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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314187/the-trouble-with-public-health-hiv-aids-in-canada-as-a-case-in-point
#1
EDITORIAL
Udo Schuklenk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307754/physical-constraints-in-cell-fate-specification-a-case-in-point-microgravity-and-phenotypes-differentiation
#2
REVIEW
Maria Grazia Masiello, Roberto Verna, Alessandra Cucina, Mariano Bizzarri
Data obtained by studying mammalian cells in absence of gravity strongly support the notion that cell fate specification cannot be understood according to the current molecular model. A paradigmatic case in point is provided by studying cell populations growing in absence of gravity. When the physical constraint (gravity) is 'experimentally removed', cells spontaneously allocate into two morphologically different phenotypes. Such phenomenon is likely enacted by the intrinsic stochasticity, which, in turn, is successively 'canalized' by a specific gene regulatory network...
January 4, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285971/leveraging-multiple-populations-across-time-helps-define-accurate-models-of-human-evolution-a-reanalysis-of-the-lactase-persistence-adaptation
#3
Chenling Xu Antelope, Davide Marnetto, Fergal Casey, Emilia Huerta-Sanchez
Access to a geographically diverse set of modern human samples from the present time and from ancient remains, combined with archaic hominin samples, provides an unprecedented level of resolution to study both human history and adaptation. The amount and quality of ancient human data continue to improve and enable tracking the trajectory of genetic variation over time. These data have the potential to help us redefine or generate new hypotheses of how human evolution occurred and to revise previous conjectures...
January 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230852/data-generating-models-of-dichotomous-outcomes-heterogeneity-in-simulation-studies-for-a-random-effects-meta-analysis
#4
Konstantinos Pateras, Stavros Nikolakopoulos, Kit Roes
Simulation studies to evaluate performance of statistical methods require a well-specified data-generating model. Details of these models are essential to interpret the results and arrive at proper conclusions. A case in point is random-effects meta-analysis of dichotomous outcomes. We reviewed a number of simulation studies that evaluated approximate normal models for meta-analysis of dichotomous outcomes, and we assessed the data-generating models that were used to generate events for a series of (heterogeneous) trials...
December 11, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220385/secreted-dual-reporter-assay-with-gaussia-luciferase-and-the-red-fluorescent-protein-mcherry
#5
Diana Wider, Didier Picard
The availability of a wide range of reporter proteins, which can easily be quantitated, has had a major impact on many fields of biomedical research. In some experiments with tissue culture cells, it is necessary to control for differences in transfection efficiency and in other expression parameters. This requirement has been very conveniently met with the popular dual luciferase assay. Its disadvantages are the requirement for cell lysis, the inability to analyze the same cells repeatedly, and the cost, at least in its most commonly used commercial format...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183973/on-the-role-of-the-corpus-callosum-in-interhemispheric-functional-connectivity-in-humans
#6
Jarod L Roland, Abraham Z Snyder, Carl D Hacker, Anish Mitra, Joshua S Shimony, David D Limbrick, Marcus E Raichle, Matthew D Smyth, Eric C Leuthardt
Resting state functional connectivity is defined in terms of temporal correlations between physiologic signals, most commonly studied using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Major features of functional connectivity correspond to structural (axonal) connectivity. However, this relation is not one-to-one. Interhemispheric functional connectivity in relation to the corpus callosum presents a case in point. Specifically, several reports have documented nearly intact interhemispheric functional connectivity in individuals in whom the corpus callosum (the major commissure between the hemispheres) never develops...
November 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180943/transnational-grandparenting-in-the-digital-age-mediated-co-presence-and-childcare-in-the-case-of-romanian-migrants-in-switzerland-and-canada
#7
Mihaela Nedelcu
Taking transnational families of Romanian migrants in Canada and Switzerland as a case in point, this paper accounts for the emergence of new patterns of "grandparenting" and "doing family" practices in the digital age, based on ICTs-mediated co-presence. It shows that migrants' parents are able to acquire manifold technological skills in order to cope with distance and separation and to improve the quality of their interaction and relationships with children and grandchildren living abroad. Ordinary co-presence routines within polymedia environments allow grandparents to take on their role as childcare providers across borders and develop new transnational lifestyles...
December 2017: European Journal of Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162969/clinical-immunology-of-cholera-current-trends-and-directions-for-future-advancement
#8
Francesco Chiappelli, Allen Khakshooy, Nicole Balenton
Cholera remains a feared, aggressive, infectious and lethal disease today, despite several decades of intense research, concerted public health modalities designed to prevent, and to control outbreaks, availability of efficacious vaccines aimed at containing its contagious spread, and effective patient-centered medical interventions for reducing morbidity and mortality. Despite these advances, cholera still strikes communities around the world, especially in countries and regions of the globe where medical and nursing care cannot be as effectively proffered to the population at risk as in First World economies...
2017: Bioinformation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159677/not-all-sagittal-band-tears-come-with-extensor-instability-a-case-report-with-radiological-and-operative-correlation
#9
Shuo Li, Jeffrey J Brooks, Jubin Jacob, Ahmadreza Ghasemiesfe, Greg B Marrinan
The sagittal bands are a component of the extensor hood. They serve an important role in stabilizing the extensor tendon by forming a "check-rein" to radial-ulnar translation of the tendon over the metacarpal head, and extending the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint by virtue of attaching the extensor tendon to the palmar plate. Injury to the sagittal band is thought to cause extensor instability and subluxation to the contralateral side by disruption of this "check-rein" function, although recent evidence from cadaver studies suggests that ulnar sagittal band tear may be spared of extensor instability...
November 20, 2017: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150527/transcriptional-regulators-of-redox-balance-and-other-homeostatic-processes-with-the-potential-to-alter-neurodegenerative-disease-trajectory
#10
REVIEW
Scott W Burnside, Giles E Hardingham
Diverse neurodegenerative diseases share some common aspects to their pathology, with many showing evidence of disruption to the brain's numerous homeostatic processes. As such, imbalanced inflammatory status, glutamate dyshomeostasis, hypometabolism and oxidative stress are implicated in many disorders. That these pathological processes can influence each other both up- and downstream makes for a complicated picture, but means that successfully targeting one area may have an effect on others. This targeting requires an understanding of the mechanisms by which homeostasis is maintained during health, in order to uncover strategies to boost homeostasis in disease...
November 17, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126994/a-dual-promoter-gene-orchestrates-the-sucrose-coordinated-synthesis-of-starch-and-fructan
#11
Yunkai Jin, Mingliang Fei, Sara Rosenquist, Lu Jin, Suresh Gohil, Corine Sandström, Helena Olsson, Cecilia Persson, Anna-Stina Höglund, Gunnel Fransson, Ying Ruan, Per Åman, Christer Jansson, Chunlin Liu, Roger Andersson, Chuanxin Sun
Sequential carbohydrate synthesis is important for plant survival because it guarantees energy supplies for growth and development during plant ontogeny and reproduction. Starch and fructan are two important carbohydrates in many flowering plants and in human diets. Understanding this coordinated starch and fructan synthesis and unravelling how plants allocate photosynthates and prioritize different carbohydrate synthesis for survival could lead to improvements to cereals in agriculture for the purposes of greater food security and production quality...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071181/heparin-regulated-prodrug-type-macromolecular-theranostic-systems-for-cancer-therapy
#12
REVIEW
Huiyuan Wang, Cheol Moon, Meong Cheol Shin, Yaping Wang, Huining He, Victor C Yang, Yongzhuo Huang
Heparin is a kind of naturally occurring polymer with excellent biocompatibility and solubility. It is characterized by dense of negative charge, higher than any endogenous components. Heparin can bind with various cationic peptides and proteins, thereby providing a useful noncovalent linkage for building a drug delivery system. As a case in point, heparin/cell-penetrating peptides (CPP) interaction is strong, and remains stable in vivo. They can be used to modify different proteins, respectively, and subsequently, by simply mixing the modified proteins, a protein-protein conjugate can be form via the stable heparin/CPP linkage...
2017: Nanotheranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025262/discovery-of-a-turn-on-fluorescent-probe-for-myeloid-cell-leukemia-1-protein
#13
Tingting Liu, Yuqi Gao, Xiaomeng Zhang, Yichao Wan, Lupei Du, Hao Fang, Minyong Li
The environment-sensitive probe 2 with turn-on switch for Mcl-1 protein was developed herein. After careful evaluation, this small molecule fluorescent probe revealed a selective binding affinity with Mcl-1 protein with a Ki value of 2.6 μM and can be well applied to imaging Mcl-1 protein or detecting the cellular distribution of Mcl-1 protein inhibitors. Compared with other imaging approaches, such as the immunofluorescence and fluorescent protein-based techniques, this fluorescent method is rapid, convenient, and affordable, especially since a washing procedure is no longer needed...
November 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965244/cholinergic-behavior-state-dependent-mechanisms-of-neocortical-gain-control-a-neurocomputational-study
#14
J-Y Puigbò, G Maffei, I Herreros, M Ceresa, M A González Ballester, P F M J Verschure
The embodied mammalian brain evolved to adapt to an only partially known and knowable world. The adaptive labeling of the world is critically dependent on the neocortex which in turn is modulated by a range of subcortical systems such as the thalamus, ventral striatum, and the amygdala. A particular case in point is the learning paradigm of classical conditioning where acquired representations of states of the world such as sounds and visual features are associated with predefined discrete behavioral responses such as eye blinks and freezing...
September 30, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945744/relating-dynamic-brain-states-to-dynamic-machine-states-human-and-machine-solutions-to-the-speech-recognition-problem
#15
Cai Wingfield, Li Su, Xunying Liu, Chao Zhang, Phil Woodland, Andrew Thwaites, Elisabeth Fonteneau, William D Marslen-Wilson
There is widespread interest in the relationship between the neurobiological systems supporting human cognition and emerging computational systems capable of emulating these capacities. Human speech comprehension, poorly understood as a neurobiological process, is an important case in point. Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) systems with near-human levels of performance are now available, which provide a computationally explicit solution for the recognition of words in continuous speech. This research aims to bridge the gap between speech recognition processes in humans and machines, using novel multivariate techniques to compare incremental 'machine states', generated as the ASR analysis progresses over time, to the incremental 'brain states', measured using combined electro- and magneto-encephalography (EMEG), generated as the same inputs are heard by human listeners...
September 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875164/increasing-drought-in-jordan-climate-change-and-cascading-syrian-land-use-impacts-on-reducing-transboundary-flow
#16
Deepthi Rajsekhar, Steven M Gorelick
In countries where severe drought is an anticipated effect of climate change and in those that heavily depend on upstream nations for fresh water, the effect of drier conditions and consequent changes in the transboundary streamflow regime induced by anthropogenic interventions and disasters leads to uncertainty in regional water security. As a case in point, we analyze Jordan's surface water resources and agricultural water demand through 2100, considering the combined impacts of climate change and land-use change driven by the Syrian conflict...
August 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812828/how-the-spectre-of-societal-homogeneity-undermines-equitable-healthcare-for-refugees-comment-on-defining-and-acting-on-global-health-the-case-of-japan-and-the-refugee-crisis
#17
Oliver Razum, Judith Wenner, Kayvan Bozorgmehr
Recourse to a purported ideal of societal homogeneity has become common in the context of the refugee reception crisis - not only in Japan, as Leppold et al report, but also throughout Europe. Calls for societal homogeneity in Europe originate from populist movements as well as from some governments. Often, they go along with reduced social support for refugees and asylum seekers, for example in healthcare provision. The fundamental right to health is then reduced to a citizens' right, granted fully only to nationals...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790502/actin-up-in-the-nucleus-regulation-of-actin-structures-modulates-mesenchymal-stem-cell-differentiation
#18
Janet Rubin, Buer Sen
Stem cells respond to environmental signals that induce their differentiation to cells that make up specialized tissues and organs. Our laboratory has focused on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that supply bone osteoblasts and marrow adipocytes, an output that appears to be reciprocal. Case in point: exercise promotes osteogenesis and bone formation, and inhibits marrow adipose accrual. A mechanically induced signal pathway concentrating on preserving β-catenin also causes increased structure of the actin cytoskeleton, both of which inhibit adipogenesis...
2017: Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721724/addressing-the-environment-electrostatic-effect-on-ballistic-electron-transport-in-large-systems-a-qm-mm-negf-approach
#19
Gustavo T Feliciano, Carlos Sanz-Navarro, Mauricio Domingues Coutinho-Neto, Pablo Ordejón, Ralph H Scheicher, Alexandre Reily Rocha
The effects of the environment in nanoscopic materials can play a crucial role in device design. Particularly in biosensors, where the system is usually embedded in a solution, water and ions have to be taken into consideration in atomistic simulations of electronic transport for a realistic description of the system. In this work, we present a methodology that combines quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics methods (QM/MM) with the nonequilibrium Green's function framework to simulate the electronic transport properties of nanoscopic devices in the presence of solvents...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691835/agency-before-action-the-application-of-behavioral-activation-in-psychotherapy-with-persons-with-psychosis
#20
Ilanit Hasson-Ohayon, Nitzan Arnon-Ribenfeld, Jay A Hamm, Paul H Lysaker
Incorporating behavioral activation into psychotherapy with persons with psychosis requires adaptation in its conceptualization and application owing to special deficits in the self-experience. Persons with psychosis often experience a diminished or disorganized sense of self, and have deficits in coherently narrating the experience of the self and in the ability to make sense of how to take action and direct their own lives. Based on a metacognitive model of disability in psychosis, the current paper presents a therapy process of a woman coping with schizophrenia using Metacognitive Reflection and Insight Therapy (Lysaker and Dimaggio, 2014) in the framework of an intersubjective model for psychotherapy with persons with psychosis presented by Hasson-Ohayon, Kravetz, and Lysaker (2016a)...
September 2017: Psychotherapy
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