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Extreme longevity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601155/boar-genotype-as-a-factor-shaping-age-related-changes-in-semen-parameters-and-reproduction-longevity-simulations
#1
Damian Knecht, Anna Jankowska-Mąkosa, Kamil Duziński
The aim of this study was a detailed analysis of the boar genotypes used in AI stations with an indication of their production capacity, including age and a precise analysis of their culling time and reason. The study included 334 boars: 81 Polish Large White (PLW), 108 Polish Landrace (PL), 49 Pietrain (P), 56 Duroc × Pietrain (D × P) and 40 Hampshire × Pietrain (H × P). Semen volume, spermatozoa concentration, total number of spermatozoa, number of motile spermatozoa, and number of insemination doses were analyzed...
August 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599250/evaluation-of-mir-15a-and-mir-16-1-as-prognostic-biomarkers-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#2
REVIEW
Tatiane Vieira Braga, Fernanda Cristina Gontijo Evangelista, Lorena Caixeta Gomes, Sérgio Schusterschitz da Silva Araújo, Maria das Graças Carvalho, Adriano de Paula Sabino
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a B lineage neoplasm, characterized by the accumulation of B lymphocytes of great longevity, and usually develops as a result of the inhibition of apoptosis. Clinical evolution is extremely variable amongst affected individuals with survival ranging from a few months in aggressive cases, to a few decades in cases of indolent CLL. The identification of new prognostic factors, apart from clinical staging, has been an important research topic aiming at a better understanding of CLL...
June 6, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587826/safety-assessment-of-cultivated-fruiting-body-of-ophiocordyceps-sinensis-evaluated-through-subacute-toxicity-in-rats
#3
Shin Yee Fung, Sook Shien Lee, Nget Hong Tan, Jayalakshmi Pailoor
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Berk.) G.H. Sung, J.M. Sung, Hywel-Jones & Spatafora is one of the most renowned traditional Chinese medicine used as tonic, renal, respiratory and reproductive health, promote longevity and overall improvement in quality of life. Natural production of O. sinensis is limited due to its extreme specificity in host range and confined geographic distribution. Therefore, cultivation of the fungus was developed to meet high demand for commercialization as nutraceutical...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510785/the-impact-of-leisure-on-mental-health-of-sardinian-elderly-from-the-blue-zone-evidence-for-ageing-well
#4
Maria Chiara Fastame, Paul Kenneth Hitchcott, Maria Pietronilla Penna
BACKGROUND: There has been scientific interest in the Sardinia population for a number of years and for a variety of reasons, including its extreme longevity. This is especially prevalent in the central-eastern region of the island, where a blue zone region has been precisely delineated. AIMS: The present study examines the influence of leisure activities on psychological well-being and depressive symptoms in elderly individuals living in the blue zone region of inner Sardinia...
May 16, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499251/sequestration-of-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-membrane-phospholipids-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-dauer-larva-attenuates-eicosanoid-biosynthesis-for-prolonged-survival
#5
Sin Man Lam, Zehua Wang, Jie Li, Xun Huang, Guanghou Shui
Mechanistic basis governing the extreme longevity and developmental quiescence of dauer juvenile, a "non-ageing" developmental variant of Caenorhabditis elegans, has remained largely obscure. Using a lipidomic approach comprising multiple reaction monitoring transitions specific to distinct fatty acyl moieties, we demonstrated that in comparison to other developmental stages, the membrane phospholipids of dauer larva contain a unique enrichment of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Esterified PUFAs in phospholipids exhibited temporal accumulation throughout the course of dauer endurance, followed by sharp reductions prior to termination of diapause...
August 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461103/demographic-genetic-and-phenotypic-characteristics-of-centenarians-in-italy-focus-on-gender-differences
#6
REVIEW
Alberto Montesanto, Francesco De Rango, Chiara Pirazzini, Giulia Guidarelli, Filippo Domma, Claudio Franceschi, Giuseppe Passarino
An impressive and coherent series of epidemiological data from different populations (New England Americans, Mormons, Ashkenazi Jewish, Icelandic, Okinawan Japanese, Italians) suggests that long-lived subjects able to reach the extreme limits of human life, such as centenarians and supercentenarians, represent an extraordinary and informative model to identify the mechanisms responsible for healthy aging and human longevity. In most studies, genetic, demographic and phenotypic characteristics of longevity are discussed separately...
April 28, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458014/positive-diversifying-selection-is-a-pervasive-adaptive-force-throughout-the-drosophila-radiation
#7
Francesco Cicconardi, Paolo Marcatili, Wolfgang Arthofer, Birgit C Schlick-Steiner, Florian M Steiner
The growing genomic information on non-model organisms eases exploring the evolutionary history of biodiversity. This is particularly true for Drosophila flies, in which the number of sequenced species doubled recently. Because of its outstanding diversity of species, Drosophila has become one of the most important systems to study adaptive radiation. In this study, we performed a genome-wide analysis of positive diversifying selection on more than 2000 single-copy orthologous groups in 25 species using a recent method of increased accuracy for detecting positive diversifying selection...
April 27, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432393/more-functions-of-torpor-and-their-roles-in-a-changing-world
#8
Julia Nowack, Clare Stawski, Fritz Geiser
Increased winter survival by reducing energy expenditure in adult animals is often viewed as the primary function of torpor. However, torpor has many other functions that ultimately increase the survival of heterothermic mammals and birds. In this review, we summarize new findings revealing that animals use torpor to cope with the conditions during and after natural disasters, including fires, storms, and heat waves. Furthermore, we suggest that torpor, which also prolongs longevity and was likely crucial for survival of mammals during the time of the dinosaur extinctions, will be advantageous in a changing world...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359014/sperm-motility-activation-in-the-critically-endangered-booroolong-frog-the-effect-of-medium-osmolality-and-phosphodiesterase-inhibitors
#9
Aimee J Silla, Leesa M Keogh, Phillip G Byrne
Effective activation of sperm motility is fundamental to successful artificial fertilisation; however, studies investigating optimal procedures in amphibians are lacking. This study found the optimal osmolality of activation media for sperm motility activation and evaluated the effect of phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors on sperm activation and longevity in the critically endangered booroolong frog, Litoria booroolongensis. To assess the effect of medium osmolality (10, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 200mOsmolkg-1) and PDE inhibitors (control, 2...
March 31, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329165/four-genome-wide-association-studies-identify-new-extreme-longevity-variants
#10
Paola Sebastiani, Anastasia Gurinovich, Harold Bae, Stacy Andersen, Alberto Malovini, Gil Atzmon, Francesco Villa, Aldi T Kraja, Danny Ben-Avraham, Nir Barzilai, Annibale Puca, Thomas T Perls
The search for the genetic determinants of extreme human longevity has been challenged by the phenotype's rarity and its nonspecific definition by investigators. To address these issues, we established a consortium of four studies of extreme longevity that contributed 2,070 individuals who survived to the oldest one percentile of survival for the 1900 U.S. birth year cohort. We conducted various analyses to discover longevity-associated variants (LAV) and characterized those LAVs that differentiate survival to extreme age at death (eSAVs) from those LAVs that become more frequent in centenarians because of mortality selection (eg, survival to younger years)...
March 15, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319426/high-satisfaction-and-return-to-sports-after-total-shoulder-arthroplasty-in-patients-aged-55-years-and-younger
#11
Grant H Garcia, Joseph N Liu, Alec Sinatro, Hao-Hua Wu, Joshua S Dines, Russell F Warren, David M Dines, Lawrence V Gulotta
BACKGROUND: Young, active candidates for total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) are a unique group of patients. Not only do they demand longevity and improved function, but they also desire a return to physical activities. PURPOSE: To determine the rate of return to sports in patients aged ≤55 years undergoing TSA. STUDY DESIGN: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of consecutive patients who underwent anatomic TSA at a single institution...
June 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301564/temperature-dependent-phenology-of-plutella-xylostella-lepidoptera-plutellidae-simulation-and-visualization-of-current-and-future-distributions-along-the-eastern-afromontane
#12
Benignus V Ngowi, Henri E Z Tonnang, Evans M Mwangi, Tino Johansson, Janet Ambale, Paul N Ndegwa, Sevgan Subramanian
There is a scarcity of laboratory and field-based results showing the movement of the diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella (L.) across a spatial scale. We studied the population growth of the diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella (L.) under six constant temperatures, to understand and predict population changes along altitudinal gradients and under climate change scenarios. Non-linear functions were fitted to continuously model DBM development, mortality, longevity and oviposition. We compiled the best-fitted functions for each life stage to yield a phenology model, which we stochastically simulated to estimate the life table parameters...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286215/thyroid-hormones-in-extreme-longevity
#13
REVIEW
Sabrina Garasto, Alberto Montesanto, Andrea Corsonello, Fabrizia Lattanzio, Sergio Fusco, Giuseppe Passarino, Valeria Prestipino Giarritta, Francesco Corica
The aim of the present review was to summarize knowledge about thyroid hormones (THs) and longevity. Longevity is a complex multifactorial phenomenon on which specific biological pathways, including hormonal networks involved in the regulation of homeostasis and survival, exert a strong impact. THs are the key responsible for growth, metabolism rate and energy expenditure, and help in maintaining cognition, bone and cardiovascular health. THs production and metabolism are fine tuned, and may help the organism to cope with a variety of environmental challenges...
March 9, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282042/divergent-extremes-but-convergent-recovery-of-bacterial-and-archaeal-soil-communities-to-an-ongoing-subterranean-coal-mine-fire
#14
Sang-Hoon Lee, Jackson W Sorensen, Keara L Grady, Tammy C Tobin, Ashley Shade
Press disturbances are stressors that are extended or ongoing relative to the generation times of community members, and, due to their longevity, have the potential to alter communities beyond the possibility of recovery. They also provide key opportunities to investigate ecological resilience and to probe biological limits in the face of prolonged stressors. The underground coal mine fire in Centralia, Pennsylvania has been burning since 1962 and severely alters the overlying surface soils by elevating temperatures and depositing coal combustion pollutants...
June 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265492/evidence-for-high-inter-generational-individual-quality-in-yellow-eyed-penguins
#15
Aviva M Stein, Melanie J Young, John T Darby, Philip J Seddon, Yolanda van Heezik
Longitudinal studies focusing on lifetime reproductive success (LRS) have been used to measure individual breeding performance and identify commonalities among successful breeders. By extending the focus to subsequent generations we identify a proportion of high-quality individuals that contribute disproportionately to the population over multiple generations. We used 23 years of yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes) breeding data from one breeding area to identify the proportion of individual birds that raised successful breeders, which in turn raised offspring...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244876/adaptive-sequence-convergence-of-the-tumor-suppressor-adamts9-between-small-bodied-mammals-displaying-exceptional-longevity
#16
Matthew J Lambert, Christine V Portfors
Maximum lifespan varies by two orders of magnitude across mammals. How such divergent lifespans have evolved remains an open question, with ramifications that may potentially lead to therapies for age-related diseases in humans. Several species of microbats as well as the naked mole-rat live much longer than expected given their small sizes, show reduced susceptibility to neoplasia, and largely remain healthy and reproductively capable throughout the majority of their extended lifespans. The convergent evolution of extreme longevity in these two groups allows for the opportunity to identify potentially important aging related genes that have undergone adaptive sequence convergence in these long-lived, yet small-bodied species...
February 26, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242236/centenarians-as-extreme-phenotypes-an-ecological-perspective-to-get-insight-into-the-relationship-between-the-genetics-of-longevity-and-age-associated-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Cristina Giuliani, Chiara Pirazzini, Massimo Delledonne, Luciano Xumerle, Patrick Descombes, Julien Marquis, Giacomo Mengozzi, Daniela Monti, Dina Bellizzi, Giuseppe Passarino, Donata Luiselli, Claudio Franceschi, Paolo Garagnani
In this review we address the genetic continuum between aging and age-related diseases, with particular attention to the ecological perspective. We describe the connections between genes that promote longevity and genes associated to age-related diseases considering trade-off mechanisms in which the same genetic variants could have different effect according to the tissue considered and could be involved in several biological pathways. Then we describe mechanisms of antagonistic pleiotropy, focusing on the complex interplay between genetic variants and environmental changes (internal or external)...
February 24, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214534/demographic-phenotypic-and-genetic-characteristics-of-centenarians-in-okinawa-and-honshu-japan-part-2-honshu-japan
#18
REVIEW
Yasumichi Arai, Takashi Sasaki, Nobuyoshi Hirose
The scope and purpose of this review was to summarize the aims, methods, findings, and future of centenarian and (semi)-supercentenarian studies in Japan, particularly those from our own interdisciplinary laboratory. Medically, approximately 97% of centenarians contract chronic diseases including hypertension and gastrointestinal disease; however, they present with few cardiovascular risk factors. The low prevalence of diabetes mellitus and carotid atherosclerotic plaques is peculiarities of centenarians, which could be associated with high adiponectin levels...
February 16, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179180/developing-a-3-choice-serial-reaction-time-task-for-examining-neural-and-cognitive-function-in-an-equine-model
#19
Kirsty Roberts, Andrew J Hemmings, Sebastian D McBride, Matthew O Parker
BACKGROUND: Large animal models of human neurological disorders are advantageous compared to rodent models due to their neuroanatomical complexity, longevity and their ability to be maintained in naturalised environments. Some large animal models spontaneously develop behaviours that closely resemble the symptoms of neural and psychiatric disorders. The horse is an example of this; the domestic form of this species consistently develops spontaneous stereotypic behaviours akin to the compulsive and impulsive behaviours observed in human neurological disorders such as Tourette's syndrome...
February 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152418/variation-of-desiccation-tolerance-and-longevity-in-fern-spores
#20
Daniel Ballesteros, Lisa M Hill, Christina Walters
This work contributes to the understanding of plant cell responses to extreme water stress when it is applied at different intensity and duration. Fern spores are used to explore survival at relative humidity (RH)<85% because their unicellular nature eliminates complexities that may arise in multicellular organisms from slower drying and variable responses of different cell types. Fern spore cytoplasm solidifies between 30 and 60% RH and spores survive this transition, but subsequently lose viability. We characterized the kinetics of viability loss in terms of the fluid to solid transition using concepts of water activity (i...
April 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
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