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Extreme longevity

Andrzej Bartke
Role of growth hormone (GH) in mammalian aging is actively explored in clinical, epidemiological, and experimental studies. The age-related decline in GH levels is variously interpreted as a symptom of neuroendocrine aging, as one of causes of altered body composition and other unwelcome symptoms of aging, or as a mechanism of natural protection from cancer and other chronic diseases. Absence of GH signals due to mutations affecting anterior pituitary development, GH secretion, or GH receptors produces an impressive extension of longevity in laboratory mice...
May 11, 2018: World Journal of Men's Health
Alexander Klimovich, Arvid Rehm, Jörg Wittlieb, Eva-Maria Herbst, Ricardo Benavente, Thomas C G Bosch
The cnidarian Hydra is known for its unlimited lifespan and non-senescence, due to the indefinite self-renewal capacity of its stem cells. While proteins of the Lamin family are recognized as critical factors affecting senescence and longevity in human and mice, their putative role in the extreme longevity and non-senescence in long-living animals remains unknown. Here we analyze the role of a single lamin protein in non-senescence of Hydra . We demonstrate that proliferation of stem cells in Hydra is robust against the disturbance of Lamin expression and localization...
May 10, 2018: Aging
Haakon B Nygaard, E Zeynep Erson-Omay, Xiujuan Wu, Brianne A Kent, Cecily Q Bernales, Daniel M Evans, Matthew J Farrer, Carles Vilariño-Güell, Stephen M Strittmatter
Centenarians represent a unique cohort to study the genetic basis for longevity and factors determining the risk of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). The estimated genetic contribution to longevity is highest in centenarians and supercententenarians, but few genetic variants have been shown to clearly impact this phenotype. While the genetic risk for AD and other dementias is now well understood, the frequency of known dementia risk variants in centenarians is not fully characterized...
May 10, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Hope C Ball, Shiva Levari-Shariati, Lisa Noelle Cooper, Michel Aliani
Vespertilionid bats (Mammalia: Order Chiroptera) live 3-10 times longer than other mammals of an equivalent body size. At present, nothing is known of how bat fecal metabolic profiles shift with age in any taxa. This study established the feasibility of using a non-invasive, fecal metabolomics approach to examine age-related differences in the fecal metabolome of young and elderly adult big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) as an initial investigation into using metabolomics for age determination. Samples were collected from captive, known-aged big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) from 1 to over 14 years of age: these two ages represent age groups separated by approximately 75% of the known natural lifespan of this taxon...
2018: PloS One
Jesús Martínez-Barnetche, Andrés Lavore, Melina Beliera, Juan Téllez-Sosa, Federico A Zumaya-Estrada, Victorio Palacio, Ernestina Godoy-Lozano, Rolando Rivera-Pomar, Mario Henry Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: Chagas disease is a parasitic infection caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. It is an important public health problem affecting around seven to eight million people in the Americas. A large number of hematophagous triatomine insect species, occupying diverse natural and human-modified ecological niches transmit this disease. Triatomines are long-living hemipterans that have evolved to explode different habitats to associate with their vertebrate hosts. Understanding the molecular basis of the extreme physiological conditions including starvation tolerance and longevity could provide insights for developing novel control strategies...
April 27, 2018: BMC Genomics
Chris A Schmidt, Genevieve Comeau, Andrew J Monaghan, Daniel J Williamson, Kacey C Ernst
BACKGROUND: Transmission dynamics of mosquito-borne viruses such as dengue, Zika and chikungunya are affected by the longevity of the adult female mosquito. Environmental conditions influence the survival of adult female Aedes mosquitoes, the primary vectors of these viruses. While the association of temperature with Aedes mortality has been relatively well-explored, the role of humidity is less established. The current study's goals were to compile knowledge of the influence of humidity on adult survival in the important vector species Aedes aegypti and Ae...
April 25, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Kaitlyn N Lewis, Nimrod D Rubinstein, Rochelle Buffenstein
Mouse-sized naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber), unlike other mammals, do not conform to Gompertzian laws of age-related mortality; adults show no age-related change in mortality risk. Moreover, we observe negligible hallmarks of aging with well-maintained physiological and molecular functions, commonly altered with age in other species. We questioned whether naked mole-rats, living an order of magnitude longer than laboratory mice, exhibit different plasma metabolite profiles, which could then highlight novel mechanisms or targets involved in disease and longevity...
April 20, 2018: GeroScience
David Warburton, Nicole Warburton, Clarence Wigfall, Ochir Chimedsuren, Delgerzul Lodoisamba, Sereeter Lodoysamba, Badarch Jargalsaikhan
Environmental pollution of the air, water, and soil comprise an increasingly urgent challenge to global health, well-being, and productivity. The impact of environmental pollution arguably has its greatest impact across the lifespan on children, women of childbearing age, and pregnant women and their unborn children, not only because of their vulnerability during development, but also because of their subsequent longevity. Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, is a highly instructive, perhaps extreme, example of what happens with recent, rapid urbanization...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Archana Vijaya Kumar, Carmen Donate, Beat A Imhof, Thomas Matthes
B lymphocytes are key players in immune cell circulation and they mainly home to and reside in lymphoid organs. While normal B cells only proliferate when stimulated by T lymphocytes, oncogenic B cells survive and expand autonomously in undefined organ niches. Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is one such B cell disorder, where the median survival rate of patients is 4 - 5 years. This calls for the need of effective mechanisms by which the homing and engraftment of these cells are blocked in order to increase the survival and longevity of patients...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Carlo Lallo, Michele Raitano
BACKGROUND: Life expectancy considerably increased in most developed countries during the twentieth century. However, the increase in longevity is neither uniform nor random across individuals belonging to various socioeconomic groups. From an economic policy perspective, the difference in mortality by socioeconomic conditions challenges the fairness of the social security systems. We focus on the case of Italy and aim at measuring differences in longevity at older ages by individuals belonging to different socioeconomic groups, also in order to assess the effective fairness of the Italian public pension system, which is based on a notional defined contribution (NDC) benefit computation formula, whose rules do not take into account individual heterogeneity in expected longevity...
April 12, 2018: Population Health Metrics
J D Stevenson, R Doxey, A Abudu, M Parry, S Evans, F Peart, L Jeys
Aims Preserving growth following limb-salvage surgery of the upper limb in children remains a challenge. Vascularized autografts may provide rapid biological incorporation with the potential for growth and longevity. In this study, we aimed to describe the outcomes following proximal humeral reconstruction with a vascularized fibular epiphyseal transfer in children with a primary sarcoma of bone. We also aimed to quantify the hypertrophy of the graft and the annual growth, and to determine the functional outcomes of the neoglenofibular joint...
April 1, 2018: Bone & Joint Journal
Shawn M Ferguson
Lysosomes support diverse cellular functions by acting as sites of macromolecule degradation and nutrient recycling. The degradative abilities of lysosomes are conferred by a lumen that is characterized by an acidic pH and which contains numerous hydrolases that support the breakdown of major cellular macromolecules to yield cellular building blocks (amino acids, nucleic acids, sugars, lipids and metals) that are transported into the cytoplasm for their re-use. In addition to these important hydrolytic and recycling functions, lysosomes also serve as a signaling platform that integrates nutrient and metabolic cues to control signaling via the mTORC1 pathway...
April 4, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Patrícia M Francisco, Gustavo M Mori, Fábio M Alves, Evandro V Tambarussi, Anete P de Souza
Mangrove plants comprise plants with similar ecological features that have enabled them to adapt to life between the sea and the land. Within a geographic region, different mangrove species share not only similar adaptations but also similar genetic structure patterns. Along the eastern coast of South America, there is a subdivision between the populations north and south of the continent's northeastern extremity. Here, we aimed to test for this north-south genetic structure in Rhizophora mangle, a dominant mangrove plant in the Western Hemisphere...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Graziella Caselli, Marco Battaglini, Giorgia Capacci
Although the increase in the number of centenarians is well documented today in countries with advanced demographic data, the same is not true for those aged 105 and over. The first aim of this paper, was to analyze the demographic characteristics of the 4,626 validated semi-super and 102 supercentenarians for the cohorts born between 1896 and 1910, referring to Italian Semi-Supercentenarians Survey (SSC). Then, starting from this data and from the survival  histories  in old ages - reconstructed by Vincent's Extinct - Cohort Method - for the cohorts born between 1870 and 1904, the most important aim was to analyze longevity history and the trend of gender gap of the Italian oldest cohorts beyond 100 years old...
March 26, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Yuri Miura, Noritaka Hashii, Yuki Ohta, Yoko Itakura, Hiroki Tsumoto, Junya Suzuki, Daisuke Takakura, Yukiko Abe, Yasumichi Arai, Masashi Toyoda, Nana Kawasaki, Nobuyoshi Hirose, Tamao Endo
BACKGROUND: Glycosylation is highly susceptible to changes of the physiological conditions, and accordingly, is a potential biomarker associated with several diseases and/or longevity. Semi-supercentenarians (SSCs; older than 105 years) are thought to be a model of human longevity. Thus, we performed glycoproteomics using plasma samples of SSCs, and identified proteins and conjugated N-glycans that are characteristic of extreme human longevity. METHODS: Plasma proteins from Japanese semi-supercentenarians (SSCs, 106-109 years), aged controls (70-88 years), and young controls (20-38 years) were analysed by using lectin microarrays and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS)...
March 24, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
A V Martins, R C Albuquerque, Lfsa Morgan, Nrfa Silva, A F Drummond, R R Silveira, C S Magalhães, A N Moreira
It was possible to restore the shape and function of a severely ankylosed tooth by fabricating a ceramic crown for placement on a resin reconstruction supported by mini fiberglass posts. By increasing the retention of the morphological reconstruction for the future support of indirect restorations, cementable intradentinal fiberglass posts enhance the longevity of these restorations. Ultimately, all proposals that seek to improve the long-term prognosis of restorations on ankylosed teeth, especially severely impacted ones, are of extreme clinical relevance...
March 23, 2018: Operative Dentistry
Shawn M Ferguson
Lysosomes perform degradative functions that are important for all cells. However, neurons are particularly dependent on optimal lysosome function due to their extremes of longevity, size and polarity. Axons in particular exemplify the major spatial challenges faced by neurons in the maintenance of lysosome biogenesis and function. What impact does this have on the regulation and functions of lysosomes in axons? This review focuses on the mechanisms whereby axonal lysosome biogenesis, transport and function are adapted to meet neuronal demand...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Kristopher S Pfirman, Robel Haile
BACKGROUND Intracardiac abscesses are an unusual occurrence in developed countries. With the increase in use of implantable cardiac devices, the increase use of and advancements in antibiotics, and the longevity of patients with cardiac devices, one may expect an increase in such infections; however, case reports are rare. We are presenting a case in which hematogenous dissemination of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) infection from a lower extremity diabetic ulcer propagated into an infected pacemaker lead and ultimately an intracardiac abscess of the right atrium...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
I Montero-Serra, C Linares, D F Doak, J B Ledoux, J Garrabou
Understanding the role of the environment in shaping the evolution of life histories remains a major challenge in ecology and evolution. We synthesize longevity patterns of marine sessile species and find strong positive relationships between depth and maximum lifespan across multiple sessile marine taxa, including corals, bivalves, sponges and macroalgae. Using long-term demographic data on marine sessile and terrestrial plant species, we show that extreme longevity leads to strongly dampened population dynamics...
February 28, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Avtar K Handa, Tahira Fatima, Autar K Mattoo
Biogenic amines-polyamines (PAs), particularly putrescine, spermidine and spermine are ubiquitous in all living cells. Their indispensable roles in many biochemical and physiological processes are becoming commonly known, including promoters of plant life and differential roles in human health and disease. PAs positively impact cellular functions in plants-exemplified by increasing longevity, reviving physiological memory, enhancing carbon and nitrogen resource allocation/signaling, as well as in plant development and responses to extreme environments...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
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