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Pathogenesis of COPD

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327457/beta2-adrenergic-receptor-gene-haplotypes-and-bronchodilator-response-in-egyptian-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#1
Mohammad H Hussein, Khaled E Sobhy, Irene M Sabry, Ahmed T El Serafi, Eman A Toraih
PURPOSE: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a multi-factorial disorder caused by environmental determinants and genetic risk factors. Understanding the genetic predisposition of COPD is essential to develop personalized treatment regimens. Beta2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) gene polymorphisms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of obstructive pulmonary diseases. This study was conducted to assess the genetic association between Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu polymorphisms and COPD in the Egyptian patients, and to analyze their impact on the clinical outcome and therapeutic response...
March 16, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315337/p53-signaling-pathway-polymorphisms-associated-with-emphysematous-changes-in-copd-patients
#2
Shiro Mizuno, Takeshi Ishizaki, Maiko Kadowaki, Masaya Akai, Kohei Shiozaki, Masaharu Iguchi, Taku Oikawa, Ken Nakagawa, Kazuhiro Osanai, Hirohisa Toga, Jose Gomez-Arroyo, Donatas Kraskauskas, Carlyne D Cool, Herman J Bogaard, Norbert F Voelkel
BACKGROUND: The p53 signaling pathway may be important for the pathogenesis of emphysematous changes in the lungs of smokers. Polymorphism of p53 at codon 72 is known to affect apoptotic effector proteins, and the polymorphism of mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2) SNP309 is known to increase MDM2 expression. The aim of this study was to assess polymorphisms of the p53 and MDM2 genes in smokers and confirm the role of SNPs in these genes in the pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema. METHODS: 365 patients with a smoking history were included in this study, and the polymorphisms of p53 and MDM2 genes were identified...
March 14, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291826/endothelial-progenitor-cells-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-emphysema
#3
Margaret F Doyle, Russell P Tracy, Megha A Parikh, Eric A Hoffman, Daichi Shimbo, John H M Austin, Benjamin M Smith, Katja Hueper, Jens Vogel-Claussen, Joao Lima, Antoinette Gomes, Karol Watson, Steven Kawut, R Graham Barr
Endothelial injury is implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD and emphysema; however the role of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), a marker of endothelial cell repair, and circulating endothelial cells (CECs), a marker of endothelial cell injury, in COPD and its subphenotypes is unresolved. We hypothesized that endothelial progenitor cell populations would be decreased in COPD and emphysema and that circulating endothelial cells would be increased. Associations with other subphenotypes were examined. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis COPD Study recruited smokers with COPD and controls age 50-79 years without clinical cardiovascular disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290796/-sudden-cardiac-death-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#4
N A Karoli, A P Rebrov
The article contains review of data on the problem of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Large studies have shown that risk of cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is 2-3 times greater than in general population. The incidence of COPD and ischemic heart disease (IHD) progressively rises with age. Combination of these diseases is often observed in clinical practice among patients older than 40 years. According to the population study published in 2015 COPD has been associated with elevated risk of SCD especially in patients with frequent exacerbations within 5 years after diagnosis...
February 2017: Kardiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284325/expression-of-gulp1-in-bronchial-epithelium-is-associated-with-the-progression-of-emphysema-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#5
Sayantan Datta, Hae-Seong Nam, Masamichi Hayashi, Leonel Maldonado, Rachel Goldberg, Mariana Brait, David Sidransky, Peter Illei, Alex Baras, Neeraj Vij, Mohammad O Hoque
BACKGROUND: GULP1 functions as a cytoplasmic adaptor protein involved in the engulfment of apoptotic cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and/or promoter methylation of GULP1 in the bronchial tissue and the lung parenchyma of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and control subjects without COPD (non-smokers and smokers). METHODS: Using a case-control design, we selected a group of 15 subjects with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), 15 subjects with COPD, 9 subjects of without COPD (4 non-smokers and 5 smokers) as controls...
March 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273403/pten-pi3k-akt-regulates-macrophage-polarization-in-emphysematous-mice
#6
JunJuan Lu, LiHua Xie, Chun Liu, Qiang Zhang, ShengHua Sun
Macrophages play an important role in the pathogenesis of COPD. Macrophage polarization toward the M2 phenotype has been observed in the lung tissues of COPD patients and cigarette smokers. The molecular basis of this process remains unclear, and it has not been completely illuminated in animal models of emphysema. In our study we combined cigarette smoke(CS) exposure with intraperitoneal injection of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) to build an emphysema model. We found by immunohistochemical staining and flow cytometry that the expression level of CD206 and the ratio of M2 to M1 macrophages was increased in emphysematous mice...
March 8, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260872/reduced-nuclear-translocation-of-serum-response-factor-is-associated-with-skeletal-muscle-atrophy-in-a-cigarette-smoke-induced-mouse-model-of-copd
#7
Ran Ma, Xuefang Gong, Hua Jiang, Chunyi Lin, Yuqin Chen, Xiaoming Xu, Chenting Zhang, Jian Wang, Wenju Lu, Nanshan Zhong
Skeletal muscle atrophy and dysfunction are common complications in the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. Serum response factor (SRF) is a transcription factor which is critical in myocyte differentiation and growth. In this study, we established a mouse COPD model induced by cigarette smoking (CS) exposure for 24 weeks, with apparent pathophysiological changes, including increased airway resistance, enlarged alveoli, and skeletal muscle atrophy...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255962/bringing-stability-to-the-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-patient-clinical-and-pharmacological-considerations-for-frequent-exacerbators
#8
REVIEW
Swati Gulati, J Michael Wells
Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) are critical events associated with an accelerated loss of lung function, increased morbidity, and excess mortality. AECOPD are heterogeneous in nature and this may directly impact clinical decision making, specifically in patients with frequent exacerbations. A 'frequent exacerbator' is a sub-phenotype of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is defined as an individual who experiences two or more moderate-to-severe exacerbations per year...
March 3, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252317/role-for-nlrp3-inflammasome-mediated-il-1%C3%AE-dependent-responses-in-severe-steroid-resistant-asthma
#9
Richard Y Kim, James W Pinkerton, Ama T Essilfie, Avril Ab Robertson, Katherine J Baines, Alexandra C Brown, Jemma R Mayall, Md Khadem Ali, Malcolm R Starkey, Nicole G Hansbro, Jeremy A Hirota, Lisa G Wood, Jodie L Simpson, Darryl A Knight, Peter A Wark, Peter G Gibson, Luke A J O'Neill, Matthew A Cooper, Jay C Horvat, Philip M Hansbro
RATIONALE: Severe, steroid-resistant asthma is the major unmet need in asthma therapy. Disease heterogeneity and poor understanding of pathogenic mechanisms hampers the identification of therapeutic targets. Excessive NLRP3 inflammasome and concomitant IL-1β responses occur in COPD, respiratory infections and neutrophilic asthma. However, the direct contributions to pathogenesis, mechanisms involved and potential for therapeutic targeting remain poorly understood, and are unknown in severe, steroid-resistant asthma...
March 2, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245616/the-impacts-of-cellular-senescence-in-elderly-pneumonia-and-in-age-related-lung-diseases-that-increase-the-risk-of-respiratory-infections
#10
REVIEW
Shigehisa Yanagi, Hironobu Tsubouchi, Ayako Miura, Ayako Matsuo, Nobuhiro Matsumoto, Masamitsu Nakazato
Pneumonia generates considerable negative impacts on the elderly. Despite the widespread uses of vaccines and appropriate antibiotics, the morbidity and mortality of elderly pneumonia are significantly higher compared to the counterparts of young populations. The definitive mechanisms of high vulnerability in the elderly against pathogen threats are unclear. Age-associated, chronic low-grade inflammation augments the susceptibility and severity of pneumonia in the elderly. Cellular senescence, one of the hallmarks of aging, has its own characteristics, cell growth arrest and senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP)...
February 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243080/mir-344b-1-3p-targets-tlr2-and-negatively-regulates-tlr2-signaling-pathway
#11
Hong Xu, Yuting Wu, Li Li, Weifeng Yuan, Deming Zhang, Qitao Yan, Zhenhui Guo, Wenjie Huang
OBJECTIVES: COPD is an abnormal inflammatory response characterized by decreased expression of TLR2 in patients, which is suggested to induce invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to play important roles in the pathogenesis of human respiratory system disorders. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the miRNAs involved in the regulation of TLR2 signaling in COPD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: miRNA microarray analysis was performed to screen for the dysregulated miRNAs in alveolar macrophages (AMs) isolated from COPD rats...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223227/mitogen-activated-protein-kinases-as-therapeutic-targets-for-asthma
#12
REVIEW
MirHojjat Khorasanizadeh, Mahsa Eskian, Erwin W Gelfand, Nima Rezaei
Corticosteroid-resistant asthmatics, although comprising only a portion of the asthma population, account for most of the morbidity, mortality and economic burden associated with asthma. Moreover, corticosteroids are not effective inhibitors of airway remodeling changes, and their long-term use is associated with debilitating systemic side effects. Therefore, potent and safe novel therapeutic alternatives, targeting basic pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for the severe asthmatic phenotype are urgently needed...
February 14, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214201/up-regulation-of-pim-3-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd-patients-and-its-potential-therapeutic-role-in-copd-rat-modeling
#13
Cheng Yang, Li Li, Junhua Guo, Weiqiang Zhang, Wenbiao Zhu, Xinhui Rao, Wenjie Huang
BACKGROUND: Pim-3 belongs to the PIM kinase family and plays an important role in promoting inflammation, which is essential in the pathogenesis of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). METHODS: Immunohistochemistry (IHC), western blot, and RT-PCR analyses were performed to assess the expression of Pim-3 in both COPD and healthy lung tissue samples. SMA (Smooth Muscle Actin) and Cyclin D1 expression were detected by IHC. We also constructed animal models for the control, COPD, and Pim-3 inhibition groups, in order to analyze the effects of Pim-3 inhibition on COPD, and the role of Pim-3 in the p38 pathway...
January 29, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212273/oxidative-stress-in-copd-sources-markers-and-potential-mechanisms
#14
REVIEW
Adam John Anthony McGuinness, Elizabeth Sapey
Markers of oxidative stress are increased in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are able to alter biological molecules, signaling pathways and antioxidant molecule function, many of which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD. However, the involvement of ROS in the development and progression of COPD is not proven. Here, we discuss the sources of ROS, and the defences that have evolved to protect against their harmful effects. We address the role that ROS may have in the development and progression of COPD, as well as current therapeutic attempts at limiting the damage they cause...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208905/n-acetylcysteine-combined-with-home-based-physical-activity-effect-on-health-related-quality-of-life-in-stable-copd-patients-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#15
Vijay Tukaram Salve, Jitesh S Atram
INTRODUCTION: Quality of life is adversely affected in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), due to irreversible, progressive nature of the disease and limitations of current treatment options available. One of the important aim of treatment of COPD is to improve Quality of Life (QoL). Cigarette smoke contains numerous free radicals and other oxidants. Oxidative stress has been implicated in pathogenesis, progression of disease and exacerbation in COPD. Pulmonary tuberculosis, outdoor and indoor air pollution and many others are aetiologies of COPD in non-smokers...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207279/angiotensin-converting-inhibitors-and-angiotensin-ii-receptor-blockers-and-longitudinal-change-in-percent-emphysema-on-computed-tomography-the-mesa-lung-study
#16
Megha A Parikh, Carrie P Aaron, Eric A Hoffman, Joseph E Schwartz, Jaime Madrigano, John H M Austin, Ravi Kalhan, Gina Lovasi, Karol Watson, Karen Hinckley Stukovsky, R Graham Barr
RATIONALE: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third-leading cause of death in the United States. Emphysema on computed tomography (CT) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients with and without spirometrically defined COPD but no available medications target emphysema.  Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and endothelial dysfunction are implicated in emphysema pathogenesis, and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB) inhibit TGF-β, improve endothelial function and restore airspace architecture in murine models...
February 16, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203404/the-role-of-cyclooxygenase-2-in-the-protection-against-apoptosis-in-vascular-endothelial-cells-induced-by-cigarette-smoking
#17
Zhihui Shi, Yan Chen, Yanfang Pei, Yingjiao Long, Caihong Liu, Jun Cao, Ping Chen
BACKGROUND: Apoptosis has been demonstrated to be an important upstream event in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) seems to be biologically relevant in COPD. However, the role of COX-2 in the apoptosis in vascular endothelial cells induced by cigarette smoke extract (CSE) remains to be elucidated. Our recent study found that the prostacyclin, one of the COX products in the microvascular endothelium, inhibited apoptosis in the emphysematous lungs of rats induced by CSE...
January 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197929/epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-emt-and-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-nsclc-a-mutual-association-with-airway-disease
#18
Malik Quasir Mahmood, Chris Ward, Hans Konrad Muller, Sukhwinder Singh Sohal, Eugene Haydn Walters
NSCLC is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It includes adeno- and squamous cell carcinoma. In the background, COPD and smoking play a vital role in development of NSCLC. Local progression and metastasis of NSCLC has been associated with various mechanisms, but in particular by a process called epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is implicated in COPD pathogenesis. In this study, we have investigated whether expression of EGFR (activation marker) and S100A4, vimentin and N-cadherin (as EMT) is different both in central and leading edge of NSCLC and to what extent related to EMT activity of both small and large airways, stage and differentiation of NSCLC...
March 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188041/chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-atrial-fibrillation-an-unknown-relationship
#19
REVIEW
Christos A Goudis
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is independently associated with atrial fibrillation (AF). Decreased oxygenation, hypercapnia, pulmonary hypertension, diastolic dysfunction, oxidative stress, inflammation, changes in atrial size by altered respiratory physiology, increased arrhythmogenicity from nonpulmonary vein foci commonly located in the right atrium, and respiratory drugs have been implicated in the pathogenesis of AF in COPD. The understanding of the relationship between COPD and AF is of particular importance, as the presence of the arrhythmia has significant impact on mortality, especially in COPD exacerbations...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176939/factors-associated-with-plasma-il-33-levels-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#20
Sei Won Kim, Chin Kook Rhee, Ki Uk Kim, Sang Haak Lee, Hun Gyu Hwang, Yu Il Kim, Deog Kyeom Kim, Sang Do Lee, Yeon-Mok Oh, Hyoung Kyu Yoon
BACKGROUND: Interleukin (IL)-33 promotes T helper (Th)2 immunity and systemic inflammation. The role of IL-33 in asthma has been widely investigated. IL-33 has also been suggested to play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study investigated the clinical significance and usefulness of plasma IL-33 level in patients with COPD. METHODS: A total of 307 patients with stable COPD from 15 centers, who were in the Korean Obstructive Lung Disease cohort, were enrolled in this study...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
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