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Extreme longevity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055022/the-addition-of-a-developmental-factor-unc-62-to-already-long-lived-worms-increases-lifespan-and-healthspan
#1
Dror Sagi
Aging is a complex trait that is affected by multiple genetic pathways. A relatively unexplored approach is to manipulate multiple independent aging pathways simultaneously in order to observe their cumulative effect on lifespan. Here, we report the phenotypic characterization of a strain with changes in five aging pathways: 1) mitochondrial ROS production, 2) innate immunity, 3) stress response, 4) metabolic control and 5) developmental regulation in old age. The quintuply-modified strain has a lifespan that is 160% longer than the transgenic control strain...
October 20, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048212/living-too-long-exploring-attitudes-toward-reaching-100-years-old
#2
Oscar Ribeiro, Sofia Canedo, Margarida Cerqueira, Ana Nascimento, Laetitia Teixeira
Objective This study analyses the relationship between pro- and anti-longevity attitudes, attitudes toward centenarians, and the wish to reach 100 years of age in a sample of community dwelling older adults. Methods Participants ( N = 137) completed a questionnaire on attitudes toward life-extension and an aging semantic differential using centenarians as an attitudinal target. Sociodemographic information, perceived health status, and information on knowing a centenarian were also obtained. A cluster analysis was used to identify subgroups (leaning anti-longevity group vs...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Aging & Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045147/facile-fabrication-of-durable-copper-based-superhydrophobic-surfaces-via-electrodeposition
#3
R Jain, R Pitchumani
Superhydrophobic surfaces have myriad industrial applications, yet their practical utilization has been limited by their poor mechanical durability and longevity. We present a low-cost, facile process to develop superhydrophobic copper-based coatings via an electrodeposition route, that addresses this limitation. Through electrodeposition, a stable, multiscale, cauliflower shaped fractal morphology was obtained and upon modification by stearic acid, the prepared coatings show extreme water repellency with contact angle of 162 ± 2° and roll-off angle of about 3°...
November 17, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032502/gut-microbiota-changes-in-the-extreme-decades-of-human-life-a-focus-on-centenarians
#4
REVIEW
Aurelia Santoro, Rita Ostan, Marco Candela, Elena Biagi, Patrizia Brigidi, Miriam Capri, Claudio Franceschi
The gut microbiota (GM) is a complex, evolutionarily molded ecological system, which contributes to a variety of physiological functions. The GM is highly dynamic, being sensitive to environmental stimuli, and its composition changes over the host's entire lifespan. However, the basic question of how much these changes may be ascribed to variables such as population, diet, genetics and gender, and/or to the aging process per se is still largely unanswered. We argue that comparison among studies on centenarians-the best model of healthy aging and longevity-recruited from different geographical areas/populations (different genetics and dietary habits) can help to disentangle the contribution of aging and non-aging-related variables to GM remodeling with age...
October 14, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977569/effects-of-foxo3-polymorphisms-on-survival-to-extreme-longevity-in-four-centenarian-studies
#5
Harold Bae, Anastasia Gurinovich, Alberto Malovini, Gil Atzmon, Stacy L Andersen, Francesco Villa, Nir Barzilai, Annibale Puca, Thomas T Perls, Paola Sebastiani
Previous studies note specific FOXO3 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with human longevity. However, it is not clear if these SNPs influence mortality risk beyond the oldest 1 percentile of survival. Using data from four longevity studies (total n = 8,266, age range 96-119 years for cases), we tested gene-wide association between 107 SNPs and survival to at least the oldest 1 percentile of survival for the 1900 birth cohort (≥96, white males; ≥100 white females). This analysis replicated 17 previously published variants, several of which are significant expression quantitative trait loci of FOXO3; rs6911407 and rs2253310 have the most significant effect on FOXO3 expressions in brain tissue...
July 18, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958036/inverse-association-between-height-increasing-alleles-and-extreme-longevity-in-japanese-women
#6
Kumpei Tanisawa, Nobuyoshi Hirose, Yasumichi Arai, Hiroshi Shimokata, Yoshiji Yamada, Hisashi Kawai, Motonaga Kojima, Shuichi Obuchi, Hirohiko Hirano, Hiroyuki Suzuki, Yoshinori Fujiwara, Yu Taniguchi, Shoji Shinkai, Kazushige Ihara, Maki Sugaya, Mitsuru Higuchi, Tomio Arai, Seijiro Mori, Motoji Sawabe, Noriko Sato, Masaaki Muramatsu, Masashi Tanaka
Growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)/insulin signaling is one of the most plausible biological pathways regulating aging and longevity. Previous studies have demonstrated that several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the GH/IGF-1/insulin signaling-associated genes influence both longevity and adult height, suggesting the possibility of a shared genetic architecture between longevity and height. We therefore examined the relationship between 30 height-associated SNPs and extreme longevity in a Japanese population consisting of 428 centenarians and 4,026 younger controls...
August 21, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951210/phenome-and-genome-based-studies-into-human-ageing-and-longevity-an-overview
#7
REVIEW
P Eline Slagboom, Niels van den Berg, Joris Deelen
Human ageing is an extremely personal process leading across the life course of individuals to large population heterogeneity in the decline of functional capacity, health and lifespan. The extremes of this process are witnessed by the healthy vital 100-year-olds on one end and the 60-year-olds suffering from multiple morbid conditions on the other end of the spectrum. Molecular studies into the basis of this heterogeneity have focused on a range of endpoints and methodological approaches. The phenotype definitions most prominently investigated in these studies are either lifespan-related or biomarker based indices of the biological ageing rate of individuals and their tissues...
September 22, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943061/nutritional-strategies-in-ruminants-a-lifetime-approach
#8
REVIEW
Joseph McGrath, Stéphane M Duval, Luis F M Tamassia, Maik Kindermann, René T Stemmler, Vinícius N de Gouvea, Tiago S Acedo, Irmgard Immig, Scot N Williams, Pietro Celi
This review examines the role of nutritional strategies to improve lifetime performance in ruminants. Strategies to increase ruminants' productive longevity by means of nutritional interventions provide the opportunity not only to increase their lifetime performances and their welfare, but also to decrease their environmental impact. This paper will also address how such nutritional interventions can increase herd efficiency and farm profitability. The key competencies reviewed in this article are redox balance, skeletal development and health, nutrient utilization and sustainability, which includes rearing ruminants without antibiotics and methane mitigation...
September 12, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935556/altitudinal-variation-and-bio-climatic-variables-influencing-the-potential-distribution-of-culicoides-orientalis-macfie-1932-suspected-vector-of-bluetongue-virus-across-the-north-eastern-himalayan-belt-of-sikkim
#9
Emon Mukhopadhyay, Surajit Hazra, Goutam Kumar Saha, Dhriti Banerjee
Culicoides orientalis was first recorded from Sikkim, in the year 1963, but no evidence based disease outbreak were available. In the last 50 years, 260 Bluetongue disease outbreaks caused by Culicoides species have been evidenced from India. Moreover, in recent years with increase of average temperature worldwide and increase in longevity of arthropod vectors like Culicoides along with a geographical range shift to new suitable warmer regions has increased the potentiality of vector borne disease outbreak throughout the world...
December 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928669/nature-s-electric-potential-a-systematic-review-of-the-role-of-bioelectricity-in-wound-healing-and-regenerative-processes-in-animals-humans-and-plants
#10
REVIEW
Sheena E B Tyler
Natural endogenous voltage gradients not only predict and correlate with growth and development but also drive wound healing and regeneration processes. This review summarizes the existing literature for the nature, sources, and transmission of information-bearing bioelectric signals involved in controlling wound healing and regeneration in animals, humans, and plants. It emerges that some bioelectric characteristics occur ubiquitously in a range of animal and plant species. However, the limits of similarities are probed to give a realistic assessment of future areas to be explored...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915360/risk-factors-for-reoperation-and-performance-based-outcomes-after-operative-fixation-of-foot-fractures-in-the-professional-athlete-a-cross-sport-analysis
#11
Sameer Singh, Kevin Larkin, Anish Kadakia, Wellington Hsu
BACKGROUND: Professional athletes are predisposed to fractures of the foot due to large stresses placed on the lower extremity. These players are concerned with efficiently returning to play at a high level. Return-to-play rates after operative treatment have been previously reported, yet performance outcomes after such treatment are generally unknown in this population. HYPOTHESIS: Overall, professional athletes sustaining a foot fracture would return to play at high rates with little impact on post-operative performance or league participation...
September 1, 2017: Sports Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900276/highly-variable-lifespan-in-an-annual-reptile-labord-s-chameleon-furcifer-labordi
#12
Falk Eckhardt, Peter M Kappeler, Cornelia Kraus
Among tetrapods, the current record holder for shortest lifespan is Labord's chameleon, Furcifer labordi. These reptiles from the arid southwest of Madagascar have a reported lifespan of 4-5 months during the annual rainy season and spend the majority of their life (8-9 months) as a developing embryo. This semelparous, annual life history is unique among tetrapods, but only one population (Ranobe) in the southernmost distribution range has been studied. We therefore investigated the potential for environmentally-dependent variability in lifespan in a population in Kirindy Forest, which has a much longer warm rainy season...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899752/are-adult-life-history-traits-in-oriental-fruit-moth-affected-by-a-mild-pupal-heat-stress
#13
Jincheng Zheng, Xiongbin Cheng, Ary A Hoffmann, Bo Zhang, Chun-Sen Ma
Thermal stress at one life stage can affect fitness at a later stage in ectotherms with complex life cycles. Most relevant studies have focused on extreme stress levels, but here we also show substantial fitness effects in a moth when pupae are exposed to a relatively mild and sublethal heat stress. We consider the impact of a 35°C heat stress of 2h in three geographically separate populations of the oriental fruit moth (OFM, Grapholita molesta) from northern, middle and southern China. Heat stress negatively affected fecundity but increased adult heat resistance and adult longevity...
October 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851819/o2-binding-and-co2-sensitivity-in-hemoglobins-of-subterranean-african-mole-rats
#14
Roy E Weber, Jennifer U M Jarvis, Angela Fago, Nigel C Bennett
Inhabiting deep and sealed subterranean burrows, mole rats exhibit a remarkable suite of specializations, including eusociality (living in colonies with single breeding queens), extraordinary longevity, cancer immunity and poikilothermy, and extreme tolerance of hypoxia and hypercapnia.With little information available on adjustments in hemoglobin (Hb) function that may mitigate the impact of exogenous and endogenous constraints on the uptake and internal transport of O2, we measured hematological characteristics, as well as Hb-O2 binding affinities and their sensitivities to pH (Bohr effect), CO2, temperature and 2,3 diphosphoglycerate (DPG, the major allosteric modulator of Hb-O2 affinity in the red cells) in four social and two solitary species of African mole rats (family Bathyergidae) originating from different biomes and soil types across Central and Southern Africa...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837599/hsf-1-is-a-regulator-of-mirna-expression-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#15
Jessica Brunquell, Alana Snyder, Feng Cheng, Sandy D Westerheide
The ability of an organism to sense and adapt to environmental stressors is essential for proteome maintenance and survival. The highly conserved heat shock response is a survival mechanism employed by all organisms, including the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, upon exposure to environmental extremes. Transcriptional control of the metazoan heat shock response is mediated by the heat shock transcription factor HSF-1. In addition to regulating global stress-responsive genes to promote stress-resistance and survival, HSF-1 has recently been shown to regulate stress-independent functions in controlling development, metabolism, and longevity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797827/interaction-between-mtor-pathway-inhibition-and-autophagy-induction-attenuates-adriamycin-induced-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-senescence-through-decreased-expressions-of-p53-p21-p16
#16
Jin Young Sung, Kyung Young Lee, Jae-Ryong Kim, Hyoung Chul Choi
Cellular senescence is related to aging and extremely stable proliferative arrest with active metabolism. Senescent cells can activate mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, which plays a crucial role in the regulation of cell metabolism, cellular growth, and autophagy in senescence-associated cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, we examined whether mTOR pathway could induce cellular senescence by inhibition of autophagy in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). We found that adriamycin-induced VSMC senescence is accompanied by increased activity of mTOR, a major controller of cell growth and a negative regulator of autophagy...
August 7, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753971/spatio-temporal-variation-of-longevity-clusters-and-the-influence-of-social-development-level-on-lifespan-in-a-chinese-longevous-area-1982-2010
#17
Jian Qin, Guoqi Yu, Tianlong Xia, You Li, Xue Liang, Peng Wei, Bingshuang Long, Mingzhi Lei, Xiao Wei, Xianyan Tang, Zhiyong Zhang
The study aims to determine the spatial and temporal variation of a longevous region and explore the correlation between longevity and socioeconomic development. Population data at the township level were obtained from the last four population censuses (1982-2010). Five main lifespan indicators and the Human Development Index (HDI) were calculated. Getis-Ord G*, Gravity modeling, and Pearson's r between lifespan indicators and HDI were applied. In this study, a stable longevous gathering area was discovered in Hechi during different periods...
July 19, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734548/ubiquitin-like-modifications-in-the-dna-damage-response
#18
REVIEW
Zhifeng Wang, Wei-Guo Zhu, Xingzhi Xu
Genomic DNA is damaged at an extremely high frequency by both endogenous and environmental factors. An improper response to DNA damage can lead to genome instability, accelerate the aging process and ultimately cause various human diseases, including cancers and neurodegenerative disorders. The mechanisms that underlie the cellular DNA damage response (DDR) are complex and are regulated at many levels, including at the level of post-translational modification (PTM). Since the discovery of ubiquitin in 1975 and ubiquitylation as a form of PTM in the early 1980s, a number of ubiquitin-like modifiers (UBLs) have been identified, including small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMOs), neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated 8 (NEDD8), interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15), human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-F adjacent transcript 10 (FAT10), ubiquitin-fold modifier 1 (UFRM1), URM1 ubiquitin-related modifier-1 (URM1), autophagy-related protein 12 (ATG12), autophagy-related protein 8 (ATG8), fan ubiquitin-like protein 1 (FUB1) and histone mono-ubiquitylation 1 (HUB1)...
October 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707767/if-why-and-when-subjective-well-being-influences-health-and-future-needed-research
#19
Ed Diener, Sarah D Pressman, John Hunter, Desiree Delgadillo-Chase
We review evidence on whether subjective well-being (SWB) can influence health, why it might do so, and what we know about the conditions where this is more or less likely to occur. This review also explores how various methodological approaches inform the study of the connections between subjective well-being and health and longevity outcomes. Our review of this growing literature indicates areas where data are substantial and where much more research is needed. We conclude that SWB can sometimes influence health, and review a number of reasons why it does so...
July 2017: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699149/is-the-clavicula-pro-humero-technique-of-value-for-reconstruction-after-resection-of-the-proximal-humerus-in-children
#20
Dominique Barbier, Benoît De Billy, Philippe Gicquel, Sophie Bourelle, Pierre Journeau
BACKGROUND: There are several options for reconstruction of proximal humerus resections after wide resection for malignant tumors in children. The clavicula pro humero technique is a biologic option that has been used in the past, but there are only scant case reports and small series that comment on the results of the procedure. Because the longevity of children mandates a reconstruction with potential longevity not likely to be achieved by other techniques, the clavicula pro humero technique may be a potential option in selected patients...
October 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
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