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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741653/a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-oral-chloral-hydrate-vs-intranasal-dexmedetomidine-before-computerised-tomography-in-children
#1
V M Yuen, B L Li, D K Cheuk, M K M Leung, T W C Hui, I C Wong, W W Lam, S W Choi, M G Irwin
Chloral hydrate is commonly used to sedate children for painless procedures. Children may recover more quickly after sedation with dexmedetomidine, which has a shorter half-life. We randomly allocated 196 children to chloral hydrate syrup 50 mg.kg(-1) and intranasal saline spray, or placebo syrup and intranasal dexmedetomidine spray 3 μg.kg(-1) , 30 min before computerised tomography studies. More children resisted or cried after drinking chloral hydrate syrup than placebo syrup, 72 of 107 (67%) vs. 42 of 87 (48%), p = 0...
July 25, 2017: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740382/dual-linker-gold-nanoparticles-as-adjuvanting-carriers-for-multivalent-display-of-recombinant-influenza-hemagglutinin-trimers-and-flagellin-improve-the-immunological-responses-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#2
Chao Wang, Wandi Zhu, Bao-Zhong Wang
Vaccination is the most cost-effective means of infectious disease control. Although current influenza vaccines are effective in battling closely matched strains, such vaccines have major limitations such as the requirement to produce new vaccines every season, an egg-dependent production system, long production periods, uncertainty in matching the vaccine to circulating strains, and the inability to react to new influenza pandemics resulting from genetic drift or shift. To overcome the intrinsic limitations of the conventional influenza vaccine, we have designed dual-linker gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) conjugated with both recombinant trimetric A/Aichi/2/68 (H3N2), hemagglutinin (HA) and TLR5 agonist flagellin (FliC) as a novel vaccine approach...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739343/inhibition-of-cell-apoptosis-and-amelioration-of-pulmonary-fibrosis-by-thrombomodulin
#3
Kentaro Fujiwara, Tetsu Kobayashi, Hajime Fujimoto, Hiroki Nakahara, Corina N D'Alessandro-Gabazza, Josephine A Hinneh, Yoshinori Takahashi, Taro Yasuma, Kota Nishihama, Masaaki Toda, Masahiro Kajiki, Yoshiyuki Takei, Osamu Taguchi, Esteban C Gabazza
Pulmonary fibrosis is the terminal stage of a group of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, of which idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is the most frequent and fatal form. Recent studies have shown that recombinant human thrombomodulin improves exacerbation and clinical outcome of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but the mechanism remains unknown. This study evaluated the mechanistic pathways of the inhibitory activity of recombinant human thrombomodulin in pulmonary fibrosis. Transgenic mice overexpressing human transforming growth factor β1 that develop spontaneously pulmonary fibrosis and wild-type mice treated with bleomycin were used as model of lung fibrosis...
July 21, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738501/inhibition-of-glycogen-synthase-kinase-3-increased-subventricular-zone-stem-cells-proliferation
#4
Narges Pachenari, Sahar Kiani, Mohammad Javan
The effects of Wnt signaling modifiers on cell proliferation, seem to be cell specific. Enhancing the proliferation of subventricular zone (SVZ) progenitors has been in the focus of research in recent years. Here we investigate the effect of CHIR99021, a Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 (GSk-3) inhibitor, on SVZ progenitor's proliferation both in vivo and in vitro. Neural stem cells were extracted from the adult C57bl/6 by mincing and trypsin treatment followed by culturing in specific medium. Sphere cells formed within about 7-10days and were characterized by immunostaining...
July 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735965/safety-profile-and-immunologic-responses-of-a-novel-vaccine-against-shigella-sonnei-administered-intramuscularly-intradermally-and-intranasally-results-from-two-parallel-randomized-phase-1-clinical-studies-in-healthy-adult-volunteers-in-europe
#5
Odile Launay, David J M Lewis, Alessandra Anemona, Pierre Loulergue, Jo Leahy, Antonella Silvia Sciré, Anaïs Maugard, Elisa Marchetti, Stefano Zancan, Zhiming Huo, Simona Rondini, Rachid Marhaba, Oretta Finco, Laura B Martin, Jochen Auerbach, Daniel Cohen, Allan Saul, Christiane Gerke, Audino Podda
BACKGROUND: Approximately 164,000 deaths yearly are due to shigellosis, primarily in developing countries. Thus, a safe and affordable Shigella vaccine is an important public health priority. The GSK Vaccines Institute for Global Health (GVGH) developed a candidate Shigella sonnei vaccine (1790GAHB) using the Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens (GMMA) technology. The paper reports results of 1790GAHB Phase 1 studies in healthy European adults. METHODS: To evaluate the safety and immunogenicity profiles of 1790GAHB, we performed two parallel, phase 1, observer-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose escalation studies in France ("study 1") and the United Kingdom ("study 2") between February 2014 and April 2015 (ClinicalTrials...
July 15, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735674/effect-of-mouse-strain-on-equine-herpesvirus-9-infection
#6
E El-Nahass, N El-Habashi, Kh M El-Dakhly, Y Tsuchiya, T Yanai
The infectivity of equine herpesvirus (EHV)-9 has been studied in different animal models including immunocompromised animals. The current study focused on the infectivity of EHV-9 in different mouse strains (C3H, C57BL, DBA, BALB/c-nu/nu, BALB/c and ICR) by intranasal inoculation of 2 × 10(6) plaque forming units (PFU). Various organs, including head and lungs, were collected 7 days post infection (dpi) to investigate microscopical lesions and the distribution of EHV-9 antigen. Immunopositivity of tissue sections was scored using ImageJ software...
July 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735060/individual-roles-of-brain-and-serum-alcohol-dehydrogenase-isoforms-in-regulation-of-alcohol-consumption-in-spf-wistar-rats
#7
Vsevolod V Pavshintsev, Nikita A Mitkin, Olga Y Frolova, Ekaterina A Kushnir, Olga A Averina, Maxim L Lovat
Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) are key enzymes of ethanol metabolism that mediate its oxidation to acetaldehyde. ADHs are also able to oxidize some types of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine. Increased level of ADHs activity, induced by chronic alcohol consumption, is presumably associated with disturbed neurotransmitters metabolism that leads to stable alcohol craving. As earlier reported, intraperitoneal administration of 4-methilpirasole (non-specific inhibitor of ADHs) has shown to provide a short-term anti-alcoholic effect, but individual roles of ADH isoforms in this process were still unclear...
July 19, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735031/taking-the-alternative-route-women-s-experience-of-intranasal-fentanyl-subcutaneous-fentanyl-or-intramuscular-pethidine-for-labour-analgesia
#8
Julie-Anne Fleet, Meril Jones, Ingrid Belan
OBJECTIVE: To compare women's experience of receiving either intranasal fentanyl, subcutaneous fentanyl or intramuscular pethidine for labour analgesia. DESIGN: A content analysis was undertaken as part of the third phase of a larger randomised controlled trial, using the per-protocol dataset to examine women's experiences of treatment received. Healthy women birthing at term, who received intranasal fentanyl (n=41), subcutaneous fentanyl (n=37) and/or intramuscular pethidine (n=38) for labour analgesia, were contacted at 6 weeks postpartum to complete a phone questionnaire...
July 8, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734466/does-the-intranasal-route-pass-the-sniff-test
#9
Nikita Joshi, Bryan D Hayes, Jessica Mason, Andrew Grock
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733193/traditional-neurotherapeutics-approach-intended-for-direct-nose-to-brain-delivery
#10
REVIEW
Zohreh Abolhasanzadeh, Hajar Ashrafi, Parmis Badr, Amir Azadi
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Nasal delivery systems have a significant role in Persian traditional medicine. Most of them were utilized for central nervous system (CNS)-related disorders. In modern medicine, nasal drug delivery systems for brain delivery are highly regarded. AIM OF THE STUDY: Despite recent advances in drug delivery to the (CNS), delivery of therapeutics to the brain remains a major challenge because of the blood brain barrier (BBB). There are several mechanisms which regulate the drug transfer across the BBB...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732802/carica-papaya-ameliorates-allergic-asthma-via-down-regulation-of-il-4-il-5-eotaxin-tnf-%C3%AE-nf-%C3%A4-b-and-inos-levels
#11
Asma Inam, Muhammad Shahzad, Arham Shabbir, Hira Shahid, Khadija Shahid, Aqeel Javeed
BACKGROUND: Natural products have a prime importance as an essential source for new drug discovery. Carica papaya leaves (CPL) have been used to treat inflammation in traditional system of medicine. AIM/HYPOTHESIS: Current study evaluates the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of CPL extract using mouse model of ovalbumin- (OVA) induced allergic asthma. METHODS: All the mice were intraperitoneally sensitized and subsequently given intranasal challenge with OVA except the control group...
August 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732645/sleep-deprivation-predisposes-allergic-mice-to-develop-neutrophilic-lung-inflammation
#12
Jethe Nunes de Oliveira Filho, Juliana de Souza Apostolico, David Anibal Garrido Andrade, Francieli Ruiz da Silva, Edgar Ruz Fernandes, Monica Levy Andersen, Alexandre Castro Keller, Daniela Santoro Rosa
BACKGROUND: Although different studies associated sleep deprivation with systemic inflammatory changes, the effect of sleep duration on the pathology of allergic chronic diseases is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of sleep deprivation on allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation. METHODS: Ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized C57BL/6 mice were exposed to a first set of intranasal OVA challenge under sleep deprivation (SD) or healthy sleep (HS) conditions followed by a second OVA challenge, one week apart...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732069/saccharomyces-boulardii-cncm-i-745-supplementation-reduces-gastrointestinal-dysfunction-in-an-animal-model-of-ibs
#13
Paola Brun, Melania Scarpa, Chiara Marchiori, Gloria Sarasin, Valentina Caputi, Andrea Porzionato, Maria Cecilia Giron, Giorgio Palù, Ignazio Castagliuolo
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the effect of Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 on intestinal neuromuscular anomalies in an IBS-type mouse model of gastrointestinal motor dysfunctions elicited by Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) exposure. METHODS: Mice were inoculated intranasally with HSV-1 (102 PFU) or vehicle at time 0 and 4 weeks later by the intragastric (IG) route (108 PFU). Six weeks after IG inoculum, mice were randomly allocated to receive oral gavage with either S...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731445/colivelin-ameliorates-impairments-in%C3%A2-cognitive-behaviors-and-synaptic-plasticity-in-app-ps1-transgenic-mice
#14
Meina Wu, Hui Shi, Yexin He, Li Yuan, Xuesong Qu, Jun Zhang, Zhaojun Wang, Hongyan Cai, Jinshun Qi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia, and effective therapeutics are lacking. Colivelin (CLN), a novel, strong humanin derivative, is effective in vitro in preventing cell death induced by AD-causative genes and amyloid-β protein (Aβ) even at a low concentration. We recently demonstrated that intrahippocampal injection of CLN prevents Aβ25-35-induced deficits in spatial memory and synaptic plasticity in normal rats. Here, we further observed the effects of chronically intranasally (i...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730676/evaluation-of-the-specific-effects-of-intranasal-glucagon-on-circulating-glucose-and-lipid-concentrations-in-healthy-males-during-a-pancreatic-clamp
#15
Satya Dash, Changting Xiao, Priska Stahel, Khajag Koulajian, Adria Giacca, Gary F Lewis
CONTEXT: Intravenous/intramuscular glucagon stimulates hepatic glucose production and adipose lipolysis. Intranasal glucagon (ING) has recently been shown to be an effective treatment for hypoglycaemia. Intranasal administration of hormones increases its central nervous system (CNS) concentration with metabolic effects independent of its plasma concentration, potentially via CNS action. Whether ING has metabolic effects independent of plasma glucagon is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the specific effects of intranasal glucagon (ING) on plasma glucose, endogenous glucose production (EGP) and lipid concentration...
July 20, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729175/brain-targeting-efficiency-of-antimigrain-drug-loaded-mucoadhesive-intranasal-nanoemulsion
#16
Ebtsam M Abdou, Soha M Kandil, Hala M F El Miniawy
Zolmitriptan (ZT) is a well-tolerated drug in migraine treatment suffering from low bioavailability due to low amount of the drug that reaches the brain after oral and nasal delivery. Development of new nasal mucoadhesive nanoemulsion formulation for zolmitriptan may success in delivering the drug directly from the nose to the brain to achieve rapid onset of action and high drug concentration in the brain which is required for treatment of acute migraine. ZT mucoadhesive nanoemulsion were prepared and characterized for drug content, zeta potential, particle size, morphology, residence time and permeation through the nasal mucosa...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728000/tailor-made-purified-human-platelet-lysate-concentrated-in-neurotrophins-for-treatment-of-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Ming-Li Chou, Joe-Wei Wu, Flore Gouel, Aurélie Jonneaux, Kelly Timmerman, Ting-Yi Renn, Charlotte Laloux, Hung-Ming Chang, Liang-Tzung Lin, Jean-Christophe Devedjian, David Devos, Thierry Burnouf
Human platelet lysates (PLs), which contain multiple neurotrophins, have been proposed for treating neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD). However, current PLs suspended in plasma have high protein content and contain fibrinogen/fibrin and, following activation, also proteolytic and thrombogenic enzymes. Upon brain administration, such PLs may saturate the cerebrospinal fluid and exert neurotoxicity. We assessed whether purified PLs, concentrated in neurotrophins, protected dopaminergic neurons in PD models...
July 12, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727997/therapeutic-intranasal-instillation-of-allergen-loaded-microbubbles-suppresses-experimental-allergic-asthma-in-mice
#18
Blaise Corthésy, Gilles Bioley
Despite proven efficiency, subcutaneous immunotherapy for aeroallergens is impaired by the duration of the protocol, the repeated injections and potential side-effects associated with the doses of allergen administered. Intranasal delivery of immunotherapeutic agents may overcome several of these drawbacks, provided that an efficient allergen delivery vehicle can be identified. This study evaluates whether intranasally delivered gas-filled microbubble (MB)-associated ovalbumin (OVA), used as a model allergen, can serve as a therapeutic treatment in a mouse model of established allergic asthma...
July 12, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727180/why-was-a-local-anaesthetic-used-before-administering-intranasal-ketamine-for-paediatric-injuries
#19
Sabine Lemoine, Daniel Jost, Kilian Bertho, Jean Pierre Tourtier
We were very interested to read Scheier et al's brief report on the use of intranasal ketamine in their pediatric emergency department, specifically for pain and anxiety in children who had resisted venipuncture or intravenous placement (1). Intravenous access can be difficult for pre-hospital medical teams that are not specialised in paediatric care, namely when children complain of pain from, for example suspected fractures and burns. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
July 20, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726424/self-encapsulating-poly-lactic-co-glycolic-acid-plga-microspheres-for-intranasal-vaccine-delivery
#20
Brittany A Bailey, Kashappa-Goud H Desai, Lukasz J Ochyl, Susan M Ciotti, James J Moon, Steven P Schwendeman
Herein we describe a formulation of self-encapsulating poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres for vaccine delivery. Self-healing encapsulation is a novel encapsulation method developed by our group that enables the aqueous loading of large molecules into pre-made PLGA microspheres. Calcium phosphate (CaHPO4) adjuvant gel was incorporated into the microspheres as a protein-trapping agent for improved encapsulation of antigen. Microspheres were found to have a median size of 7.05 ± 0.31 µm, with a w/w loading of 0...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
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