keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Uremic toxins

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148397/evolutionary-context-of-non-sorbitol-fermenting-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-o55-h7
#1
Kyle Schutz, Lauren A Cowley, Sharif Shaaban, Anne Carroll, Eleanor McNamara, David L Gally, Gauri Godbole, Claire Jenkins, Timothy J Dallman
In July 2014, an outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O55:H7 in England involved 31 patients, 13 (42%) of whom had hemolytic uremic syndrome. Isolates were sequenced, and the sequences were compared with publicly available sequences of E. coli O55:H7 and O157:H7. A core-genome phylogeny of the evolutionary history of the STEC O55:H7 outbreak strain revealed that the most parsimonious model was a progenitor enteropathogenic O55:H7 sorbitol-fermenting strain, lysogenized by a Shiga toxin (Stx) 2a-encoding phage, followed by loss of the ability to ferment sorbitol because of a non-sense mutation in srlA...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121863/multiplex-real-time-pcr-assay-for-detection-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-and-screening-for-non-o157-shiga-toxin-producing-e-coli
#2
Baoguang Li, Huanli Liu, Weimin Wang
BACKGROUND: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), including E. coli O157:H7, are responsible for numerous foodborne outbreaks annually worldwide. E. coli O157:H7, as well as pathogenic non-O157:H7 STECs, can cause life-threating complications, such as bloody diarrhea (hemolytic colitis) and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). Previously, we developed a real-time PCR assay to detect E. coli O157:H7 in foods by targeting a unique putative fimbriae protein Z3276. To extend the detection spectrum of the assay, we report a multiplex real-time PCR assay to specifically detect E...
November 9, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113807/cyanate-improves-insulin-sensitivity-and-hepatic-steatosis-in-normal-and-high-fat-fed-mice-anorexic-and-antioxidative-effects
#3
Seong Sik Kang, Kyo-Cheol Mun, Ji Hae Seo, Misun Choe, Eunyoung Ha
Obesity is an important contributing factor to progression of chronic kidney disease. Cyanate, known as uremic toxin, is an electrophile produced spontaneously from urea or by myeloperoxidase-catalyzed oxidation of thiocyanate. Herein, we explored metabolic effects of cyanate in normal chow diet (NCD)- and high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Mice were treated with cyanate (1 mg/mL in drinking water) and fed NCD or HFD. Peritoneal glucose tolerance test (PGTT) and insulin tolerance test (ITT) were performed. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine concentrations were determined...
November 4, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111613/management-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-infected-children-a-multi-national-multi-specialty-survey
#4
Stephen B Freedman, Silviu Grisaru, Jianling Xie, Susan Samuel, Andrew Dixon, Amy C Plint, David Schnadower
AIM: Research has highlighted the potential role that hydration status may play in predicting outcomes in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC)-infected children. Because little is known about the management of STEC-infected children in the pre-haemolytic uremic syndrome phase, we compared paediatric emergency medicine and nephrologist-stated management approaches to STEC-infected children. METHODS: Members of the Pediatric Emergency Research Canada (PERC; n = 228), the Pediatric Emergency Medicine Collaborative Research Committee (PEM CRC; n = 221) and the Canadian Association of Pediatric Nephrologists (CAPN; n = 66) were surveyed...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107962/apoptosis-signal-regulating-kinase-1-inhibition-attenuates-cardiac-hypertrophy-and-cardiorenal-fibrosis-induced-by-uremic-toxins-implications-for-cardiorenal-syndrome
#5
Feby Savira, Longxing Cao, Ian Wang, Wendi Yang, Kevin Huang, Yue Hua, Beat M Jucker, Robert N Willette, Li Huang, Henry Krum, Zhiliang Li, Qiang Fu, Bing Hui Wang
Intracellular accumulation of protein-bound uremic toxins in the setting of cardiorenal syndrome leads to adverse effects on cardiorenal cellular functions, where cardiac hypertrophy and cardiorenal fibrosis are the hallmarks. In this study, we sought to determine if Apoptosis Signal-Regulated Kinase 1 (ASK1), an upstream regulator of cellular stress response, mediates cardiac hypertrophy and cardiorenal fibrosis induced by indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresol sulfate (PCS) in vitro, and whether ASK1 inhibition is beneficial to ameliorate these cellular effects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100420/protein-bound-uremic-toxins-impaired-mitochondrial-dynamics-and-functions
#6
Chiao-Yin Sun, Mei-Ling Cheng, Heng-Chih Pan, Jia-Hung Lee, Chin-Chan Lee
Protein-bound uremic toxins, indoxyl sulfate and p-cresol sulfate, increase oxidative stress and adversely affect chronic kidney disease progression and cardiovascular complications. In this study, we examined whether mitochondria are the target of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresol sulfate intoxication in vivo and in vitro. The kidneys of 10-week-old male B-6 mice with ½-nephrectomy treated with indoxyl sulfate and p-cresol sulfate were used for the animal study. Cultured human renal tubular cells were used for the in vitro study...
September 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097715/carbon-adsorbents-with-dual-porosity-for-efficient-removal-of-uremic-toxins-and-cytokines-from-human-plasma
#7
D Pavlenko, D Giasafaki, G Charalambopoulou, E van Geffen, K G F Gerritsen, T Steriotis, D Stamatialis
The number of patients with chronic kidney disease increases while the number of available donor organs stays at approximately the same level. Unavoidable accumulation of the uremic toxins and cytokines for these patients comes as the result of malfunctioning kidneys and their high levels in the blood result in high morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, the existing methods, like hemodialysis and hemofiltration, provide only partial removal of uremic toxins and/or cytokines from patients' blood. Consequently, there is an increasing need for the development of the extracorporeal treatments which will enable removal of broad spectrum of uremic toxins that are usually removed by healthy kidneys...
November 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080423/prevalence-and-characteristics-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-in-finishing-pigs-implications-on-public-health
#8
Wonhee Cha, Pina M Fratamico, Leah E Ruth, Andrew S Bowman, Jacqueline M Nolting, Shannon D Manning, Julie A Funk
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are important food-borne pathogens, which can cause serious illnesses, including hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. To study the epidemiology of STEC in finishing pigs and examine the potential risks they pose for human STEC infections, we conducted a longitudinal cohort study in three finishing sites. Six cohorts of pigs (2 cohorts/site, 20 pigs/cohort) were randomly selected, and fecal samples (n=898) were collected every two weeks through their finishing period...
October 21, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068360/soluble-cd40-ligand-and-oxidative-response-are-reciprocally-stimulated-during-shiga-toxin-associated-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome
#9
Maria J Abrey Recalde, Romina S Alvarez, Fabiana Alberto, Maria P Mejias, Maria V Ramos, Romina J Fernandez Brando, Andrea C Bruballa, Ramon A Exeni, Laura Alconcher, Cristina A Ibarra, María M Amaral, Marina S Palermo
Shiga toxin (Stx), produced by Escherichia coli, is the main pathogenic factor of diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), which is characterized by the obstruction of renal microvasculature by platelet-fibrin thrombi. It is well known that the oxidative imbalance generated by Stx induces platelet activation, contributing to thrombus formation. Moreover, activated platelets release soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L), which in turn contributes to oxidative imbalance, triggering the release of reactive oxidative species (ROS) on various cellular types...
October 25, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058166/association-between-uremic-toxin-anthranilic-acid-and-fibrinolytic-system-activity-in-predialysis-patients-at-different-stages-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#10
Tomasz W Kaminski, Krystyna Pawlak, Malgorzata Karbowska, Michal Mysliwiec, Waldemar Grzegorzewski, Jakub Kuna, Dariusz Pawlak
PURPOSE: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an estimated risk factor for increased mortality and morbidity due to fibrinolytic system disturbances. Progressive loss of renal function leads to retention of uremic toxins. Anthranilic acid (AA) is a tryptophan-derived uremic toxin with multidirectional properties that can affect the hemostatic system. The goal of this study was to examine the association between AA and the parameters of fibrinolysis at different stages of CKD. METHODS: Patients with CKD were divided into two groups: mild-to-moderate (n = 20) and severe-to-end-stage CKD (n = 28)...
October 22, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056170/sister-earth-our-common-home-toward-a-sustainable-planet-friendly-approach-to-dialysis-a-paradigm-of-high-technology-medicine
#11
Giorgina Barbara Piccoli, David Mery
In our high-technology, highly polluted world, medicine plays an important role balancing saving lives with the expenses of growing amounts of waste products, not only biologically dangerous (the potentially "contaminated" or "hazardous" waste) but also potentially harmful for the planet (nonrecyclable, plastic waste). Dialysis, the prototype of high-technology medicine, is central to these problems, as the present treatment of about 2 million patients produces an enormous quantity of waste (considering hazardous waste only about 2 kg per session, with 160 sessions per year, that is 320 kg per patient, or about 640,000 tons of hazardous waste per year for 2 million patients, roughly corresponding to 6 nuclear aircraft carriers)...
November 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056167/skin-blood-flow-and-vascular-endothelium-function-in-uremia
#12
Miroslaw J Smogorzewski
Prevalence of dermatological disorder in patients with end-stage kidney disease is estimated as 50% to 100% in various studies. Some of the skin lesions are specific for the diseases causing chronic kidney disease (CKD), some are associated with CKD, and still others are the dermatological manifestation of uremia. Microangiopathy was also found in both arterioles and venule in the skin biopsy of "normal looking" skin in patients with end-stage kidney disease. In a cross-sectional study in patients on dialysis, we measured skin blood flow (SBF) using laser Doppler device in a standardized way at various areas of lower extremities at 2 different local skin temperatures: 35°C and 44°C...
November 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056165/the-leaky-gut-and-altered-microbiome-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#13
Wei Ling Lau, Nosratola D Vaziri
Chronic kidney disease results in disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier as well as profound changes in the gut microbial flora. These events are largely mediated by (1) heavy influx of circulating urea to the gut lumen and (2) dietary restrictions of foods containing high fiber (such as fruits and vegetable) and symbiotic organisms (such as yogurt and cheese) imposed to mitigate hyperkalemia and hyperphosphatemia. Collectively, these factors promote systemic inflammation and cardiovascular morbidity by mediating microbial dysbiosis, disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier, and translocation of endotoxin, bacterial fragments, and uremic toxins across the "leaky gut" into the bloodstream...
November 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056163/a-history-of-uremia-research
#14
Garabed Eknoyan
The history of uremia research begins with the discovery of urea and the subsequent association of elevated blood urea levels with the kidney disease described by Richard Bright, a well told story that needs no recounting. What this article highlights is how clinical and laboratory studies of urea launched the analysis of body fluids, first of urine and then of blood, that would beget organic chemistry, paved the way for the study of renal function and the use of urea clearance to determine "renal efficiency," provided for the initial classification of kidney disease, and clarified the concepts of diffusion and osmosis that would lead to the development of dialysis...
November 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055386/peritoneal-dialysis-the-unique-features-by-compartmental-delivery-of-renal-replacement-therapy
#15
Tibor Fülöp, Lajos Zsom, Mihály B Tapolyai, Miklos Z Molnar, Sohail Abdul Salim, István Arany, Mehrdad Hamrahian, László Rosivall
Despite decades of research, the clinical efficacy of peritoneal dialysis (PD) remains enigmatic. We may wonder why the modality fail in some patients but perhaps the more proper question would be, why it works in so many? We know that the contribution of residual renal function (RRF), more so than in hemodialysis, is critically important to the well-being of many of the patients. Unique features of the modality include the relatively low volume of dialysate fluid needed to provide effective uremic control and the disproportionate tendency for both hypokalemia and hypoalbuminemia, when compared to hemodialysis...
October 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054297/hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-due-to-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-infection
#16
REVIEW
M Bruyand, P Mariani-Kurkdjian, M Gouali, H de Valk, L A King, S Le Hello, S Bonacorsi, C Loirat
The leading cause of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) in children is Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection, which has a major outbreak potential. Since the early 2010s, STEC epidemiology is characterized by a decline of the historically predominant O157 serogroup and the emergence of non-O157 STEC, especially O26 and O80 in France. STEC contamination occurs through the ingestion of contaminated food or water, person-to-person transmission, or contact with ruminants or their contaminated environment...
October 17, 2017: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024911/simultaneous-quantitative-analysis-of-uremic-toxins-by-lc-ms-ms-with-a-reversed-phase-cation-exchange-anion-exchange-tri-modal-mixed-mode-column
#17
Yoshitomi Kanemitsu, Kei Asaji, Yotaro Matsumoto, Hiroki Tsukamoto, Daisuke Saigusa, Chikahisa Mukawa, Tatsuki Tachikawa, Takaaki Abe, Yoshihisa Tomioka
Column choice is crucial to the development of liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods because analyte selectivity is dependent on the nature of the stationary phase. Recently, mixed-mode chromatography, which employs a combination of two or more stationary phases and solvent systems, has emerged as an alternative to multiple, complementary, single-column systems. This report describes the development and validation of a novel analytical method based on LC-MS/MS employing a reversed-phase/cation-exchange/anion-exchange tri-modal column (Scherzo SS-C18; Imtakt) for the simultaneous quantification of various uremic toxins (UTx), including creatinine, 1-methyladenosine, trimethylamine-N-oxide, indoxyl sulfate, p-cresyl sulfate, phenyl sulfate and 4-ethylphenyl sulfate...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016645/spontaneous-variability-of-pre-dialysis-concentrations-of-uremic-toxins-over-time-in-stable-hemodialysis-patients
#18
Sunny Eloot, Wim Van Biesen, Sanne Roels, Willem Delrue, Eva Schepers, Annemieke Dhondt, Raymond Vanholder, Griet Glorieux
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Numerous outcome studies and interventional trials in hemodialysis (HD) patients are based on uremic toxin concentrations determined at one single or a limited number of time points. The reliability of these studies however entirely depends on how representative these cross-sectional concentrations are. We therefore investigated the variability of predialysis concentrations of uremic toxins over time. METHODS: Prospectively collected predialysis serum samples of the midweek session of week 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 12, and 16 were analyzed for a panel of uremic toxins in stable chronic HD patients (N = 18) while maintaining dialyzer type and dialysis mode during the study period...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992684/paricalcitol-attenuates-indoxyl-sulfate-induced-apoptosis-through-the-inhibition-of-mapk-akt-and-nf-kb-activation-in-hk-2-cells
#19
Jung Sun Park, Hoon In Choi, Eun Hui Bae, Seong Kwon Ma, Soo Wan Kim
Background/Aims: Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is a uremic toxin and an important causative factor in the progression of chronic kidney disease. Recently, paricalcitol (19-nor-1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2) was shown to exhibit protective effects in kidney injury. Here, we investigated the effects of paricalcitol treatment on IS-induced renal tubular injury. Methods: The fluorescent dye 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate was used to measure intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) following IS administration in human renal proximal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells...
October 10, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992067/the-uremic-toxin-indoxyl-sulfate-interferes-with-iron-metabolism-by-regulating-hepcidin-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#20
Hirofumi Hamano, Yasumasa Ikeda, Hiroaki Watanabe, Yuya Horinouchi, Yuki Izawa-Ishizawa, Masaki Imanishi, Yoshito Zamami, Kenshi Takechi, Licht Miyamoto, Keisuke Ishizawa, Koichiro Tsuchiya, Toshiaki Tamaki
Background: Hepcidin secreted by hepatocytes is a key regulator of iron metabolism throughout the body. Hepcidin concentrations are increased in chronic kidney disease (CKD), contributing to abnormalities in iron metabolism. Levels of indoxyl sulfate (IS), a uremic toxin, are also elevated in CKD. However, the effect of IS accumulation on iron metabolism remains unclear. Methods: We used HepG2 cells to determine the mechanism by which IS regulates hepcidin concentrations...
August 23, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
keyword
keyword
106512
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"