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F Rincón, G Ros, M J Periago, C Martínez, F Ros
The influence of both the design of the product (formulated raw ingredients) and type of product (on the meat type formulated base) on the mineral composition, crude protein (CP), protein digestibility (PD), total dietary fiber (TDF) and phytic acid (FA) contents of meat-based infant beikosts was studied. The product design was the main factor determining the CP, TDF, Ca, Na and K contents, while the type of product was the main factor determining the PD, FA, Zn, Fe and Mn contents. High K and Mn levels were related to high TDF contents...
June 1996: Meat Science
J M Marugán de Miguelsanz, Maria C Torres Hinojal, Maria T Fernández Castaño, Maria C de Fuentes Acebes, Maria B Herrero Mendoza, Maria B Robles García
BACKGROUND: Growth reference charts should be periodically adapted to the population in which they will be applied, according to ethnic variation, secular growth change, and current feeding patterns. OBJECTIVE: To perform an anthropometric analysis of healthy contemporary infants aged 0-24 months and to compare the results with the most commonly used reference values. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed an observational, longitudinal and retrospective study of weight and length measured in the routine health checks of all infants born between 1998 and 2001 in the same Health Area and who received the infant formula beikost at a similar age...
April 2005: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
F Savino, L Zannino, A Laccisaglia, S Maccario, F Cresi, L Silvestro, G C Mussa
AIM: Timing the introduction of solids and milk formulas in infants' diet varies throughout the world. The aim of the present study was to assess the modalities of weaning, suggested by pediatricians in Piedmont, Italy, and to compare them to current scientific guidelines. METHODS: The survey was conducted using data recording forms sent to the pediatricians of our area (both practitioners and hospital physicians) from September 2000 to January 2001. Pediatricians were asked to fill in a questionnaire about the time of solid food introduction in the 1st year of life...
February 2004: Minerva Pediatrica
C J Gerrish, J A Mennella
BACKGROUND: Research in humans and animal models suggests that acceptance of solid foods by infants during weaning is enhanced by early experiences with flavor variety. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypotheses that the acceptance of novel foods by formula-fed infants could be facilitated by providing the infants with a variety of flavors at the time when beikost is first introduced and that, contrary to medical lore, infants who had previously consumed fruit would be less likely to reject vegetables when first introduced than would infants without such an experience...
June 2001: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
B L Gulson, K J Mizon, J M Palmer, N Patison, A J Law, M J Korsch, K R Mahaffey, J B Donnelly
As an adjunct to a study of lead mobilization during pregnancy and lactation, we have obtained estimates of the daily lead intake and excretion/intake for 15 newly born infants monitored for at least 6 months postpartum. The longitudinal data presented reflect the far lower levels of environmental contribution to lead in blood in the 1990's than that in the earlier studies from the 1970's and early 1980's, the last period for which such dietary information is available in newly born infants. Infants were breast-fed or formula-fed or both and, in the second quarter, were usually fed solid foods (beikost)...
March 2001: Environmental Research
S Fomon
The early years of the 20th century were notable for improvements in general sanitation, dairying practices and milk handling. Most infants were breast-fed, often with some formula feeding as well. Availability of the home icebox permitted safe storage of milk and infant formula, and by the 1920s, feeding of orange juice and cod liver oil greatly decreased the incidence of scurvy and rickets. Use of evaporated milk for formula preparation decreased bacterial contamination and curd tension of infant formulas...
February 2001: Journal of Nutrition
W Sichert-Hellert, M Kersting, G Schöch
Since the 1980s, fortified food plays an increasing role in food marketing in Germany. However, there is a lack of data concerning fortified food consumption. We therefore evaluated dietary information of the DONALD Study. A total of 2251 3-days weighed records between 1986 and 1996 from 637 different subjects aged between 2 and 14 years (mean: 6.6 years) were evaluated. Food products were defined as fortified if enriched at least with one of the following nutrients: vitamin A (including provitamin A carotenoids), E, B1, B2, B6, C, niacin, folate, calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron or phosphate...
January 1999: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
M Kersting, U Alexy, W Sichert-Hellert, F Manz, G Schöch
BACKGROUND: Commercial food products intended for infants form an important part of the diet. Such products are defined as special dietetic food by food legislation. However, quantitative consumption data in the context of the current European Community (EC) food regulations have not been available up to now. METHODS: Six hundred eighty 3-day weighed diet records from 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month-old infants involved in the DONALD (Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometrical Longitudinally Designed) Study were evaluated regarding overall and individual consumption of commercial infant food (CIF)...
November 1998: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
U Alexy, M Kersting, W Sichert-Hellert, F Manz, G Schöch
Recently, new estimations of the energy requirements of infants and children were proposed as a basis of new FAO/ WHO energy requirements. We have compared the energy intake of 354 healthy, well-nourished infants taking part in the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinal Designed Study (3-day-weighted diet records) with these new estimated energy requirements. The energy intake of breast-fed and formula-fed infants and the energy intake of the 1- to 3-year-old children in the study population corresponded well with the new estimated energy requirements, although these were considerably lower than the 1985 FAO/WHO energy requirements...
1998: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
P Raupp, G Poss, R von Kries, E Schmidt
At discharge from hospital, 36 preterm infants (birthweight < 1,800 g) were randomized to be given either a standard formula or an identical formula enriched with calcium (47 vs. 80 mg/100 ml) and phosphorus (30 vs. 45 mg/100 ml) exclusively until they reached a corrected age of 3 months, thereafter beikost and other formulas were introduced into the diet. Weight, head circumference and radial and body length were measured and radial bone mineral content (BMC) and bone width (BW) determined by single photon absorptiometry at discharge, at 3 and at 6 months of corrected age...
1997: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
J Ortuño, G Ros, M J Periago, C Martínez, G López, J Rodrigo
Selenium (Se) concentration in 13 homogenised beikosts ("any additional food used in infant nutrition different from human milk and formulas") was investigated, as well as the influence of ingredients on Se concentration in three beikost types (meat, vegetables and fish). Levels of Se varied widely, ranging from 20 micrograms/kg d.w. for mixed vegetables to 258 micrograms/kg d.w. for hake with rice. These values increased as high-protein ingredients (meat or fish) were included. Fish-based beikosts showed the highest contribution of Se, covering more than 50% of the RDA in the USA for infants from 6 to 12 months old...
April 1997: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
S A Abrams, J Wen, J E Stuff
Data are scarce regarding mineral bioavailability from human milk in older infants who may also be receiving solid foods (beikost). We measured the absorption of Ca, Zn, and Fe in 14 healthy, nonanemic 5-7-mo-old breast-fed infants whose mothers milk was extrinsically labeled with stable isotopes (44Ca, 70Zn, and 58Fe) of these minerals. In addition, Ca and Zn stable isotopes (46Ca and 67Zn) were administered i.v., and a second isotope of Fe (57Fe) was given orally without food as a non-meal dose. Subjects were not receiving any artificial infant formula or cow's milk, but most (10/14) were receiving beikost...
March 1997: Pediatric Research
J Ferrís i Tortajada, J A López Andreu, M C Benedito Monleón, J García i Castell
Cancer has been associated to well-defined risk factors. Nutritional factors and tobacco are the most important causes of cancer deaths. Prevention should be based on health education. Beikost guidelines should be the early step to implement a healthy diet. American Cancer Society, US Department of Health and Human Services, and the National Academy of Sciences recommendations are analyzed. Recommendations include maintain a desirable body weight, eat a varied diet, include a variety of both vegetable and fruits, eat more high fiber foods, cutdown on total fat intake, limit consumption of alcoholic beverages, salt-cured, smoked and nitrite-cured foods...
July 1996: Anales Españoles de Pediatría
E Rossipal, B Tiran
Serum selenium values were investigated in 56 formula-fed and in 18 wholly breast-fed infants. In 14 of these infants, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) was also investigated. Determination of selenium and GSH-Px was also done in umbilical cord blood of seven healthy newborns. In another 109 infants aged 1-15 yr, serum selenium values were investigated. A continuous fall of serum selenium values was noted in the first 3 mo of life. Low levels continued until the age of 6 mo with a mean of 36% of the umbilical cord vein level...
September 1995: Nutrition
F Haschke, H Vanura, C Male, G Owen, B Pietschnig, E Schuster, E Krobath, C Huemer
Feeding of iron (Fe)-fortified (12-15 mg/L) infant formulas is an effective and convenient means to protect infants from Fe deficiency. To study lower levels of Fe fortification of infant formulas (3 or 6 mg/L) compared with those currently in use, we compared Fe intake and Fe nutritional status of three groups of healthy, term infants between 90 and 274 days of age. One group received an Fe-fortified whey-predominant formula (3 mg/L) and the second group received the same formula with a higher Fe level (6 mg/L)...
February 1993: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
F Martínez Paiva, A M García Rodríguez
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the feeding habits used for nursing children in the Llerena Health Area (Badajoz). DESIGN: A descriptive and inferential study, using questionnaires given to the mothers. SETTING: Schools chosen at random from the eight health districts which make up the above-stated Health Area. PATIENTS AND OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Mothers (N = 369) of school-children in the first to eighth years of EGB (basic) for the 1991-2 school year...
October 15, 1994: Atencion Primaria
R Di Toro
Follow-on formulae are recommended as part of the liquid intake of the weaning diet for infants from 6 months on and children aged 12-36 months. The amount of energy and nutrients absorbed by infants from Beikost and milk differs enormously depending on a number of factors and therefore the recommended composition of follow-on formulae varies accordingly. In the future a greater understanding of the nutritional needs of infants and the possibility of choosing between high- or low-protein content formulae may provide infants with a better balanced diet...
September 1994: Acta Paediatrica. Supplement
O Tönz, U Schwaninger
The term "artificial feeding" includes a) the various infant formulas (including homemade formulas) substituting or supplementing mother's milk; b) the so-called "Beikost", i.e. minor additions to mothers milk or formula, such as fruit juices, fruit, meat and eggs; c) solid foods replacing part of the liquid food after a few weeks or months (weaning food). The use of these preparations in no- or partially-breastfed infants was studied and correlated with various socioeconomic parameters. The most striking observations were (1) during the first three months a decline in homemade formulas in favour of adapted readymade preparations; (2) a reduction in milk-cereal preparations with an increase in the use of yoghurt...
October 18, 1980: Schweizerische Medizinische Wochenschrift
E M Andrew, K L Clancy, M G Katz
A survey of the infant feeding practices of 270 families who belonged to a prepaid medical insurance program revealed extensive use of commercially prepared infant formulas during the first months of life, introduction of beikost before 3 months of age and introduction of cow milk into the diet at 3 to 5 months. Ethnic, as well as socioeconomic differences, were observed in the use of milks and formulas, timing of introduction of beikost, and method of feeding solid foods. Average calorie intakes approached or were greater than the recommended dietary allowances...
May 1980: Pediatrics
E M Andrew, K L Clancy, M G Katz
Sources of kilocalories in the diet of 270 infants from birth to 1 year were examined. Introduction of beikost was rapid: 27 percent of kilocalories in the diet of 2-month-old infants was provided by foods other than milk or formula. Table foods contributed very little to caloric intakes of children less than 5 months of age. Commercially prepared baby foods were the predominant form of beikost given, except to infants in the 9 to 12 months age group. Use of junior foods steadily increased during the first year; by the age of 9 to 12 months, half of the kilocalories from strained and junior foods were provided by junior foods...
August 1981: Journal of the American Dietetic Association
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