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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924520/histopathological-features-of-middle-cerebral-artery-and-superficial-temporal-artery-from-patients-with-moyamoya-disease-and-enlightenments-on-clinical-treatment
#1
Shou-Jia Sun, Jian-Jian Zhang, Zheng-Wei Li, Zhong-Wei Xiong, Xiao-Lin Wu, Sheng Wang, Kai Shu, Jin-Cao Chen
The histopathological features of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) and superficial temporal artery (STA) from moyamoya disease (MMD) and their relationships with gender, age, angiography stage were explored. The causes and the clinical significance of vasculopathy of STA were also discussed. The clinical data and specimens of MCA and STA from 30 MMD patients were collected. Twelve samples of MCA and STA from non-MMD patients served as control group. Histopathological examination was then performed by measuring the thickness of intima and media, and statistical analysis was conducted...
December 2016: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924360/perfusion-imaging-of-brain-gliomas-using-arterial-spin-labeling-correlation-with-histopathological-vascular-density-in-mri-guided-biopsies
#2
Di Ningning, Pang Haopeng, Dang Xuefei, Cheng Wenna, Ren Yan, Wu Jingsong, Yao Chengjun, Yao Zhenwei, Feng Xiaoyuan
INTRODUCTION: This study was designed to determine if cerebral blood flow (CBF) derived from arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion imaging could be used to quantitatively evaluate the microvascular density (MVD) of brain gliomas on a "point-to-point" basis by matching CBF areas and surgical biopsy sites as accurate as possible. METHODS: The study enrolled 47 patients with treatment-naive brain gliomas who underwent preoperative ASL, 3D T1-weighted imaging with gadolinium contrast enhancement (3D T1C+), and T2 fluid acquisition of inversion recovery (T2FLAIR) sequences before stereotactic surgery...
December 6, 2016: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923749/spinal-glomus-arteriovenous-malformation-presenting-with-a-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#3
Pascal Jabbour, Badih Daou, Elias Atallah, Fadi Al-Saiegh, Kenan Alkhalili, Stavropoula Tjoumakaris
BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: Spinal arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are rare lesions that may cause serious neurologic morbidity. With the developments in endovascular technology and embolic materials, endovascular management of spinal AVMs has gained significant popularity. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 61-year-old female presented with the worst headache of her life, associated with an acute onset of nausea and vomiting and was shown to have a grade 2 subarachnoid hemorrhage on CT scan...
December 3, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923588/autophagy-and-akt-creb-signalling-play-an-important-role-in-the-neuroprotective-effect-of-nimodipine-in-a-rat-model-of-vascular-dementia
#4
Ming Hu, Zhijuan Liu, Peiyuan Lv, Hebo Wang, Yifei Zhu, Qianqian Qi, Jing Xu
The Akt/CREB signalling pathway is involved in neuronal survival and protection. Autophagy is also likely to be involved in survival mechanisms. Nimodipine is an L-type calcium channel antagonist that reduces excessive calcium influx during pathological conditions (contributing to its neuroprotective properties). However, the potential role of nimodipine in autophagic and Akt/CREB signalling is not well understood. In addition, little is known about the relationship between autophagic and Akt/CREB signalling...
December 3, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923226/intraoperative-tumoral-bleeding-of-hypervascular-medulloblastoma-after-ventricular-drainage-a-case-report
#5
Han-Seung Ryu, Tae-Young Jung, Moon-Soo Han, Seul-Ki Kim, Kyung-Hwa Lee
We report a rare case of intraoperative tumoral bleeding of a hypervascular medulloblastoma. A 12-year-old girl presented with dizziness and nausea. Brain magnetic resonance (MR) images revealed an approximately 4.2-cm enhanced mass on the cerebellar vermis associated with mild perilesional edema and increased cerebral blood volume. Angiography showed tumoral staining and developed occipital and circular dural sinuses in the venous phase. A suboccipital craniotomy was performed. To relieve the intracranial pressure, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was drained via a lateral ventricular catheter in the occipital horn...
December 7, 2016: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920431/cerebral-blood-flow-blood-supply-and-cognition-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#6
Jacobus F A Jansen, Frank C G van Bussel, Harm J van de Haar, Matthias J P van Osch, Paul A M Hofman, Martin P J van Boxtel, Robert J van Oostenbrugge, Miranda T Schram, Coen D A Stehouwer, Joachim E Wildberger, Walter H Backes
We investigated whether type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and the presence of cognitive impairment are associated with altered cerebral blood flow (CBF). Forty-one participants with and thirty-nine without T2DM underwent 3-Tesla MRI, including a quantitative technique measuring (macrovascular) blood flow in the internal carotid artery and an arterial spin labeling technique measuring (microvascular) perfusion in the grey matter (GM). Three analysis methods were used to quantify the CBF: a region of interest analysis, a voxel-based statistical parametric mapping technique, and a 'distributed deviating voxels' method...
December 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920207/vascular-angular-remodeling-by-kissing-y-stenting-in-wide-necked-intracranial-bifurcation-aneurysms
#7
Katharina Melber, Dan Meila, Philipp Draheim, Dominik Grieb, Björn Greling, Martin Schlunz-Hendann, Friedhelm Brassel
INTRODUCTION: Single stent deployment leads to a change in vascular geometry in wide necked bifurcation aneurysms. In some complex cases, the use of the single stent technique might not be sufficient or may not be feasible. The kissing-Y stenting technique appears to be an alternative endovascular treatment option. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the kissing-Y stenting technique on vascular angular remodeling. METHODS: 21 patients with wide necked intracranial bifurcation aneurysms at different sites (10 anterior communicating artery, 6 middle cerebral artery, 3 basilar artery, 1 vertebral artery/posterior inferior cerebellar artery, 1 internal carotid artery/posterior communicating artery) were treated with 44 closed cell stents (follow-up 2012-2016) using the kissing-Y stenting technique...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919794/diagnostic-utility-of-contrast-enhanced-3d-t1-weighted-imaging-in-acute-cerebral-infarction-associated-with-graves-disease
#8
Yasufumi Gon, Manabu Sakaguchi, Naoki Oyama, Hideki Mochizuki
Graves disease is rarely complicated with cerebrovascular steno-occlusive diseases. Previous studies have suggested several hypotheses for this occurrence, including excess thyroid hormone, which stimulates the sympathetic nervous system, which in turn causes an abnormal hemodynamic response with consequent atherosclerotic changes, and antithyroid antibodies cause local vascular inflammation in patients with Graves disease. However, radiological findings of vasculitis in patients with Graves disease and cerebral infarction remain less known...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919468/somatic-gnaq-mutation-is-enriched-in-brain-endothelial-cells-in%C3%A2-sturge-weber-syndrome
#9
Lan Huang, Javier A Couto, Anna Pinto, Sanda Alexandrescu, Joseph R Madsen, Arin K Greene, Mustafa Sahin, Joyce Bischoff
BACKGROUND: Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) is a rare congenital neurocutaneous disorder characterized by facial and extracraniofacial capillary malformations and capillary-venule malformations in the leptomeninges. A somatic mosaic mutation in GNAQ (c.548G>A; p.R183Q) was found in SWS brain and skin capillary malformations. Our laboratory showed endothelial cells in skin capillary malformations are enriched for the GNAQ mutation. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the GNAQ mutation is also enriched in endothelial cells in affected SWS brain...
October 21, 2016: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917875/exploring-experimental-cerebral-malaria-pathogenesis-through-the-characterisation-of-host-derived-plasma-microparticle-protein-content
#10
Natalia Tiberti, Sharissa L Latham, Stephen Bush, Amy Cohen, Robert O Opoka, Chandy C John, Annette Juillard, Georges E Grau, Valéry Combes
Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection responsible for thousands of deaths in children in sub-Saharan Africa. CM pathogenesis remains incompletely understood but a number of effectors have been proposed, including plasma microparticles (MP). MP numbers are increased in CM patients' circulation and, in the mouse model, they can be localised within inflamed vessels, suggesting their involvement in vascular damage. In the present work we define, for the first time, the protein cargo of MP during experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) with the overarching hypothesis that this characterisation could help understand CM pathogenesis...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917338/six-different-extremely-calcified-lesions-of-the-brain-brain-stones
#11
Yurdal Gezercan, Vedat Acik, Gökhan Çavuş, Ali Ihsan Ökten, Emre Bilgin, Hakan Millet, Burak Olmaz
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to extend clinical documentation of cerebral calculi by reporting six cases of cerebral calculi with distinct etiologies and localizations. METHODS: We evaluated the age, sex distribution, presenting symptoms, neurological examination findings, pathology results, and location of the calcifications of six patients with intracranial calcifications. RESULTS: Three of the six patients with brain stones were female (50%), and three were male (50%)...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916723/surgical-treatment-of-metallic-foreign-body-embolization-in-the-middle-cerebral-artery-case-report-and-literature-review
#12
Chuan Chen, Bo Hou, Lun Luo, Ying Guo
Intracranial artery embolization cases caused by foreign bodies are extremely clinically rare. Twenty-four cases in total have been reported in the literature; among them, 20 cases were caused by firearms, and only four cases originated from non-firearm injuries in daily life. Here, we report a fifth case of foreign body embolization in the cerebral artery caused by non-firearm injuries. We used microsurgery and successfully removed the metal piece that embolized the middle cerebral artery of a 30-year-old male patient in our center...
December 1, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915996/cerebral-microinfarcts-and-dementia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Lei Cao, Lan Tan, Hui-Fu Wang, Teng Jiang, Xi-Chen Zhu, Jin-Tai Yu
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the relationship between the cerebral microinfarcts and dementia. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses using the MEDLINE, EMBASE,the Cochrane library, and BIOSIS preview for studies published in the period from 1 January 1997 to 1 April 2014. We also searched the reference lists of relevant studies and review articles. Studies had to be controlled, with participants divided into a dementia group and a control group...
December 1, 2016: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911398/evaluation-of-bioenergetic-function-in-cerebral-vascular-endothelial-cells
#14
Stephanie L Rellick, Heng Hu, James W Simpkins, Xuefang Ren
The integrity of the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) is critical to prevent brain injury. Cerebral vascular endothelial (CVE) cells are one of the cell types that comprise the BBB; these cells have a very high-energy demand, which requires optimal mitochondrial function. In the case of disease or injury, the mitochondrial function in these cells can be altered, resulting in disease or the opening of the BBB. In this manuscript, we introduce a method to measure mitochondrial function in CVE cells by using whole, intact cells and a bioanalyzer...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909732/early-vegf-inhibition-attenuates-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-in-ischemic-rat-brains-by-regulating-the-expression-of-mmps
#15
Hai-Tao Zhang, Ping Zhang, Yi Gao, Chen-Long Li, Hong-Jun Wang, Ling-Chao Chen, Yan Feng, Rui-Yan Li, Yong-Li Li, Chuan-Lu Jiang
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition has been demonstrated to be an effective strategy in preserving the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Loss of the BBB is the key event associated with morbidity and mortality in these patients. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In the present study, the effects of VEGF inhibition and the possible mechanism that underlies acute cerebral ischemia in rats was investigated. Following the induction of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion for a 90‑min period, either an anti‑VEGF neutralizing antibody (RB‑222; 5 or 10 µg), or IgG (control), was administered by intracerebroventricular injection at 1 h following reperfusion...
November 29, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909476/atrial-fibrillation-and-risk-of-dementia-cognitive-decline
#16
REVIEW
Anand D Shah Md, Faisal M Merchant Md, David B Delurgio Md
Emerging evidence suggests a link between atrial fibrillation and subsequent development of dementia. While a majority of risk can be attributed to cardioembolic stroke secondary to atrial fibrillation, additional risk is apparent, and may be driven by vascular inflammation and changes in cerebral perfusion. Medical therapies including anticoagulation, statin therapy, and angiotensin-renin-aldosterone axis antagonists may reduce dementia risk. Procedural therapies such as atrial fibrillation catheter ablation and left atrial appendage closure may also prove to be important mediators of acute and long-term risk...
February 2016: Journal of Atrial Fibrillation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909396/the-eye-as-a-biomarker-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
REVIEW
Jeremiah K H Lim, Qiao-Xin Li, Zheng He, Algis J Vingrys, Vickie H Y Wong, Nicolas Currier, Jamie Mullen, Bang V Bui, Christine T O Nguyen
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder resulting in dementia and eventual death. It is the leading cause of dementia and the number of cases are projected to rise in the next few decades. Pathological hallmarks of AD include the presence of hyperphosphorylated tau and amyloid protein deposition. Currently, these pathological biomarkers are detected either through cerebrospinal fluid analysis, brain imaging or post-mortem. Though effective, these methods are not widely available due to issues such as the difficulty in acquiring samples, lack of infrastructure or high cost...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908711/cerebral-blood-flow-measured-by-arterial-spin-labeling-mri-at-resting-state-in-normal-aging-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
REVIEW
Nan Zhang, Marc L Gordon, Terry E Goldberg
Arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging uses arterial blood water as an endogenous tracer to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF). In this review, based on ASL studies in the resting state, we discuss state-of-the-art technical and data processing improvements in ASL, and ASL CBF changes in normal aging, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and other types of dementia. We propose that vascular and AD risk factors should be considered when evaluating CBF changes in aging, and that other validated biomarkers should be used as inclusion criteria or covariates when evaluating CBF changes in MCI and AD...
November 28, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908450/the-learning-curve-effect-on-embolization-of-cerebral-dural-arteriovenous-fistula-single-center-experience-in-48%C3%A2-consecutive-patients
#19
D Le Foll, H Raoult, J C Ferré, F Naudet, D Trystram, J Y Gauvrit
BACKGROUND: Cerebral dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) are rare intracranial vascular lesions but can cause significant morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the effect of the center's experience on DAVF embolization efficacy and safety. METHODS: From May 2008 to October 2014, 57 embolization procedures were attempted on 48 patients (37 men and 11 women; median age: 63.9 years) for DAVF in a single center. DAVF presented with cortical venous reflux in 44/48 cases (91...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907969/neuroprotection-in-critical-care-neurology
#20
Menno R Germans, Hieronymus D Boogaarts, R Loch Macdonald
Ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and traumatic brain injury-all have in common early brain injury due to brain tissue destruction, reduced cerebral blood flow and oxygen delivery, and overall substantial morbidity and mortality. The pathophysiology of brain tissue damage likely includes common cellular mechanisms. Neuroprotection has seldom, if ever, been shown to reduce early brain injury. Secondary brain injury develops after these conditions due to macroscopic events such as increased intracranial pressure and reduced cerebral blood flow, as well as cellular processes including vascular damage, inflammation, and apoptotic/necrotic cell death...
December 2016: Seminars in Neurology
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