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Pathogenesis of COPD

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915625/long-term-cigarette-smoke-exposure-inhibits-histone-deacetylase-2-expression-and-enhances-the-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-in-skeletal-muscle-of-mice
#1
Dongmei Huang, Zhiying Ma, Yili He, Ying Xiao, Honglin Luo, Qiuli Liang, Xiaoning Zhong, Jing Bai, Zhiyi He
Long-term cigarette smoke induces lung inflammatory injury and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), associated with skeletal muscle inflammation. This study aimed at investigating how cigarette smoke promotes skeletal muscle inflammation and its molecular pathogenesis. Mice were exposed to air or cigarette smoke for 12 or 24 weeks, and C2C12 cells were stimulated with cigarette smoke extract (CSE). The mass and function, myotube formation, inflammatory cytokine production, histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 expression were detected in the gastrocnemius muscles of mice and C2C12 cells...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900078/-polymorphic-variants-of-glutamate-receptor-grik5-grin2b-and-serotonin-receptor-htr2a-genes-are-associated-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#2
G F Korytina, L Z Akhmadishina, O V Kochetova, Y G Aznabaeva, Sh Z Zagidullin, T V Victorova
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex chronic inflammatory disease of the respiratory system that affects primarily distal respiratory pathways and lung parenchyma. Smoking tobacco is a major risk factor for COPD. The relationship of HTR4 (rs3995090), HTR2A (rs6313), GRIK5 (rs8099939), GRIN2B (rs2268132), and CHRNB4 (rs1948) gene polymorphisms and COPD, as well as the contribution of these polymorphisms to the variations in quantitative characteristics that describe respiratory function, smoking behavior, and nicotine dependence was assessed in an ethnically homogeneous Tatar population...
July 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895883/the-effects-of-resveratrol-on-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#3
Xiao-Li Wang, Ting Li, Ji-Hong Li, Shu-Ying Miao, Xian-Zhong Xiao
Oxidative stress and inflammation are hypothesized to contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Resveratrol (trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) is known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The study aimed to investigate the effects of resveratrol in a rat model with COPD on the regulation of oxidative stress and inflammation via the activation of Sirtuin1 (SIRTl) and proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α). Thirty Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: control group, COPD group and resveratrol intervention group...
September 12, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891938/time-course-of-the-phenotype-of-blood-and-bone-marrow-monocytes-and-macrophages-in-the-lung-after-cigarette-smoke-exposure-in-vivo
#4
Camila Oliveira da Silva, Andréa Monte-Alto-Costa, Mariana Renovato-Martins, Filipe Jorge Viana Nascimento, Samuel Dos Santos Valença, Vincent Lagente, Luís Cristóvão Pôrto, Tatiana Victoni
Alveolar macrophages play a central role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Monocytes are recruited from blood during inflammation and then mature into alveolar macrophages. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cigarette smoke (CS) at different times in lung macrophages and monocytes from blood and bone marrow in mice. Male mice (C57BL/6, n = 45) were divided into groups: control, CS 5 days, CS 14 days and CS 30 days. Five days' CS exposure induced a pronounced influx of neutrophils and macrophages in the lung associated with increased levels of keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-12...
September 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880936/reduced-microrna-503-expression-augments-lung-fibroblast-vegf-production-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#5
Jun Ikari, Amy J Nelson, Jannah Obaid, Alvaro Giron-Martinez, Kumiko Ikari, Fumihiko Makino, Shunichiro Iwasawa, Yoko Gunji, Maha Farid, Xingqi Wang, Hesham Basma, Dawn Demeo, Carol Feghali-Bostwick, Olaf Holz, Klaus Rabe, Xiangde Liu, Stephen I Rennard
Alterations in microRNA (miRNA) expression may contribute to COPD pathogenesis. In COPD, lung fibroblast repair functions are altered in multiple ways, including extracellular mediator release. Our prior study revealed miR-503 expression is decreased in COPD lung fibroblasts, although the exact role played by miR-503 is undetermined. The current study examined a role of miR-503 in cytokine, growth factor and fibronectin production by lung fibroblasts from patients with and without COPD. Primary adult lung fibroblasts were isolated from patients with or without COPD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872147/generation-of-a-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-model-in-mice-by-repeated-ozone-exposure
#6
Zhongwei Sun, Feng Li, Xin Zhou, Wen Wang
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by persistent airflow limitation and lung parenchymal destruction. It has a very high incidence in aging populations. The current conventional therapies for COPD focus mainly on symptom-modifying drugs; thus, the development of new therapies is urgently needed. Qualified animal models of COPD could help to characterize the underlying mechanisms and can be used for new drug screening. Current COPD models, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or the porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE)-induced emphysema model, generate COPD-like lesions in the lungs and airways but do not otherwise resemble the pathogenesis of human COPD...
August 25, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864214/microrna-218-acts-by-repressing-tnfr1-mediated-activation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-which-is-involved-in-muc5ac-hyper-production-and-inflammation-in-smoking-induced-bronchiolitis-of-copd
#7
Hui Xu, Qian Sun, Lu Lu, Fei Luo, Liang Zhou, Jianping Liu, Lei Cao, Qiushi Wang, Junchao Xue, Qianlei Yang, Ping Yang, Jiachun Lu, Quanyong Xiang, Qizhan Liu
Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is largely attributable to cigarette smoke (CS). However, little is known about the effect of miRNAs on CS-induced mucus hypersecretion and the inflammatory response in the airway epithelium, which are pathological characteristics of COPD-related chronic bronchiolitis. As determined in the present investigation, population-based data indicate that smokers with COPD had serious airflow obstruction and inflammation, whereas smokers without COPD had mild airflow obstruction and inflammation...
August 31, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860481/increased-expression-of-siglec-9-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#8
Zhilin Zeng, Miao Li, Meijia Wang, Xiaomei Wu, Qinghai Li, Qin Ning, Jianping Zhao, Yongjian Xu, Jungang Xie
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common inflammatory lung disease. Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-type lectins 9 (Siglec-9) is predominantly expressed on innate immune cells and has been shown to exert regulatory effect on immune cells through glycan recognition. Soluble Siglec-9 (sSiglec-9), the extracellular region of Siglec-9, might fulfill its function partly by competitive inhibiting siglec-9 binding to its ligands; however, the role of Siglec-9 and sSiglec-9 in the pathogenesis COPD remain largely unknown...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854829/profile-of-the-proaxsis-active-neutrophil-elastase-immunoassay-for-precision-medicine-in-chronic-respiratory-disease
#9
Holly R Keir, Christopher J Fong, Alison J Dicker, James D Chalmers
Neutrophil elastase (NE) is a 29kDa serine protease released from the azurophilic granules of neutrophils. It may be directly involved in the pathogenesis and disease progression in cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis and COPD through the degradation of airway elastin and by impairing host defence. Areas covered: Measurement of NE activity has emerged as a promising biomarker strategy in inflammatory lung disease. The authors review studies where NE activity has been linked with clinical outcomes such as lung function decline, exacerbation frequency or other cross-sectional and longitudinal markers of disease severity...
September 7, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840018/the-role-of-bone-marrow-derived-endothelial-progenitor-cells-and-angiogenic-responses-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#10
REVIEW
Brittany Salter, Roma Sehmi
Increased vascularity of the bronchial sub-mucosa is a cardinal feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is associated with disease severity. Capillary engorgement, leakage, and vasodilatation can directly increase airway wall thickness resulting in airway luminal narrowing and facilitate inflammatory cell trafficking, thereby contributing to irreversible airflow obstruction, a characteristic of COPD. Airway wall neovascularisation, seen as increases in both the size and number of bronchial blood vessels is a prominent feature of COPD that correlates with reticular basement membrane thickening and airway obstruction...
July 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806967/microrna-181c-inhibits-cigarette-smoke-induced-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-by-regulating-ccn1-expression
#11
Yong Du, Yi Ding, Xuru Chen, Zhoufang Mei, Heyuan Ding, Yi Wu, Zhijun Jie
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an obstinate pulmonary disease, causing irreversible alveoli collapse and increasing the risk for cardiovascular disease. Accumulating evidence has shown that the dysregulation of miRNAs is crucially involved in the pathogenesis and development of COPD. However, the effects and role of microRNA-181c (miR-181c) have not been investigated in a murine model of COPD. METHODS: miR-181c expression was detected in human lung tissue samples of 34 patients, an in vivo murine model of CS exposure, and primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) by qRT-PCR...
August 15, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805194/-lung-cancer-and-copd-growing-clinical-problem
#12
EDITORIAL
Michal Tyl, Joanna Domagała-Kulawik
A spread of the addiction of tobacco smoking is valued on near 1 billion of people in the world, that involves growing number of morbidity and mortality by the reason of smoke related diseases. Lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are the most serious and incurable diseases which are leading to a permanent disability as well as to premature death. There are factors that naturally increase the vulnerability of an individual on the coincidence of above disorders, such as pathophysiological conditions, systemic inflammation, bronchitis, emphysema, respiratory obstructive disease and precise genetic predispositions for COPD and lung cancer...
July 21, 2017: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791362/correlation-analysis-of-surfactant-protein-a-and-surfactant-protein-d-with-lung-function-in-exhaled-breath-condensate-from-lung-cancer-patients-with-and-without-copd
#13
Xuefeng Lin, Zhenlin Wu, Yichu Fan, Mingyou Chi, Xiaodong Wang, Xun Zhang, Daqiang Sun
Pulmonary surfactant protein A (SP‑A) and pulmonary surfactant protein D (SP‑D) are associated with the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of the present study was to determine the correlation between SP‑A, SP‑D and lung function in patients with COPD. A total of 60 patients with lung cancer undergoing unilateral lobectomy were selected and divided into three groups, including a non‑COPD group (n=20), a COPD treatment group (n=20) and a COPD control group (n=20)...
October 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752447/elastase-induced-lung-emphysema-models-in-mice
#14
Béla Suki, Erzsébet Bartolák-Suki, Patricia R M Rocco
Pulmonary emphysema is one of the distinct pathological forms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that is accompanied by gradual elimination of alveolar tissue, causing reductions in lung recoil and leading to difficulty in breathing. As there is no cure for emphysema, animal models are often used to better understand the pathogenesis and progression of the disease. One widely used animal model of emphysema is the elastase treatment. In this chapter, we describe two methods of elastase-induced emphysema in mice...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749959/low-levels-of-the-ahr-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd-derived-lung-cells-increases-cox-2-protein-by-altering-mrna-stability
#15
Michela Zago, Jared A Sheridan, Hussein Traboulsi, Emelia Hecht, Yelu Zhang, Necola Guerrina, Jason Matthews, Parameswaran Nair, David H Eidelman, Qutayba Hamid, Carolyn J Baglole
Heightened inflammation, including expression of COX-2, is associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) pathogenesis. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that is reduced in COPD-derived lung fibroblasts. The AhR also suppresses COX-2 in response to cigarette smoke, the main risk factor for COPD, by destabilizing the Cox-2 transcript by mechanisms that may involve the regulation of microRNA (miRNA). Whether reduced AhR expression is responsible for heightened COX-2 in COPD is not known...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749079/recuperating-lung-decoction-attenuates-inflammation-and-oxidation-in-cigarette-smoke-induced-copd-in-rats-via-activation-of-erk-and-nrf2-pathways
#16
Chunlei Li, Yue Yan, Qi Shi, Yanhua Kong, Longxia Gao, Haipeng Bao, Youlin Li
Oxidative/antioxidative imbalance and chronic inflammation are the main contributors to the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study evaluated the effect of recuperating lung decoction (RLD) on inflammation and oxidative stress in rats with COPD induced by cigarette smoke and lipopolysaccharides (LPS). We used intravenous infusion of LPS combined with cigarette smoke exposure as a COPD rat model. We observed that RLD treatment increased the protein level of GSH and the ratio of GSH/GSSG but decreased 8-OHdG and 4-HNE in the serum...
July 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743228/airway-inflammation-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd-a-true-paradox
#17
Mathew Suji Eapen, Stephen Myers, Eugene Haydn Walters, Sukhwinder Singh Sohal
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is primarily an airway condition, which mainly affects cigarette smokers and presents with shortness of breath that is progressive and poorly reversible. In COPD research, there has been a long held belief that airway disease progression is due to inflammation. Although this may be true in the airway lumen with innate immunity activated by the effect of smoke or secondary to infection, the accurate picture of inflammatory cells in the airway wall, where the pathophysiological COPD remodeling occurs, is uncertain and debatable...
August 2, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741603/role-of-the-lung-microbiome-in-the-pathogenesis-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#18
REVIEW
Lei Wang, Ke Hao, Ting Yang, Chen Wang
OBJECTIVE: The development of culture-independent techniques for microbiological analysis shows that bronchial tree is not sterile in either healthy or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) individuals. With the advance of sequencing technologies, lung microbiome has become a new frontier for pulmonary disease research, and such advance has led to better understanding of the lung microbiome in COPD. This review aimed to summarize the recent advances in lung microbiome, its relationships with COPD, and the possible mechanisms that microbiome contributed to COPD pathogenesis...
September 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714001/lps-enhances-tlr4-expression-and-ifn%C3%A2-%C3%AE-production-via-the-tlr4-irak-nf%C3%A2-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-in-rat-pulmonary-arterial-smooth-muscle-cells
#19
Pengyan Wang, Xuhui Han, Biwen Mo, Guojin Huang, Changming Wang
The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the Toll‑like receptor (TLR)4 signaling pathway in cellular response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) rats were established with passive inhaling cigarette smoke plus injection of LPS. The TLR4 protein in lung tissues was determined with immunohistochemical staining and protein levels of the components of the TLR4 pathway in PASMCs were analyzed with western blotting...
September 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704475/protective-effect-of-galectin-9-in-murine-model-of-lung-emphysema-involvement-of-neutrophil-migration-and-mmp-9-production
#20
Yuko Horio, Hidenori Ichiyasu, Keisuke Kojima, Naoki Saita, Yohei Migiyama, Toyohisa Iriki, Kazuhiko Fujii, Toshiro Niki, Mitsuomi Hirashima, Hirotsugu Kohrogi
PURPOSE: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by irreversible airflow obstruction and pulmonary emphysema. Persistent inflammation and remodeling of the lungs and airways result in reduced lung function and a lower quality of life. Galectin (Gal)-9 plays a crucial role as an immune modulator in various diseases. However, its role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema is unknown. This study investigates whether Gal-9 is involved in pulmonary inflammation and changes in emphysema in a porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE)-induced emphysema model...
2017: PloS One
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