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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941387/management-protocols-for-status-epilepticus-in-the-pediatric-emergency-room-systematic-review-article
#1
REVIEW
Cheuk C Au, Ricardo G Branco, Robert C Tasker
OBJECTIVE: This systematic review of national or regional guidelines published in English aimed to better understand variance in pre-hospital and emergency department (ED) treatment of status epilepticus. SOURCES: Systematic search of national or regional guidelines (January 2000 to February 2017) contained within PubMed and Google Scholar databases, and article reference lists. The search keywords were status epilepticus, prolonged seizure, treatment, and guideline...
September 20, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934076/delayed-urinary-symptoms-induced-by-ketamine
#2
María Robles-Martínez, Alfonso C Abad, Violeta Pérez-Rodríguez, Elena Ros-Cucurull, Abderraman Esojo, Carlos Roncero
One of the side-effects of ketamine abuse is genito-urinary damage. This report describes a case of a former ketamine user who presented with urinary symptoms associated with ketamine years after stopping consumption. This was a 26-year-old male with a history of ketamine abuse. He started treatment for alcohol dependence at age 19. He smoked marijuana daily and denied any other drug use. During the follow-up, urinary symptoms were evidenced (dysuria, frequency, urgency, incontinence, nocturia, hematuria, and suprapubic pain)...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930978/influenza-a-virus-studies-in-a-mouse-model-of-infection
#3
Laura Rodriguez, Aitor Nogales, Luis Martínez-Sobrido
Influenza viruses cause over 500,000 deaths worldwide(1) and are associated with an annual cost of 12 - 14 billion USD in the United States alone considering direct medical and hospitalization expenses and work absenteeism(2). Animal models are crucial in Influenza A virus (IAV) studies to evaluate viral pathogenesis, host-pathogen interactions, immune responses, and the efficacy of current and/or novel vaccine approaches as well as antivirals. Mice are an advantageous small animal model because their immune system is evolutionarily similar to that found in humans, they are available from commercial vendors as genetically identical subjects, there are multiple strains that can be exploited to evaluate the genetic basis of infections, and they are relatively inexpensive and easy to manipulate...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926159/randomized-controlled-feasibility-trial-of-intranasal-ketamine-compared-to-intranasal-fentanyl-for-analgesia-in-children-with-suspected-extremity-fractures
#4
Stacy L Reynolds, Kathleen K Bryant, Jonathan R Studnek, Melanie Hogg, Connell Dunn, Megan A Templin, Charity G Moore, James R Young, Katherine Rivera Walker, Michael S Runyon
OBJECTIVE: We compared the tolerability and efficacy of intranasal sub-dissociative ketamine to intranasal fentanyl for analgesia of children with acute traumatic pain and investigated the feasibility of a larger non-inferiority trial that could investigate the potential opioid sparing effects of intranasal ketamine. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial compared intranasal ketamine 1 mg/kg to intranasal fentanyl 1.5 μg/kg in children 4-17 years old with acute pain from suspected, isolated extremity fractures presenting to an urban level II pediatric trauma center from December 2015 to November 2016...
September 19, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919220/peucedanum-japonicum-extract-attenuates-allergic-airway-inflammation-by-inhibiting-th2-cell-activation-and-production-of-pro-inflammatory-mediators
#5
Jin Mi Chun, A-Reum Lee, Hyo Seon Kim, A Yeong Lee, Gyo Jeong Gu, Byeong Cheol Moon, Bo-In Kwon
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The root of Peucedanum japonicum Thunb is traditionally used to treat coughs, colds, headache and inflammatory diseases in Korea and Japan. Its effects on allergic lung inflammation have not been investigated. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the anti-asthmatic effects of Peucedanum japonicum extract (PJE) using a murine model of asthma and a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage cell line. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice underwent two rounds of sensitization with ovalbumin 1 week apart followed by four intranasal ovalbumin challenges on days 13-16...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900824/external-nasal-neuralgia-an-update
#6
REVIEW
Hida Nierenburg, Morgane Swift Morris
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: External nasal neuralgia is a rare syndrome of atypical facial pain for which there is limited reports in the scientific literature. We aim to review diagnosis and provide an update on treatments for this rare condition. RECENT FINDINGS: Etiology has been documented as post-traumatic due to direct trauma to the nose area and in few case reports, idiopathic. Sensory innervation of the nose arises from the ophthalmic and maxillary divisions of the trigeminal nerve...
September 13, 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880380/faster-improvement-in-migraine-pain-intensity-and-migraine-related-disability-at-early-time-points-with-avp-825-sumatriptan-nasal-powder-delivery-system-versus-oral-sumatriptan-a-comparative-randomized-clinical-trial-across-multiple-attacks-from-the-compass
#7
Richard B Lipton, James S McGinley, Kenneth J Shulman, R J Wirth, Dawn C Buse
BACKGROUND: Fast relief of migraine pain, associated symptoms, and migraine-related disability are priorities in the acute treatment of migraine. Efforts to improve the pharmacokinetic profiles of acute migraine treatments with the aim of providing faster relief include the development of non-oral routes of administration. AVP-825 (ONZETRA(®) Xsail(®) ) is a delivery system containing 22 mg sumatriptan powder that uses a patient's own breath to deliver medication intranasally, targeting the upper posterior nasal cavity beyond the narrow nasal valve, an area lined with vascular mucosa conducive to rapid drug absorption into the systemic circulation...
September 7, 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877030/radiation-mitigating-properties-of-intranasally-administered-kl4-surfactant-in-a-murine-model-of-radiation-induced-lung-damage
#8
Melpo Christofidou-Solomidou, Ralph A Pietrofesa, Evguenia Arguiri, Constantinos Koumenis, Robert Segal
The threat of exposure to ionizing radiation from a nuclear reactor accident or deliberate terrorist actions is a significant public health concern. The lung is particularly susceptible to radiation-induced injury from external sources or inhalation of radioactive particles from radioactive fallout. Radiation-induced lung disease can manifest with an acute radiation pneumonitis and/or delayed effects leading to pulmonary fibrosis. As prior warning of radiation exposure is unlikely, medical countermeasures (MCMs) to mitigate radiation-induced lung disease that can be given in mass-casualty situations many hours or days postirradiation are needed to prevent both early and late lung damage...
September 6, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864976/overview-of-human-oxytocin-research
#9
Keith M Kendrick, Adam J Guastella, Benjamin Becker
Social dysfunction is a core symptom of many psychiatric disorders and current medications have little or no remedial effects on this. Following on from extensive studies on animal models demonstrating that the neuropeptide oxytocin plays an important role in social recognition and bonding, human-based research has explored its therapeutic potential for social dysfunction in psychiatric disorders. Here we outline the historical background of this human-based research and some of the current methodological challenges it is facing...
September 2, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828011/effect-of-intranasal-sedation-using-ketamine-and-midazolam-on-behavior-of-3-6-year-old-uncooperative-children-in-dental-office-a-clinical-trial
#10
Majid Mehran, Sara Tavassoli-Hojjati, Nazila Ameli, Mehdi Salehi Zeinabadi
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of intranasal ketamine and midazolam on behavior of 3-6 year-old children during dental treatments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this randomized cross-over clinical trial, 17 uncooperative children requiring at least two dental treatments were selected and randomly received ketamine (0.5mg/kg) or midazolam (0.2mg/kg) prior to treatment. The other medication was used in the next visit. The children's behavioral pattern was determined according to the Houpt's scale regarding sleep, movement, crying and overall behavior...
January 2017: Journal of Dentistry of Tehran University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802384/retrospective-study-of-intranasal-dexmedetomidine-as-a-prophylactic-against-emergence-delirium-in-pediatric-patients-undergoing-ear-tube-surgery
#11
Lisgelia Santana, Katherine Mills
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effect of intranasal dexmedetomidine on emergence delirium (ED) in pediatric patients who underwent ear tube surgeries. Due to the brief nature of the surgery and low levels of pain experienced, an IV is rarely needed, limiting the medications available to anesthesiologists to manage postoperative delirium that may arise during recovery from inhalational anesthesia. Intravenous dexmedetomidine is an alpha-2 agonist anesthetic that is used in pediatric patients for the management of ED in various surgical procedures...
September 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802371/how-can-we-improve-medical-adherence-to-intranasal-corticosteroids-in-children
#12
Emre Ocak, Deniz Kocaoz, Baran Acar
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the factors which may be related to nonadherence to intranasal corticosteroids (ICS) in the treatment of allergic rhinitis (AR) in children. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted on children with AR diagnosis in a tertiary referral hospital. All participants were provided with mometasone furoate nasal sprays for 30 days after the diagnosis. Caregivers were called back when the therapy was over and completed a questionnaire about the factors that may influence the adherence to the treatment...
September 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782502/hepatitis-c-in-pregnancy-screening-treatment-and-management
#13
Brenna L Hughes, Charlotte M Page, Jeffrey A Kuller
In the United States, 1-2.5% of pregnant women are infected with hepatitis C virus, which carries an approximately 5% risk of transmission from mother to infant. Hepatitis C virus can be transmitted to the infant in utero or during the peripartum period, and infection during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of adverse fetal outcomes, including fetal growth restriction and low birthweight. The purpose of this document is to discuss the current evidence regarding hepatitis C virus in pregnancy and to provide recommendations on screening, treatment, and management of this disease during pregnancy...
August 4, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761193/intranasal-mast-cell-tumor-in-the-dog-a-case-series
#14
Alison Khoo, Amy Lane, Ken Wyatt
The medical records of 4 dogs with histologically confirmed intranasal mast cell tumors (MCTs) were retrospectively evaluated to determine their biological behavior. Information on signalment, presenting clinical signs, tumor grade, treatment administered, and survival times was obtained from the medical record. All 4 patients had high grade tumors and received chemotherapy. Survival times ranged from 27 to 134 days. All 4 dogs showed signs of local or distant disease progression, suggestive of an aggressive behavior of intranasal MCTs...
August 2017: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733193/traditional-neurotherapeutics-approach-intended-for-direct-nose-to-brain-delivery
#15
REVIEW
Zohreh Abolhasanzadeh, Hajar Ashrafi, Parmis Badr, Amir Azadi
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Nasal delivery systems have a significant role in Persian traditional medicine. Most of them were utilized for central nervous system (CNS)-related disorders. In modern medicine, nasal drug delivery systems for brain delivery are highly regarded. AIM OF THE STUDY: Despite recent advances in drug delivery to the (CNS), delivery of therapeutics to the brain remains a major challenge because of the blood brain barrier (BBB). There are several mechanisms which regulate the drug transfer across the BBB...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727180/why-was-a-local-anaesthetic-used-before-administering-intranasal-ketamine-for-paediatric-injuries
#16
Sabine Lemoine, Daniel Jost, Kilian Bertho, Jean Pierre Tourtier
We were very interested to read Scheier et al's brief report on the use of intranasal ketamine in their pediatric emergency department, specifically for pain and anxiety in children who had resisted venipuncture or intravenous placement (1). Intravenous access can be difficult for pre-hospital medical teams that are not specialised in paediatric care, namely when children complain of pain from, for example suspected fractures and burns. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
July 20, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721467/a-review-of-the-safety-efficacy-and-mechanisms-of-delivery-of-nasal-oxytocin-in-children-therapeutic-potential-for-autism-and-prader-willi-syndrome-and-recommendations-for-future-research
#17
Marilena M DeMayo, Yun Ju C Song, Ian B Hickie, Adam J Guastella
In this article, we conduct a comprehensive review of existing evidence for the safety and therapeutic potential of intranasal oxytocin in pediatric populations. Unique considerations for dosing and delivery of oxytocin to the nasal passageway in pediatric populations and methods to promote adherence are reviewed. Intranasal oxytocin has been administered to 261 children in three open-label studies and eight randomized controlled trials. To date, the only published results in pediatric populations have focused on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS)...
July 18, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712737/pharmacists-can-help-prevent-lipoid-pneumonia
#18
Ann E Cabri, Afoma King, Lee Morrow, Mark A Malesker
OBJECTIVES: To report 2 cases of lipoid pneumonia. SUMMARY: Lipoid pneumonia is an inflammatory process in the lower airways due to the presence of lipid molecules in the alveoli. Exogenous lipoid pneumonia is due to the inhalation or aspiration of fat-containing substances. Historically, mineral oil is the most common medication cause but there have also been several reports of lipoid pneumonia associated with petroleum jelly, medicated vapor rub, and lip glosses...
July 14, 2017: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698351/subdissociative-intranasal-ketamine-plus-standard-pain-therapy-versus-standard-pain-therapy-in-the-treatment-of-paediatric-sickle-cell-disease-vaso-occlusive-crises-in-resource-limited-settings-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#19
James R Young, Hendry Robert Sawe, Juma A Mfinanga, Ernest Nshom, Ethan Helm, Charity G Moore, Michael S Runyon, Stacy L Reynolds
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric sickle cell disease, highly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa, carries great morbidity and mortality risk. Limited resources and monitoring make management of acute vaso-occlusive crises challenging. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of subdissociative intranasal ketamine as a cheap, readily available and easily administered adjunct to standard pain therapy. We hypothesise that subdissociative, intranasal ketamine may significantly augment current approaches to pain management in resource-limited settings in a safe and cost-effective manner...
July 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696286/intranasal-oxytocin-treatment-for-social-deficits-and-biomarkers-of-response-in-children-with-autism
#20
Karen J Parker, Ozge Oztan, Robin A Libove, Raena D Sumiyoshi, Lisa P Jackson, Debra S Karhson, Jacqueline E Summers, Kyle E Hinman, Kara S Motonaga, Jennifer M Phillips, Dean S Carson, Joseph P Garner, Antonio Y Hardan
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by core social deficits. Prognosis is poor, in part, because existing medications target only associated ASD features. Emerging evidence suggests that the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) may be a blood-based biomarker of social functioning and a possible treatment for ASD. However, prior OXT treatment trials have produced equivocal results, perhaps because of variability in patients' underlying neuropeptide biology, but this hypothesis has not been tested. Using a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel design, we tested the efficacy and tolerability of 4-wk intranasal OXT treatment (24 International Units, twice daily) in 32 children with ASD, aged 6-12 y...
July 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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