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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542493/the-in-vivo-structure-of-biological-membranes-and-evidence-for-lipid-domains
#1
Jonathan D Nickels, Sneha Chatterjee, Christopher B Stanley, Shuo Qian, Xiaolin Cheng, Dean A A Myles, Robert F Standaert, James G Elkins, John Katsaras
Examining the fundamental structure and processes of living cells at the nanoscale poses a unique analytical challenge, as cells are dynamic, chemically diverse, and fragile. A case in point is the cell membrane, which is too small to be seen directly with optical microscopy and provides little observational contrast for other methods. As a consequence, nanoscale characterization of the membrane has been performed ex vivo or in the presence of exogenous labels used to enhance contrast and impart specificity...
May 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538571/angiosome-based-allografts-vascularized-composite-allotransplantation-for-tailored-subunit-reconstruction-with-volkmann-ischemic-contracture-as-a-case-in-point
#2
G Ian Taylor, David S Sparks, Adam C Gascoigne, Russell J Corlett, Mark W Ashton
BACKGROUND: As we enter an age with new approaches to tissue reconstruction, the emphasis on the adage "like for like" has become even more relevant. This study illustrates the potential for several tailored vascularized composite allotransplantation reconstructive techniques and, in particular, for the management of Volkmann contracture. METHODS: Twenty fresh cadaver dissections and 30 archival lead oxide radiographic studies were examined to (1) identify potential upper limb vascularized composite allotransplantation donor sites (i...
June 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512076/considering-the-public-in-public-health-popular-resistance-to-the-smallpox-eradication-programme-in-india
#3
Luke Juran, Jennifer Trivedi, Korine N Kolivras
Public health initiatives, including large-scale vaccination and disease eradication programmes, regularly pit the rights of the individual against broader benefits to society. At times, the public resists such initiatives, with the World Health Organisation's Smallpox Eradication Programme (SEP) in India being a case in point. Here, we critically investigate resistance to smallpox vaccines in India and argue that while the SEP successfully eradicated a global killer; individuals were stripped of human rights through coercion, forcible vaccination and quarantine...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504522/the-construct-behavior-gap-in-behavioral-decision-research-a-challenge-beyond-replicability
#4
Michel Regenwetter, Maria M Robinson
Behavioral decision research compares theoretical constructs like preferences to behavior such as observed choices. Three fairly common links from constructs to behavior are (1) to tally, across participants and decision problems, the number of choices consistent with one predicted pattern of pairwise preferences; (2) to compare what most people choose in each decision problem against a predicted preference pattern; or (3) to enumerate the decision problems in which two experimental conditions generate a 1-sided significant difference in choice frequency 'consistent' with the theory...
May 15, 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500994/salt-tolerance-mechanisms-induced-in-stevia-rebaudiana-bertoni-effects-on-mineral-nutrition-antioxidative-metabolism-and-steviol-glycoside-content
#5
Daniel Cantabella, Abel Piqueras, José Ramón Acosta-Motos, Agustina Bernal-Vicente, José A Hernández, Pedro Díaz-Vivancos
In order to cope with challenges linked to climate change such as salinity, plants must develop a wide spectrum of physiological and molecular mechanisms to rapidly adapt. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni plants are a case in point. According to our findings, salt stress has no significant effect on plant growth in these plants, which accumulate sodium (Na(+)) in their roots, thus avoiding excessive Na(+) accumulation in leaves. Furthermore, salt stress (NaCl stress) increases the potassium (K(+)), calcium (Ca(2+)), chloride ion (Cl(-)) and proline concentrations in Stevia leaves, which could contribute to osmotic adjustment...
April 26, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495495/translating-in-vitro-ligand-bias-into-in-vivo-efficacy
#6
REVIEW
Louis M Luttrell, Stuart Maudsley, Diane Gesty-Palmer
It is increasingly apparent that ligand structure influences both the efficiency with which G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) engage their downstream effectors and the manner in which they are activated. Thus, 'biased' agonists, synthetic ligands whose intrinsic efficacy differs from the native ligand, afford a strategy for manipulating GPCR signaling in ways that promote beneficial signals while blocking potentially deleterious ones. Still, there are significant challenges in relating in vitro ligand efficacy, which is typically measured in heterologous expression systems, to the biological response in vivo, where the ligand is acting on natively expressed receptors and in the presence of the endogenous ligand...
May 7, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446651/how-small-can-the-epileptogenic-region-be-a-case-in-point
#7
Graeme D Jackson, Mangor Pedersen, A Simon Harvey
OBJECTIVE: To present a case that demonstrates that seizures and interictal disturbances can be driven by a small area of functionally abnormal cortex. METHODS: Two novel functional MRI network analysis methods were used to supplement conventional seizure and lesion localization methods: (1) regional homogeneity to quantify local connectivity, or synchrony, with a resolution of less than 1 cm(3) of cortex; and (2) small-worldness to combine information about whole brain network segregation and integration...
April 26, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441712/virus-based-devices-prospects-for-allopoiesis
#8
Bogdan Dragnea
The assembly line is a commonly invoked example of allopoiesis, the process whereby a system produces a different system than itself. In this sense, virus production in plants is an instance of bio-enabled bottom-up allopoiesis because the plant host can be regarded as a programmable assembly line for the virus. Reprogramming this assembly line and integrating it into a larger lineup of chemical manipulations has seen a flurry of activity recently, with more sophisticated systems emerging every year. The field of virus nanomaterials now has several subdisciplines that focus on virus shells as assemblers, scaffolds for molecular circuitry, chemical reactors, magnetic and photonic beacons, and therapeutic carriers...
April 25, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439451/automated-identification-of-insect-vectors-of-chagas-disease-in-brazil-and-mexico-the-virtual-vector-lab
#9
Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves, Ed Komp, Lindsay P Campbell, Ali Khalighifar, Jarrett Mellenbruch, Vagner José Mendonça, Hannah L Owens, Keynes de la Cruz Felix, A Townsend Peterson, Janine M Ramsey
Identification of arthropods important in disease transmission is a crucial, yet difficult, task that can demand considerable training and experience. An important case in point is that of the 150+ species of Triatominae, vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, causative agent of Chagas disease across the Americas. We present a fully automated system that is able to identify triatomine bugs from Mexico and Brazil with an accuracy consistently above 80%, and with considerable potential for further improvement. The system processes digital photographs from a photo apparatus into landmarks, and uses ratios of measurements among those landmarks, as well as (in a preliminary exploration) two measurements that approximate aspects of coloration, as the basis for classification...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374772/localised-residency-and-inter-annual-fidelity-to-coastal-foraging-areas-may-place-sea-bass-at-risk-to-local-depletion
#10
Thomas K Doyle, Damien Haberlin, Jim Clohessy, Ashley Bennison, Mark Jessopp
For many marine migratory fish, comparatively little is known about the movement of individuals rather than the population. Yet, such individual-based movement data is vitally important to understand variability in migratory strategies and fidelity to foraging locations. A case in point is the economically important European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) that inhabits coastal waters during the summer months before migrating offshore to spawn and overwinter. Beyond this broad generalisation we have very limited information on the movements of individuals at coastal foraging grounds...
April 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351451/suicide-attempts-among-the-elderly-in-east-asia
#11
Guk-Hee Suh, Lina Gega
Among the one million suicide deaths worldwide each year, as many as 60% occur in Asia. The World Health Organization (WHO) found higher suicide rates among the elderly in rapidly industrialized Asian countries such as China, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, and Singapore, compared to the corresponding rates of recently industrializing Asian countries like Vietnam and Sri Lanka (WHO, 2014). As a case in point, suicide rates in South Korea have been the highest in the world since 2003 and are rising especially among older people (Hong and Knapp, 2014)...
May 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335827/management-of-acute-respiratory-diseases-in-the-pediatric-population-the-role-of-oral-corticosteroids
#12
REVIEW
Renato Cutrera, Eugenio Baraldi, Luciana Indinnimeo, Michele Miraglia Del Giudice, Giorgio Piacentini, Francesco Scaglione, Nicola Ullmann, Laura Moschino, Francesca Galdo, Marzia Duse
Respiratory diseases account for about 25% of all pediatric consultations, and 10% of these are for asthma. The other main pediatric respiratory diseases, in terms of incidence, are bronchiolitis, acute bronchitis and respiratory infections. Oral corticosteroids, in particular prednisolone, are often used to treat acute respiratory diseases given their anti-inflammatory effects. However, the efficacy of treatment with oral corticosteroids differs among the various types of pediatric respiratory diseases. Notably, also the adverse effects of corticosteroid treatment can differ depending on dosage, duration of treatment and type of corticosteroid administered - a case in point being growth retardation in long-course treatment...
March 23, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314574/apol1-a-case-in-point-for-replacing-race-with-genetics
#13
Girish N Nadkarni, Christina M Wyatt, Barbara Murphy, Michael J Ross
Ethnicity-specific differences in apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) polymorphisms are associated with racial disparities in kidney transplantation outcomes. APOL1 genotyping may better help define graft outcome risk pre-transplantation; however, more research is needed.
April 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259152/should-chemoprophylaxis-be-a-main-strategy-for-preventing-re-introduction-of-malaria-in-highly-receptive-areas-sri-lanka-a-case-in-point
#14
A Rajitha Wickremasinghe, Renu Wickremasinghe, Hemantha D B Herath, S Deepika Fernando
BACKGROUND: Imported malaria cases continue to be reported in Sri Lanka, which was declared 'malaria-free' by the World Health Organization in September 2016. Chemoprophylaxis, a recommended strategy for malaria prevention for visitors travelling to malaria-endemic countries from Sri Lanka is available free of charge. The strategy of providing chemoprophylaxis to visitors to a neighbouring malaria-endemic country within the perspective of a country that has successfully eliminated malaria but is highly receptive was assessed, taking Sri Lanka as a case in point...
March 4, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251058/aspirations-and-the-subjective-future-of-migration-comparing-views-and-desires-of-the-time-ahead-through-the-narratives-of-immigrant-domestic-workers
#15
Paolo Boccagni
Migrants' aspirations are a meaningful and under-appreciated research subject. My paper investigates their development and implications over the life course, building on an archive of life stories of immigrant domestic workers in Italy. It dissects the biographical bases of aspirations as ways of cultivating open representations of the future; hence, as a window on migrants' potential to shape the future itself, given their assets, the external structure of opportunities and the relational fields in which they are embedded...
2017: Comparative Migration Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224293/health-without-care-vulnerability-medical-brain-drain-and-health-worker-responsibilities-in-underserved-contexts
#16
Yusuf Yuksekdag
There is a consensus that the effects of medical brain drain, especially in the Sub-Saharan African countries, ought to be perceived as more than a simple misfortune. Temporary restrictions on the emigration of health workers from the region is one of the already existing policy measures to tackle the issue-while such a restrictive measure brings about the need for quite a justificatory work. A recent normative contribution to the debate by Gillian Brock provides a fruitful starting point. In the first step of her defence of emigration restrictions, Brock provides three reasons why skilled workers themselves would hold responsibilities to assist with respect to vital needs of their compatriots...
February 21, 2017: Health Care Analysis: HCA: Journal of Health Philosophy and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219729/basing-assessment-and-treatment-of-problem-behavior-on-behavioral-momentum-theory-analyses-of-behavioral-persistence
#17
REVIEW
Kelly M Schieltz, David P Wacker, Joel E Ringdahl, Wendy K Berg
The connection, or bridge, between applied and basic behavior analysis has been long-established (Hake, 1982; Mace & Critchfield, 2010). In this article, we describe how clinical decisions can be based more directly on behavioral processes and how basing clinical procedures on behavioral processes can lead to improved clinical outcomes. As a case in point, we describe how applied behavior analyses of maintenance, and specifically the long-term maintenance of treatment effects related to problem behavior, can be adjusted and potentially enhanced by basing treatment on Behavioral Momentum Theory...
February 17, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218831/new-possibilities-for-magnetic-control-of-chemical-and-biochemical-reactions
#18
Anatoly Buchachenko, Ronald G Lawler
Chemistry is controlled by Coulomb energy; magnetic energy is lower by many orders of magnitude and may be confidently ignored in the energy balance of chemical reactions. The situation becomes less clear, however, when reaction rates are considered. In this case, magnetic perturbations of nearly degenerate energy surface crossings may produce observable, and sometimes even dramatic, effects on reactions rates, product yields, and spectroscopic transitions. A case in point that has been studied for nearly five decades is electron spin-selective chemistry via the intermediacy of radical pairs...
February 20, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217109/e-coli-group-1-capsular-polysaccharide-exportation-nanomachinary-as-a-plausible-antivirulence-target-in-the-perspective-of-emerging-antimicrobial-resistance
#19
REVIEW
Shivangi Sachdeva, Raghuvamsi V Palur, Karpagam U Sudhakar, Thenmalarchelvi Rathinavelan
Bacteria evolving resistance against the action of multiple drugs and its ability to disseminate the multidrug resistance trait(s) across various strains of the same bacteria or different bacterial species impose serious threat to public health. Evolution of such multidrug resistance is due to the fact that, most of the antibiotics target bacterial survival mechanisms which exert selective pressure on the bacteria and aids them to escape from the action of antibiotics. Nonetheless, targeting bacterial virulence strategies such as bacterial surface associated polysaccharides biosynthesis and their surface accumulation mechanisms may be an attractive strategy, as they impose less selective pressure on the bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215758/living-autobiographically-concepts-of-aging-and-artistic-expression-in-painting-and-modern-dance
#20
Mita Banerjee, Anita Wohlmann, Ralf Dahm
This article discusses the ways in which artists have incorporated or failed to incorporate the aging process of their bodies into their art. Using Russian ballet dancer Mikhail Baryshnikov and the French painter Claude Monet as cases in point, we explore situations in which physical changes brought about by aging compromises artists' ability to engage with their artistic medium. Connecting Monet's oeuvre and Baryshnikov's dance performances to life writing accounts, we draw on John Paul Eakin's concept of "living autobiographically": In this vein, life writing research does not only have to take into account concepts of identity as they emerge from life writing narratives, but it also needs to explore the somatic, corporeal and material dimensions of these narratives...
January 2017: Journal of Aging Studies
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