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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159677/not-all-sagittal-band-tears-come-with-extensor-instability-a-case-report-with-radiological-and-operative-correlation
#1
Shuo Li, Jeffrey J Brooks, Jubin Jacob, Ahmadreza Ghasemiesfe, Greg B Marrinan
The sagittal bands are a component of the extensor hood. They serve an important role in stabilizing the extensor tendon by forming a "check-rein" to radial-ulnar translation of the tendon over the metacarpal head, and extending the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint by virtue of attaching the extensor tendon to the palmar plate. Injury to the sagittal band is thought to cause extensor instability and subluxation to the contralateral side by disruption of this "check-rein" function, although recent evidence from cadaver studies suggests that ulnar sagittal band tear may be spared of extensor instability...
November 20, 2017: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150527/transcriptional-regulators-of-redox-balance-and-other-homeostatic-processes-with-the-potential-to-alter-neurodegenerative-disease-trajectory
#2
REVIEW
Scott W Burnside, Giles E Hardingham
Diverse neurodegenerative diseases share some common aspects to their pathology, with many showing evidence of disruption to the brain's numerous homeostatic processes. As such, imbalanced inflammatory status, glutamate dyshomeostasis, hypometabolism and oxidative stress are implicated in many disorders. That these pathological processes can influence each other both up- and downstream makes for a complicated picture, but means that successfully targeting one area may have an effect on others. This targeting requires an understanding of the mechanisms by which homeostasis is maintained during health, in order to uncover strategies to boost homeostasis in disease...
November 17, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126994/a-dual-promoter-gene-orchestrates-the-sucrose-coordinated-synthesis-of-starch-and-fructan
#3
Yunkai Jin, Mingliang Fei, Sara Rosenquist, Lu Jin, Suresh Gohil, Corine Sandström, Helena Olsson, Cecilia Persson, Anna-Stina Höglund, Gunnel Fransson, Ying Ruan, Per Åman, Christer Jansson, Chunlin Liu, Roger Andersson, Chuanxin Sun
Sequential carbohydrate synthesis is important for plant survival because it guarantees energy supplies for growth and development during plant ontogeny and reproduction. Starch and fructan are two important carbohydrates in many flowering plants and in human diets. Understanding this coordinated starch and fructan synthesis and unravelling how plants allocate photosynthates and prioritize different carbohydrate synthesis for survival could lead to improvements to cereals in agriculture for the purposes of greater food security and production quality...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071181/heparin-regulated-prodrug-type-macromolecular-theranostic-systems-for-cancer-therapy
#4
REVIEW
Huiyuan Wang, Cheol Moon, Meong Cheol Shin, Yaping Wang, Huining He, Victor C Yang, Yongzhuo Huang
Heparin is a kind of naturally occurring polymer with excellent biocompatibility and solubility. It is characterized by dense of negative charge, higher than any endogenous components. Heparin can bind with various cationic peptides and proteins, thereby providing a useful noncovalent linkage for building a drug delivery system. As a case in point, heparin/cell-penetrating peptides (CPP) interaction is strong, and remains stable in vivo. They can be used to modify different proteins, respectively, and subsequently, by simply mixing the modified proteins, a protein-protein conjugate can be form via the stable heparin/CPP linkage...
2017: Nanotheranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025262/discovery-of-a-turn-on-fluorescent-probe-for-myeloid-cell-leukemia-1-protein
#5
Tingting Liu, Yuqi Gao, Xiaomeng Zhang, Yichao Wan, Lupei Du, Hao Fang, Minyong Li
The environment-sensitive probe 2 with turn-on switch for Mcl-1 protein was developed herein. After careful evaluation, this small molecule fluorescent probe revealed a selective binding affinity with Mcl-1 protein with a Ki value of 2.6 μM and can be well applied to imaging Mcl-1 protein or detecting the cellular distribution of Mcl-1 protein inhibitors. Compared with other imaging approaches, such as the immunofluorescence and fluorescent protein-based techniques, this fluorescent method is rapid, convenient, and affordable, especially since a washing procedure is no longer needed...
November 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965244/cholinergic-behavior-state-dependent-mechanisms-of-neocortical-gain-control-a-neurocomputational-study
#6
J-Y Puigbò, G Maffei, I Herreros, M Ceresa, M A González Ballester, P F M J Verschure
The embodied mammalian brain evolved to adapt to an only partially known and knowable world. The adaptive labeling of the world is critically dependent on the neocortex which in turn is modulated by a range of subcortical systems such as the thalamus, ventral striatum, and the amygdala. A particular case in point is the learning paradigm of classical conditioning where acquired representations of states of the world such as sounds and visual features are associated with predefined discrete behavioral responses such as eye blinks and freezing...
September 30, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945744/relating-dynamic-brain-states-to-dynamic-machine-states-human-and-machine-solutions-to-the-speech-recognition-problem
#7
Cai Wingfield, Li Su, Xunying Liu, Chao Zhang, Phil Woodland, Andrew Thwaites, Elisabeth Fonteneau, William D Marslen-Wilson
There is widespread interest in the relationship between the neurobiological systems supporting human cognition and emerging computational systems capable of emulating these capacities. Human speech comprehension, poorly understood as a neurobiological process, is an important case in point. Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) systems with near-human levels of performance are now available, which provide a computationally explicit solution for the recognition of words in continuous speech. This research aims to bridge the gap between speech recognition processes in humans and machines, using novel multivariate techniques to compare incremental 'machine states', generated as the ASR analysis progresses over time, to the incremental 'brain states', measured using combined electro- and magneto-encephalography (EMEG), generated as the same inputs are heard by human listeners...
September 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875164/increasing-drought-in-jordan-climate-change-and-cascading-syrian-land-use-impacts-on-reducing-transboundary-flow
#8
Deepthi Rajsekhar, Steven M Gorelick
In countries where severe drought is an anticipated effect of climate change and in those that heavily depend on upstream nations for fresh water, the effect of drier conditions and consequent changes in the transboundary streamflow regime induced by anthropogenic interventions and disasters leads to uncertainty in regional water security. As a case in point, we analyze Jordan's surface water resources and agricultural water demand through 2100, considering the combined impacts of climate change and land-use change driven by the Syrian conflict...
August 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812828/how-the-spectre-of-societal-homogeneity-undermines-equitable-healthcare-for-refugees-comment-on-defining-and-acting-on-global-health-the-case-of-japan-and-the-refugee-crisis
#9
Oliver Razum, Judith Wenner, Kayvan Bozorgmehr
Recourse to a purported ideal of societal homogeneity has become common in the context of the refugee reception crisis - not only in Japan, as Leppold et al report, but also throughout Europe. Calls for societal homogeneity in Europe originate from populist movements as well as from some governments. Often, they go along with reduced social support for refugees and asylum seekers, for example in healthcare provision. The fundamental right to health is then reduced to a citizens' right, granted fully only to nationals...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790502/actin-up-in-the-nucleus-regulation-of-actin-structures-modulates-mesenchymal-stem-cell-differentiation
#10
Janet Rubin, Buer Sen
Stem cells respond to environmental signals that induce their differentiation to cells that make up specialized tissues and organs. Our laboratory has focused on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that supply bone osteoblasts and marrow adipocytes, an output that appears to be reciprocal. Case in point: exercise promotes osteogenesis and bone formation, and inhibits marrow adipose accrual. A mechanically induced signal pathway concentrating on preserving β-catenin also causes increased structure of the actin cytoskeleton, both of which inhibit adipogenesis...
2017: Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721724/addressing-the-environment-electrostatic-effect-on-ballistic-electron-transport-in-large-systems-a-qm-mm-negf-approach
#11
Gustavo T Feliciano, Carlos Sanz-Navarro, Mauricio Domingues Coutinho-Neto, Pablo Ordejón, Ralph H Scheicher, Alexandre Reily Rocha
The effects of the environment in nanoscopic materials can play a crucial role in device design. Particularly in biosensors, where the system is usually embedded in a solution, water and ions have to be taken into consideration in atomistic simulations of electronic transport for a realistic description of the system. In this work, we present a methodology that combines quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics methods (QM/MM) with the nonequilibrium Green's function framework to simulate the electronic transport properties of nanoscopic devices in the presence of solvents...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691835/agency-before-action-the-application-of-behavioral-activation-in-psychotherapy-with-persons-with-psychosis
#12
Ilanit Hasson-Ohayon, Nitzan Arnon-Ribenfeld, Jay A Hamm, Paul H Lysaker
Incorporating behavioral activation into psychotherapy with persons with psychosis requires adaptation in its conceptualization and application owing to special deficits in the self-experience. Persons with psychosis often experience a diminished or disorganized sense of self, and have deficits in coherently narrating the experience of the self and in the ability to make sense of how to take action and direct their own lives. Based on a metacognitive model of disability in psychosis, the current paper presents a therapy process of a woman coping with schizophrenia using Metacognitive Reflection and Insight Therapy (Lysaker and Dimaggio, 2014) in the framework of an intersubjective model for psychotherapy with persons with psychosis presented by Hasson-Ohayon, Kravetz, and Lysaker (2016a)...
September 2017: Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618240/omics-for-precious-rare-biosamples-characterization-of-ancient-human-hair-by-a-proteomic-approach
#13
Margaux Fresnais, Pascale Richardin, Marcela Sepúlveda, Emmanuelle Leize-Wagner, Armelle Charrié-Duhaut
Omics technologies have far-reaching applications beyond clinical medicine. A case in point is the analysis of ancient hair samples. Indeed, hair is an important biological indicator that has become a material of choice in archeometry to study the ancient civilizations and their environment. Current characterization of ancient hair is based on elemental and structural analyses, but only few studies have focused on the molecular aspects of ancient hair proteins-keratins-and their conservation state. In such cases, applied extraction protocols require large amounts of raw hair, from 30 to 100 mg...
July 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579427/infections-of-wolbachia-may-destabilize-mosquito-population-dynamics
#14
Arndt Telschow, Florian Grziwotz, Philip Crain, Takeshi Miki, James W Mains, George Sugihara, Stephen L Dobson, Chih-Hao Hsieh
Recent efforts in controlling mosquito-borne diseases focus on biocontrol strategies that incapacitate pathogens inside mosquitoes by altering the mosquito's microbiome. A case in point is the introduction of Wolbachia into natural mosquito populations in order to eliminate Dengue virus. However, whether this strategy can successfully control vector-borne diseases is debated; particularly, how artificial infection affects population dynamics of hosts remains unclear. Here, we show that natural Wolbachia infections are associated with unstable mosquito population dynamics by contrasting Wolbachia-infected versus uninfected cage populations of the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus)...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553478/nature-s-hydrides-rapid-reduction-of-halocarbons-by-folate-model-compounds
#15
Michael K Denk, Nicholas S Milutinović, Katherine M Marczenko, Natalie M Sadowski, Athanasios Paschos
Halocarbons R-X are reduced to hydrocarbons R-H by folate model compounds under biomimetic conditions. The reactions correspond to a halide-hydride exchange with the methylenetetrahydrofolate (MTHF) models acting as hydride donors. The MTHF models are also functional equivalents of dehalohydrogenases but, unlike these enzymes, do not require a metal cofactor. The reactions suggest that halocarbons have the potential to act as endocrinological disruptors of biochemical pathways involving MTHF. As a case in point, we observe the rapid reaction of the MTHF models with the inhalation anaesthetic halothane...
March 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542493/the-in-vivo-structure-of-biological-membranes-and-evidence-for-lipid-domains
#16
Jonathan D Nickels, Sneha Chatterjee, Christopher B Stanley, Shuo Qian, Xiaolin Cheng, Dean A A Myles, Robert F Standaert, James G Elkins, John Katsaras
Examining the fundamental structure and processes of living cells at the nanoscale poses a unique analytical challenge, as cells are dynamic, chemically diverse, and fragile. A case in point is the cell membrane, which is too small to be seen directly with optical microscopy and provides little observational contrast for other methods. As a consequence, nanoscale characterization of the membrane has been performed ex vivo or in the presence of exogenous labels used to enhance contrast and impart specificity...
May 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538571/angiosome-based-allografts-vascularized-composite-allotransplantation-for-tailored-subunit-reconstruction-with-volkmann-ischemic-contracture-as-a-case-in-point
#17
G Ian Taylor, David S Sparks, Adam C Gascoigne, Russell J Corlett, Mark W Ashton
BACKGROUND: As we enter an age with new approaches to tissue reconstruction, the emphasis on the adage "like for like" has become even more relevant. This study illustrates the potential for several tailored vascularized composite allotransplantation reconstructive techniques and, in particular, for the management of Volkmann contracture. METHODS: Twenty fresh cadaver dissections and 30 archival lead oxide radiographic studies were examined to (1) identify potential upper limb vascularized composite allotransplantation donor sites (i...
June 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512076/considering-the-public-in-public-health-popular-resistance-to-the-smallpox-eradication-programme-in-india
#18
Luke Juran, Jennifer Trivedi, Korine N Kolivras
Public health initiatives, including large-scale vaccination and disease eradication programmes, regularly pit the rights of the individual against broader benefits to society. At times, the public resists such initiatives, with the World Health Organisation's Smallpox Eradication Programme (SEP) in India being a case in point. Here, we critically investigate resistance to smallpox vaccines in India and argue that while the SEP successfully eradicated a global killer; individuals were stripped of human rights through coercion, forcible vaccination and quarantine...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504522/the-construct-behavior-gap-in-behavioral-decision-research-a-challenge-beyond-replicability
#19
Michel Regenwetter, Maria M Robinson
Behavioral decision research compares theoretical constructs like preferences to behavior such as observed choices. Three fairly common links from constructs to behavior are (1) to tally, across participants and decision problems, the number of choices consistent with one predicted pattern of pairwise preferences; (2) to compare what most people choose in each decision problem against a predicted preference pattern; or (3) to enumerate the decision problems in which two experimental conditions generate a 1-sided significant difference in choice frequency 'consistent' with the theory...
October 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500994/salt-tolerance-mechanisms-induced-in-stevia-rebaudiana-bertoni-effects-on-mineral-nutrition-antioxidative-metabolism-and-steviol-glycoside-content
#20
Daniel Cantabella, Abel Piqueras, José Ramón Acosta-Motos, Agustina Bernal-Vicente, José A Hernández, Pedro Díaz-Vivancos
In order to cope with challenges linked to climate change such as salinity, plants must develop a wide spectrum of physiological and molecular mechanisms to rapidly adapt. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni plants are a case in point. According to our findings, salt stress has no significant effect on plant growth in these plants, which accumulate sodium (Na(+)) in their roots, thus avoiding excessive Na(+) accumulation in leaves. Furthermore, salt stress (NaCl stress) increases the potassium (K(+)), calcium (Ca(2+)), chloride ion (Cl(-)) and proline concentrations in Stevia leaves, which could contribute to osmotic adjustment...
June 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
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