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Pediatric infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352590/allergic-proctocolitis-is-a-risk-factor-for-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-in-children
#1
Giovanni Di Nardo, Cesare Cremon, Simone Frediani, Sandra Lucarelli, Maria Pia Villa, Vincenzo Stanghellini, Giuseppe La Torre, Luigi Martemucci, Giovanni Barbara
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that allergic proctocolitis, a cause of self-limiting rectal bleeding in infants, can predispose to the development of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) later in childhood. STUDY DESIGN: We studied a cohort of 80 consecutive patients diagnosed with allergic proctocolitis. Their sibling or matched children presenting to the same hospital for minor trauma served as controls. Parents of the patients with allergic proctocolitis and controls participated in a telephone interview every 12 months until the child was at least 4 years old...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352516/successful-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-following-cardiac-transplantation-in-two-pediatric-patients
#2
Rachel Phelan, Angela R Smith, Paul J Orchard, Rebecca K Ameduri
We report two patients who underwent cardiac transplantation at a young age and subsequently required a HCT for varied indications. Despite the challenges associated with HCT following cardiac transplant, including need for altered immunosuppression, toxicities related to chemotherapy exposure, and infection risks, both patients are currently alive and well. There is a paucity of such successful cases documented in the literature, and these cases highlight the critical importance of an experienced, multidisciplinary team when caring for this patient population...
January 19, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352084/detection-of-human-bocavirus-species-2-and-3-in-bivalve-shellfish-in-italy
#3
G La Rosa, G Purpari, A Guercio, S Di Bella, F Gucciardi, Y T R Proroga, M Pisanu, S Della Libera, M Iaconelli, E Suffredini
Human bocavirus (HBoV) has been shown to be a common cause of respiratory infections and gastroenteritis in children. Recently, HBoVs have been detected in sewage and river waters in Italy and worldwide. However, no studies are yet available on their presence in other water environments and in bivalve molluscs.In this study, 316 bivalve shellfish samples collected in three Italian regions over a six-year period (2012-2017) were analyzed by nested PCR and sequencing using broad-range primer pairs targeting the capsid proteins VP1/VP2 of HBoV...
January 19, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351392/young-mice-expel-the-tapeworm-hymenolepis-diminuta-and-are-protected-from-colitis-by-triggering-a-memory-response-with-worm-antigen
#4
Toshio Arai, Fernando Lopes, Adam Shute, Arthur Wang, Derek M McKay
Infection with helminth parasites reduces the severity of concomitant inflammatory disease in adult mice. There is an alarming increase of IBD in children. It is important to determine if helminth therapy would be of value in pediatric IBD, and if triggering immunological memory to the worm would be anti-colitic. Three-week (young) and eight-week (adult) old Balb/c mice were infected with H. diminuta, and infectivity and T helper (TH)-2 immunity assessed. Other mice received H. diminuta {plus minus} a crude worm extract (HdE) 28-42 days post-infection (dpi) {plus minus} dinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (DNBS; 1...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351039/resorbable-plates-in-secondary-cleft-nasal-reconstruction
#5
Pey-Yi Lin, Anthony P Gibson, John F Teichgraeber, Matthew R Greives
OBJECTIVE: The authors report on the use and complications of alloplastic resorbable plates and compare their use to autologous cartilage grafts in secondary cleft nasal reconstruction. DESIGN: Institutional review board (IRB)-approved retrospective chart review. SETTING: Texas Cleft-Craniofacial Center at the McGovern Medical School at the University of Texas Health Sciences Center at Houston. PATIENTS: Patients with unilateral or bilateral cleft lip nasal deformity who have undergone secondary correction of their nasal deformity with at least 1-year follow-up...
February 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350418/species-differences-in-circulation-and-inflammatory-responses-in-children-with-common-respiratory-adenovirus-infections
#6
Haruna Nakamura, Takao Fujisawa, Shigeru Suga, Kiyosu Taniguchi, Mizuho Nagao, Masahiro Ito, Hitoshi Ochiai, Masami Konagaya, Nozomu Hanaoka, Tsuguto Fujimoto
BACKGROUND: Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) cause severe inflammatory respiratory infections, but previous epidemiological studies lacked analysis of the characteristics of the inflammation. METHODS: Consecutive patients <13 years old with acute febrile illness during a 2-year period were tested. HAdV strains were isolated from nasopharyngeal swabs, and molecular identification was performed by hexon, fiber and species-specific PCR methods. Blood inflammatory markers, including the white blood cell (WBC) count, CRP and 29 cytokines, were measured...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349805/hybrid-continuous-flow-total-artificial-heart
#7
Carson Fox, Steven Chopski, Nohra Murad, Paul Allaire, Robert Mentzer, Joseph Rossano, Francisco Arabia, Amy Throckmorton
Clinical studies using total artificial hearts (TAHs) have demonstrated that pediatric and adult patients derive quality-of-life benefits from this form of therapy. Two clinically-approved TAHs and other pumps under development, however, have design challenges and limitations, including thromboembolic events, neurologic impairment, infection risk due to large size and percutaneous drivelines, and lack of ambulation, to name a few. To address these limitations, we are developing a hybrid-design, continuous-flow, implantable or extracorporeal, magnetically-levitated TAH for pediatric and adult patients with heart failure...
January 18, 2018: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346824/antimicrobial-chemotherapy-has-a-linear-relationship-to-the-proportion-of-gram-negative-isolates-from-pediatric-burn-wounds
#8
Alexa Welk, Myriam Herrnberger, Veronika Engel, Martin Dennebaum, Christina Oetzmann von Sochaczewski, Stephan Gehring
Wound infection in burns is a relevant cause of morbidity and mortality in children. We aimed to determine the relationship between antibacterial chemotherapy and Gram-negative burn wound colonization and infection. All children admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit for burn trauma from June 1, 2005 to January 31, 2013 were included. We obtained 141 wound samples, of which 88 (65.7%) showed growth of Gram-positive bacteria. Treatment with antimicrobial chemotherapy was necessary in 23 (31.1%) patients...
January 2018: Klinische Pädiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345611/accuracy-of-provider-selected-indications-for-antibiotic-orders
#9
Emily L Heil, Lisa Pineles, Poonam Mathur, Daniel J Morgan, Anthony D Harris, Arjun Srinivasan, Kerri A Thom
Documentation of antibiotic indication provides helpful information for antimicrobial stewardship, but accuracy is not understood. Review of 396 antibiotic orders in a pediatric ICU and adult medicine step-down unit found 90% agreement between provider-selected indication and independent review. Prompts to enter antibiotic indication during order entry provide largely accurate information. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;39:111-113.
January 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344491/hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-in-adults-with-intraocular-involvement-clinicopathologic-features-of-3-cases
#10
M Adelita Vizcaino, Charles G Eberhart, Fausto J Rodriguez
Background/Aims: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is an infrequent inflammatory multisystemic syndrome. Only rare cases with ophthalmic involvement describing their pathologic features have been previously reported. Methods: We report 3 cases of adult-onset HLH with bilateral ocular involvement and describe their clinicopathologic features. Results: Three adult males - 2 with a history of viral infection - developed persistent fever, fatigue, bone marrow abnormalities, and irreversible multiorgan failure...
December 2017: Ocular Oncology and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343421/frequency-of-small-colony-variants-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#11
Nuntra Suwantarat, Mayer Rubin, Latetia Bryan, Tsigereda Tekle, Michael P Boyle, Karen C Carroll, Mark T Jennings
BACKGROUND: Small-colony variants (SCVs) are a distinct phenotype of Staphylococcus aureus, known for their role in chronic, difficult to treat infections, including cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. The goal of this study was to characterize SCV MRSA infection in an adult and pediatric CF population and to identify antibiotic susceptibility patterns unique to SCV MRSA. METHODS: We recovered methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) from respiratory culture samples from CF patients at the Johns Hopkins Hospital during a 6month study period...
December 2, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342478/design-and-implementation-of-a-visual-analytics-electronic-antibiogram-within-an-electronic-health-record-system-at-a-tertiary-pediatric-hospital
#12
Allan F Simpao, Luis M Ahumada, Beatriz Larru Martinez, Ana M Cardenas, Talene A Metjian, Kaede V Sullivan, Jorge A Gálvez, Bimal R Desai, Mohamed A Rehman, Jeffrey S Gerber
BACKGROUND:  Hospitals use antibiograms to guide optimal empiric antibiotic therapy, reduce inappropriate antibiotic usage, and identify areas requiring intervention by antimicrobial stewardship programs. Creating a hospital antibiogram is a time-consuming manual process that is typically performed annually. OBJECTIVE:  We aimed to apply visual analytics software to electronic health record (EHR) data to build an automated, electronic antibiogram ("e-antibiogram") that adheres to national guidelines and contains filters for patient characteristics, thereby providing access to detailed, clinically relevant, and up-to-date antibiotic susceptibility data...
January 2018: Applied Clinical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341396/pediatrics-and-donor-derived-disease-transmission-the-us-optn-experience
#13
Michael Green, Shandie Covington, Sarah Taranto, Marian G Michaels, Cameron Wolfe, Daniel R Kaul
PDDTE are tracked by the OPTN Ad Hoc DTAC. Specific evaluation of potential transmissions from pediatric deceased donors or the impact of donor-derived disease transmissions to pediatric organ recipients has not been previously undertaken. PDDTE reported to the DTAC between 2008 and 2013 were reviewed, characterized as proven, probable, possible, IWDT, unlikely, or excluded for both the whole event and each individual recipient. Pediatric donors and recipients were defined as being 0-17 years of age. Analysis was undertaken to characterize potential disease transmission from pediatric donors to adult or pediatric recipients and also to evaluate potential transmission from all donors to pediatric recipients...
January 17, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340467/prevalence-of-and-risk-factors-for-intestinal-parasite-infections-in-pediatric-patients-admitted-to-public-hospitals-in-southern-brazil
#14
Isis Almeida de Almeida, Sabrina Jeske, Marília Arndt Mesemburg, Maria Elisabeth Aires Berne, Marcos Marreiro Villela
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis and to identify risk factors associated therewith in hospitalized children. METHODS: Three fecal samples from each patient were evaluated using three different techniques. The patients' nutritional and socioeconomic status and hematologic profiles were evaluated. RESULTS: Of 106 children, 32.1% tested positive for intestinal parasitosis. The associated risk factors were low parental education levels and children's nail-biting habit...
November 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339564/accuracy-of-the-urinalysis-for-urinary-tract-infections-in-febrile-infants-60-days-and-younger
#15
Leah Tzimenatos, Prashant Mahajan, Peter S Dayan, Melissa Vitale, James G Linakis, Stephen Blumberg, Dominic Borgialli, Richard M Ruddy, John Van Buren, Octavio Ramilo, Nathan Kuppermann
OBJECTIVES: Reports of the test accuracy of the urinalysis for diagnosing urinary tract infections (UTIs) in young febrile infants have been variable. We evaluated the test characteristics of the urinalysis for diagnosing UTIs, with and without associated bacteremia, in young febrile infants. METHODS: We performed a planned secondary analysis of data from a prospective study of febrile infants ≤60 days old at 26 emergency departments in the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network...
January 16, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339536/length-of-stay-and-hospital-revisit-after-bacterial-tracheostomy-associated-respiratory-tract-infection-hospitalizations
#16
Christopher J Russell, Mary R Mamey, Joyce Y Koh, Sheree M Schrager, Michael N Neely, Susan Wu
OBJECTIVES: To identify factors associated with longer length of stay (LOS) and higher 30-day hospital revisit rates for children hospitalized with bacterial tracheostomy-associated respiratory tract infections (bTARTIs). METHODS: This was a multicenter, retrospective cohort study using administrative data from the Pediatric Health Information System database between 2007 and 2014 of patients 30 days to 17 years old with a principal discharge diagnosis of bTARTI or a principal discharge diagnosis of bTARTI symptoms with a secondary diagnosis of bTARTI...
January 16, 2018: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339403/a-phase-1-study-of-azacitidine-combined-with-chemotherapy-in-childhood-leukemia-a-report-from-tacl-consortium
#17
Weili Sun, Timothy Triche, Jemily Malvar, Paul Gaynon, Richard Sposto, Xiaojing Yang, Henrique Bittencourt, Andrew E Place, Yoav Messinger, Chris Fraser, Luciano Dalla-Pozza, Bodour Salhia, Peter Jones, Alan S Wayne, Lia Gore, Todd M Cooper, Gangning Liang
Growing evidence indicates that aberrant DNA hypermethylation is associated with leukemogenesis, chemotherapy resistance, and relapse. DNA methyltransferase inhibitors such as azacitidine and decitabine have been shown to reverse drug resistance and prime leukemia cells to cytotoxic agents in vitro. Here we report the first pediatric phase 1 study using azacitidine in sequence with chemotherapy in patients with relapsed/refractory leukemia. Fourteen patients were enrolled, twelve with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and two with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)...
January 16, 2018: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339099/intestinal-adenovirus-shedding-before-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-is-a-risk-factor-for-invasive-infection-post-transplant
#18
Karin Kosulin, Bettina Berkowitsch, Susanne Matthes, Herbert Pichler, Anita Lawitschka, Ulrike Pötschger, Gerhard Fritsch, Thomas Lion
Human adenoviruses (HAdV) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric human stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. Our previous studies identified the gastrointestinal tract as a site of HAdV persistence, but the role of intestinal virus shedding pre-transplant for the risk of ensuing invasive infection has not been entirely elucidated. Molecular HAdV monitoring of serial stool samples using RQ-PCR was performed in 304 children undergoing allogeneic HSCT. Analysis of stool and peripheral blood specimens was performed pre-transplant and at short intervals until day 100 post-HSCT...
January 9, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338844/sfe-sfedp-adrenal-insufficiency-french-consensus-introduction-and-handbook
#19
Yves Reznik, Pascal Barat, Jérôme Bertherat, Claire Bouvattier, Frédéric Castinetti, Olivier Chabre, Philippe Chanson, Christine Cortet, Brigitte Delemer, Bernard Goichot, Damien Gruson, Laurence Guignat, Emmanuelle Proust-Lemoine, Marie-Laure Raffin Sanson, Rachel Reynaud, Dinane Samara Boustani, Dominique Simon, Antoine Tabarin, Delphine Zenaty
The French endocrinology society (SFE) and the French pediatric endocrinology society (DFSDP) have drawn up recommendations for the management of primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency in the adult and child, based on an analysis of the literature by 19 experts in 6 work-groups. A diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency should be suspected in the presence of a number of non-specific symptoms except hyperpigmentation which is observed in primary adrenal insufficiency. Diagnosis rely on plasma cortisol and ACTH measurement at 8am and/or the cortisol increase after synacthen administration...
January 12, 2018: Annales D'endocrinologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338730/factors-associated-with-hiv-positive-sero-status-among-exposed-infants-attending-care-at-health-facilities-a-cross-sectional-study-in-rural-uganda
#20
Methuselah Muhindo Kahungu, Julius Kiwanuka, Frank Kaharuza, Rhoda K Wanyenze
BACKGROUND: East and South Africa contributes 59% of all pediatric HIV infections globally. In Uganda, HIV prevalence among HIV exposed infants was estimated at 5.3% in 2014. Understanding the remaining bottlenecks to elimination of mother-to-child transmission (eMTCT) is critical to accelerating efforts towards eMTCT. This study determined factors associated with HIV positive sero-status among exposed infants attending mother-baby care clinics in rural Kasese so as to inform enhancement of interventions to further reduce MTCT...
January 16, 2018: BMC Public Health
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