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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726587/repair-of-tympanic-membrane-perforations-with-customized-bioprinted-ear-grafts-using-chinchilla-models
#1
Che-Ying Kuo, Emmanuel Wilson, Andrew Fuson, Nidhi Gandhi, Reza Monfaredi, Audrey Jenkins, Maria Romero, Marco Santoro, John P Fisher, Kevin Cleary, Brian Reilly
The goal of this work is to develop an innovative method that combines bioprinting and endoscopic imaging to repair tympanic membrane perforations (TMPs). TMPs are a serious health issue because they can lead to both conductive hearing loss and repeated otitis media. TMPs occur in 3 to 5% of cases after ear tube placement as well as in cases of acute otitis media (the second most common infection in pediatrics), chronic otitis media with or without cholesteatoma, or as a result of barotrauma to the ear. About 55,000 tympanoplasties, the surgery performed to reconstruct TMPs, are performed every year and the commonly used cartilage grafting technique has a success rate between 43% to 100%...
July 20, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724958/viral-driven-epigenetic-events-alter-the-expression-of-cancer-related-genes-in-epstein-barr-virus-naturally-infected-burkitt-lymphoma-cell-lines
#2
Hector Hernandez-Vargas, Henri Gruffat, Marie Pierre Cros, Audrey Diederichs, Cécilia Sirand, Romina C Vargas-Ayala, Antonin Jay, Geoffroy Durand, Florence Le Calvez-Kelm, Zdenko Herceg, Evelyne Manet, Christopher P Wild, Massimo Tommasino, Rosita Accardi
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was identified as the first human virus to be associated with a human malignancy, Burkitt's lymphoma (BL), a pediatric cancer endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. The exact mechanism of how EBV contributes to the process of lymphomagenesis is not fully understood. Recent studies have highlighted a genetic difference between endemic (EBV+) and sporadic (EBV-) BL, with the endemic variant showing a lower somatic mutation load, which suggests the involvement of an alternative virally-driven process of transformation in the pathogenesis of endemic BL...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723886/prolonged-viral-replication-and-longitudinal-viral-dynamic-differences-among-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-infected-infants
#3
Monica E Brint, Joshua M Hughes, Aditya Shah, Chelsea R Miller, Lisa G Harrison, Elizabeth A Meals, Jacqueline Blanch, Charlotte R Thompson, Stephania A Cormier, John P DeVincenzo
BACKGROUND: Longitudinal RSV dynamics have not been well-studied despite existence of factors favoring prolonged RSV replication including: high mutation rates allowing rapid evolution and potential escape from immune control. We therefore measured viral load in previously RSV-naïve infants over prolonged time-spans. METHODS: During 2014-2015, quantitative nasal aspirates were collected from 51 RSV-PCR+ infants. Multiple parallel assessments of viral loads were quantified at each collected time point using a well-validated real-time qRT-PCR assay...
July 19, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722615/assessing-the-short-term-global-health-experience-a-cross-sectional-study-of-demographics-socioeconomic-factors-and-disease-prevalence
#4
Olivia Geen, Allison Pumputis, Cristina Kochi, Andrew Costa, Karl Stobbe
Interest in short-term global health experiences to underserviced populations has grown rapidly in the last few decades. However, there remains very little research on what participants can expect to encounter. At the same time, it has been suggested that in order for physicians and workers to provide safe and effective care, volunteers should have a basic understanding of local culture, health systems, epidemiology, and socioeconomic needs of the community before arriving. Our objective was to add to the limited literature on what short-term global health trips can expect to encounter through a cross-sectional study of patient demographics, socioeconomic markers, and the prevalence of diseases encountered on a short-term medical service trip to Lima, Peru...
June 12, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722501/pediatric-endonasal-dacryocystorhinostomy-a-multicenter-series-of-116-cases
#5
WengOnn Chan, Geoff Wilcsek, Raf Ghabrial, Robert Alan Goldberg, Peter Dolman, Dinesh Selva, Raman Malhotra
We report our experience with pediatric endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR). Multicenter, retrospective, noncomparative study. Cases of pediatric endonasal DCR during 2006-2011 were included from six oculoplastic units. Patients over the age of 16 years were excluded. The outcomes of pediatric endonasal DCR are presented. Indication for surgery, demographics, previous interventions, intraoperative or postoperative complications, follow-up duration, and success rate (defined as significant improvement of epiphora) were evaluated...
July 19, 2017: Orbit
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722481/clinical-management-of-pediatric-acute-onset-neuropsychiatric-syndrome-part-i-psychiatric-and-behavioral-interventions
#6
Margo Thienemann, Tanya Murphy, James Leckman, Richard Shaw, Kyle Williams, Cynthia Kapphahn, Jennifer Frankovich, Daniel Geller, Gail Bernstein, Kiki Chang, Josephine Elia, Susan Swedo
OBJECTIVE: This article outlines the consensus guidelines for symptomatic treatment for children with Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS) and Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Syndrome Associated with Streptococcal Infection (PANDAS). METHODS: Extant literature on behavioral, psychotherapeutic, and psychopharmacologic treatments for PANS and PANDAS was reviewed. Members of the PANS Research Consortium pooled their clinical experiences to find agreement on treatment of PANS and PANDAS symptoms...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721963/pediatric-hiv-in-india-current-scenario-and-the-way-forward
#7
REVIEW
Anita Nath
In India, the prevention of parent-to-child transmission and antiretroviral therapy services for HIV-infected mothers and children have been rapidly scaled up over the recent years. Despite these advances, a large number of HIV-infected children are born in every year. A thorough literature review has been done by retrieving related studies (published from the year 2000 onward); using a Medline search and by extracting recent findings from the official websites of the National AIDS Control Organization, UNAIDS, UNICEF, and World Health Organization...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721474/single-stick-tunneled-central-venous-access-using-the-jugular-veins-in-infants-weighing-less-than-5%C3%A2-kg
#8
Will S Lindquester, C Matthew Hawkins, Eric J Monroe, Anne E Gill, Giridhar M Shivaram, F Glen Seidel, Matthew P Lungren
BACKGROUND: Despite the demonstrated feasibility of the single-stick technique in the femoral vein, its use in neonates and infants for placing central lines in internal and external jugular veins has not been reported. OBJECTIVE: Describe and assess the safety and efficacy of tunneled jugular central venous catheter placement performed under ultrasound (US) and fluoroscopic guidance in neonates and infants weighing <5 kg using the single-stick technique at three tertiary pediatric hospitals...
July 18, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720982/single-incision-pediatric-flexible-intramedullary-tibial-nailing
#9
John G Coury, Zachary C Lum, Nicholas P O'Neill, Joseph A Gerardi
BACKGROUND: There has been a trend towards flexible intramedullary nailing for unstable tibial shaft fractures in the pediatric population, traditionally, utilizing a 2-incision technique with passage of one nail medially and one nail laterally. Our study aims to compare a single incision approach for flexible nailing of unstable tibial shaft fractures in pediatric patients to the traditional 2-incision approach. METHODS: Patients were selected for operative fixation if they had a length unstable tibial shaft fracture confirmed by fluoroscopy...
September 2017: Journal of Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720455/reasons-for-acceptance-or-refusal-of-human-papillomavirus-vaccine-in-a-california-pediatric-practice
#10
Brandon Brown, Magi Ishak Gabra, Harry Pellman
Despite the effectiveness and availability of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, HPV remains the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States and has the lowest initiation rate of any routinely recommended teen vaccine. In January 2015, we surveyed parents at a Southern California pediatric private practice about reasons they accept or refuse HPV vaccine for their children. Of the 200 consecutive parents that had HPV vaccine initiation recommended for their child, 123 (61.5%) children were male and 38...
June 2017: Papillomavirus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720045/neonatal-acute-paronychia
#11
Luke Grome, Gregory Borah
BACKGROUND: Paronychia is defined as infection afflicting the eponychial nail folds of the hand or foot. Such infections are rarely reported in the perinatal age group, and not previously described in a neonate younger than 2 weeks. Trauma resulting in inoculation of the nail fold is the most common predisposing factor to paronychia. Oral trauma in the pediatric population from finger sucking predisposes this population to a different set of bacterial pathogens than adults. Contamination can progress to infection and abscess formation within the nail fold with the most prevalent vector in adult infections being Staphylococcus aureus...
February 1, 2017: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720036/procalcitonin-to-detect-bacterial-infections-in-critically-ill-pediatric-patients
#12
David M Jacobs, Maya Holsen, Shirley Chen, Nicholas M Fusco, Amanda B Hassinger
The diagnostic power of procalcitonin (PCT) in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) is uncertain. This study aimed to determine the diagnostic ability of PCT to detect serious bacterial infections (SBI) in a heterogeneous PICU population. This was a retrospective cohort study of patients on whom a PCT level was obtained within 48 hours of admission to a PICU from 2013 to 2015. Discriminatory ability of PCT to predict SBI was examined by test and receiver operating characteristics (AUC [area under the curve]-ROC)...
August 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719991/the-diagnostic-utility-and-clinical-implications-of-wrist-mri-in-the-pediatric-population
#13
Alex L Gornitzky, Ines C Lin, Robert B Carrigan
BACKGROUND: Unexplained wrist pain is a common presentation in children. To our knowledge, no studies have explored the clinical utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnostic workup of pediatric patients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 307 consecutive wrist MRIs ordered at a tertiary-care pediatric hospital. Demographic data and the indication for imaging were recorded and grouped into admitting categories. The final impression of each MRI was scored with regard to potential impact on future treatment (0 = normal, 1 = minimal, 2 = moderate, 3 = high)...
March 1, 2017: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719626/impact-of-respiratory-infections-outdoor-pollen-and-socioeconomic-status-on-associations-between-air-pollutants-and-pediatric-asthma-hospital-admissions
#14
Julie E Goodman, Christine T Loftus, Xiaobin Liu, Ke Zu
BACKGROUND: Epidemiology studies have shown that ambient concentrations of ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) are associated with increased emergency department (ED) visits and hospital admissions (HAs) for asthma. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the impact of outdoor pollen, respiratory infections, and socioeconomic status (SES) on the associations between ambient ozone and PM2.5 and asthma HAs in New York City. METHODS: Daily ozone, PM2.5, meteorological factors, pollen, and hospitalization records during 1999 to 2009 were obtained for New York City residents...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719480/a-rare-pediatric-case-of-posttraumatic-pseudoaneurysm-case-report-and-literature-review
#15
Ada Gu, April J Kam
Posttraumatic pseudoaneurysms are extremely rare in pediatric populations. In many cases, pseudoaneurysms may be confused with abscesses, epidermoid cysts, arteriovenous fistula, foreign objects, and ganglion cysts, as well as tumors. They are associated with distinguishing findings of "pulsatile mass, a palpable thrill, and an audible to-and-fro murmur" (1), which can be confirmed by various imaging techniques. In this report, we describe the case of a 4-year-old boy who presented to the pediatric emergency department 3 weeks after falling and subsequently getting cut by glass...
July 17, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719336/infant-nutritional-status-feeding-practices-enteropathogen-exposure-socioeconomic-status-and-illness-are-associated-with-gut-barrier-function-as-assessed-by-the-lactulose-mannitol-test-in-the-mal-ed-birth-cohort
#16
Gwenyth O Lee, Benjamin J J McCormick, Jessica C Seidman, Margaret N Kosek, Rashidul Haque, Maribel Paredes Olortegui, Aldo A M Lima, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Gagandeep Kang, Amidou Samie, Caroline Amour, Carl J Mason, Tahmeed Ahmed, Pablo Peñataro Yori, Domingos B Oliveira, Didar Alam, Sudhir Babji, Pascal Bessong, Estomih Mduma, Sanjaya K Shrestha, Ramya Ambikapathi, Dennis R Lang, Michael Gottlieb, Richard L Guerrant, Laura E Caulfield, For The Mal-Ed Network Investigators
The lactulose mannitol (LM) dual sugar permeability test is the most commonly used test of environmental enteropathy in developing countries. However, there is a large but conflicting literature on its association with enteric infection and host nutritional status. We conducted a longitudinal cohort using a single field protocol and comparable laboratory procedures to examine intestinal permeability in multiple, geographically diverse pediatric populations. Using a previously published systematic review to guide the selection of factors potentially associated with LM test results, we examined the relationships between these factors and mucosal breach, represented by percent lactulose excretion; absorptive area, represented by percent mannitol excretion; and gut barrier function, represented by the L/M ratio...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718515/impact-of-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-on-plasma-concentrations-of-efavirenz-and-lopinavir-ritonavir-in-chinese-children-infected-with-the-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#17
Xia Liu, Qing Ma, Yan Zhao, Weiwei Mu, Xin Sun, Yuewu Cheng, Huiping Zhang, Ye Ma, Fujie Zhang
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes that encode the cytochrome P450 (CYP) drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters have been reported to influence antiretroviral drug pharmacokinetics. While primarily metabolized by CYP2B6 and -3A, efavirenz (EFV) and lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) are substrates of P-glycoprotein and solute carrier organic (SLCO) anion transporter, respectively OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between SNPs and efavirenz (EFV) or lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) concentrations in Chinese children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) METHODS: Genotyping was performed on CYP2B6 516G→T, -1459C→T, and -983T→C, ABCB1 3435C→T, and SLCO1B1 521T→C in 229 HIV-infected Chinese pediatric patients with an age range from 4...
July 17, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717935/rabbit-anti-human-thymocyte-immunoglobulin-for-the-rescue-treatment-of-chronic-antibody-mediated-rejection-after-pediatric-kidney-transplantation
#18
Yasemen Cihan, Nele Kanzelmeyer, Jens Drube, Martin Kreuzer, Christian Lerch, Imke Hennies, Kerstin Froede, Murielle Verboom, Thurid Ahlenstiel-Grunow, Lars Pape
BACKGROUND: Chronic antibody-mediated rejection (cAMR) is the leading cause of late kidney graft loss, but current therapies are often ineffective. Rabbit anti-human thymocyte immunoglobulin (rATG) may be helpful, but its use is virtually undocumented. METHODS: Data were analyzed retrospectively from nine pediatric kidney transplant patients with cAMR were treated with rATG (1.5 mg/kg × 5 days) at our center after non-response to pulsed prednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin, rituximab, and increased immunosuppressive intensity (including switching to belatacept in some cases), with or without bortezomib...
July 17, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717779/impact-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-outbreak-on-the-use-of-emergency-medical-resources-in-febrile-patients
#19
Hyunho Jeong, Sikyoung Jeong, Juseok Oh, Seon Hee Woo, Byung Hak So, Jeong Hee Wee, Ji Hoon Kim, Ji Yong Im, Seung Pill Choi, Kyoungnam Park, Byul Nim Hee Cho, Sungyoup Hong
OBJECTIVE: Outbreaks of transmissible respiratory infection are suspected to have significant effects on the health of pediatric and geriatric patients. The objective was to assess the impact of the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreak on the use of emergency resources. METHODS: An ecologic analysis of emergency department (ED) records between September and December 2015, was performed. Data was obtained from the National Emergency Department Information System database for Korea...
June 2017: Clinical and Experimental Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717302/frazier-metallic-suction-tube-an-adjunct-in-irrigation-of-deep-fascial-spaces
#20
Ram Prasad Yadav, Mehul Rajesh Jaisani, Pradeep Acharya, Arun Kumar Mahat
Once incision and drainage of fascial space abscess is performed, irrigation of deep spaces with saline and antibiotic solution should be done daily for effective elimination or reduction of infection. Various advocated aids for irrigation into deeper areas are: small pediatric nasogastric feeding tubes, French catheter, polyethylene irrigation tubes and scalp vein infusion set. All these aids have major inherent disadvantages like, they tend to kink inside the deep spaces limiting the reach of irrigating solution into deeper spaces, are not readily available in dental departments and have to be discarded after every use...
September 2017: Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery
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