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Auditory scene recognition

S C Eidstuen, O Uleberg, G Vangberg, E Skogvoll
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of hypothermia in trauma patients is high and rapid recognition is important to prevent further heat loss. Hypothermia is associated with poor patient outcomes and is an independent predictor of increased mortality. The aim of this study was to analyze the changes in core body temperature of trauma patients during different treatment phases in the pre-hospital and early in-hospital settings. METHODS: A prospective observational cohort study in severely injured patients...
March 2018: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Angela Josupeit, Volker Hohmann
This study introduces a model for solving three different auditory tasks in a multi-talker setting: target localization, target identification, and word recognition. The model was used to simulate psychoacoustic data from a call-sign-based listening test involving multiple spatially separated talkers [Brungart and Simpson (2007). Percept. Psychophys. 69(1), 79-91]. The main characteristics of the model are (i) the extraction of salient auditory features ("glimpses") from the multi-talker signal and (ii) the use of a classification method that finds the best target hypothesis by comparing feature templates from clean target signals to the glimpses derived from the multi-talker mixture...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Alixandra Barasch, Kristin Diehl, Jackie Silverman, Gal Zauberman
How does volitional photo taking affect unaided memory for visual and auditory aspects of experiences? Across one field and three lab studies, we found that, even without revisiting any photos, participants who could freely take photographs during an experience recognized more of what they saw and less of what they heard, compared with those who could not take any photographs. Further, merely taking mental photos had similar effects on memory. These results provide support for the idea that photo taking induces a shift in attention toward visual aspects and away from auditory aspects of an experience...
August 2017: Psychological Science
Daiki Nakamura, Hotaka Takizawa, Mayumi Aoyagi, Nobuo Ezaki, Shinji Mizuno
It is difficult for visually impaired individuals to recognize escalators in everyday environments. If the individuals ride on escalators in the wrong direction, they will stumble on the steps. This paper proposes a novel method to assist visually impaired individuals in finding available escalators by the use of smartphone cameras. Escalators are recognized by analyzing optical flows in video frames captured by the cameras, and auditory feedback is provided to the individuals. The proposed method was implemented on an Android smartphone and applied to actual escalator scenes...
May 6, 2017: Sensors
Johannes Rennig, Anna Lena Bleyer, Hans-Otto Karnath
Simultanagnosia is a neuropsychological deficit of higher visual processes caused by temporo-parietal brain damage. It is characterized by a specific failure of recognition of a global visual Gestalt, like a visual scene or complex objects, consisting of local elements. In this study we investigated to what extend this deficit should be understood as a deficit related to specifically the visual domain or whether it should be seen as defective Gestalt processing per se. To examine if simultanagnosia occurs across sensory domains, we designed several auditory experiments sharing typical characteristics of visual tasks that are known to be particularly demanding for patients suffering from simultanagnosia...
May 2017: Neuropsychologia
Norman Lee, Jessica L Ward, Alejandro Vélez, Christophe Micheyl, Mark A Bee
Noise is a ubiquitous source of errors in all forms of communication [1]. Noise-induced errors in speech communication, for example, make it difficult for humans to converse in noisy social settings, a challenge aptly named the "cocktail party problem" [2]. Many nonhuman animals also communicate acoustically in noisy social groups and thus face biologically analogous problems [3]. However, we know little about how the perceptual systems of receivers are evolutionarily adapted to avoid the costs of noise-induced errors in communication...
March 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
Iris I A Groen, Edward H Silson, Chris I Baker
Visual scene analysis in humans has been characterized by the presence of regions in extrastriate cortex that are selectively responsive to scenes compared with objects or faces. While these regions have often been interpreted as representing high-level properties of scenes (e.g. category), they also exhibit substantial sensitivity to low-level (e.g. spatial frequency) and mid-level (e.g. spatial layout) properties, and it is unclear how these disparate findings can be united in a single framework. In this opinion piece, we suggest that this problem can be resolved by questioning the utility of the classical low- to high-level framework of visual perception for scene processing, and discuss why low- and mid-level properties may be particularly diagnostic for the behavioural goals specific to scene perception as compared to object recognition...
February 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Navin Viswanathan, Kostas Kokkinakis, Brittany T Williams
Several studies demonstrate that in complex auditory scenes, speech recognition is improved when the competing background and target speech differ linguistically. However, such studies typically utilize spatially co-located speech sources which may not fully capture typical listening conditions. Furthermore, co-located presentation may overestimate the observed benefit of linguistic dissimilarity. The current study examines the effect of spatial separation on linguistic release from masking. Results demonstrate that linguistic release from masking does extend to spatially separated sources...
December 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Hannah L Golden, Camilla N Clark, Jennifer M Nicholas, Miriam H Cohen, Catherine F Slattery, Ross W Paterson, Alexander J M Foulkes, Jonathan M Schott, Catherine J Mummery, Sebastian J Crutch, Jason D Warren
Despite much recent interest in music and dementia, music perception has not been widely studied across dementia syndromes using an information processing approach. Here we addressed this issue in a cohort of 30 patients representing major dementia syndromes of typical Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 16), logopenic aphasia (LPA, an Alzheimer variant syndrome; n = 5), and progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA; n = 9) in relation to 19 healthy age-matched individuals. We designed a novel neuropsychological battery to assess perception of musical patterns in the dimensions of pitch and temporal information (requiring detection of notes that deviated from the established pattern based on local or global sequence features) and musical scene analysis (requiring detection of a familiar tune within polyphonic harmony)...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Harun Karimpur, Kai Hamburger
Spatial representations are a result of multisensory information integration. More recent findings suggest that the multisensory information processing of a scene can be facilitated when paired with a semantically congruent auditory signal. This congruency effect was taken as evidence that audio-visual integration occurs for complex scenes. As navigation in our environment consists of a seamless integration of complex sceneries, a fundamental question arises: how is human landmark-based wayfinding affected by multimodality? In order to address this question, two experiments were conducted in a virtual environment...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Simon J Hazenberg, Rob van Lier
In three experiments, we investigated the influence of object-specific sounds on haptic scene recognition without vision. Blindfolded participants had to recognize, through touch, spatial scenes comprising six objects that were placed on a round platform. Critically, in half of the trials, object-specific sounds were played when objects were touched (bimodal condition), while sounds were turned off in the other half of the trials (unimodal condition). After first exploring the scene, two objects were swapped and the task was to report, which of the objects swapped positions...
July 2016: I-Perception
Brigitta Tóth, Zsuzsanna Kocsis, Gábor P Háden, Ágnes Szerafin, Barbara G Shinn-Cunningham, István Winkler
In everyday acoustic scenes, figure-ground segregation typically requires one to group together sound elements over both time and frequency. Electroencephalogram was recorded while listeners detected repeating tonal complexes composed of a random set of pure tones within stimuli consisting of randomly varying tonal elements. The repeating pattern was perceived as a figure over the randomly changing background. It was found that detection performance improved both as the number of pure tones making up each repeated complex (figure coherence) increased, and as the number of repeated complexes (duration) increased - i...
November 1, 2016: NeuroImage
Hanna Renvall, Noël Staeren, Claudia S Barz, Anke Ley, Elia Formisano
This combined fMRI and MEG study investigated brain activations during listening and attending to natural auditory scenes. We first recorded, using in-ear microphones, vocal non-speech sounds, and environmental sounds that were mixed to construct auditory scenes containing two concurrent sound streams. During the brain measurements, subjects attended to one of the streams while spatial acoustic information of the scene was either preserved (stereophonic sounds) or removed (monophonic sounds). Compared to monophonic sounds, stereophonic sounds evoked larger blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI responses in the bilateral posterior superior temporal areas, independent of which stimulus attribute the subject was attending to...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Achille Pasqualotto, Tayfun Esenkaya
Visual-to-auditory sensory substitution is used to convey visual information through audition, and it was initially created to compensate for blindness; it consists of software converting the visual images captured by a video-camera into the equivalent auditory images, or "soundscapes". Here, it was used by blindfolded sighted participants to learn the spatial position of simple shapes depicted in images arranged on the floor. Very few studies have used sensory substitution to investigate spatial representation, while it has been widely used to investigate object recognition...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Iku Nemoto, Ryosuke Yuhara
Auditory scene analysis is essential in daily life to extract necessary information from complex acoustic environment and also from intricate development of music compositions. Auditory illusions and ambiguity are important factors in auditory scene analysis and have been studied extensively. We here report a novel form of ambiguity involving two illusory melodies implied by a very simple stimulus consisting of two sustained tones of different frequencies and an intermittently repeated tone of a frequency between the sustained tones...
2015: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
David J Brown, Andrew J R Simpson, Michael J Proulx
A critical task for the brain is the sensory representation and identification of perceptual objects in the world. When the visual sense is impaired, hearing and touch must take primary roles and in recent times compensatory techniques have been developed that employ the tactile or auditory system as a substitute for the visual system. Visual-to-auditory sonifications provide a complex, feature-based auditory representation that must be decoded and integrated into an object-based representation by the listener...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
Michael A Arbib
We make the case for developing a Computational Comparative Neuroprimatology to inform the analysis of the function and evolution of the human brain. First, we update the mirror system hypothesis on the evolution of the language-ready brain by (i) modeling action and action recognition and opportunistic scheduling of macaque brains to hypothesize the nature of the last common ancestor of macaque and human (LCA-m); and then we (ii) introduce dynamic brain modeling to show how apes could acquire gesture through ontogenetic ritualization, hypothesizing the nature of evolution from LCA-m to the last common ancestor of chimpanzee and human (LCA-c)...
March 2016: Physics of Life Reviews
Joel Myerson, Brent Spehar, Nancy Tye-Murray, Kristin Van Engen, Sandra Hale, Mitchell S Sommers
Whereas the energetic and informational masking effects of unintelligible babble on auditory speech recognition are well established, the present study is the first to investigate its effects on visual speech recognition. Young and older adults performed two lipreading tasks while simultaneously experiencing either quiet, speech-shaped noise, or 6-talker background babble. Both words at the end of uninformative carrier sentences and key words in everyday sentences were harder to lipread in the presence of babble than in the presence of speech-shaped noise or quiet...
January 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Chetan Singh Thakur, Runchun M Wang, Saeed Afshar, Tara J Hamilton, Jonathan C Tapson, Shihab A Shamma, André van Schaik
The human auditory system has the ability to segregate complex auditory scenes into a foreground component and a background, allowing us to listen to specific speech sounds from a mixture of sounds. Selective attention plays a crucial role in this process, colloquially known as the "cocktail party effect." It has not been possible to build a machine that can emulate this human ability in real-time. Here, we have developed a framework for the implementation of a neuromorphic sound segregation algorithm in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)...
2015: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Meital Avivi-Reich, Agnes Jakubczyk, Meredyth Daneman, Bruce A Schneider
PURPOSE: We investigated how age and linguistic status affected listeners' ability to follow and comprehend 3-talker conversations, and the extent to which individual differences in language proficiency predict speech comprehension under difficult listening conditions. METHOD: Younger and older L1s as well as young L2s listened to 3-talker conversations, with or without spatial separation between talkers, in either quiet or against moderate or high 12-talker babble background, and were asked to answer questions regarding their contents...
October 2015: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
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