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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526975/lipid-nanoparticles-for-administration-of-poorly-water-soluble-neuroactive-drugs
#1
Elisabetta Esposito, Markus Drechsler, Paolo Mariani, Federica Carducci, Michela Servadio, Francesca Melancia, Patrizia Ratano, Patrizia Campolongo, Viviana Trezza, Rita Cortesi, Claudio Nastruzzi
This study describes the potential of solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers as nano-formulations to administer to the central nervous system poorly water soluble drugs. Different neuroactive drugs, i.e. dimethylfumarate, retinyl palmitate, progesterone and the endocannabinoid hydrolysis inhibitor URB597 have been studied. Lipid nanoparticles constituted of tristearin or tristearin in association with gliceryl monoolein were produced. The nanoencapsulation strategy allowed to obtain biocompatible and non-toxic vehicles, able to increase the solubility of the considered neuroactive drugs...
September 2017: Biomedical Microdevices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524038/-intervention-effect-of-qingzao-runfei-huazhuo-xingxue-decoction-on-pm2-5-induced-pulmonary-injury-in-mice
#2
Jinbo Zhang, Lei Zhang, Yanxia Chen, Xinlu Wang, Aihua Hou, Lingling Dai
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of Qingzao Runfei Huazhuo Xingxue decoction (QRHXD) on inflammatory reaction and histopathology in mice with PM2.5-induced pulmonary injury, and to approach the possible mechanism of prevention and treatment of traditional Chinese medicine on lung injury induced by haze. METHODS: Fifty healthy male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into five groups (n = 10): namely control, PM2.5, PM2.5 + low-, moderate-, and high-dose groups. The PM2...
May 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523114/design-of-phthalazinone-amide-histamine-h1-receptor-antagonists-for-use-in-rhinitis
#3
Panayiotis A Procopiou, Alison J Ford, Paul M Gore, Brian E Looker, Simon T Hodgson, Duncan S Holmes, Sadie Vile, Kenneth L Clark, Ken A Saunders, Robert J Slack, James E Rowedder, Clarissa J Watts
The synthesis of potent amide-containing phthalazinone H1 histamine receptor antagonists is described. Three analogues 3e, 3g, and 9g were equipotent with azelastine and were longer-acting in vitro. Amide 3g had low oral bioavailability, low brain-penetration, high metabolic clearance, and long duration of action in vivo, and it was suitable for once-daily dosing intranasally, with a predicted dose for humans of approximately 0.5 mg per day.
May 11, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521670/intranasal-drug-delivery-a-non-invasive-approach-for-the-better-delivery-of-neurotherapeutics
#4
Umesh Gupta, Hitesh Kumar, Gaurav Mishra, Ashok Kumar Sharma, Avinash Gothwal, Prashant Kesharwani
BACKGROUND: The convoluted pathophysiology of brain disorders along with penetration issue of drugs to brain represents major hurdle that requires some novel therapies. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) denotes a rigid barrier for delivery of therapeutics in vivo, to overcome this barrier intranasal delivery is an excellent strategy to deliver the drug directly to brain via olfactory and trigeminal nerve pathways that originate as olfactory neuro-epithelium in the nasal cavity and terminate in brain...
May 14, 2017: Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516121/simultaneous-intranasal-intravascular-antibody-labeling-of-cd4-t-cells-in-mouse-lungs
#5
Yanqun Wang, Jing Sun, Rudragouda Channappanavar, Jingxian Zhao, Stanley Perlman, Jincun Zhao
CD4(+) T cell responses have been shown to be protective in many respiratory virus infections. In the respiratory tract, CD4(+) T cells include cells in the airway and parenchyma and cells adhering to the pulmonary vasculature. Here we discuss in detail the methods that are useful for characterizing CD4(+) T cells in different anatomic locations in mouse lungs.
January 5, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514369/-the-role-of-topical-glucocorticoids-in-the-treatment-of-rhinosinusitis
#6
E G Shakhova
The guidelines of the European position paper on rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps (EPOS, 2012) ascribe the highest strength and the most comprehensive evidence-based significance to the application of intranasal glucocorticosteroids (inGCS) as the first-line therapy for the patients presenting with acute and polypous rhinosinusitis; moreover they are recommended as the medications of choice for the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis in the absence of polyps. The author presents the data concerning the mechanism of action, clinical effectiveness, and safety of inGCS used for the treatment of acute, recurrent, and chronic rhinosinusitis...
2017: Vestnik Otorinolaringologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513461/the-importance-of-bordetella-pertussis-strains-which-do-not-produce-virulence-factors-in-the-epidemiology-of-pertussis
#7
Maciej Polak, Anna Lutyńska
Bordetella pertussis strains, which have lost the ability to produce antigens, such as pertactin - Prn, pertussis toxin - Ptx, filamentous haemagglutinin - FHA, fimbriae type 2 and 3 - Fim 2 and 3, tracheal colonization factor - TcfA, have recently been isolated in countries with a high vaccination coverage. The emergence of such isolates might have resulted from B. pertussis natural evolution course or adaptive mechanisms, allowing increased circulation of the pathogen in vaccinated populations. So far, the majority of described mutants were deficient in the Prn production...
May 9, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513330/the-pathogenesis-of-clade-2-3-4-4-h5-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-viruses-in-ruddy-duck-oxyura-jamaicensis-and-lesser-scaup-aythya-affinis
#8
Erica Spackman, Diann J Prosser, Mary J Pantin-Jackwood, Alicia M Berlin, Christopher B Stephens
Waterfowl are the natural hosts of avian influenza virus (AIV) and disseminate the virus worldwide through migration. Historically, surveillance and research efforts for AIV in waterfowl have focused on dabbling ducks. The role of diving ducks in AIV ecology has not been well characterized. In this study, we examined the relative susceptibility and pathogenicity of clade 2.3.4.4 H5 highly pathogenic (HP) AIV (HPAIV) in two species of diving ducks. Juvenile and adult Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis) and juvenile Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) were intranasally inoculated with A/Northern Pintail/WA/40964/2014 H5N2 HPAIV...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511344/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-trans-anethole-in-a-mouse-model-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#9
Ka Young Kim, Hui Su Lee, Geun Hee Seol
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory lung disease that is generally characterized by progressive and irreversible airflow obstruction and alveolar destruction. Long-term treatment with current medications has been associated with various adverse effects, indicating a need for alternative approaches for the prevention and treatment of COPD. This study investigated the mechanism underlying the effects of trans-anethole in a mouse model of COPD induced by porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
May 12, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510130/the-penetration-of-5-oxo-pro-arg-pro-into-the-brain-and-the-major-metabolic-pathways-of-this-peptide-in-the-rat-brain-and-blood-at-the-intranasal-and-intravenous-administration
#10
K V Shevchenko, I Yu Nagaev, V P Shevchenko, L A Andreeva, S I Shram, N F Myasoedov
It was shown that the neuroactive peptide 5-oxo-Pro-Arg-Pro (5-oxo-PRP) is detected in the brain in the time interval of 5-120 min after it was intravenously or intranasally administered to rats; the maximum concentration of labeled tripeptide in these modes of administration was observed after 30 and 10 min, respectively. A significant difference in the concentrations of 5-oxo-PRP in the blood and brain (the latter was 50 times lower) during intravenous administration indicates a relatively low permeability of the peptide across the blood-brain barrier...
March 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507585/ctgf-upregulation-correlates-with-mmp-9-level-in-airway-remodeling-in-a%C3%A2-murine-model-of-asthma
#11
Sheng-Chieh Lin, Hsiu-Chu Chou, Bor-Luen Chiang, Chung-Ming Chen
INTRODUCTION: Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) mediates hypertrophy, proliferation, and extracellular matrix synthesis. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) plays a role in airway extracellular matrix remodeling. The correlation between CTGF and MMP in airway remodeling of asthma was unknown. This study investigated lung CTGF expression and its correlation with MMP and airway structural changes in a murine model of asthma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Female BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged by intraperitoneal injections and intranasal phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or ovalbumin (OVA)...
April 1, 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506256/aav-vector-distribution-in-the-mouse-respiratory-tract-following-four-different-methods-of-administration
#12
Lisa A Santry, Joelle C Ingrao, Darrick L Yu, Jondavid G de Jong, Laura P van Lieshout, Geoffrey A Wood, Sarah K Wootton
BACKGROUND: Targeted delivery of gene therapy vectors to the mouse respiratory tract is often performed via intranasal or intratracheal administration; however, there can be a great deal of variability between these methods, which could potentially influence experimental results. Improving the accuracy and precision of lung delivery will not only reduce the number of animals required to detect statistically significant differences, but may reduce the variability of studies from different laboratories...
May 15, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504968/inhibition-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-is-involved-in-the-neuroprotective-effect-of-afgf-in-neonatal-hypoxic-ischaemic-brain-injury
#13
Yingying Hu, Zhouguang Wang, Shulin Pan, Mingchu Fang, Huai Jiang, Yuqin Mao, Hao Zhang, Yiming Ji, Fabiao Zhang, Li Lin, Zhenlang Lin, Jian Xiao
Acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects in experimental models and human patients. In this study, we investigated whether aFGF intranasal-treatment protected against neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury and evaluated the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress. The Rice-Vannucci model of neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury was used in 7-day-old rats, which were subjected to unilateral carotid artery ligation followed by 2.5 h of hypoxia. Intranasal aFGF or vehicle was administered immediately after hypoxic-ischaemic injury (100 ng/g) and then twice a day for 1 week to evaluate the long-term effects...
April 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504483/comparison-of-a-new-intranasal-naloxone-formulation-to-intramuscular-naloxone-results-from-hypothesis-generating-small-clinical-studies
#14
Brandon T Gufford, Garrett R Ainslie, John R White, Matthew E Layton, Jeannie M Padowski, Gary M Pollack, Mary F Paine
Easy-to-use naloxone formulations are needed to help address the opioid overdose epidemic. The pharmacokinetics of intravenous, intramuscular, and a new intranasal naloxone formulation (2 mg) were compared in six healthy volunteers. Relative to intramuscular naloxone, geometric mean [90% CI] absolute bioavailability of intranasal naloxone was modestly lower (55 [43-70] versus 41 [27-62] %), whereas average (± SE) mean absorption time was substantially shorter (74 ± 8.8 versus 6.7 ± 4.9 min). The opioid-attenuating effects of intranasal naloxone were compared to intramuscular naloxone (2 mg) after administration of oral alfentanil (4 mg) to a separate group of six healthy volunteers pre-treated with 240 ml of water or grapefruit juice...
May 15, 2017: Clinical and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504321/hemodynamic-responses-and-plasma-phenylephrine-concentrations-associated-with-intranasal-phenylephrine-in-children
#15
Lisa K Christensen, Valerie E Armstead, David P Bilyeu, Kenneth E Johnson, Robert H Friesen
INTRODUCTION: Intranasal phenylephrine, an alpha-1 adrenergic agonist, causes vasoconstriction of the nasal mucosa and is used to reduce bleeding associated with nasotracheal intubation or endoscopic sinus surgery. The purpose of this study was to describe the hemodynamic effects associated with plasma phenylephrine concentrations following topical intranasal administration of 0.25% and 0.5% phenylephrine in children. METHODS: After Institutional Review Board and parental approval, 77 children between the ages of 2 and 12 years were studied in a prospective, double-blind manner and randomized into three groups...
May 15, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502093/the-tlr4-trif-pathway-can-protect-against-the-development-of-experimental-allergic-asthma
#16
Karim H Shalaby, Saba Al-Heialy, Kimitake Tsuchiya, Soroor Farahnak, Toby K McGovern, Paul-Andre Risse, Woong-Kyung Suh, Salman T Qureshi, James G Martin
The Toll-like Receptor (TLR) adaptor proteins Myeloid Differentiating Factor 88 (MyD88) and Toll, interleukin-1 Receptor and Resistance protein (TIR) domain-containing adaptor inducing interferon-β (TRIF) comprise the two principal limbs of the TLR signaling network. We studied the role of these adaptors in the TLR4-dependent inhibition of allergic airway disease and induction of CD4+ICOS+ T cells by nasal application of Protollin(™) , a mucosal adjuvant composed of TLR2 and 4 agonists. Wild-type (wt), Trif -/- or Myd88 -/- mice were sensitized to birch pollen extract (BPEx), then received intranasal Protollin followed by consecutive BPEx challenges...
May 14, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501330/virus-entry-and-replication-in-the-brain-precedes-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-during-intranasal-alphavirus-infection
#17
Matthew D Cain, Hamid Salimi, Yongfeng Gong, Lihua Yang, Samantha L Hamilton, James R Heffernan, Jianghui Hou, Mark J Miller, Robyn S Klein
Viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are often associated with blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, yet the impact of virus replication and immune cell recruitment on BBB integrity are incompletely understood. Using two-photon microscopy, we demonstrate that Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) strain TC83-GFP, a GFP expressing, attenuated strain with a G3A mutation within the 5' UTR that is associated with increased sensitivity to type I interferons (IFNs), does not directly impact BBB permeability...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500326/intranasal-drug-delivery-of-small-interfering-rna-targeting-beclin1-encapsulated-with-polyethylenimine-pei-in-mouse-brain-to-achieve-hiv-attenuation
#18
Myosotys Rodriguez, Jessica Lapierre, Chet Raj Ojha, Ajeet Kaushik, Elena Batrakova, Fatah Kashanchi, Seth M Dever, Madhavan Nair, Nazira El-Hage
We previously reported that activation of the host autophagic protein, Beclin1, by HIV-1 infection represents an essential mechanism in controlling HIV replication and viral-induced inflammatory responses in microglial cells. Existing antiretroviral therapeutic approaches have been limited in their ability to cross the blood-brain barrier effectively and recognize and selectively eliminate persistent HIV-infected brain reservoirs. In the present study and for the first time, the bio-distribution and efficacy of noninvasive intranasal delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) against the Beclin1 gene using the cationic linear polyethylenimines (PEI) as a gene carrier was investigated in adult mouse brain...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500314/activation-of-eosinophils-interacting-with-bronchial-epithelial-cells-by-antimicrobial-peptide-ll-37-implications-in-allergic-asthma
#19
Delong Jiao, Chun-Kwok Wong, Miranda Sin-Man Tsang, Ida Miu-Ting Chu, Dehua Liu, Jing Zhu, Man Chu, Christopher Wai-Kei Lam
The role of antimicrobial peptide LL-37 in asthma exacerbation is unclear. Microbial infection, which is the most common inducer of asthma exacerbation, is accompanied by elevated LL-37. The present study found that co-culture of eosinophils and bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B significantly enhanced intercellular adhesion molecule-1 on both cells and CD18 expression on eosinophils upon LL-37 stimulation. IL-6, CXCL8 and CCL4 were substantially released in co-culture in the presence of LL-37. LL-37 triggered the activation of eosinophils interacting with BEAS-2B cells in a P2X purinoceptor 7/epidermal growth factor receptor-dependent manner...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499868/exposure-to-particulate-matter-induces-cardiomyocytes-apoptosis-after-myocardial-infarction-through-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation
#20
Xueling Li, Jin Geng, Yuhan Chen, Fu Chen, Chen Liu, Qiwen Xu, Jinxuan Zhao, Jiaxin Hu, Jun Xie, Biao Xu
Clinical evidence has indicated an increased myocardial infarction (MI) morbidity and mortality after exposure to air pollution (particulate matter<2.5 μm, PM2.5). However, the mechanisms by which PM2.5 aggravates MI remain unknown. Present study was to explore the adverse effect of PM2.5 on myocardium after MI and the potential mechanisms. Male mice with MI surgery were treated with PM2.5 by intranasal instillation. Neonatal mice ventricular myocytes (NMVMs) subjected to hypoxia were also incubated with PM2...
June 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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