
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major disease that threatens human health. With the progression of CKD, the risk of cardiovascular death increases, which is associated with the elevated levels of uremic toxins (UTs). Representative toxins such as indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate are involed in CKD progression and cardiovascular events inseparable from the key role of endothelial dysfunction. The therapeutic strategies of UTs are aimed at signaling pathways that target the levels and damage of toxins in modern medicine...
May 11, 2018: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743417/impact-of-indoxyl-sulfate-on-coronary-plaques-in-patients-on-hemodialysis
#14
Masahiko Asami, Kengo Tanabe, Shunsuke Ito, Eri Yoshida, Jiro Aoki, Shuzou Tanimoto, Yu Horiuchi, Masayuki Yoshida
Serum indoxyl sulfate (IS; a uremic toxin) levels, which are significantly higher in patients with chronic kidney disease, including those undergoing hemodialysis, than in the robust, are associated with both cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CVD-related mortality. Furthermore, coronary artery calcium (CAC) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events in patients undergoing hemodialysis. This study aimed to interpret the association between serum IS levels and coronary plaque burden (CPB) or CAC.A total of 30 consecutive patients on hemodialysis, who underwent 320-row coronary multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) angiography for suspected coronary artery disease, were enrolled in this prospective study...
May 9, 2018: International Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735067/survival-and-interaction-of-escherichia-coli-o104-h4-on-arabidopsis-thaliana-and-lettuce-lactuca-sativa-in-comparison-to-e-coli-o157-h7-influence-of-plant-defense-response-and-bacterial-capsular-polysaccharide
#15
Hyein Jang, Karl R Matthews
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) has been associated with illnesses and outbreaks linked to fresh vegetables, prompting a growing public health concern. Most studies regarding interactions of STEC on fresh produce focused on E. coli O157:H7. Limited information is available about survival or fitness of E. coli O104:H4, non-O157 pathogen that was linked to one of the largest outbreaks of hemolytic uremic syndrome in 2011. In this study, survival of E. coli O104:H4 was evaluated on Arabidopsis thaliana plant and lettuce for 5 days compared with E...
June 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734669/co-administration-of-melatonin-effectively-enhances-the-therapeutic-effects-of-pioglitazone-on-mesenchymal-stem-cells-undergoing-indoxyl-sulfate-induced-senescence-through-modulation-of-cellular-prion-protein-expression
#16
Yong Seok Han, Sang Min Kim, Jun Hee Lee, Sang Hun Lee
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising source for regenerative medicine. However, their therapeutic potential in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is restricted by the presence of uremic toxins. To address this limitation, we explored the protective effect of melatonin and pioglitazone on MSCs undergoing senescence induced by the uremic toxin, indoxyl sulfate (IS). METHODS: MSC senescence was induced by IS, and the therapeutic effects of melatonin and pioglitazone were identified...
May 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725935/gut-microbiota-derived-metabolites-in-cardiovascular-health-and-disease
#17
REVIEW
Zeneng Wang, Yongzhong Zhao
Trillions of microbes inhabit the human gut, not only providing nutrients and energy to the host from the ingested food, but also producing metabolic bioactive signaling molecules to maintain health and elicit disease, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). CVD is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. In this review, we presented gut microbiota derived metabolites involved in cardiovascular health and disease, including trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), uremic toxins, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), phytoestrogens, anthocyanins, bile acids and lipopolysaccharide...
May 3, 2018: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723817/extracellular-matrix-coated-polyethersulfone-tpgs-hollow-fiber-membranes-showing-improved-biocompatibility-and-uremic-toxins-removal-for-bioartificial-kidney-application
#18
Akshay Modi, Surendra Kumar Verma, Jayesh Bellare
In this study, L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and human collagen type IV were coated over the outer surface of the custom-made hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) with the objective of simultaneously improving biocompatibility leading to proliferation of human embryonic kidney cells-293 (HEK-293) and improving separation of uremic toxins, thereby making them suitable for bioartificial kidney application. Physicochemical characterization showed the development of coated HFMs, resulting in low hemolysis (0.25 ± 0...
April 24, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710830/zebrafish-a-novel-model-system-to-study-uremic-toxins-the-case-for-the-sulfur-amino-acid-lanthionine
#19
Alessandra F Perna, Evgeniya Anishchenko, Carmela Vigorito, Miriam Zacchia, Francesco Trepiccione, Salvatore D'Aniello, Diego Ingrosso
The non-proteinogenic amino acid lanthionine is a byproduct of hydrogen sulfide biosynthesis: the third endogenous vasodilator gas, after nitric oxide and carbon monoxide. While hydrogen sulfide is decreased in uremic patients on hemodialysis, lanthionine is increased and has been proposed as a new uremic toxin, since it is able to impair hydrogen sulfide production in hepatoma cells. To characterize lanthionine as a uremic toxin, we explored its effects during the early development of the zebrafish ( Danio rerio ), a widely used model to study the organ and tissue alterations induced by xenobiotics...
April 29, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709537/anti-thrombogenicity-and-permeability-of-polyethersulfone-hollow-fiber-membrane-with-sulfonated-alginate-toward-blood-purification
#20
Esmaeil Salimi, Azadeh Ghaee, Ahmad Fauzi Ismail, Majid Karimi
The main aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of sulfonated alginate as a modifying agent to enhance the hemocompatibility of self-fabricated polyethersulfone (PES) hollow fiber membrane for blood detoxification. Sodium alginate was sulfonated with a degree of 0.6 and immobilized on the membrane via surface amination and using glutaraldehyde as cross-linking agent. Coating layer not only improved the membrane surface hydrophilicity, but also induced -39.2 mV negative charges on the surface. Water permeability of the modified membrane was enhanced from 67 to 95 L/m2 ·h·bar and flux recovery ratio increased more than 2-fold...
April 27, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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