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Extreme longevity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332935/novel-treatment-strategies-for-chronic-kidney-disease-insights-from-the-animal-kingdom
#1
REVIEW
Peter Stenvinkel, Johanna Painer, Makoto Kuro-O, Miguel Lanaspa, Walter Arnold, Thomas Ruf, Paul G Shiels, Richard J Johnson
Many of the >2 million animal species that inhabit Earth have developed survival mechanisms that aid in the prevention of obesity, kidney disease, starvation, dehydration and vascular ageing; however, some animals remain susceptible to these complications. Domestic and captive wild felids, for example, show susceptibility to chronic kidney disease (CKD), potentially linked to the high protein intake of these animals. By contrast, naked mole rats are a model of longevity and are protected from extreme environmental conditions through mechanisms that provide resistance to oxidative stress...
January 15, 2018: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304751/what-is-the-best-adjustment-of-appendicular-lean-mass-for-predicting-mortality-or-disability-among-japanese-community-dwellers
#2
Rei Otsuka, Yasumoto Matsui, Chikako Tange, Yukiko Nishita, Makiko Tomida, Fujiko Ando, Hiroshi Shimokata, Hidenori Arai
BACKGROUND: Age-related declines in skeletal muscle mass and strength, representing "sarcopenia," are a growing concern in aging societies. However, the prevalence of low muscle mass based on the height2-adjustment has been shown to be extremely low, and a more appropriate definition of low muscle mass is needed, particularly for Asian women. The aim of this study was to explore the most appropriate adjustment of appendicular lean mass (ALM) for predicting mortality or disability risk using ALM or any of 5 adjustments of ALM among community-dwelling Japanese...
January 5, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297306/de-novo-assembling-and-primary-analysis-of-genome-and-transcriptome-of-gray-whale-eschrichtius-robustus
#3
Alexey А Moskalev, Anna V Kudryavtseva, Alexander S Graphodatsky, Violetta R Beklemisheva, Natalya A Serdyukova, Konstantin V Krutovsky, Vadim V Sharov, Ivan V Kulakovskiy, Andrey S Lando, Artem S Kasianov, Dmitry A Kuzmin, Yuliya A Putintseva, Sergey I Feranchuk, Mikhail V Shaposhnikov, Vadim E Fraifeld, Dmitri Toren, Anastasia V Snezhkina, Vasily V Sitnik
BACKGROUND: Gray whale, Eschrichtius robustus (E. robustus), is a single member of the family Eschrichtiidae, which is considered to be the most primitive in the class Cetacea. Gray whale is often described as a "living fossil". It is adapted to extreme marine conditions and has a high life expectancy (77 years). The assembly of a gray whale genome and transcriptome will allow to carry out further studies of whale evolution, longevity, and resistance to extreme environment. RESULTS: In this work, we report the first de novo assembly and primary analysis of the E...
December 28, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281814/the-sexual-dimorphism-of-dietary-restriction-responsiveness-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#4
Sakiko Honjoh, Akiko Ihara, Yukiko Kajiwara, Takuya Yamamoto, Eisuke Nishida
Organismal lifespan is highly plastic in response to environmental cues, and dietary restriction (DR) is the most robust way to extend lifespan in various species. Recent studies have shown that sex also is an important factor for lifespan regulation; however, it remains largely unclear how these two factors, food and sex, interact in lifespan regulation. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has two sexes, hermaphrodite and male, and only the hermaphrodites are essential for the short-term succession of the species...
December 26, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259851/fibrodysplasia-ossificans-progressiva-basic-understanding-and-experimental-models
#5
REVIEW
Zijuan Qi, Jing Luan, Xiaoyan Zhou, Yazhou Cui, Jinxiang Han
Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressive (FOP) is an extremely rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by congenital malformations of the great toes and progressive heterotopic ossification that can induce a disabling second skeleton. Spontaneously occurring flare-ups can cause inflammatory soft tissue to swell, followed by progressive and disabling heterotopic endochondral ossification. FOP is very rare, with an estimated incidence of one case per two million individuals. There is no definitive treatment for FOP, but the longevity of patients with FOP can be extended by early diagnosis and appropriate prevention of flares-up...
November 2017: Intractable & Rare Diseases Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209360/assortative-mating-by-ethnicity-in-longevous-families
#6
Paola Sebastiani, Anastasia Gurinovich, Harold Bae, Stacy L Andersen, Thomas T Perls
Recent work shows strong evidence of ancestry-based assortative mating in spouse pairs of the older generation of the Framingham Heart Study. Here, we extend this analysis to two studies of human longevity: the Long Life Family Study (LLFS), and the New England Centenarian Study (NECS). In the LLFS, we identified 890 spouse pairs spanning two generations, while in the NECS we used data from 102 spouse pairs including offspring of centenarians. We used principal components of genome-wide genotype data to demonstrate strong evidence of ancestry-based assortative mating in spouse pairs of the older generation and also confirm the decreasing trend of endogamy in more recent generations...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193863/sublethal-effects-of-subzero-temperatures-on-the-light-brown-apple-moth-epiphyas-postvittana-fitness-costs-in-response-to-partial-freezing
#7
Amy C Morey, R C Venette, W D Hutchison
Population responses to environmental extremes often dictate the bounds to species' distributions. However, population dynamics at, or near, those range limits may also be affected by sublethal effects. We exposed late instars and pupae of an invasive leafroller, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to cold temperatures and measured the effects of exposure on subsequent survivorship, development, and reproduction. Cold temperature was applied as acute exposure to -10°C (a low, but not immediately lethal temperature for this species) or the onset of freezing (the peak of the supercooling point exotherm)...
November 28, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188010/effects-of-macronutrient-intake-on-the-lifespan-and-fecundity-of-the-marula-fruit-fly-ceratitis-cosyra-tephritidae-extreme-lifespan-in-a-host-specialist
#8
Kevin Malod, C Ruth Archer, John Hunt, Susan W Nicolson, Christopher W Weldon
In insects, lifespan and reproduction are strongly associated with nutrition. The ratio and amount of nutrients individuals consume affect their life expectancy and reproductive investment. The geometric framework (GF) enables us to explore how animals regulate their intake of multiple nutrients simultaneously and determine how these nutrients interact to affect life-history traits of interest. Studies using the GF on host-generalist tephritid flies have highlighted trade-offs between longevity and reproductive effort in females, mediated by the protein-to-carbohydrate (P:C) ratio that individuals consume...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176660/social-adversity-and-epigenetic-aging-a-multi-cohort-study-on-socioeconomic-differences-in-peripheral-blood-dna-methylation
#9
Giovanni Fiorito, Silvia Polidoro, Pierre-Antoine Dugué, Mika Kivimaki, Erica Ponzi, Giuseppe Matullo, Simonetta Guarrera, Manuela B Assumma, Panagiotis Georgiadis, Soterios A Kyrtopoulos, Vittorio Krogh, Domenico Palli, Salvatore Panico, Carlotta Sacerdote, Rosario Tumino, Marc Chadeau-Hyam, Silvia Stringhini, Gianluca Severi, Allison M Hodge, Graham G Giles, Riccardo Marioni, Richard Karlsson Linnér, Aisling M O'Halloran, Rose A Kenny, Richard Layte, Laura Baglietto, Oliver Robinson, Cathal McCrory, Roger L Milne, Paolo Vineis
Low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with earlier onset of age-related chronic conditions and reduced life-expectancy, but the underlying biomolecular mechanisms remain unclear. Evidence of DNA-methylation differences by SES suggests a possible association of SES with epigenetic age acceleration (AA). We investigated the association of SES with AA in more than 5,000 individuals belonging to three independent prospective cohorts from Italy, Australia, and Ireland. Low SES was associated with greater AA (β = 0...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170765/historical-evolution-of-old-age-mortality-and-new-approaches-to-mortality-forecasting
#10
Leonid A Gavrilov, Natalia S Gavrilova, Vyacheslav N Krut'ko
Knowledge of future mortality levels and trends is important for actuarial practice but poses a challenge to actuaries and demographers. The Lee-Carter method, currently used for mortality forecasting, is based on the assumption that the historical evolution of mortality at all age groups is driven by one factor only. This approach cannot capture an additive manner of mortality decline observed before the 1960s. To overcome the limitation of the one-factor model of mortality and to determine the true number of factors underlying mortality changes over time, we suggest a new approach to mortality analysis and forecasting based on the method of latent variable analysis...
January 2017: Living to 100 Monograph
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170764/mortality-trajectories-at-exceptionally-high-ages-a-study-of-supercentenarians
#11
Natalia S Gavrilova, Leonid A Gavrilov, Vyacheslav N Krut'ko
The growing number of persons surviving to age 100 years and beyond raises questions about the shape of mortality trajectories at exceptionally high ages, and this problem may become significant for actuaries in the near future. However, such studies are scarce because of the difficulties in obtaining reliable age estimates at exceptionally high ages. The current view about mortality beyond age 110 years suggests that death rates do not grow with age and are virtually flat. The same assumption is made in the new actuarial VBT tables...
January 2017: Living to 100 Monograph
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163122/selectivity-and-longevity-of-peripheral-nerve-and-machine-interfaces-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Usman Ghafoor, Sohee Kim, Keum-Shik Hong
For those individuals with upper-extremity amputation, a daily normal living activity is no longer possible or it requires additional effort and time. With the aim of restoring their sensory and motor functions, theoretical and technological investigations have been carried out in the field of neuroprosthetic systems. For transmission of sensory feedback, several interfacing modalities including indirect (non-invasive), direct-to-peripheral-nerve (invasive), and cortical stimulation have been applied. Peripheral nerve interfaces demonstrate an edge over the cortical interfaces due to the sensitivity in attaining cortical brain signals...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055022/the-addition-of-a-developmental-factor-unc-62-to-already-long-lived-worms-increases-lifespan-and-healthspan
#13
Dror Sagi
Aging is a complex trait that is affected by multiple genetic pathways. A relatively unexplored approach is to manipulate multiple independent aging pathways simultaneously in order to observe their cumulative effect on lifespan. Here, we report the phenotypic characterization of a strain with changes in five aging pathways: 1) mitochondrial ROS production, 2) innate immunity, 3) stress response, 4) metabolic control and 5) developmental regulation in old age. The quintuply-modified strain has a lifespan that is 160% longer than the transgenic control strain...
October 20, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048212/living-too-long-exploring-attitudes-toward-reaching-100-years-old
#14
Oscar Ribeiro, Sofia Canedo, Margarida Cerqueira, Ana Nascimento, Laetitia Teixeira
Objective This study analyses the relationship between pro- and anti-longevity attitudes, attitudes toward centenarians, and the wish to reach 100 years of age in a sample of community dwelling older adults. Methods Participants ( N = 137) completed a questionnaire on attitudes toward life-extension and an aging semantic differential using centenarians as an attitudinal target. Sociodemographic information, perceived health status, and information on knowing a centenarian were also obtained. A cluster analysis was used to identify subgroups (leaning anti-longevity group vs...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Aging & Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045147/facile-fabrication-of-durable-copper-based-superhydrophobic-surfaces-via-electrodeposition
#15
R Jain, R Pitchumani
Superhydrophobic surfaces have myriad industrial applications, yet their practical utilization has been limited by their poor mechanical durability and longevity. We present a low-cost, facile process to develop superhydrophobic copper-based coatings via an electrodeposition route, that addresses this limitation. Through electrodeposition, a stable, multiscale, cauliflower shaped fractal morphology was obtained and upon modification by stearic acid, the prepared coatings show extreme water repellency with contact angle of 162 ± 2° and roll-off angle of about 3°...
November 17, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032502/gut-microbiota-changes-in-the-extreme-decades-of-human-life-a-focus-on-centenarians
#16
REVIEW
Aurelia Santoro, Rita Ostan, Marco Candela, Elena Biagi, Patrizia Brigidi, Miriam Capri, Claudio Franceschi
The gut microbiota (GM) is a complex, evolutionarily molded ecological system, which contributes to a variety of physiological functions. The GM is highly dynamic, being sensitive to environmental stimuli, and its composition changes over the host's entire lifespan. However, the basic question of how much these changes may be ascribed to variables such as population, diet, genetics and gender, and/or to the aging process per se is still largely unanswered. We argue that comparison among studies on centenarians-the best model of healthy aging and longevity-recruited from different geographical areas/populations (different genetics and dietary habits) can help to disentangle the contribution of aging and non-aging-related variables to GM remodeling with age...
October 14, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977569/effects-of-foxo3-polymorphisms-on-survival-to-extreme-longevity-in-four-centenarian-studies
#17
Harold Bae, Anastasia Gurinovich, Alberto Malovini, Gil Atzmon, Stacy L Andersen, Francesco Villa, Nir Barzilai, Annibale Puca, Thomas T Perls, Paola Sebastiani
Previous studies note specific FOXO3 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with human longevity. However, it is not clear if these SNPs influence mortality risk beyond the oldest 1 percentile of survival. Using data from four longevity studies (total n = 8,266, age range 96-119 years for cases), we tested gene-wide association between 107 SNPs and survival to at least the oldest 1 percentile of survival for the 1900 birth cohort (≥96, white males; ≥100 white females). This analysis replicated 17 previously published variants, several of which are significant expression quantitative trait loci of FOXO3; rs6911407 and rs2253310 have the most significant effect on FOXO3 expressions in brain tissue...
July 18, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958036/inverse-association-between-height-increasing-alleles-and-extreme-longevity-in-japanese-women
#18
Kumpei Tanisawa, Nobuyoshi Hirose, Yasumichi Arai, Hiroshi Shimokata, Yoshiji Yamada, Hisashi Kawai, Motonaga Kojima, Shuichi Obuchi, Hirohiko Hirano, Hiroyuki Suzuki, Yoshinori Fujiwara, Yu Taniguchi, Shoji Shinkai, Kazushige Ihara, Maki Sugaya, Mitsuru Higuchi, Tomio Arai, Seijiro Mori, Motoji Sawabe, Noriko Sato, Masaaki Muramatsu, Masashi Tanaka
Growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)/insulin signaling is one of the most plausible biological pathways regulating aging and longevity. Previous studies have demonstrated that several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the GH/IGF-1/insulin signaling-associated genes influence both longevity and adult height, suggesting the possibility of a shared genetic architecture between longevity and height. We therefore examined the relationship between 30 height-associated SNPs and extreme longevity in a Japanese population consisting of 428 centenarians and 4,026 younger controls...
August 21, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951210/phenome-and-genome-based-studies-into-human-ageing-and-longevity-an-overview
#19
REVIEW
P Eline Slagboom, Niels van den Berg, Joris Deelen
Human ageing is an extremely personal process leading across the life course of individuals to large population heterogeneity in the decline of functional capacity, health and lifespan. The extremes of this process are witnessed by the healthy vital 100-year-olds on one end and the 60-year-olds suffering from multiple morbid conditions on the other end of the spectrum. Molecular studies into the basis of this heterogeneity have focused on a range of endpoints and methodological approaches. The phenotype definitions most prominently investigated in these studies are either lifespan-related or biomarker based indices of the biological ageing rate of individuals and their tissues...
September 22, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943061/nutritional-strategies-in-ruminants-a-lifetime-approach
#20
REVIEW
Joseph McGrath, Stéphane M Duval, Luis F M Tamassia, Maik Kindermann, René T Stemmler, Vinícius N de Gouvea, Tiago S Acedo, Irmgard Immig, Scot N Williams, Pietro Celi
This review examines the role of nutritional strategies to improve lifetime performance in ruminants. Strategies to increase ruminants' productive longevity by means of nutritional interventions provide the opportunity not only to increase their lifetime performances and their welfare, but also to decrease their environmental impact. This paper will also address how such nutritional interventions can increase herd efficiency and farm profitability. The key competencies reviewed in this article are redox balance, skeletal development and health, nutrient utilization and sustainability, which includes rearing ruminants without antibiotics and methane mitigation...
September 12, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
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