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vascular cerebral

Shashank Shekhar, Mark W Cunningham, Mallikarjuna R Pabbidi, Shaoxun Wang, George W Booz, Fan Fan
Ischemic stroke is a devastating and debilitating medical condition with limited therapeutic options. However, accumulating evidence indicates a central role of inflammation in all aspects of stroke including its initiation, the progression of injury, and recovery or wound healing. A central target of inflammation is disruption of the blood brain barrier or neurovascular unit. Here we discuss recent developments in identifying potential molecular targets and immunomodulatory approaches to preserve or protect barrier function and limit infarct damage and functional impairment...
June 20, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Ananya Chakraborty, Madhurima Chatterjee, Harry Twaalfhoven, Marta Del Campo Milan, Charlotte E Teunissen, Philip Scheltens, Ruud D Fontijn, Wiesje M van Der Flier, Helga E de Vries
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that cerebral vascular dysfunction is associated with the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the key players involved in the development and maintenance of the vasculature. Here, we hypothesized that VEGF levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may be altered in AD patients with vascular involvement, characterized by the presence of microbleeds (MB), and in vascular dementia (VaD) patients compared to controls...
June 23, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Bo Pan, Zhen Wu, Xiao-Pan Gu, Zi-Yu Liu, Yun-Fang Zhao, Wen-Zhe Huang, Peng-Fei Tu, Wei Xiao, Jiao Zheng, Jun Li
Focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion is an essential process during ischemic stroke. The apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells induced by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is an important cause for brain injury after focal cerebral ischemia. Longxuetongluo capsule (LTC) has been used for the treatment of ischemic stroke in clinic. However, its underlying action mechanism is still unclear. This study aimed to verify the protective effect and mechanisms of LTC on HUVEC cells against oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) injury through MTT, LDH, flow cytometry, AO/EB staining and western blot assays...
May 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Wei-Xia Li, Shu-Qi Zhang, Yi-Dan Zhao, Jin-Fa Tang, Chun-Xiao Li, Xiao-Yan Wang, Xue-Lin Li
Naoxintong capsule (NXTC) is an oral Chinese preparation produced by modern technology, derived from the classic preparation of Buyang Huanwu decoction which was recorded by WANG Qing-ren (Qing dynasty) in Yilingaicuo Juanxia Tanweilun. NXTC is composed of 16 herbs including insect herbs and some blood circulation herbs, with the effects of supplementing Qi and activating blood circulation, dispersing blood stasis and dredging collaterals. In clinical application, it is mainly used for stroke, cerebral infarction, vascular dementia, ischemic cerebrovascular disease, transient ischemic attack, coronary heart disease, angina pectoris, ischemic cardiomyopathy, diabetic cardiomyopathy, myocardial infarction, chronic heart failure, chronic complications of diabetes, essential hypertension, hyperlipidemia and other cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, and has achieved good therapeutic effect on above diseases or their concurrent diseases...
May 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Amanda Santiago, Lígia Mendes Soares, Melissa Schepers, Humberto Milani, Tim Vanmierlo, Jos Prickaerts, Rúbia M Weffort de Oliveira
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) has been associated with aging-related vascular dementia, including Alzheimer's disease. It can be induced by the four-vessel occlusion/internal carotid artery (4VO/ICA) model in aged rats, resulting in persistent memory deficits, white matter injury, and significant neuronal loss in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. The phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitor (PDE4-I) roflumilast has been reported to have pro-cognitive effects in several behavioral paradigms. The present study evaluated the effects of repeated roflumilast treatment in aged rats that were subjected to CCH...
June 19, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Ali Tayebi Meybodi, Arnau Benet, Vera Vigo, Roberto Rodriguez Rubio, Sonia Yousef, Pooneh Mokhtari, Flavia Dones, Sofia Kakaizada, Michael T Lawton
OBJECTIVE The expanded endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) has shown promising results in treatment of midline skull base lesions. Several case reports exist on the utilization of the EEA for treatment of aneurysms. However, a comparison of this approach with the classic transcranial orbitozygomatic approach to the basilar apex (BAX) region is missing. The present study summarizes the results of a series of cadaveric surgical simulations for assessment of the EEA to the BAX region for aneurysm clipping and its comparison with the transcranial orbitozygomatic approach as one of the most common approaches used to treat BAX aneurysms...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
John R Gatti, Xiaojie Zhang, Ejona Korcari, Soo Jung Lee, Nya Greenstone, Jon G Dean, Snehaa Maripudi, Michael M Wang
Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) undergo a series of dramatic changes in CADASIL, the most common inherited cause of vascular dementia and stroke. NOTCH3 protein accumulates and aggregates early in CADASIL, followed by loss of mature SMCs from the media of brain arteries and marked intimal proliferation. Similar intimal thickening is seen in peripheral arterial disease, which features pathological intimal cells including proliferative, dedifferentiated, smooth muscle-like cells deficient in SMC markers. Limited studies have been performed to investigate the differentiation state and location of SMCs in brain vascular disorders...
June 22, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
Manoelle Kossorotoff, Mariane De Montalembert, Valentine Brousse, Dominique Lasne, Emmanuel Curis, David M Smadja, Romaric Lacroix, Sebastien Bertil, Elodie Masson, Isabelle Desguerre, Damien Bonnet, Pascale Gaussem
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Sickle cell disease (SCD) complications mostly result from vascular dysfunction, concerning systemic microvasculature and cerebral large vessels. The aim of this cohort study was to identify potential circulating biomarkers predictive for further vascular event occurrence in pediatric SCD. METHODS: We consecutively enrolled 108 children with SCD at steady state, aged 3-18 years old (median 9.8 years). Hematology, coagulation, hemolysis, endothelial, platelet and vascular activation parameters were recorded at inclusion...
June 21, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Hisao Kumakura, Hiroyoshi Kanai, Yae Matsuo, Toshiya Iwasaki, Shuichi Ichikawa
Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine long-term life expectancy including cerebrovascular events (CVE) and fate of the leg in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) with or without cerebral infarction (CI) detected by CT. Methods and Results: A prospective cohort study was performed in 932 patients with PAD. The endpoints were overall survival (OS); CVE; stroke-free survival (SFS); freedom from major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE); and freedom from major adverse cardiovascular and limb events (MACLE)...
June 21, 2018: European Heart Journal. Quality of Care & Clinical Outcomes
Jiangman Song, Lu Yang, Di Nan, Qihua He, You Wan, Huailian Guo
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion is one of the fundamental pathological causes of brain disease such as vascular dementia. Exploration of effective treatments for this is of great interest. Histidine has been reported to be effective in anti-apoptosis, antioxidant, and against excitotoxicity. In the present study, we aim to investigate whether histidine could have a therapeutic effect on the impairments induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Cerebral hypoperfusion model was established through bilateral common carotid arteries stenosis (BCAS) operation in Tie2-GFP mice...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Koji Shimonaga, Takafumi Mitsuhara, Masahiro Hosogai, Tomohiro Kawasumi
We report a case of cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome accompanied by postoperative intracerebral hemorrhage following blood flow reconstruction for quasi-moyamoya disease associated with Graves' disease that had caused cerebral infarctions. A 44-year-old woman presented with repeated sensory impairment of the fingers on the left hand and weakness of the right lower limb and multiple cerebral infarctions developed in the bilateral frontal lobes. Magnetic resonance angiography and cerebral angiography suggested quasi-moyamoya disease...
June 2018: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
Dan Levy, Alejandro Labastida-Ramirez, Antoinette MaassenVanDenBrink
Background The exact mechanisms underlying the onset of a migraine attack are not completely understood. It is, however, now well accepted that the onset of the excruciating throbbing headache of migraine is mediated by the activation and increased mechanosensitivity (i.e. sensitization) of trigeminal nociceptive afferents that innervate the cranial meninges and their related large blood vessels. Objectives To provide a critical summary of current understanding of the role that the cranial meninges, their associated vasculature, and immune cells play in meningeal nociception and the ensuing migraine headache...
January 1, 2018: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
Jing Ma, Haijing Yan, Ranran Wang, Shuhong Bo, Xiaotong Lu, Jian Zhang, Ajing Xu
Subcortical ischemic vascular dementia caused by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion due to small-artery disease is a common subtype of vascular dementia, which is recognized as the second most prevalent type of dementia. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of carnosine on white matter damage in corpus striatum. Adult male mice (C57BL/6 strain) were subjected to right unilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (rUCCAO), and treated with carnosine or saline. Klüver-Barrera staining, immunohistochemical analyses, Western blots and neurochemical analysis were performed after rUCCAO...
June 18, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Alberto Mimenza-Alvarado, Sara G Aguilar-Navarro, Sara Yeverino-Castro, César Mendoza-Franco, José Alberto Ávila-Funes, Gustavo C Román
Introduction: Cerebral small-vessel disease (SVD) represents the most frequent type of vascular brain lesions, often coexisting with Alzheimer disease (AD). By quantifying white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and hippocampal and parietal atrophy, we aimed to describe the prevalence and severity of SVD among older adults with normal cognition (NC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and probable AD and to describe associated risk factors. Methods: This study included 105 older adults evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging and clinical and neuropsychological tests...
May 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
M V Tardov, I D Stulin, N L Kunelskaya, Z O Zaoeva
AIM: To explore the possibility of cerebral hemodynamic reserve (CHR) normalization in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), aged over fifty, who received continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The main group (20 patients, aged 50-65 years, with severe OSAS) and the control group (20 volunteers without snoring and OSAS matched for age and physical status) were studied. Diagnosis included cardio-respiratory monitoring of nocturnal sleep and ultrasound examination of cerebral blood flow with functional tests (breath holding and hyperventilation) and calculating the coefficient of vasomotor reactivity (CVMR) before the start of CPAP-therapy and after one month therapy...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
A I Khripun, A D Priamikov, A B Mironkov, L D Gulina
Presented herein is the world experience of surgical treatment and various tactical approaches in a combined lesion of the extracranial and intracranial portions of the internal carotid artery (ICA): a combination of its stenosis or occlusion with vascular malformation of the brain (a cerebral aneurysm, pathological anastomoses, arteriovenous malformations). Also pointed out is the prevalence of the pathology involved, followed by describing various types of surgical policy in this condition: staged and simultaneous interventions, endovascular and standard operative auxiliary techniques...
2018: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
Laurent Carteron, Daria Solari, Camille Patet, Hervé Quintard, John-Paul Miroz, Jocelyne Bloch, Roy T Daniel, Lorenz Hirt, Philippe Eckert, Pierre J Magistretti, Mauro Oddo
OBJECTIVES: Lactate promotes cerebral blood flow and is an efficient substrate for the brain, particularly at times of glucose shortage. Hypertonic lactate is neuroprotective after experimental brain injury; however, human data are limited. DESIGN: Prospective study ( NCT01573507). SETTING: Academic ICU. PATIENTS: Twenty-three brain-injured subjects (13 traumatic brain injury/10 subarachnoid hemorrhage; median age, 59 yr [41-65 yr]; median Glasgow Coma Scale, 6 [3-7])...
June 19, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Heather Burke, Agnieszka Boron, Jung-Hyun Lee, Kudrit Riana Kahlon
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a newer alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) for patients with severe aortic stenosis. Clinical trials have investigated TAVR's safety and effectiveness. Cerebral embolization is a common complication leading to stroke after TAVR and SAVR; different cerebral protection methods have been studied to prevent this. This paper evaluates the rate of post-procedural stroke rates between TAVR and SAVR and investigates the effect of cerebral protective methods on the stroke risk post-TAVR...
April 17, 2018: Curēus
Noor Shafina Mohd Nor, Choong Yi Fong, Kartini Rahmat, Wan Mun Vanessa Lee, Azriyanti Anuar Zaini, Muhammad Yazid Jalaludin
Cerebral oedema is the most common neurological complication of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). However, ischaemic and haemorrhagic brain injury has been reported infrequently. A 10-year old girl who was previously well presented with severe DKA. She was tachycardic with poor peripheral perfusion but normotensive. However, two fast boluses totalling 40 ml/kg normal saline were given. She was transferred to another hospital where she was intubated due to drowsiness. Rehydration fluid (maintenance and 48-hour correction for 7...
April 2018: European Endocrinology
Andrew S Griffin, Nicholas Befera, Erik Hauck
Background and importance Pial arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) of the brain are treacherous lesions that can be challenging to treat because of high risk of hemorrhage. We report on a rare case of a pial AVF with a giant venous varix as a draining vein treated successfully with flow-directed balloon-assisted Onyx embolization. Clinical presentation A 56-year-old female with headaches underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging, which demonstrated a 4 cm aneurysmal malformation in the right temporal lobe. A diagnostic cerebral angiogram demonstrated a right temporal pial AVF fed by an enlarged right posterior cerebral artery with drainage into a giant venous varix...
January 1, 2018: Interventional Neuroradiology
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