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'Case in point'

Afsaneh Shirani, Olaf Stüve
Advances in translational neuroimmunology over the last two decades have revolutionized the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. A pathological hallmark of multiple sclerosis is the presence of leukocytes in the areas of disease activity in the CNS. Natalizumab inhibits the trafficking of lymphocytes from the blood into the brain and spinal cord by blocking the adhesion molecule α4-integrin. Representing the enormous success of a molecular targeted approach, natalizumab was the first mAb approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Viktoria Kindzierski, Silvia Raschke, Nicole Knabe, Frank Siedler, Beatrix Scheffer, Katharina Pflüger-Grau, Friedhelm Pfeiffer, Dieter Oesterhelt, Alberto Marin-Sanguino, Hans-Jörg Kunte
Halophilic bacteria use a variety of osmoregulatory methods, such as the accumulation of one or more compatible solutes. The wide diversity of compounds that can act as compatible solute complicates the task of understanding the different strategies that halophilic bacteria use to cope with salt. This is specially challenging when attempting to go beyond the pathway that produces a certain compatible solute towards an understanding of how the metabolic network as a whole addresses the problem. Metabolic reconstruction based on genomic data together with Flux Balance Analysis (FBA) is a promising tool to gain insight into this problem...
2017: PloS One
Monica Lodi, Joris M Koene
To increase fertilization chances compared to rivals, males are favoured to transfer accessory gland proteins to females during mating. These substances, by influencing female physiology, cause alteration of her sperm usage and remating rate. Simultaneously hermaphroditic land snails with love-darts are a case in point. During courtship, a love-dart is pierced through the partner's body wall, thereby introducing accessory mucous gland products. This mucus physiologically increases paternity by inhibiting the digestion of donated sperm...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
Christian Munthe, Morten Ebbe Juul Nielsen
This article analyzes the idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals from a basic legal ethical standpoint, using refusal to perform tasks related to legal abortion (in cases of voluntary employment) as a case in point. The idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal is distinguished from ideas regarding moral rights or reasons related to conscientious refusal, and none of the latter are found to support the notion of a legal right. Reasons for allowing some sort of room for conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals based on the importance of cultural identity and the fostering of a critical atmosphere might provide some support, if no countervailing factors apply...
January 2017: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
M Bach, M B Hoffmann, H Jägle, S P Heinrich, U Schiefer, W Wesemann
Human contrast vision and its quantitative assessment are gaining more attention. Publications on this topic can be confusing due to the overabundance of differing definitions and quantification of contrast vision. As a case in point, in Germany, contrast ratios as required for certain driving licenses and the DIN-defined contrast ratio are reciprocal. In this article, the five most important definitions of luminance contrast and contrast vision (Michelson, Weber, contrast ratios, logCS) are presented. We detail the specific domains for them, give formulae to convert between all of them and provide a table with equivalent values...
October 26, 2016: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
Robert Pepin, Erik D Layton, Yang Liu, Carlos Afonso, František Tureček
Electron transfer to doubly and triply charged heptapeptide ions containing polar residues Arg, Lys, and Asp in combination with nonpolar Gly, Ala, and Pro or Leu generates stable and metastable charge-reduced ions, (M + 2H)(+●), in addition to standard electron-transfer dissociation (ETD) fragment ions. The metastable (M + 2H)(+●) ions spontaneously dissociate upon resonant ejection from the linear ion trap, giving irregularly shaped peaks with offset m/z values. The fractions of stable and metastable (M + 2H)(+●) ions and their mass shifts depend on the presence of Pro-4 and Leu-4 residues in the peptides, with the Pro-4 sequences giving larger fractions of the stable ions while showing smaller mass shifts for the metastables...
January 2017: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Carleen M Sabusap, Wei Wang, Carmel M McNicholas, W Joon Chung, Lianwu Fu, Hui Wen, Marina Mazur, Kevin L Kirk, James F Collawn, Jeong S Hong, Eric J Sorscher
Emerging knowledge indicates the difficulty in categorizing unusual cystic fibrosis (CF) mutations, with regard to both pathogenic mechanism and theratype. As case in point, we present data concerning P67L mutation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a defect carried by a small number of individuals with CF and sometimes attributed to a channel conductance abnormality. Findings from our laboratory and others establish that P67L causes protein misfolding, disrupts maturation, confers gating defects, is thermally stable, and exhibits near normal conductance...
September 8, 2016: JCI Insight
Colin Campbell, Laura Russo, Alessandra Marins, Og DeSouza, Karsten Schönrogge, David Mortensen, John Tooker, Réka Albert, Katriona Shea
The analysis of ecological networks is generally bottom-up, where networks are established by observing interactions between individuals. Emergent network properties have been indicated to reflect the dominant mode of interactions in communities that might be mutualistic (e.g., pollination) or antagonistic (e.g., host-parasitoid communities). Many ecological communities, however, comprise species interactions that are difficult to observe directly. Here, we propose that a comparison of the emergent properties from detail-rich reference communities with known modes of interaction can inform our understanding of detail-sparse focal communities...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
P Soupy Dalyander, Michelle Meyers, Brady Mattsson, Gregory Steyer, Elizabeth Godsey, Justin McDonald, Mark Byrnes, Mark Ford
Coastal ecosystem management typically relies on subjective interpretation of scientific understanding, with limited methods for explicitly incorporating process knowledge into decisions that must meet multiple, potentially competing stakeholder objectives. Conversely, the scientific community lacks methods for identifying which advancements in system understanding would have the highest value to decision-makers. A case in point is barrier island restoration, where decision-makers lack tools to objectively use system understanding to determine how to optimally use limited contingency funds when project construction in this dynamic environment does not proceed as expected...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Roger M Whitaker, Gualtiero B Colombo, Stuart M Allen, Robin I M Dunbar
Cooperation is a fundamental human trait but our understanding of how it functions remains incomplete. Indirect reciprocity is a particular case in point, where one-shot donations are made to unrelated beneficiaries without any guarantee of payback. Existing insights are largely from two independent perspectives: i) individual-level cognitive behaviour in decision making, and ii) identification of conditions that favour evolution of cooperation. We identify a fundamental connection between these two areas by examining social comparison as a means through which indirect reciprocity can evolve...
August 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
A Balčytis, D Hakobyan, M Gabalis, A Žukauskas, D Urbonas, M Malinauskas, R Petruškevičius, E Brasselet, S Juodkazis
Tailoring the spatial degree of freedom of light is an essential step towards the realization of advanced optical manipulation tools. A topical challenge consists of device miniaturization for improved performance and enhanced functionality at the micron scale. We demonstrate a novel approach that combines the additive three-dimensional (3D) structuring capability of laser polymerization and the subtractive subwavelength resolution patterning of focused ion beam lithography. As a case in point hybrid (dielectric/metallic) micro-optical elements that deliver a well-defined topological shaping of light are produced...
July 25, 2016: Optics Express
Carlos Campillo-Artero, Sandra Garcia-Armesto, Enrique Bernal-Delgado
Given that drug innovation has been largely away from breakthroughs, arguing that a new drug recently approved and reaching the market is downright effective, safe and affordable is actually parlous. The soaring costs of an increasing number of new drugs (specially for cancer and rare diseases) threaten to supersede societal absorbing capacity, competing with other health and outside health sector resources. Some health systems are not making headways towards solving the current conundrum of keeping path with the state of the art regulatory mechanisms in delivering cost-effective, equitable and affordable treatments...
September 2016: Health Policy
Sylvie Khan, Taher Arif Alibay, Mansouria Merad, Mario DiPalma, Bruno Raynard, Sami Antoun
Malnutrition is frequently observed in oncology. The consequences on patient survival, chemotherapy toxicities and quality of life need to be identified and treated appropriately. A set of tools are available that enable clinicians to diagnose and detect malnutrition. Each tool must consider three items: the patient's current nutritional status, reduced food intake and the characteristics of the underlying disease. The parameters and thresholds used to detect malnutrition differ according to the objective pursued...
September 2016: Bulletin du Cancer
Melissa M Abo, Michael D Slater, Parul Jain
Health conditions are sometimes included in entertainment media comedies as a context for and as a source of humor. Food allergies are a typical case in point: They are potentially life-threatening yet may be used in humorous contexts. We conducted a content analysis of food allergies in entertainment media and tested the effects of humorous portrayals from an exemplar entertainment program. The content analysis confirmed that when food allergies were portrayed in television and the movies, it was most frequently in a humorous context and often contained inaccurate information...
July 19, 2016: Health Communication
Yogesh Jain, Raman Kataria
Rural physicians have been practising the technique of emergency bleeding and transfusion called Unbanked Directed (to a specific recipient) Blood Transfusion (UDBT), which has been declared illegal, to meet the need for blood in rural and inaccessible areas. As a result, a crisis has emerged in the availability of blood. Is UDBT a second rate technology for the poor and the disadvantaged? And should we not rather advocate for rapid scaling up of the establishment of blood banks in all areas? We examine the ethical issues related to blood availability in the rural areas...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
Bruce Barrett, Jason Ricco, Margaret Wallace, David Kiefer, Dave Rakel
BACKGROUND: The practice of clinical medicine rests on a foundation of ethical principles as well as scientific knowledge. Clinicians must artfully balance the principle of beneficence, doing what is best for patients, with autonomy, allowing patients to make their own well-informed health care decisions. The clinical communication process is complicated by varying degrees of confidence in scientific evidence regarding patient-oriented benefits, and by the fact that most medical options are associated with possible harms as well as potential benefits...
April 6, 2016: BMC Family Practice
Philip W Ingham
The Nüsslein-Volhard and Wieschaus screen for mutations disrupting the segmentation of the Drosophila embryo revolutionized developmental genetics, leading the way to the identification of many of the transcription factors and signaling pathways that orchestrate development, not just in the fruit fly but across the animal kingdom. The Hedgehog signaling pathway is a case in point: yet remarkably, all but one of the genes encoding the Hedgehog pathway components-including Hedgehog itself-had previously been discovered, in some cases decades earlier...
2016: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
Birgit Prodinger, Carolina S Ballert, Mirjam Brach, Martin W G Brinkhof, Alarcos Cieza, Kerstin Hug, Xavier Jordan, Marcel W M Post, Anke Scheel-Sailer, Martin Schubert, Alan Tennant, Gerold Stucki
OBJECTIVE: Functioning is an important outcome to measure in cohort studies. Clear and operational outcomes are needed to judge the quality of a cohort study. This paper outlines guiding principles for reporting functioning in cohort studies and addresses some outstanding issues. DESIGN: Principles of how to standardize reporting of data from a cohort study on functioning, by deriving scores that are most useful for further statistical analysis and reporting, are outlined...
February 2016: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Liesbeth I Wilschut, Anne Laudisoit, Nelika K Hughes, Elisabeth A Addink, Steven M de Jong, Hans A P Heesterbeek, Jonas Reijniers, Sally Eagle, Vladimir M Dubyanskiy, Mike Begon
AIM: The spatial structure of a population can strongly influence the dynamics of infectious diseases, yet rarely is the underlying structure quantified. A case in point is plague, an infectious zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. Plague dynamics within the Central Asian desert plague focus have been extensively modelled in recent years, but always with strong uniformity assumptions about the distribution of its primary reservoir host, the great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus)...
July 2015: Journal of Biogeography
Clifford D L Folmes, Andre Terzic
Energy metabolism is traditionally considered a reactive homeostatic system addressing stage-specific cellular energy needs. There is however growing appreciation of metabolic pathways in the active control of vital cell functions. Case in point, the stem cell lifecycle--from maintenance and acquisition of stemness to lineage commitment and specification--is increasingly recognized as a metabolism-dependent process. Indeed, metabolic reprogramming is an early contributor to the orchestrated departure from or reacquisition of stemness...
April 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
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