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Uremic toxins

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343357/gut-microbiome-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#1
REVIEW
R G Armani, A Ramezani, A Yasir, S Sharama, M E F Canziani, D S Raj
With over 100 trillion microbial cells, the gut microbiome plays important roles in both the maintenance of health and the pathogenesis of disease. Gut microbiome dysbiosis, resulted from alteration of composition and function of the gut microbiome and disruption of gut barrier function, is commonly seen in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The dysbiotic gut microbiome generates excessive amounts of uremic toxins, and the impaired intestinal barrier permits translocation of these toxins into the systemic circulation...
April 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343354/unusual-severe-case-of-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-due-to-shiga-toxin-2d-producing-e-coli-o80-h2
#2
Kioa L Wijnsma, Anne M Schijvens, John W A Rossen, A M D Mirjam Kooistra-Smid, Michiel F Schreuder, Nicole C A J van de Kar
BACKGROUND: Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is one of the most common causes of acute renal failure in children, with the majority of cases caused by an infection with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Whereas O157 is still the predominant STEC serotype, non-O157 serotypes are increasingly associated with STEC-HUS. However, little is known about this emerging and highly diverse group of non-O157 serotypes. With supportive therapy, STEC-HUS is often self-limiting, with occurrence of chronic sequelae in just a small proportion of patients...
March 25, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341374/cardiorenal-disease-connection-during-post-menopause-the-protective-role-of-estrogen-in-uremic-toxins-induced-microvascular-dysfunction
#3
REVIEW
Jiayi Pei, Magdalena Harakalova, Hester den Ruijter, Gerard Pasterkamp, Dirk J Duncker, Marianne C Verhaar, Folkert W Asselbergs, Caroline Cheng
Female gender, post-menopause, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and (CKD linked) microvascular disease are important risk factors for developing heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Enhancing our understanding of the interrelation between these risk factors could greatly benefit the identification of new drug targets for future therapy. This review discusses the evidence for the protective role of estradiol (E2) in CKD-associated microvascular disease and related HFpEF. Elevated circulating levels of uremic toxins (UTs) during CKD may act in synergy with hormonal changes during post-menopause and could lead to coronary microvascular endothelial dysfunction in HFpEF...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340492/hemolysis-elevated-liver-enzymes-low-platelets-syndrome-superimposed-on-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome
#4
Inês Martins, Madalena Gomes Conceição, Paulo Pereira Gomes, Nuno Clode
A pregnancy complicated by typical hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets (HELLP) syndrome is reported. At 20 weeks of gestation, a case of HUS was diagnosed, with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli identified. Plasmapheresis allowed continuation of the pregnancy for 5 weeks. Superimposed preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome were diagnosed after the establishment of nephrotic range proteinuria, hypertension and recurrence of hemolysis. This is a singular case, as it demonstrates that HELLP syndrome can superimpose upon HUS, a fact that can impact future research on reproductive immunology...
March 24, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337716/long-term-variation-of-serum-levels-of-uremic-toxins-in-patients-treated-by-post-dilution-high-volume-on-line-hemodiafiltration-in-comparison-to-standard-low-flux-bicarbonate-dialysis-results-from-the-redert-study
#5
Vincenzo Panichi, Maria Teresa Rocchetti, Alessia Scatena, Alberto Rosati, Massimiliano Migliori, Francesco Pizzarelli, Loreto Gesualdo
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Little information have been provided till now regarding the effect of high volume HDF (hv-OL-HDF) in respect to standard bicarbonate dialysis (BHD) in medium-long term protein-bound toxins removal. PROCEDURES: A randomised cross-over multicentre study (REDERT study) was designed to compare the effects of hv-OL-HDF and low-flux BHD on uremic toxins serum levels in 36 chronic dialysis patients followed for 13 months. Group 1 patients were treated with BHD (Treatment A) for 6 months, and afterwards, they were transferred to hv-OL-HDF for a further 6 months (Treatment B)...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333114/inflammatory-cytokines-as-uremic-toxins-ni-son-todos-los-que-estan-ni-estan-todos-los-que-son
#6
REVIEW
Esmeralda Castillo-Rodríguez, Soledad Pizarro-Sánchez, Ana B Sanz, Adrian M Ramos, Maria Dolores Sanchez-Niño, Catalina Martin-Cleary, Beatriz Fernandez-Fernandez, Alberto Ortiz
Chronic kidney disease is among the fastest growing causes of death worldwide. An increased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular death is thought to depend on the accumulation of uremic toxins when glomerular filtration rate falls. In addition, the circulating levels of several markers of inflammation predict mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. Indeed, a number of cytokines are listed in databases of uremic toxins and uremic retention solutes. They include inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-18, IL-6, TNFα), chemokines (IL-8), and adipokines (adiponectin, leptin and resistin), as well as anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10)...
March 23, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330075/a-novel-multiplex-pcr-method-for-the-detection-of-virulence-associated-genes-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-in-food
#7
Vo Van Giau, Thuy Trang Nguyen, Thi Kim Oanh Nguyen, Thi Thuy Hang Le, Tien Dung Nguyen
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7) strains are foodborne infectious agents that cause a number of life-threatening diseases, including hemorrhagic colitis (HC) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Shiga toxin 1 (stx1), shiga toxin 2 (stx2), or a combination of both are responsible for most clinical symptoms of these diseases. Hence, various diagnostic methods have been developed so far to detect shiga toxins such as cell culture, ELISA, Rapid Latex Agglutination (RPLA) and hybridization, but due to high costs and labor time in addition to low sensitivity, they have not received much attention...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329394/intermediate-follow-up-of-pediatric-patients-with-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-during-the-2011-outbreak-caused-by-e-coli-o104-h4
#8
Sebastian Loos, Wiebke Aulbert, Bernd Hoppe, Thurid Ahlenstiel-Grunow, Birgitta Kranz, Charlotte Wahl, Hagen Staude, Alexander Humberg, Kerstin Benz, Martin Krause, Martin Pohl, Max C Liebau, Raphael Schild, Johanna Lemke, Ortraud Beringer, Dominik Müller, Christoph Härtel, Marianne Wigger, Udo Vester, Martin Konrad, Dieter Haffner, Lars Pape, Jun Oh, Markus J Kemper
Background.: In 2011 Escherichia coli O104:H4 caused an outbreak with over 800 cases of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) in Germany, including 90 children. Data on the intermediate outcome in children after HUS due to E. coli O104:H4 have been lacking. Methods.: Follow-up data were gathered retrospectively from the medical records of patients who had been included in the German Pediatric HUS Registry during the 2011 outbreak. Results.: A total of 72/89 (81%) of the patients was included after a median follow-up of 3...
March 13, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328083/oral-iron-supplementation-potential-implications-for-the-gut-microbiome-and-metabolome-in-patients-with-ckd
#9
Guus A M Kortman, Dorien Reijnders, Dorine W Swinkels
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and loss of kidney function are at increased risk for morbidity and mortality. The risks of CKD are attributed to "uremia," an increased concentration of uremic retention solutes (toxins) in the plasma. Recently, a colo-renal axis became clearly apparent and uremia has been associated with an altered gut microbiome composition and metabolism. There is a high prevalence of anemia in patients with CKD, for which patients are often treated with oral or intravenous iron...
March 22, 2017: Hemodialysis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316592/influence-of-stress-factors-related-to-cheese-making-process-and-to-stec-detection-procedure-on-the-induction-of-stx-phages-from-stec-o26-h11
#10
Ludivine Bonanno, Benjamin Delubac, Valérie Michel, Frédéric Auvray
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are responsible for human infections, ranging from mild watery diarrhea to hemorrhagic colitis (CH) that may be complicated by hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). The main STEC virulence factor is Shiga toxin encoded by the stx gene, located in the genome of a bacteriophage integrated into the bacterial chromosome. The serotype O26:H11 is the second HUS-causing serotype worldwide (after O157:H7), and the first found in dairy products such as raw-milk cheeses. A small number of HUS cases identified each year in France are caused by serotype O26:H11...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314987/cooperative-inhibitory-effects-of-uremic-toxins-and-other-serum-components-on-oatp1b1-mediated-transport-of-sn-38
#11
Yurie Katsube, Masayuki Tsujimoto, Hiroyoshi Koide, Megumi Ochiai, Ayako Hojyo, Kaori Ogawa, Kengo Kambara, Nao Torii, Daisuke Shima, Taku Furukubo, Satoshi Izumi, Tomoyuki Yamakawa, Tetsuya Minegaki, Kohshi Nishiguchi
PURPOSE: Half-life of SN-38, an active metabolite of irinotecan, remarkably increases in patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), even though SN-38 is excreted in bile. Uremic toxins (UTs), which accumulate in the serum of ESKD patients, were reported to inhibit organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1-mediated uptake of SN-38; however, the relevance of this finding in a clinical setting is unknown. This study focused on cooperative effects of serum components and UTs on OATP1B1-mediated transport of SN-38...
April 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314825/increased-plasma-exposures-of-conjugated-metabolites-of-morinidazole-in-renal-failure-patients-a-critical-role-of-uremic-toxins
#12
Fandi Kong, Xiaoyan Pang, Kan Zhong, Zitao Guo, Xiuli Li, Dafang Zhong, Xiaoyan Chen
Morinidazole is a 5-nitroimidazole drug. Its sulfate conjugate M7 was a sensitive substrate of organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1) and OAT3, whereas N+-glucuronides M8-1 and M8-2 were only OAT3 substrates. In chronic renal failure (CRF) patients, plasma exposures of the three conjugates increased by 15-fold, which were also found in 5/6 nephrectomized (5/6 Nx) rats in this study. Although the transcriptions of Oat1 and Oat3 in 5/6 Nx rat kidneys decreased by 50%, no difference was observed on the three conjugate uptakes between control and 5/6 Nx rat kidney slices...
March 17, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272322/toxic%C3%A2-dimethylarginines-%C3%A2-asymmetric%C3%A2-dimethylarginine%C3%A2-adma-%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-symmetric%C3%A2-dimethylarginine%C3%A2-sdma
#13
REVIEW
You-Lin Tain, Chien-Ning Hsu
Asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA and SDMA, respectively) are toxic, non-proteinogenic amino acids formed by post-translational modification and are uremic toxins that inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production and play multifunctional roles in many human diseases. Both ADMA and SDMA have emerged as strong predictors of cardiovascular events and death in a range of illnesses. Major progress has been made in research on ADMA-lowering therapies in animal studies; however, further studies are required to fill the translational gap between animal models and clinical trials in order to treat human diseases related to elevated ADMA/SDMA levels...
March 6, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270638/a-haemocompatible-and-scalable-nanoporous-adsorbent-monolith-synthesised-using-a-novel-lignin-binder-route-to-augment-the-adsorption-of-poorly-removed-uraemic-toxins-in-haemodialysis
#14
Susan R Sandeman, Yishan Zheng, Ganesh Ingavle, Carol Howell, Sergey Mikhalovsky, Kolitha Basnayake, Owen Boyd, Andrew Davenport, Nigel Beaton, Nathan Davies
Nanoporous adsorbents are promising materials to augment the efficacy of haemodialysis for the treatment of end stage renal disease where mortality rates remain unacceptably high despite improvements in membrane technology. Complications are linked in part to inefficient removal of protein bound and high molecular weight uremic toxins including key marker molecules albumin bound indoxyl sulphate (IS) and p-cresyl sulphate (PCS) and large inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6. The following study describes the assessment of a nanoporous activated carbon monolith produced using a novel binder synthesis route for scale up as an in line device to augment haemodialysis through adsorption of these toxins...
March 8, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264799/uremic-solute-indoxyl-sulfate-induced-platelet-hyperactivity-contributes-to-ckd-associated-thrombosis-in-mice
#15
Ke Yang, Changhong Du, Xinmiao Wang, Fengju Li, Yang Xu, Song Wang, Shilei Chen, Fang Chen, Mingqiang Shen, Mo Chen, Mengjia Hu, Ting He, Yongping Su, Junping Wang, Jinghong Zhao
Thrombosis is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD), but the causes and mechanisms of CKD-associated thrombosis are not well clarified. Here, we show that platelet activity is remarkably enhanced in CKD mice, with increase of serum indoxyl sulfate (IS), a typical uremic toxin which cannot be effectively cleared by routine dialysis. Ex vivo and in vitro experiments reveal that IS displays a distinct ability to enhance platelet activities, including elevated response to collagen and thrombin, increases in platelet-derived microparticles and platelet-monocyte aggregates...
March 6, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264439/protein-nutrition-and-malnutrition-in-ckd-and-esrd
#16
REVIEW
Yan Zha, Qi Qian
Elevated protein catabolism and protein malnutrition are common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The underlying etiology includes, but is not limited to, metabolic acidosis intestinal dysbiosis; systemic inflammation with activation of complements, endothelin-1 and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAAS) axis; anabolic hormone resistance; energy expenditure elevation; and uremic toxin accumulation. All of these derangements can further worsen kidney function, leading to poor patient outcomes...
February 27, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264139/residual-kidney-function-implications-in-the-era-of-personalized-medicine
#17
Tariq Shafi, Surekha Mullangi, Stephanie M Toth-Manikowski, Seungyoung Hwang, Wieneke M Michels
The association of residual kidney function (RKF) with improved outcomes in peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis patients is now widely recognized. RKF provides substantial volume and solute clearance even after dialysis initiation. In particular, RKF provides clearance of nonurea solutes, many of which are potential uremic toxins and not effectively removed by conventional hemodialysis. The presence of RKF provides a distinct advantage to incident dialysis patients and is an opportunity for nephrologists to individualize dialysis treatments tailored to their patients' unique solute, volume, and quality of life needs...
March 6, 2017: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260040/antiproliferation-effect-of-the-uremic-toxin-para%C3%A2-cresol-on-endothelial-progenitor-cells-is-related-to-its-antioxidant-activity
#18
Limin Pan, Xiaoting Ye, Jiguang Ding, Yu Zhou
Endothelial dysfunction and impaired endothelial regenerative capacity are key contributors to the high incidence of cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Uremic toxins are associated with this pathogenesis. Previous studies have revealed that a uremic toxin, para‑cresol (p‑cresol), exerts an antiproliferation effect on human endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), but the mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were confirmed to function as signaling molecules that regulate growth factor‑dependent EPC proliferation...
February 22, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241998/the-uremic-toxin-methylguanidine-increases-the-oxidative-metabolism-and-accelerates-the-apoptosis-of-canine-neutrophils
#19
A M Bosco, B F M Almeida, P P Pereira, D B Dos Santos, Á J S Neto, W L Ferreira, P C Ciarlini
We investigated the hypothesis that the increased concentration of plasma methylguanidine (MG) increases oxidative metabolism and accelerates apoptosis of neutrophils from dogs with chronic kidney disease (CKD). To achieve this, the levels of MG were quantified in healthy (n=16) and uremic dogs with CKD stage 4 of according to the guidelines of the International Renal Interest Society (IRIS, 2015) (n=16) using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). To evaluate the isolated effect of MG on neutrophil oxidative metabolism and apoptosis, neutrophils isolated from 12 healthy dogs were incubated with the highest concentration of plasma MG (0...
March 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239557/shigella-sonnei-and-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#20
Casey Adams, Aaron Vose, Michael B Edmond, Laurel Lyckholm
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a well-described process that is known to cause severe renal dysfunction, thrombocytopenia, and anemia. HUS is typically associated with toxins (shiga-like and shigella toxin) found in strains of E. coli and Shigella spp [1], [2], [3]. We present a case of a 27 year-old man with jaundice, thrombocytopenia, and renal dysfunction who was found to have HUS in the setting of Shigella sonnei infection. Outside of developing countries, cases of HUS related to S. sonnei are largely unreported...
2017: IDCases
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