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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297169/clinical-decision-making-in-surveillance-of-non-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer-the-evolving-roles-of-urinary-cytology-and-molecular-markers
#1
Tahlita C M Zuiverloon, Florus C de Jong, Dan Theodorescu
Cystoscopy and urine cytology are the gold-standard tests for detection of recurrent disease during follow-up in patients with a history of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). High associated costs, as well as side effects, have driven the desire for inexpensive, noninvasive, accurate, and easy-to-use urine markers to detect bladder cancer recurrence. While many urine markers have been developed, very few have been clinically implemented. In this article, we discuss the requirements for development and validation of urine markers and the factors that hamper their clinical implementation...
December 15, 2017: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288002/m2-macrophage-infiltration-and-macrophage-traits-of-tumor-cells-in-urinary-bladder-cancer
#2
Firas Aljabery, Hans Olsson, Oliver Gimm, Staffan Jahnson, Ivan Shabo
BACKGROUND: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) constitute a subset of nonneoplastic cells in tumor stroma and influence cancer progression in solid tumors. The clinical significance of TAMs in urinary bladder cancer (UBC) is controversial. METHODS: We prospectively studied 103 patients with stage pT1-T4 UBC treated with cystectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection. Tumor sections were immunostained with M2-specific macrophage marker CD163 and proliferation marker Ki-67...
December 26, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281088/prediction-of-acute-gastrointestinal-and-genitourinary-radiation-toxicity-in-prostate-cancer-patients-using-lymphocyte-microrna
#3
Masanori Someya, Masakazu Hori, Toshio Gocho, Kensei Nakata, Takaaki Tsuchiya, Mio Kitagawa, Tomokazu Hasegawa, Yuuki Fukushima, Koh-Ichi Sakata
Background: To search for novel biomarkers that can predict acute radiation toxicity, we conducted microRNA expression analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). Methods: The discovery cohort was 69 patients with localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate who received intensity-modulated radiation therapy between October 2007 and October 2010. The validation cohort was 72 patients treated with low-dose-rate brachytherapy between May 2008 and March 2014. After13 microRNAs were selected by TaqMan® Array analysis in a preliminary experiment, expression of these microRNAs in all samples was analyzed by RT-PCR...
December 21, 2017: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277583/wisp1-genetic-variants-as-predictors-of-tumor-development-with-urothelial-cell-carcinoma
#4
Hsiang-Lin Lee, Hui-Ling Chiou, Shian-Shiang Wang, Sheng-Chun Hung, Ming-Chih Chou, Shun-Fa Yang, Ming-Ju Hsieh, Ying-Erh Chou
OBJECTIVES: Urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) of the urinary bladder is a major malignancy of the genitourinary tract. Etiological factors, such as the environment, ethnicity, genetics, and diet, contribute to UCC carcinogenesis. WNT1-inducible signaling pathway protein 1 (WISP1), also known as CCN4, a cysteine-rich protein belonging to the Cyr61, CTGF, Nov (CCN) family of matricellular proteins, has many developmental functions and might be involved in carcinogenesis. This study investigated WISP1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms to evaluate UCC susceptibility and clinicopathological characteristics...
December 22, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249035/clinicopathologic-and-immunohistochemical-study-of-combined-small-cell-carcinoma-and-urothelial-carcinoma-molecular-subtype
#5
Guang-Qian Xiao, Mary M Barrett, Qi Yang, Pamela D Unger
Muscle invasive bladder cancer, an aggressive disease with heterogeneous molecular profiles, has recently been subclassified into three major molecular subtypes -basal, luminal and "p53-like" urothelial carcinomas (UCas), which bear prognostic and therapeutic implication. Similar to breast cancer, basal and luminal subtype UCas are designated by basal (CK5/14) and luminal (CK20) markers. The "p53-like" subtype presents with wild-type p53 gene with upregulated p53 pathways and is implicated in chemoresistance...
December 16, 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240252/ganoderma-microsporum-immunomodulatory-protein-induces-apoptosis-and-potentiates-mitomycin-c-induced-apoptosis-in-urinary-bladder-urothelial-carcinoma-cells
#6
Sheng-Yuan Huang, Chih-Cheng Chien, Ruey-Shyang Hseu, Victoria Ying Jen Huang, Shang Ying Chiang, Chi-Jung Huang, Shao-Kuan Chen, Ru-Yin Tsai, Hsi-Ting Lin, Yu-Che Cheng
Current chemotherapy and immunotherapy treatments followed by transurethral resection for urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma (UC) usually suffers from poor prognosis and high recurrence rate. Design and modification of current formulation with the novel adjuvants is needed. A recombinant protein derived from Ganoderma microsporum named as Ganoderma microsporum immunomodulatory protein (GMIP) were used to treat UC cells. We found GMIP elicits a dose-dependent and time-dependent anti-UC cell proliferation effect, with a half-maximal inhibition concentration (IC50 ) comparable to mitomycin C (MMC), a commonly used chemotherapy agent...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223546/sigmoidocolocystoplasty-for-neurogenic-bladder-reviewed-after-20-years
#7
Yutaka Hayashi, Emi Nishimura, Satoko Shimizu, Go Miyano, Manabu Okawada, Itsuro Nagae, Geoffrey J Lane, Kenji Katsumata, Atsuyuki Yamataka, Akihiko Tsuchida
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: We report the current status of patients who underwent augmentation cystoplasty (AC) at least 20years previously. METHODS: Surgical history, incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) and bladder stones, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), urine cytology, renal function, a colon cancer tumor marker (carcinoembryonic antigen: CEA), and patient outcomes were assessed. RESULTS: Forty patients who underwent AC (mean age: 34.4years; mean follow-up time: 24...
December 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196070/evaluation-of-urinary-dna-methylation-as-a-marker-for-recurrent-bladder-cancer-a-two-center-prospective-study
#8
Tetsuya Shindo, Takashi Shimizu, Masanori Nojima, Takeshi Niinuma, Reo Maruyama, Hiroshi Kitajima, Masahiro Kai, Naoki Itoh, Hiromu Suzuki, Naoya Masumori
OBJECTIVE: To clarify the clinical utility of urinary DNA methylation for detection of intravesical recurrence of non-muscle invasive BCa (NMIBC), we performed a 2 center prospective study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A series of 207 self-voided urine samples were prospectively collected from 132 NMIBC patients who had undergone transurethral resection of BCa. Methylation of miRNA genes (miR-9-3, miR-124-2, miR-124-3 and miR-137) was analyzed using bisulfite pyrosequencing...
November 28, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182577/estrogen-metabolism-associated-cyp2d6-and-il6-174g-c-polymorphisms-in-schistosoma-haematobium-infection
#9
Rita Cardoso, Pedro C Lacerda, Paulo P Costa, Ana Machado, André Carvalho, Adriano Bordalo, Ruben Fernandes, Raquel Soares, Joachim Richter, Helena Alves, Monica C Botelho
Schistosoma haematobium is a human blood fluke causing a chronic infection called urogenital schistosomiasis. Squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (SCC) constitutes chronic sequelae of this infection, and S. haematobium infection is accounted as a risk factor for this type of cancer. This infection is considered a neglected tropical disease and is endemic in numerous countries in Africa and the Middle East. Schistosome eggs produce catechol-estrogens. These estrogenic molecules are metabolized to active quinones that induce modifications in DNA...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143974/%C3%AE-h2ax-formation-in-the-urinary-bladder-of-rats-treated-with-two-norharman-derivatives-obtained-from-o-toluidine-and-aniline
#10
T Toyoda, Y Totsuka, K Matsushita, T Morikawa, N Miyoshi, K Wakabayashi, K Ogawa
Aminomethylphenylnorharman (AMPNH) and aminophenylnorharman (APNH) are mutagenic norharman derivatives obtained from o-toluidine and aniline, respectively. APNH is carcinogenic to the urinary bladder of rats and present in urine samples of healthy volunteers, indicating that norharman derivatives may be associated with cancer development in the urinary bladder of humans. To evaluate the possible role of AMPNH and APNH in bladder carcinogenesis, we examined the formation of γ-H2AX, a DNA damage response marker, in the urinary bladder of rats...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130146/recent-developments-in-the-search-for-urinary-biomarkers-in-bladder-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Aaron Leiblich
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to evaluate research surrounding the utility of urinary biomarkers to detect bladder cancer and predict recurrence. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent research has focussed on the evaluation of genetic markers found in urine to provide diagnostic and prognostic information. Furthermore, the isolation and characterisation of extracellular vesicles (EVs) from the urine patients with bladder cancer provide an exciting new development in biomarker research that is set to expand in the coming years...
November 13, 2017: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115542/imp3-overexpression-occurs-in-various-important-cancer-types-and-is-linked-to-aggressive-tumor-features-a-tissue-microarray-study-on-8-877-human-cancers-and-normal-tissues
#12
Christoph Burdelski, Nilofar Jakani-Karimi, Frank Jacobsen, Christina Möller-Koop, Sarah Minner, Ronald Simon, Guido Sauter, Stefan Steurer, Till S Clauditz, Waldemar Wilczak
IMP3 is an RNA binding protein required for ribosomal RNA processing, which has been suggested to be a prognostic marker in a large variety of human types of cancer. However, available data on the prevalence of IMP3 expression are largely discrepant. To systematically investigate the epidemiology and clinical relevance of IMP3 expression in human cancers we employed a two-step tissue microarrays (TMAs) approach. First, a normal tissue TMA and a multi-tumor TMA were analyzed for immunohistochemically detectable expression of IMP3 in 76 different normal tissue types and 3889 cancer samples from 95 different tumor categories...
November 2, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115014/impact-of-variant-microscopic-interpretation-of-the-ucyt-immunocytological-urine-test-for-the-detection-of-bladder-cancer
#13
Susanne Deininger, Tilman Todenhöfer, Jörg Hennenlotter, Valentina Gerber, Jennifer Schwarz, Jens Bedke, Christian Schwentner, Arnulf Stenzl, Steffen Rausch
BACKGROUND: Urinary marker tests for bladder cancer (BC) detection and surveillance represent a desirable approach to diagnosis and follow-up. The SCIMEDX uCyt+ assay detects antigens expressed by BC cells (mucin glycoprotein and carcinoembryonic antigen) using green and red fluorescence and is interpreted according to specific manufacturer's recommendations. In the present study, we evaluated divergent approaches of numeric and morphological analysis of uCyt+ to generate a rationale for alternative test interpretation strategies...
November 8, 2017: Diagnostic Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055653/predicting-response-to-intravesical-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-immunotherapy-are-we-there-yet-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Ashish M Kamat, Roger Li, Michael A O'Donnell, Peter C Black, Morgan Roupret, James W Catto, Eva Comperat, Molly A Ingersoll, Wim P Witjes, David J McConkey, J Alfred Witjes
CONTEXT: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is currently the most effective intravesical therapy for nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer, reducing not only recurrence rates but also preventing progression and reducing deaths. However, response rates to BCG vary widely and are dependent on a multitude of factors. OBJECTIVE: To review existing data on clinical, pathologic, immune, and molecular markers that allow prediction of BCG response. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: PubMed and MEDLINE search of English language literature was conducted from its inception to July 2017 using appropriate search terms...
October 18, 2017: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024250/non-invasive-detection-of-bladder-cancer-via-expression-targeted-gene-delivery
#15
Yunlan Fang, B Wolfson, W T Godbey
BACKGROUND: Because of the time and expense associated with the procedures and possible distress to the patient, cystoscopy or other imaging techniques are typically not used for bladder cancer detection before symptoms become present. Alternatively, commercial assays for urinary tumor markers exist but are marred by low sensitivity and high cost. There is a need for a simple and sensitive means of tumor detection, such as via the analysis of urine. METHODS: Plasmids encoding the secretable reporter Gaussia luciferase (G...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Gene Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977980/prognostic-value-of-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-in-urothelial-carcinoma-of-the-upper-urinary-tract-and-bladder-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Xintao Li, Xin Ma, Lu Tang, Baojun Wang, Luyao Chen, Fan Zhang, Xu Zhang
The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is an inflammation marker that has prognostic value for various tumors, but its prognostic value in urothelial carcinoma (UC) remains controversial. This meta-analysis investigated the prognostic value of NLR in UC. A systematic search was performed on PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and Embase for studies focusing on the association between NLR and clinical features or prognosis of UC and published until November 2016. Prognostic outcomes and clinical features were collected and analyzed...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967804/ck20-and-p53-immunohistochemical-staining-patterns-in-urinary-bladder-specimens-with-equivocal-atypia-correlation-with-outcomes
#17
Javier A Arias-Stella, Alpa B Shah, Nilesh S Gupta, Sean R Williamson
CONTEXT: - Urinary bladder flat carcinoma in situ (CIS) is a worrisome lesion, requiring aggressive surveillance and treatment. Cytokeratin 20 (CK20) and p53 are common immunohistochemical antibodies used to supplement CIS diagnosis in biopsy samples. However, existing data come primarily from unequivocally benign and malignant specimens. OBJECTIVE: - To correlate these markers in specimens with borderline histology with outcomes. DESIGN: - CK20 and p53 immunohistochemistry was analyzed for staining pattern, classified as CIS pattern (both stains yielding strong labeling of the area of concern), discordant (only 1 stain yielding CIS pattern), indeterminate (1 or both stains yielding partial or equivocal labeling), or benign (both stains yielding a benign pattern)...
October 2, 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953854/expression-of-n-myc-downstream-regulated-gene-2-in-bladder-cancer-and-its-potential-utility-as-a-urinary-diagnostic-biomarker
#18
Miao Zhang, Bo Ren, Zhi Li, Wenyan Niu, Yueling Wang
BACKGROUND Initial diagnosis of carcinoma of the urinary bladder remains challenging. N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) has been reported to be closely correlated with cell differentiation and proliferation in various cancers. However, its clinical significance in diagnosis of bladder cancer remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to detect the expression of NDRG2 and investigate its diagnostic value in bladder cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS We recruited 127 patients with bladder cancer and 97 healthy controls...
September 27, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945275/collagen-content-in-the-bladder-of-men-with-luts-undergoing-open-prostatectomy-a-pilot-study
#19
Marcio A Averbeck, Nelson G De Lima, Gabriela A Motta, Lauro F Beltrao, Nury J Abboud Filho, Clarice P Rigotti, William N Dos Santos, Steven K J Dos Santos, Luis F B Da Silva, Ernani L Rhoden
AIMS: To evaluate the collagen content in the bladder wall of men undergoing open prostate surgery. METHODS: From July 2014 to August 2016, men aged ≥ 50 years, presenting LUTS and undergoing open prostate surgery due to benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) or prostate cancer were prospectively enrolled. Preoperative assessment included validated questionnaires (IPSS and OAB-V8), lower urinary tract ultrasound, and urodynamics. Bladder biopsies were obtained during open prostatectomy for determination of collagen content (sirius red-picric acid stain; polarized light analysis)...
September 25, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943911/microplate-magnetic-chemiluminescence-immunoassay-for-detecting-urinary-survivin-in-bladder-cancer
#20
Yanli Chang, Jianjun Xu, Qingyun Zhang
Survivin is a tumor marker for bladder cancer; however the role of urinary survivin levels has not been fully elucidated due to the limitations of current detection methods. Based on two survivin-specific monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) already confirmed through enzyme linked immunosorbent assays, the present study aimed to establish a microplate magnetic chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) for the detection of urinary survivin levels and evaluate its application for the diagnosis of patients with bladder cancer...
October 2017: Oncology Letters
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