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Extreme longevity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179180/developing-a-3-choice-serial-reaction-time-task-for-examining-neural-and-cognitive-function-in-an-equine-model
#1
Kirsty Roberts, Andrew J Hemmings, Sebastian D McBride, Matthew O Parker
BACKGROUND: Large animal models of human neurological disorders are advantageous compared to rodent models due to their neuroanatomical complexity, longevity and their ability to be maintained in naturalised environments. Some large animal models spontaneously develop behaviours that closely resemble the symptoms of neural and psychiatric disorders. The horse is an example of this; the domestic form of this species consistently develops spontaneous stereotypic behaviours akin to the compulsive and impulsive behaviours observed in human neurological disorders such as Tourette's syndrome...
February 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152418/variation-of-desiccation-tolerance-and-longevity-in-fern-spores
#2
Daniel Ballesteros, Lisa M Hill, Christina Walters
This work contributes to the understanding of plant cell responses to extreme water stress when it is applied at different intensity and duration. Fern spores are used to explore survival at relative humidity (RH)<85% because their unicellular nature eliminates complexities that may arise in multicellular organisms from slower drying and variable responses of different cell types. Fern spore cytoplasm solidifies between 30 and 60% RH and spores survive this transition, but subsequently lose viability. We characterized the kinetics of viability loss in terms of the fluid to solid transition using concepts of water activity (i...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143747/limitations-and-risks-of-meta-analyses-of-longevity-studies
#3
Paola Sebastiani, Harold Bae, Anastasia Gurinovich, Mette Soerensen, Annibale Puca, Thomas T Perls
Searching for genetic determinants of human longevity has been challenged by the rarity of data sets with large numbers of individuals who have reached extreme old age, inconsistent definitions of the phenotype, and the difficulty of defining appropriate controls. Meta-analysis - a statistical method to summarize results from different studies - has become a common tool in genetic epidemiology to accrue large sample sizes for powerful genetic association studies. In conducting a meta-analysis of studies of human longevity however, particular attention must be made to the definition of cases and controls (including their health status) and on the effect of possible confounders such as sex and ethnicity upon the genetic effect to be estimated...
January 28, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28136131/is-marathon-running-toxic-an-observational-study-of-cardiovascular-disease-prevalence-and-longevity-in-54-male-marathon-runners
#4
Benjamin Rosin
OBJECTIVES: Recent literature suggests reduced benefits associated with high intensity (HIT) and or sustained intensity exercise training (SIT). While important, they tend to contrast with other studies of HIT and SIT and may not be representative of all individuals wishing to participate in activities such as marathon running. The purpose of this observational report is to describe a 45-year history of 54 long distance runners, their incidence of death from cardiovascular disease and their ages at death compared to the normal population...
January 30, 2017: Physician and Sportsmedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120808/pigmentation-and-fitness-trade-offs-through-the-lens-of-artificial-selection
#5
Subhash Rajpurohit, Rani Richardson, John Dean, Raul Vazquez, Grace Wong, Paul S Schmidt
Pigmentation is a classic phenotype that varies widely and adaptively in nature both within and among taxa. Genes underlying pigmentation phenotype are highly pleiotropic, creating the potential for functional trade-offs. However, the basic tenets of this trade-off hypothesis with respect to life-history traits have not been directly addressed. In natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster, the degree of melanin pigmentation covaries with fecundity and several other fitness traits. To examine correlations and potential trade-offs associated with variation in pigmentation, we selected replicate outbred populations for extreme pigmentation phenotypes...
October 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110287/aspirin-to-inhibit-sepsis-antisepsis-randomised-controlled-trial-protocol
#6
Damon P Eisen, Elizabeth M Moore, Karin Leder, Jessica Lockery, Emma S McBryde, John J McNeil, David Pilcher, Rory Wolfe, Robyn L Woods
INTRODUCTION: Sepsis is a leading global cause of morbidity and mortality, and is more common at the extremes of age. Moreover, the cost of in-hospital care for elderly patients with sepsis is significant. There are indications from experimental and observational studies that aspirin may reduce inflammation associated with infection. This paper describes the rationale and design of the AspiriN To Inhibit SEPSIS (ANTISEPSIS) trial, a substudy of ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE)...
January 20, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087396/influence-of-coronal-bowing-on-the-lower-alignment-and-the-positioning-of-component-in-navigation-and-conventional-total-knee-arthroplasty
#7
Hideo Kobayashi, Yasushi Akamatsu, Ken Kumagai, Yoshihiro Kusayama, Masato Aratake, Tomoyuki Saito
BACKGROUND: Coronal alignment is an important factor for the function and longevity of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Coronal bowing of the lower extremity is common among Asians and it may pose a risk for malalignment of the lower leg and malposition of component. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that coronal bowing itself has a risk for malalignment of the lower leg and malposition of femoral / tibial components and that navigation TKA is beneficial for patients with coronal bowing...
January 10, 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060797/t-memory-stem-cells-in-health-and-disease
#8
REVIEW
Luca Gattinoni, Daniel E Speiser, Mathias Lichterfeld, Chiara Bonini
T memory stem (TSCM) cells are a rare subset of memory lymphocytes endowed with the stem cell-like ability to self-renew and the multipotent capacity to reconstitute the entire spectrum of memory and effector T cell subsets. Cumulative evidence in mice, nonhuman primates and humans indicates that TSCM cells are minimally differentiated cells at the apex of the hierarchical system of memory T lymphocytes. Here we describe emerging findings demonstrating that TSCM cells, owing to their extreme longevity and robust potential for immune reconstitution, are central players in many physiological and pathological human processes...
January 6, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939534/linear-and-nonlinear-genetic-relationships-between-type-traits-and-productive-life-in-us-dairy-goats
#9
V J Castañeda-Bustos, H H Montaldo, M Valencia-Posadas, L Shepard, S Pérez-Elizalde, O Hernández-Mendo, G Torres-Hernández
Linear or nonlinear genetic relationships between productive life and functional productive life at 72 mo, with final score (SCO), stature, strength, dairyness (DAI), teat diameter, rear legs (side view), rump angle, rump width (RUW), fore udder attachment (FUA), rear udder height, rear udder arch, udder depth (UDD), suspensory ligament (SUS), and teat placement, as well as heritabilities and correlations were estimated from multibreed US dairy goat records. Productive life was defined as the total days in production until 72 mo of age (PL72) for goats having the opportunity to express the trait...
February 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932301/gh-igf-i-insulin-system-in-centenarians
#10
REVIEW
Giovanni Vitale, Michelangela Barbieri, Marina Kamenetskaya, Giuseppe Paolisso
The endocrine system plays a major role in the regulation of several biological activity and in the ageing process. Evolutionary conservation of GH/IGF-I/insulin pathway from worms to mice and similarities in this system between mice and humans raised expectations that downregulated activity of the GH/IGF-I/insulin pathway could be beneficial for the extension of human life span. Centenarians represent the best example of successful ageing having reached the very extremes of the human life span, escaping and delaying the occurrence of several fatal age-related diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases...
December 5, 2016: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914849/age-related-variations-of-muscle-mass-strength-and-physical-performance-in-community-dwellers-results-from-the-milan-expo-survey
#11
Francesco Landi, Riccardo Calvani, Matteo Tosato, Anna Maria Martone, Domenico Fusco, Alex Sisto, Elena Ortolani, Giulia Savera, Sara Salini, Emanuele Marzetti
OBJECTIVES: Declining muscle mass and function are hallmarks of the aging process. The preservation of muscle trophism may protect against various negative health outcomes. Age- and sex-specific curves of muscle mass, strength, and function, using data from a large sample of community-dwelling people, are necessary. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two surveys (Longevity Check-up and Very Important Protein [VIP]), conducted during EXPO 2015 in Milan, consisted of a population assessment aimed at evaluating the prevalence of specific health metrics in subjects outside of a research setting (n = 3206), with a special focus on muscle mass, strength, and function...
January 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870990/memory-by-association-integrating-memories-prolongs-retention-by-two-year-olds
#12
Harlene Hayne, Julien Gross
Recalling one memory often leads to the recollection of other memories that share overlapping features. This phenomenon, spreading activation, was originally documented in studies conducted with verbal adults, and more recently, it has been demonstrated with preverbal infants. Here, we examine the effect of spreading activation on long-term retention by 2-year-olds. Participants were tested in the Visual Recognition Memory (VRM) paradigm and the deferred imitation paradigm. Typically, infants of this age exhibit retention in the VRM paradigm for 24h, while they exhibit retention in the deferred imitation paradigm for at least 8 weeks...
November 18, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867213/screening-for-a-chronic-disease-a-multiple-stage-duration-model-with-partial-observability
#13
Thomas A Mroz, Gabriel Picone, Frank Sloan, Arseniy P Yashkin
We estimate a dynamic multi-stage duration model to investigate how early detection of diabetes can delay the onset of lower extremity complications and death. We allow for partial observability of the disease stage, unmeasured heterogeneity, and endogenous timing of diabetes screening. Timely diagnosis appears important. We evaluate the effectiveness of two potential policies to reduce the monetary costs of frequent screening in terms of lost longevity. Compared to the status quo, the more restrictive policy yields an implicit value for an additional year of life of about $50,000, while the less restrictive policy implies a value of about $120,000...
August 2016: International Economic Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863375/h2o2-treatment-or-serum-deprivation-induces-autophagy-and-apoptosis-in-naked-mole-rat-skin-fibroblasts-by-inhibiting-the-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#14
Shanmin Zhao, Li Li, Shiyong Wang, Chenlin Yu, Bang Xiao, Lifang Lin, Wei Cong, Jishuai Cheng, Wenjing Yang, Wei Sun, Shufang Cui
Naked mole-rats (NMR; Heterocephalus glaber) display extreme longevity and resistance to cancer. Here, we examined whether autophagy contributes to the longevity of NMRs by assessing the effects of the PI3K/Akt pathway inhibitor LY294002 and the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) on autophagy and apoptosis in NMR skin fibroblasts. Serum starvation, H2O2 treatment, and LY294002 treatment all increased the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio and numbers of double-membraned autophagosomes and autophagic vacuoles, and decreased levels of p70S6K, p-AktSer473, and p-AktThr308...
November 12, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861586/plastic-responses-contribute-to-explaining-altitudinal-and-temporal-variation-in-potential-flower-longevity-in-high-andean-rhodolirion-montanum
#15
Diego Andrés Pacheco, Leah S Dudley, Josefina Cabezas, Lohengrin A Cavieres, Mary T K Arroyo
The tendency for flower longevity to increase with altitude is believed by many alpine ecologists to play an important role in compensating for low pollination rates at high altitudes due to cold and variable weather conditions. However, current studies documenting an altitudinal increase in flower longevity in the alpine habitat derive principally from studies on open-pollinated flowers where lower pollinator visitation rates at higher altitudes will tend to lead to flower senescence later in the life-span of a flower in comparison with lower altitudes, and thus could confound the real altitudinal pattern in a species´ potential flower longevity...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832764/blood-mirnomes-and-transcriptomes-reveal-novel-longevity-mechanisms-in-the-long-lived-bat-myotis-myotis
#16
Zixia Huang, David Jebb, Emma C Teeling
BACKGROUND: Chiroptera, the bats, are the only order of mammals capable of true self-powered flight. Bats exhibit a number of other exceptional traits such as echolocation, viral tolerance and, perhaps most puzzlingly, extreme longevity given their body size. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms driving their extended longevity particularly at the levels of gene expression and post-transcriptional regulation. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms that may underlie their unusual longevity, we have deep sequenced 246...
November 10, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818232/the-genetics-of-exceptional-longevity-identifies-new-druggable-targets-for-vascular-protection-and-repair
#17
REVIEW
Annibale A Puca, Gaia Spinetti, Rosa Vono, Carmine Vecchione, Paolo Madeddu
Therapeutic angiogenesis is a relatively new medical strategy in the field of cardiovascular diseases. The underpinning concept is that angiogenic growth factors or proangiogenic cells could be exploited therapeutically in cardiovascular patients to enhance native revascularization responses to an ischemic insult, thereby accelerating tissue healing. The initial enthusiasm generated by preclinical studies has been tempered by the modest success of clinical trials assessing therapeutic angiogenesis. Similarly, proangiogenic cell therapy has so far not maintained the original promises...
December 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720058/facultative-social-insects-can-provide-insights-into-the-reversal-of-the-longevity-fecundity-trade-off-across-the-eusocial-insects
#18
Alice Séguret, Abel Bernadou, Robert J Paxton
In eusocial insects, reversal of the fecundity/longevity trade-off and extreme differences in life histories between castes of the same species garner scientific and public interest. Facultative social species at the threshold of sociality, in which individuals are socially plastic, provide an excellent opportunity to understand the causes and mechanisms underlying this reversal in life history trade-off associated with eusociality. We briefly present the ultimate factors favoring sociality and the association between fecundity and longevity in facultative eusocial insects, including kin selection and disposable soma, as well as proximate mechanisms observed in such species, such as differences in hormone titers and functions...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720053/a-critical-look-at-proximate-causes-of-social-insect-senescence-damage-accumulation-or-hyperfunction
#19
Jane de Verges, Volker Nehring
Social insects have received attention for their extreme lifespan variation and reversal of the fecundity/longevity trade-off. However, proximate causes of senescence in general are disputed, and social insects often fail to meet the predictions of prevailing models. We present evidence for and against the long-held free radical theory of aging in social insects, and consider the application of the competing hyperfunction theory. Current results present problems for both theories, and a more complex picture of the biological processes involved emerges...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720046/the-male-has-done-his-work-the-male-may-go
#20
Jürgen Heinze
Perennial social insects are famous for the extraordinary longevity of their queens. While the lifespan of termite kings matches those of queens, males of social Hymenoptera are usually considered to die after one or a few copulations. While this is true in species with highly synchronized nuptial flights, in others males mate over much longer periods. Male longevity is not correlated with the life span of queens but appears to be adapted to mating opportunities. This is demonstrated by the extreme life span of Cardiocondyla ant males, which monopolize mating with virgin queens over many months...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
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