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Extreme longevity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329165/four-genome-wide-association-studies-identify-new-extreme-longevity-variants
#1
Paola Sebastiani, Anastasia Gurinovich, Harold Bae, Stacy Andersen, Alberto Malovini, Gil Atzmon, Francesco Villa, Aldi T Kraja, Danny Ben-Avraham, Nir Barzilai, Annibale Puca, Thomas T Perls
The search for the genetic determinants of extreme human longevity has been challenged by the phenotype's rarity and its nonspecific definition by investigators. To address these issues, we established a consortium of four studies of extreme longevity that contributed 2,070 individuals who survived to the oldest one percentile of survival for the 1900 U.S. birth year cohort. We conducted various analyses to discover longevity-associated variants (LAV) and characterized those LAVs that differentiate survival to extreme age at death (eSAVs) from those LAVs that become more frequent in centenarians because of mortality selection (eg, survival to younger years)...
March 15, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319426/high-satisfaction-and-return-to-sports-after-total-shoulder-arthroplasty-in-patients-aged-55-years-and-younger
#2
Grant H Garcia, Joseph N Liu, Alec Sinatro, Hao-Hua Wu, Joshua S Dines, Russell F Warren, David M Dines, Lawrence V Gulotta
BACKGROUND: Young, active candidates for total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) are a unique group of patients. Not only do they demand longevity and improved function, but they also desire a return to physical activities. PURPOSE: To determine the rate of return to sports in patients aged ≤55 years undergoing TSA. STUDY DESIGN: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of consecutive patients who underwent anatomic TSA at a single institution...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301564/temperature-dependent-phenology-of-plutella-xylostella-lepidoptera-plutellidae-simulation-and-visualization-of-current-and-future-distributions-along-the-eastern-afromontane
#3
Benignus V Ngowi, Henri E Z Tonnang, Evans M Mwangi, Tino Johansson, Janet Ambale, Paul N Ndegwa, Sevgan Subramanian
There is a scarcity of laboratory and field-based results showing the movement of the diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella (L.) across a spatial scale. We studied the population growth of the diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella (L.) under six constant temperatures, to understand and predict population changes along altitudinal gradients and under climate change scenarios. Non-linear functions were fitted to continuously model DBM development, mortality, longevity and oviposition. We compiled the best-fitted functions for each life stage to yield a phenology model, which we stochastically simulated to estimate the life table parameters...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286215/thyroid-hormones-in-extreme-longevity
#4
REVIEW
Sabrina Garasto, Alberto Montesanto, Andrea Corsonello, Fabrizia Lattanzio, Sergio Fusco, Giuseppe Passarino, Valeria Prestipino Giarritta, Francesco Corica
The aim of the present review was to summarize knowledge about thyroid hormones (THs) and longevity. Longevity is a complex multifactorial phenomenon on which specific biological pathways, including hormonal networks involved in the regulation of homeostasis and survival, exert a strong impact. THs are the key responsible for growth, metabolism rate and energy expenditure, and help in maintaining cognition, bone and cardiovascular health. THs production and metabolism are fine tuned, and may help the organism to cope with a variety of environmental challenges...
March 9, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282042/divergent-extremes-but-convergent-recovery-of-bacterial-and-archaeal-soil-communities-to-an-ongoing-subterranean-coal-mine-fire
#5
Sang-Hoon Lee, Jackson W Sorensen, Keara L Grady, Tammy C Tobin, Ashley Shade
Press disturbances are stressors that are extended or ongoing relative to the generation times of community members, and, due to their longevity, have the potential to alter communities beyond the possibility of recovery. They also provide key opportunities to investigate ecological resilience and to probe biological limits in the face of prolonged stressors. The underground coal mine fire in Centralia, Pennsylvania has been burning since 1962 and severely alters the overlying surface soils by elevating temperatures and depositing coal combustion pollutants...
March 10, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265492/evidence-for-high-inter-generational-individual-quality-in-yellow-eyed-penguins
#6
Aviva M Stein, Melanie J Young, John T Darby, Philip J Seddon, Yolanda van Heezik
Longitudinal studies focusing on lifetime reproductive success (LRS) have been used to measure individual breeding performance and identify commonalities among successful breeders. By extending the focus to subsequent generations we identify a proportion of high-quality individuals that contribute disproportionately to the population over multiple generations. We used 23 years of yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes) breeding data from one breeding area to identify the proportion of individual birds that raised successful breeders, which in turn raised offspring...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244876/adaptive-sequence-convergence-of-the-tumor-suppressor-adamts9-between-small-bodied-mammals-displaying-exceptional-longevity
#7
Matthew J Lambert, Christine V Portfors
Maximum lifespan varies by two orders of magnitude across mammals. How such divergent lifespans have evolved remains an open question, with ramifications that may potentially lead to therapies for age-related diseases in humans. Several species of microbats as well as the naked mole-rat live much longer than expected given their small sizes, show reduced susceptibility to neoplasia, and largely remain healthy and reproductively capable throughout the majority of their extended lifespans. The convergent evolution of extreme longevity in these two groups allows for the opportunity to identify potentially important aging related genes that have undergone adaptive sequence convergence in these long-lived, yet small-bodied species...
February 26, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242236/centenarians-as-extreme-phenotypes-an-ecological-perspective-to-get-insight-into-the-relationship-between-the-genetics-of-longevity-and-age-associated-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Cristina Giuliani, Chiara Pirazzini, Massimo Delledonne, Luciano Xumerle, Patrick Descombes, Julien Marquis, Giacomo Mengozzi, Daniela Monti, Dina Bellizzi, Giuseppe Passarino, Donata Luiselli, Claudio Franceschi, Paolo Garagnani
In this review we address the genetic continuum between aging and age-related diseases, with particular attention to the ecological perspective. We describe the connections between genes that promote longevity and genes associated to age-related diseases considering trade-off mechanisms in which the same genetic variants could have different effect according to the tissue considered and could be involved in several biological pathways. Then we describe mechanisms of antagonistic pleiotropy, focusing on the complex interplay between genetic variants and environmental changes (internal or external)...
February 24, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214534/demographic-phenotypic-and-genetic-characteristics-of-centenarians-in-okinawa-and-honshu-japan-part-2-honshu-japan
#9
REVIEW
Yasumichi Arai, Takashi Sasaki, Nobuyoshi Hirose
The scope and purpose of this review was to summarize the aims, methods, findings, and future of centenarian and (semi)-supercentenarian studies in Japan, particularly those from our own interdisciplinary laboratory. Medically, approximately 97% of centenarians contract chronic diseases including hypertension and gastrointestinal disease; however, they present with few cardiovascular risk factors. The low prevalence of diabetes mellitus and carotid atherosclerotic plaques is peculiarities of centenarians, which could be associated with high adiponectin levels...
February 16, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179180/developing-a-3-choice-serial-reaction-time-task-for-examining-neural-and-cognitive-function-in-an-equine-model
#10
Kirsty Roberts, Andrew J Hemmings, Sebastian D McBride, Matthew O Parker
BACKGROUND: Large animal models of human neurological disorders are advantageous compared to rodent models due to their neuroanatomical complexity, longevity and their ability to be maintained in naturalised environments. Some large animal models spontaneously develop behaviours that closely resemble the symptoms of neural and psychiatric disorders. The horse is an example of this; the domestic form of this species consistently develops spontaneous stereotypic behaviours akin to the compulsive and impulsive behaviours observed in human neurological disorders such as Tourette's syndrome...
February 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152418/variation-of-desiccation-tolerance-and-longevity-in-fern-spores
#11
Daniel Ballesteros, Lisa M Hill, Christina Walters
This work contributes to the understanding of plant cell responses to extreme water stress when it is applied at different intensity and duration. Fern spores are used to explore survival at relative humidity (RH)<85% because their unicellular nature eliminates complexities that may arise in multicellular organisms from slower drying and variable responses of different cell types. Fern spore cytoplasm solidifies between 30 and 60% RH and spores survive this transition, but subsequently lose viability. We characterized the kinetics of viability loss in terms of the fluid to solid transition using concepts of water activity (i...
April 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143747/limitations-and-risks-of-meta-analyses-of-longevity-studies
#12
Paola Sebastiani, Harold Bae, Anastasia Gurinovich, Mette Soerensen, Annibale Puca, Thomas T Perls
Searching for genetic determinants of human longevity has been challenged by the rarity of data sets with large numbers of individuals who have reached extreme old age, inconsistent definitions of the phenotype, and the difficulty of defining appropriate controls. Meta-analysis - a statistical method to summarize results from different studies - has become a common tool in genetic epidemiology to accrue large sample sizes for powerful genetic association studies. In conducting a meta-analysis of studies of human longevity however, particular attention must be made to the definition of cases and controls (including their health status) and on the effect of possible confounders such as sex and ethnicity upon the genetic effect to be estimated...
January 28, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28136131/is-marathon-running-toxic-an-observational-study-of-cardiovascular-disease-prevalence-and-longevity-in-54-male-marathon-runners
#13
Benjamin Rosin
OBJECTIVES: Recent literature suggests reduced benefits associated with high intensity (HIT) and or sustained intensity exercise training (SIT). While important, they tend to contrast with other studies of HIT and SIT and may not be representative of all individuals wishing to participate in activities such as marathon running. The purpose of this observational report is to describe a 45-year history of 54 long distance runners, their incidence of death from cardiovascular disease and their ages at death compared to the normal population...
February 8, 2017: Physician and Sportsmedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120808/pigmentation-and-fitness-trade-offs-through-the-lens-of-artificial-selection
#14
Subhash Rajpurohit, Rani Richardson, John Dean, Raul Vazquez, Grace Wong, Paul S Schmidt
Pigmentation is a classic phenotype that varies widely and adaptively in nature both within and among taxa. Genes underlying pigmentation phenotype are highly pleiotropic, creating the potential for functional trade-offs. However, the basic tenets of this trade-off hypothesis with respect to life-history traits have not been directly addressed. In natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster, the degree of melanin pigmentation covaries with fecundity and several other fitness traits. To examine correlations and potential trade-offs associated with variation in pigmentation, we selected replicate outbred populations for extreme pigmentation phenotypes...
October 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110287/aspirin-to-inhibit-sepsis-antisepsis-randomised-controlled-trial-protocol
#15
Damon P Eisen, Elizabeth M Moore, Karin Leder, Jessica Lockery, Emma S McBryde, John J McNeil, David Pilcher, Rory Wolfe, Robyn L Woods
INTRODUCTION: Sepsis is a leading global cause of morbidity and mortality, and is more common at the extremes of age. Moreover, the cost of in-hospital care for elderly patients with sepsis is significant. There are indications from experimental and observational studies that aspirin may reduce inflammation associated with infection. This paper describes the rationale and design of the AspiriN To Inhibit SEPSIS (ANTISEPSIS) trial, a substudy of ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE)...
January 20, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087396/influence-of-coronal-bowing-on-the-lower-alignment-and-the-positioning-of-component-in-navigation-and-conventional-total-knee-arthroplasty
#16
H Kobayashi, Y Akamatsu, K Kumagai, Y Kusayama, M Aratake, T Saito
BACKGROUND: Coronal alignment is an important factor for the function and longevity of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Coronal bowing of the lower extremity is common among Asians and it may pose a risk for malalignment of the lower leg and malposition of component. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that coronal bowing itself has a risk for malalignment of the lower leg and malposition of femoral/tibial components and that navigation TKA is beneficial for patients with coronal bowing...
January 11, 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060797/t-memory-stem-cells-in-health-and-disease
#17
REVIEW
Luca Gattinoni, Daniel E Speiser, Mathias Lichterfeld, Chiara Bonini
T memory stem (TSCM) cells are a rare subset of memory lymphocytes endowed with the stem cell-like ability to self-renew and the multipotent capacity to reconstitute the entire spectrum of memory and effector T cell subsets. Cumulative evidence in mice, nonhuman primates and humans indicates that TSCM cells are minimally differentiated cells at the apex of the hierarchical system of memory T lymphocytes. Here we describe emerging findings demonstrating that TSCM cells, owing to their extreme longevity and robust potential for immune reconstitution, are central players in many physiological and pathological human processes...
January 6, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939534/linear-and-nonlinear-genetic-relationships-between-type-traits-and-productive-life-in-us-dairy-goats
#18
V J Castañeda-Bustos, H H Montaldo, M Valencia-Posadas, L Shepard, S Pérez-Elizalde, O Hernández-Mendo, G Torres-Hernández
Linear or nonlinear genetic relationships between productive life and functional productive life at 72 mo, with final score (SCO), stature, strength, dairyness (DAI), teat diameter, rear legs (side view), rump angle, rump width (RUW), fore udder attachment (FUA), rear udder height, rear udder arch, udder depth (UDD), suspensory ligament (SUS), and teat placement, as well as heritabilities and correlations were estimated from multibreed US dairy goat records. Productive life was defined as the total days in production until 72 mo of age (PL72) for goats having the opportunity to express the trait...
February 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932301/gh-igf-i-insulin-system-in-centenarians
#19
REVIEW
Giovanni Vitale, Michelangela Barbieri, Marina Kamenetskaya, Giuseppe Paolisso
The endocrine system plays a major role in the regulation of several biological activity and in the ageing process. Evolutionary conservation of GH/IGF-I/insulin pathway from worms to mice and similarities in this system between mice and humans raised expectations that downregulated activity of the GH/IGF-I/insulin pathway could be beneficial for the extension of human life span. Centenarians represent the best example of successful ageing having reached the very extremes of the human life span, escaping and delaying the occurrence of several fatal age-related diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases...
December 5, 2016: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914849/age-related-variations-of-muscle-mass-strength-and-physical-performance-in-community-dwellers-results-from-the-milan-expo-survey
#20
Francesco Landi, Riccardo Calvani, Matteo Tosato, Anna Maria Martone, Domenico Fusco, Alex Sisto, Elena Ortolani, Giulia Savera, Sara Salini, Emanuele Marzetti
OBJECTIVES: Declining muscle mass and function are hallmarks of the aging process. The preservation of muscle trophism may protect against various negative health outcomes. Age- and sex-specific curves of muscle mass, strength, and function, using data from a large sample of community-dwelling people, are necessary. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two surveys (Longevity Check-up and Very Important Protein [VIP]), conducted during EXPO 2015 in Milan, consisted of a population assessment aimed at evaluating the prevalence of specific health metrics in subjects outside of a research setting (n = 3206), with a special focus on muscle mass, strength, and function...
January 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
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