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Extreme longevity

Shawn M Ferguson
Lysosomes perform degradative functions that are important for all cells. However, neurons are particularly dependent on optimal lysosome function due to their extremes of longevity, size and polarity. Axons in particular exemplify the major spatial challenges faced by neurons in the maintenance of lysosome biogenesis and function. What impact does this have on the regulation and functions of lysosomes in axons? This review focuses on the mechanisms whereby axonal lysosome biogenesis, transport and function are adapted to meet neuronal demand...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Kristopher S Pfirman, Robel Haile
BACKGROUND Intracardiac abscesses are an unusual occurrence in developed countries. With the increase in use of implantable cardiac devices, the increase use of and advancements in antibiotics, and the longevity of patients with cardiac devices, one may expect an increase in such infections; however, case reports are rare. We are presenting a case in which hematogenous dissemination of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) infection from a lower extremity diabetic ulcer propagated into an infected pacemaker lead and ultimately an intracardiac abscess of the right atrium...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
I Montero-Serra, C Linares, D F Doak, J B Ledoux, J Garrabou
Understanding the role of the environment in shaping the evolution of life histories remains a major challenge in ecology and evolution. We synthesize longevity patterns of marine sessile species and find strong positive relationships between depth and maximum lifespan across multiple sessile marine taxa, including corals, bivalves, sponges and macroalgae. Using long-term demographic data on marine sessile and terrestrial plant species, we show that extreme longevity leads to strongly dampened population dynamics...
February 28, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Avtar K Handa, Tahira Fatima, Autar K Mattoo
Biogenic amines-polyamines (PAs), particularly putrescine, spermidine and spermine are ubiquitous in all living cells. Their indispensable roles in many biochemical and physiological processes are becoming commonly known, including promoters of plant life and differential roles in human health and disease. PAs positively impact cellular functions in plants-exemplified by increasing longevity, reviving physiological memory, enhancing carbon and nitrogen resource allocation/signaling, as well as in plant development and responses to extreme environments...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Yi Huang, Mark Rosenberg, Yingli Wang
Climate is closely related to human longevity. In China, there are many climate types. According to national population censuses from 1982 to 2000, most provinces with a high ratio of centenarians are located in western and northwestern China far from the sea; these areas are characterized by a dry, cold climate, very high altitude, very high daily temperature range, strong winds, and partial hypoxia. Meanwhile, provinces with a high ratio of nonagenarians from 1982 to 2000 are located in southern China near the sea...
February 17, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
Mauro Tettamanti, Gabriella Marcon
PURPOSE: Centenarians, a segment of the population which some 50 years ago comprised only a few individuals, now count thousands in many countries, and demographic projections forecast that this growth will continue. The study of this new population will give us new information on extreme longevity and help prepare for their health and social needs. The aim of the Centenari a Trieste study is to describe the health and health service use by centenarians, with specific focus on cognitive status...
February 8, 2018: BMJ Open
David D Lee, Hani M Wadei
On December 4, 2014, the new kidney allocation system (KAS) was implemented to reduce extreme longevity mismatches between kidney allograft and recipient life expectancy, increase the highly sensitized patients' access to transplantation through prioritization, broaden access for disadvantaged candidates by counting dialysis time towards wait-list time, and potentially increase the utilization of "marginal kidneys" through broader allocation at the local and regional level. In the first year after implementation, the early results of KAS suggested that the new policies were successful in meeting many of these goals 1 ...
February 12, 2018: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
Chuck A Ingels, Kent M Daane
The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is an invasive pest that has been resident in California since 2006. To better understand its seasonal phenology, we used baited traps to estimate nymph and adult population densities in midtown Sacramento, the focal area of the Northern California invasion. Adult H. halys populations were found soon after trapping began in February (2015-2016) or March (2014); the first egg masses for 2014, 2015, and 2016 were found on 5 May, 17 April, and 12 April, respectively, and the first nymphs were found 3 June, 19 May, and 9 May, respectively...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
André F Camargo, Marina M Chioda, Ana P C Rodrigues, Geovana S Garcia, Emily A McKinney, Howard T Jacobs, Marcos T Oliveira
The mitochondrial respiratory chain in vertebrates and arthropods is different from that of most other eukaryotes because they lack alternative enzymes that provide electron transfer pathways additional to the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system. However, the use of diverse experimental models, such as human cells in culture, Drosophila melanogaster and the mouse, has demonstrated that the transgenic expression of these alternative enzymes can impact positively many phenotypes associated with human mitochondrial and other cellular dysfunction, including those typically presented in complex IV deficiencies, Parkinson's, and Alzheimer's...
January 31, 2018: Cell Biology International
Pablo S Corona, Matias Vicente, Mireia Lalanza, Carles Amat, Luis Carrera
BACKGROUND: Bone loss is a common problem in periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) scenarios. Modular megaprosthesis (MP) could offer a limb salvage solution in such situations. Concerns about risk of infection relapse, reinfection and implant longevity exist regarding MP use in cases of chronic PJI, rather than standard implants. We therefore sought to analyze our results with MP use in chronic PJI cases. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 29 MP patients...
January 24, 2018: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
Emma L Davis, Leon Danon, Joaquín M Prada, Sharmini A Gunawardena, James E Truscott, Johnny Vlaminck, Roy M Anderson, Bruno Levecke, Eric R Morgan, T Deirdre Hollingsworth
There is clear empirical evidence that environmental conditions can influence Ascaris spp. free-living stage development and host reinfection, but the impact of these differences on human infections, and interventions to control them, is variable. A new model framework reflecting four key stages of the A. lumbricoides life cycle, incorporating the effects of rainfall and temperature, is used to describe the level of infection in the human population alongside the environmental egg dynamics. Using data from South Korea and Nigeria, we conclude that settings with extreme fluctuations in rainfall or temperature could exhibit strong seasonal transmission patterns that may be partially masked by the longevity of A...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Peter Stenvinkel, Johanna Painer, Makoto Kuro-O, Miguel Lanaspa, Walter Arnold, Thomas Ruf, Paul G Shiels, Richard J Johnson
Many of the >2 million animal species that inhabit Earth have developed survival mechanisms that aid in the prevention of obesity, kidney disease, starvation, dehydration and vascular ageing; however, some animals remain susceptible to these complications. Domestic and captive wild felids, for example, show susceptibility to chronic kidney disease (CKD), potentially linked to the high protein intake of these animals. By contrast, naked mole rats are a model of longevity and are protected from extreme environmental conditions through mechanisms that provide resistance to oxidative stress...
January 15, 2018: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
Rei Otsuka, Yasumoto Matsui, Chikako Tange, Yukiko Nishita, Makiko Tomida, Fujiko Ando, Hiroshi Shimokata, Hidenori Arai
BACKGROUND: Age-related declines in skeletal muscle mass and strength, representing "sarcopenia," are a growing concern in aging societies. However, the prevalence of low muscle mass based on the height2-adjustment has been shown to be extremely low, and a more appropriate definition of low muscle mass is needed, particularly for Asian women. The aim of this study was to explore the most appropriate adjustment of appendicular lean mass (ALM) for predicting mortality or disability risk using ALM or any of 5 adjustments of ALM among community-dwelling Japanese...
January 5, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
Alexey А Moskalev, Anna V Kudryavtseva, Alexander S Graphodatsky, Violetta R Beklemisheva, Natalya A Serdyukova, Konstantin V Krutovsky, Vadim V Sharov, Ivan V Kulakovskiy, Andrey S Lando, Artem S Kasianov, Dmitry A Kuzmin, Yuliya A Putintseva, Sergey I Feranchuk, Mikhail V Shaposhnikov, Vadim E Fraifeld, Dmitri Toren, Anastasia V Snezhkina, Vasily V Sitnik
BACKGROUND: Gray whale, Eschrichtius robustus (E. robustus), is a single member of the family Eschrichtiidae, which is considered to be the most primitive in the class Cetacea. Gray whale is often described as a "living fossil". It is adapted to extreme marine conditions and has a high life expectancy (77 years). The assembly of a gray whale genome and transcriptome will allow to carry out further studies of whale evolution, longevity, and resistance to extreme environment. RESULTS: In this work, we report the first de novo assembly and primary analysis of the E...
December 28, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Sakiko Honjoh, Akiko Ihara, Yukiko Kajiwara, Takuya Yamamoto, Eisuke Nishida
Organismal lifespan is highly plastic in response to environmental cues, and dietary restriction (DR) is the most robust way to extend lifespan in various species. Recent studies have shown that sex also is an important factor for lifespan regulation; however, it remains largely unclear how these two factors, food and sex, interact in lifespan regulation. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has two sexes, hermaphrodite and male, and only the hermaphrodites are essential for the short-term succession of the species...
December 26, 2017: Cell Reports
Zijuan Qi, Jing Luan, Xiaoyan Zhou, Yazhou Cui, Jinxiang Han
Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressive (FOP) is an extremely rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by congenital malformations of the great toes and progressive heterotopic ossification that can induce a disabling second skeleton. Spontaneously occurring flare-ups can cause inflammatory soft tissue to swell, followed by progressive and disabling heterotopic endochondral ossification. FOP is very rare, with an estimated incidence of one case per two million individuals. There is no definitive treatment for FOP, but the longevity of patients with FOP can be extended by early diagnosis and appropriate prevention of flares-up...
November 2017: Intractable & Rare Diseases Research
Paola Sebastiani, Anastasia Gurinovich, Harold Bae, Stacy L Andersen, Thomas T Perls
Recent work shows strong evidence of ancestry-based assortative mating in spouse pairs of the older generation of the Framingham Heart Study. Here, we extend this analysis to two studies of human longevity: the Long Life Family Study (LLFS), and the New England Centenarian Study (NECS). In the LLFS, we identified 890 spouse pairs spanning two generations, while in the NECS we used data from 102 spouse pairs including offspring of centenarians. We used principal components of genome-wide genotype data to demonstrate strong evidence of ancestry-based assortative mating in spouse pairs of the older generation and also confirm the decreasing trend of endogamy in more recent generations...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
Amy C Morey, Robert C Venette, William D Hutchison
Population responses to environmental extremes often dictate the bounds to species' distributions. However, population dynamics at, or near, those range limits may also be affected by sublethal effects. We exposed late instars and pupae of an invasive leafroller, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to cold temperatures and measured the effects of exposure on subsequent survivorship, development, and reproduction. Cold temperature was applied as acute exposure to -10 °C (a low, but not immediately lethal temperature for this species) or the onset of freezing (the peak of the supercooling point exotherm)...
November 28, 2017: Insect Science
Kevin Malod, C Ruth Archer, John Hunt, Susan W Nicolson, Christopher W Weldon
In insects, lifespan and reproduction are strongly associated with nutrition. The ratio and amount of nutrients individuals consume affect their life expectancy and reproductive investment. The geometric framework (GF) enables us to explore how animals regulate their intake of multiple nutrients simultaneously and determine how these nutrients interact to affect life-history traits of interest. Studies using the GF on host-generalist tephritid flies have highlighted trade-offs between longevity and reproductive effort in females, mediated by the protein-to-carbohydrate (P:C) ratio that individuals consume...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Giovanni Fiorito, Silvia Polidoro, Pierre-Antoine Dugué, Mika Kivimaki, Erica Ponzi, Giuseppe Matullo, Simonetta Guarrera, Manuela B Assumma, Panagiotis Georgiadis, Soterios A Kyrtopoulos, Vittorio Krogh, Domenico Palli, Salvatore Panico, Carlotta Sacerdote, Rosario Tumino, Marc Chadeau-Hyam, Silvia Stringhini, Gianluca Severi, Allison M Hodge, Graham G Giles, Riccardo Marioni, Richard Karlsson Linnér, Aisling M O'Halloran, Rose A Kenny, Richard Layte, Laura Baglietto, Oliver Robinson, Cathal McCrory, Roger L Milne, Paolo Vineis
Low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with earlier onset of age-related chronic conditions and reduced life-expectancy, but the underlying biomolecular mechanisms remain unclear. Evidence of DNA-methylation differences by SES suggests a possible association of SES with epigenetic age acceleration (AA). We investigated the association of SES with AA in more than 5,000 individuals belonging to three independent prospective cohorts from Italy, Australia, and Ireland. Low SES was associated with greater AA (β = 0...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
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