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Marcel Mertz, Hannes Kahrass, Daniel Strech
BACKGROUND: Modern standards for evidence-based decision making in clinical care and public health still rely solely on eminence-based input when it comes to normative ethical considerations. Manuals for clinical guideline development or health technology assessment (HTA) do not explain how to search, analyze, and synthesize relevant normative information in a systematic and transparent manner. In the scientific literature, however, systematic or semi-systematic reviews of ethics literature already exist, and scholarly debate on their opportunities and limitations has recently bloomed...
October 3, 2016: BMC Medicine
Holger Langhof, Jonas Lander, Daniel Strech
BACKGROUND: The European Union's (EU) Clinical Trials Directive was replaced by an EU-Regulation as of 2016. The policy revision process was subject to a formal impact assessment exercised by the European Commission (EC) from 2008 to 2014. Following the EU principles of Good Governance, deliberation with stakeholders was an integral part of this impact assessment and the policy formulation process. Hence, two public consultations (PCs) were held by the EC in 2009 and 2011, respectively...
2016: Health Research Policy and Systems
Ansgar Gerhardus, Heiko Becher, Peter Groenewegen, Ulrich Mansmann, Thorsten Meyer, Holger Pfaff, Milo Puhan, Oliver Razum, Eva Rehfuess, Rainer Sauerborn, Daniel Strech, Frank Wissing, Hajo Zeeb, Eva Hummers-Pradier
Public health research is complex, involves various disciplines, epistemological perspectives and methods, and is rarely conducted in a controlled setting. Often, the added value of a research project lies in its inter- or trans-disciplinary interaction, reflecting the complexity of the research questions at hand. This creates specific challenges when writing and reviewing public health research grant applications. Therefore, the German Research Foundation (DFG), the largest independent research funding organization in Germany, organized a round table to discuss the process of writing, reviewing and funding public health research...
2016: Health Research Policy and Systems
Sérgio Takeshi Tatsukawa DE Freitas, Elizângela Márcia DE Carvalho Abreu, Mariane Cecilia Dos Reis, Bruna DE Souza Cunha, Tamires Souza Moreira Prianti, Fernanda Pupio Silva Lima, Mário Oliveira Lima
Spasticity is one of the main causes of contracture, muscle weakness and subsequent functional incapacity. The passive static stretching can be included as having the purpose of increasing musculoskeletal flexibility, however, it also can influence the muscle torque. The objective is to verify the immediate effect of passive static stretching in the muscle strength of healthy and those who present spastic hemiparesis. There were assessed 20 subjects, 10 spastic hemiparetic (EG) and 10 healthy individuals (CG), including both sexes, aged between 22 and 78 years...
2016: Acta of Bioengineering and Biomechanics
D Strech, S Bein, M Brumhard, W Eisenmenger, C Glinicke, T Herbst, R Jahns, S von Kielmansegg, G Schmidt, J Taupitz, H D Tröger
BACKGROUND: Biobanks increasingly presume long-term storage of biomaterials and data that shall be used for future research projects which are today unspecified. Appropriate consent documents for sample donors must therefore explain the breadth of consent and other elements of the biobank governance framework. Recent reviews demonstrated high variability in what issues these documents mention or not and how the issues are explained. This might undermine the protection of sample donors, complicate networked biobank research, create research waste and impact on public trust...
April 26, 2016: European Journal of Medical Genetics
Jonas Lander, Tobias Hainz, Irene Hirschberg, Sabine Bossert, Daniel Strech
BACKGROUND: Public involvement activities (PIAs) may contribute to the governance of ethically challenging biomedical research and innovation by informing, consulting with and engaging the public in developments and decision-making processes. For PIAs to capture a population's preferences (e.g. on issues in whole genome sequencing, biobanks or genome editing), a central methodological requirement is to involve a sufficiently representative subgroup of the general public. While the existing literature focusses on theoretical and normative aspects of 'representation', this study assesses empirically how such considerations are implemented in practice...
2016: Public Health Genomics
Hannes Kahrass, Daniel Strech, Marcel Mertz
BACKGROUND: When treating patients with kidney failure, unavoidable ethical issues often arise. Current clinical practice guidelines some of them, but lack comprehensive information about the full range of relevant ethical issues in kidney failure. A systematic literature review of such ethical issues supports medical professionalism in nephrology, and offers a solid evidential base for efforts that aim to improve ethical conduct in health care. AIM: To identify the full spectrum of clinical ethical issues that can arise for patients with kidney failure in a systematic and transparent manner...
2016: PloS One
Daniel Strech, Irene Hirschberg, Antje Meyer, Annika Baum, Tobias Hainz, Gerald Neitzke, Gabriele Seidel, Marie-Luise Dierks
BACKGROUND: Informing lay citizens about complex health-related issues and their related ethical, legal, and social aspects (ELSA) is one important component of democratic health care/research governance. Public information activities may be especially valuable when they are used in multi-staged processes that also include elements of information and deliberation. OBJECTIVES: This paper presents a new model for a public involvement activity on ELSA (Ethics University) and evaluation data for a pilot event...
2015: Frontiers in Public Health
Pierre Journeau, E Polirzstok, F Launay, D Barbier
Sport injuries are common in children and teenaggers, especially overuse injuries. Typical musculoskelotal disorders include apophyseal pains or avulsion, stess fractures, and also epiphyseal ostoochondritis. Some lesions are specific according the practice, such spine or wrist lesions. Prevention of sport injury should be the main priority as well for the parents than the coaches and children themselves. Proper education and preparation, specific training and streching are essential for all sports activities...
October 2015: La Revue du Praticien
Tobias Hainz, Sabine Bossert, Daniel Strech
BACKGROUND: Public involvement activities are promoted as measures for ensuring good governance in challenging fields, such as biomedical research and innovation. Proponents of public involvement activities include individual researchers as well as non-governmental and governmental organizations. However, the concept of 'public' in public involvement deserves more attention by researchers because it is not purely theoretical: it has important practical functions in the guidance, evaluation and translation of public involvement activities...
2016: BMC Medical Ethics
Daniel Strech
BACKGROUND: The use of broad consent in biobank research has implications for the procedures of ethics review. This paper describes these implications and makes a recommendation for how to deal with them. ANALYSIS: Two steps in the ethics review of biobank research can be distinguished. In a first step, a research ethics committee (REC) reviews a biobank's framework regarding oversight procedures (e.g. broad consent form and data protection model). A second step then reviews specific projects that require the release of particular biomaterial and/or data...
October 2015: European Journal of Medical Genetics
Álvaro Bohajar-Lax, Raquel Vaquero-Cristóbal, Luis Espejo-Antúnez, Pedro Ángel López-Miñarro
INTRODUCTION: students who do hamstring stretching exercises, twice per week on alternate days, have showed significant increases on extensibility. Objetive: to compare the effects of a hamstring stretching program includes in the physical education classes in booth groups of adolescent, which had a different class session weekly distribution (non-consecutive sessions vs. consecutive sessions). METHOD: fifty-eight adolescent students did a static-active stretching program on hamstring in the warm-up of both weekly physical education sessions for five weeks...
2015: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Daniel Strech, Hannes Kahrass, Irene Hirschberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
F Seitzer, H Kahrass, G Neitzke, D Strech
Dealing systematically with ethical issues in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) care requires an unbiased awareness of all the relevant ethical issues. The aim of the study was to determine systematically and transparently the full spectrum of ethical issues in ALS care. We conducted a systematic review in Medline and Google Books (restricted to English and German literature published between 1993 and 2014). We applied qualitative text analysis and normative analysis to categorise the spectrum of ethical issues in ALS care...
February 2016: Journal of Neurology
Daniel Sippel, Georg Marckmann, Etienne Ndzie Atangana, Daniel Strech
INTRODUCTION: Unlike issues in biomedical research ethics, ethical challenges arising in daily clinical care in Sub-Saharan African countries have not yet been studied in a systematic manner. However this has to be seen as a distinct entity as we argue in this paper. Our aim was to give an overview of the spectrum of clinical ethical issues and to understand what influences clinical ethics in the Sub-Saharan country of Gabon. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In-depth interviews with 18 health care professionals were conducted at three hospital sites in Gabon...
2015: PloS One
Joerg J Meerpohl, Lisa K Schell, Dirk Bassler, Silvano Gallus, Jos Kleijnen, Michael Kulig, Carlo La Vecchia, Ana Marušić, Philippe Ravaud, Andreas Reis, Christine Schmucker, Daniel Strech, Gerard Urrútia, Elizabeth Wager, Gerd Antes
BACKGROUND: Dissemination bias in clinical research severely impedes informed decision-making not only for healthcare professionals and patients, but also for funders, research ethics committees, regulatory bodies and other stakeholder groups that make health-related decisions. Decisions based on incomplete and biased evidence cannot only harm people, but may also have huge financial implications by wasting resources on ineffective or harmful diagnostic and therapeutic measures, and unnecessary research...
2015: BMJ Open
Georg Marckmann, Harald Schmidt, Neema Sofaer, Daniel Strech
It is widely acknowledged that public health practice raises ethical issues that require a different approach than traditional biomedical ethics. Several frameworks for public health ethics (PHE) have been proposed; however, none of them provides a practice-oriented combination of the two necessary components: (1) a set of normative criteria based on an explicit ethical justification and (2) a structured methodological approach for applying the resulting normative criteria to concrete public health (PH) issues...
2015: Frontiers in Public Health
Daniel Strech, Uwe Deh, Stephan Schmitz, Irmtraut Gürkan, Helmut Ostermann, Stefan W Krause
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Oncology Research and Treatment
Mehran Niazi, Christopher Obropta, Robert Miskewitz
Simulation of the fate and transport of pathogen contamination was conducted with SWAT for the Upper Salem River Watershed, located in Salem County, New Jersey. This watershed is 37 km(2) and land uses are predominantly agricultural. The watershed drains to a 32 km stretch of the Salem River upstream of the head of tide. This strech is identified on the 303(d) list as impaired for pathogens. The overall goal of this research was to use SWAT as a tool to help to better understand how two pathogen indicators (Escherichia coli and fecal coliform) are transported throughout the watershed, by determining the model parameters that control the fate and transport of these two indicator species...
March 15, 2015: Journal of Environmental Management
Katharina F Mueller, Matthias Briel, Daniel Strech, Joerg J Meerpohl, Britta Lang, Edith Motschall, Viktoria Gloy, Francois Lamontagne, Dirk Bassler
BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews of preclinical studies, in vivo animal experiments in particular, can influence clinical research and thus even clinical care. Dissemination bias, selective dissemination of positive or significant results, is one of the major threats to validity in systematic reviews also in the realm of animal studies. We conducted a systematic review to determine the number of published systematic reviews of animal studies until present, to investigate their methodological features especially with respect to assessment of dissemination bias, and to investigate the citation of preclinical systematic reviews on clinical research...
2014: PloS One
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