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hepatitis B virus infection in pregnancy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027107/viral-factors-for-hbv-mother-to-child-transmission
#1
James S Park, Calvin Q Pan
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains a leading cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. Because chronic hepatitis B infection is rarely eradicated, preventing mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is the most effective strategy to eliminate HBV globally. Although immunoprophylaxis strategy is widely available and effective for infants born to mothers with chronic hepatitis B infection, postnatal immunoprophylaxis fails in approximately 5-10 % of infants, and this failure rate goes up to 30 % in infants born to highly viremic mothers...
October 12, 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945149/risk-of-developing-antiphospholipid-antibodies-following-viral-infection-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
N Abdel-Wahab, S Talathi, M A Lopez-Olivo, M E Suarez-Almazor
Objective The objective of this paper is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on the risk of developing elevated antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies and related thromboembolic and/or pregnancy events following a viral infection. Method We searched Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, PubMed ePubs, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials through June 2016. Independent observational studies of elevated aPL antibodies in patients with a viral infection compared with controls or patients with lupus were included...
January 1, 2017: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941137/incidence-determinants-and-outcomes-of-pregnancy-associated-hepatitis-b-flares-a-regional-hospital-based-cohort%C3%A2-study
#3
Tatyana Kushner, Pamela A Shaw, Ankush Kalra, Lora Magaldi, Pooja Monpara, Gurneet Bedi, Karen Krok, Sierra Centkowski, Katherine Dalldorf, Julia D'souza, Dina Halegoua-De Marzio, David S Goldberg, Stacey Trooskin, Lisa D Levine, Sindhu K Srinivas, James D Lewis, Kimberly A Forde, Vincent Lo Re
BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is limited knowledge about hepatitis B virus (HBV) flare among pregnant women. We evaluated the incidence, determinants and outcomes of HBV flare in a multicultural cohort of pregnant HBV-infected women in the United States. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of pregnant hepatitis B surface antigen-positive women cared for at hospital-based clinics of 4 medical centres in Southeastern Pennsylvania from 2006 to 2015. The main outcome was incident HBV flare (alanine aminotransferase [ALT] ≥2 times upper limit of normal) during pregnancy or within 6 months after delivery...
September 20, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935971/prevalence-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-and-status-of-hbv-care-among-rural-women-who-planned-to-conceive-in-china
#4
Yuanyuan Wang, Hong Zhou, Long Zhang, Qiuyue Zhong, Qiaomei Wang, Haiping Shen, Man Zhang, Yanjie Huang, Anqi Wang, Kenrad Nelson, Yiping Zhang, Donghai Yan, Zuoqi Peng, Ya Zhang, Xiaona Xin, Hongguang Zhang, Jun Zhao, Yan Wang, Ying Yang, Yuan He, Jihong Xu, Xiaoli Liu, Yan Wang, Xu Ma
Globally, one third of prevalent chronic hepatitis B (CHB) virus infection (HBV) occurred in China. Assessing the prevalence of CHB infesction and status of HBV-related services among pre-conception women will provide insight into risks of mother to child transmission (MTCT). A cross-sectional analysis of data from the National Free Pre-pregnancy Checkups (NFPC) program in 2010-2014 was conducted. A standardized questionnaire which collected demographic information and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) which tested serological HBV markers were applied...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935430/-health-care-needs-and-barriers-in-seeking-medical-care-for-global-health-and-sexual-and-reproductive-health-among-students-from-f%C3%A3-lix-houphou%C3%A3-t-boigny-university-abidjan-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire
#5
M Inghels, P A Coffie, J Larmarange
BACKGROUND: In Ivory Coast, little is known about health needs and health access barriers among young people. The aim of this study was to describe health provision, health needs and barriers when seeking medical care, with an emphasis on sexual and reproductive health, and the acceptability of a medical examination for students attending their first year at the Houphouët-Boigny University, Abidjan, Ivory Coast. METHODS: We conducted a representative cross-sectional study among second year students who were selected by two-stage equiprobable random sampling...
September 2017: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913146/fetomaternal-outcomes-in-pregnant-women-with-hepatitis-e-infection-still-an-important-fetomaternal-killer-with-an-unresolved-mystery-of-increased-virulence-in-pregnancy
#6
Namrata Kumar, Vinita Das, Anjoo Agarwal, Amita Pandey, Smriti Agrawal
OBJECTIVE: Hepatitis is a prevalent infection in developing countries. While hepatitis B and C are deepening their roots in the developed world, hepatitis A and E are common in the developing world. The uniqueness of hepatitis is in its transformation from a relatively self-limiting disease in the non-pregnant state, to a highly virulent disease during pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective observational study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, for a period of six months from June 2016 to November 2016 [probably during an endemic peak of hepatitis E virus (HEV)] to observe the clinical outcomes in HEV-infected pregnant women...
June 2017: Turk J Obstet Gynecol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893207/hepatitis-b-virus-and-hiv-co-infection-among-pregnant-women-in-rwanda
#7
Mwumvaneza Mutagoma, Helene Balisanga, Samuel S Malamba, Dieudonné Sebuhoro, Eric Remera, David J Riedel, Steve Kanters, Sabin Nsanzimana
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) affects people worldwide but the local burden especially in pregnant women and their new born babies is unknown. In Rwanda HIV-infected individuals who are also infected with HBV are supposed to be initiated on ART immediately. HBV is easily transmitted from mother to child during delivery. We sought to estimate the prevalence of chronic HBV infection among pregnant women attending ante-natal clinic (ANC) in Rwanda and to determine factors associated with HBV and HIV co-infection...
September 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876308/the-need-to-promote-sexual-health-in-america-a-new-vision-for-public-health-action
#8
Jessie V Ford, Megan B Ivankovich, John M Douglas, Edward W Hook, Lynn Barclay, Joycelyn Elders, David Satcher, Eli Coleman
Sexual health is considered to be a state of wellness with physical, emotional, mental, and social dimensions. Sexual health can contribute to our overall well-being in each of these dimensions. However, despite the intrinsic importance and positive aspects of sexuality in our lives, the United States presently faces significant challenges related to the sexual health of its citizens, including human immunodeficiency virus, other sexually transmitted infections, viral hepatitis, unintended pregnancies, sexual violence, sexual dysfunction, and cancers in reproductive tracts with serious disparities among the populations affected...
June 28, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834623/hepatitis-b-virus-hepatitis-d-virus-mother-to-child-co-transmission-a-retrospective-study-in-a-developed-country
#9
Pierre Sellier, Sarah Maylin, Ségolène Brichler, Béatrice Berçot, Amanda Lopes, Dorothée Chopin, Manuela Pogliaghi, Anne-Lise Munier, Véronique Delcey, Guy Simoneau, John Evans, Emmanuel Gordien, François Simon, Jean-François Bergmann
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) DNA during chronic infection can reach levels at which mother-to-child (MTC) transmission frequently occurs despite passive-active immunization of newborns. Hepatitis D Virus (HDV) RNA can reach high levels, we assessed HBV/HDV MTC co-transmission. METHODS: Monocentric retrospective study (registered in ClinicalTrials. gov (NCT02044055)), after informed consent in HBV/HDV co-infected women pregnant between 01/01/2004 and 01/01/2015 in Paris, France...
August 23, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830531/seroprevalence-of-hepatitis-b-virus-surface-antigen-and-factors-associated-among-pregnant-women-in-dawuro-zone-snnpr-southwest-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study
#10
Asrat Chernet, Aman Yesuf, Amsalu Alagaw
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B is the world's most common serious liver infection. Infection by hepatitis B virus during pregnancy has high rate of vertical transmission and adverse effect on both the mother and child. Data on seroprevalence and associated factors among pregnant women in Dawuro or surrounding was scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess prevalence of hepatitis B virus and factors associated among pregnant women in Dawuro Zone. METHODS: Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from 1st April to May 31, 2015 in Dawuro zone...
August 22, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818032/prevention-strategy-for-father-to-child-transmission-of-hepatitis-b-virus-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Hong-Lin Chen, Man-Li Zha, Gang Qin
OBJECTIVE: Father to child transmission (FTCT) occurs in infants born to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected father. In this study, we aim to summarize the prevention strategy for FTCT of HBV by systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: PubMed and China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database were systematically searched. We systematically reviewed the prevention strategy for father, mother, and infant before, during pregnancy and after birth. We also examined trial sequential analysis (TSA) for the required information size (RIS)...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816860/management-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-in-pregnancy
#12
Jie Li, Matthew S Chang, Tram T Tran, Mindie H Nguyen
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection due to mother-to-child transmission during the perinatal period remains an important global health problem. Despite standard passive-active immunoprophylaxis with hepatitis B immunoglobulin and hepatitis B vaccine in neonates, up to 8.5% of newborns still acquire HBV infection. Thus, management of chronic HBV during pregnancy and strategies to prevent mother-to-child transmission are important steps in eradicating or reducing the global burden of chronic HBV infection...
October 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782502/hepatitis-c-in-pregnancy-screening-treatment-and-management
#13
Brenna L Hughes, Charlotte M Page, Jeffrey A Kuller
In the United States, 1-2.5% of pregnant women are infected with hepatitis C virus, which carries an approximately 5% risk of transmission from mother to infant. Hepatitis C virus can be transmitted to the infant in utero or during the peripartum period, and infection during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of adverse fetal outcomes, including fetal growth restriction and low birthweight. The purpose of this document is to discuss the current evidence regarding hepatitis C virus in pregnancy and to provide recommendations on screening, treatment, and management of this disease during pregnancy...
August 4, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732085/point-of-care-screening-for-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-pregnant-women-at-an-antenatal-clinic-a-south-african-experience
#14
Nafiisah Chotun, Wolfgang Preiser, Christoffel Johannes van Rensburg, Pedro Fernandez, Gerhard Barnard Theron, Dieter Glebe, Monique Ingrid Andersson
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Elimination of HIV and syphilis mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) has received much attention but little consideration has been given to the possibility of elimination of HBV MTCT. In sub-Saharan Africa, HBV vertical transmission continues to be reported and it remains an important public health problem. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of screening pregnant women for HBV using a point-of-care (POC) test and implementing interventions to prevent HBV MTCT...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723858/maternal-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-and-pregnancy-outcomes-a-hospital-based-case-control-study-in-wuhan-china
#15
Zhihua Wan, Aifen Zhou, Huiping Zhu, Xiaofang Lin, Dan Hu, Songxu Peng, Bin Zhang, Yukai Du
GOALS: To examine the impact of maternal hepatitis B virus infection on pregnancy outcomes. BACKGROUND: Studies regarding hepatitis B virus infection and pregnancy outcomes are limited with inconsistent results, and none of them have evaluated the effect of maternal viral load in pregnancy on pregnancy outcomes. STUDY: A hospital-based case-control study was conducted. In total, 1728 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive women who delivered consecutively at Wuhan Women and Children Medical and Healthcare Center, Wuhan, China, from June 2008 to May 2015, were compared with 1497 HBsAg-negative women giving birth in the same hospital during the same period who were randomly identified and selected from the computerized medical record database in parallel...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660149/mechanisms-and-prevention-of-vertical-transmission-in-chronic-viral-hepatitis
#16
REVIEW
Marianna G Mavilia, George Y Wu
Vertical transmission (VT) is the primary route of transmission of viral hepatitis in children. The rate of VT ranges from 1-28% with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and 3-15% with hepatitis C virus (HCV). VT for both viruses can occur during the intrauterine or peripartum period. VT of HBV primarily occurs by intrauterine transmission (IUT). Hepatitis B surface antigen is unable to cross the placenta and, therefore, relies on processes like transplacental leakage, placental infection, cellular transmission by peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and germline transmission...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653441/prior-pregnancy-and-antenatal-rubella-sero-negativity-evidence-of-persistent-maternal-immunologic-alteration
#17
Terence T Lao, Annie S Y Hui, Daljit S Sahota
PROBLEM: It is unclear if the immunologic alterations induced by pregnancy could persist. METHOD OF STUDY: Antenatal rubella sero-negativity was correlated with gravidity, abortions and parity in 112 083 gravidae managed during 1997-2015, with further analysis stratified for factors known to influence rubella serology. RESULTS: The 10.2% sero-negative gravidae had different characteristics, and the incidence showed significant difference and positive trend (P<...
June 27, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617973/hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-preconception-period-among-women-of-reproductive-age-in-rural-china-a-nationwide-study
#18
Qiongjie Zhou, Xiaotian Li, Qiaomei Wang, Haiping Shen, Yiping Zhang, Shikun Zhang, Ganesh Acharya
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection during pregnancy is associated with perinatal complications and poor maternal and fetal outcomes. There is a lack of reports on HBV infection screening, prophylaxis, and/or treatment in preconception period among women planning a pregnancy. This study is to investigate the prevalence and demographic characteristics of HBV infection among rural women of reproductive age planning pregnancy within 6 months, in different geographical regions of China...
June 15, 2017: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583150/prevalence-of-pregnancy-relevant-infections-in-a-rural-setting-of-ghana
#19
Fabian Völker, Paul Cooper, Oliver Bader, Angela Uy, Ortrud Zimmermann, Raimond Lugert, Uwe Groß
BACKGROUND: Although infectious diseases still account for a high burden of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, simultaneous investigations on multiple infections affecting maternal and child health are missing. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional, single-centre pilot study in a rural area of Ghana to assess the infectiological profile during pregnancy. Screening of 180 expectant mothers was done by vaginal swabs and serology to detect the most common pregnancy-relevant infections...
June 6, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539842/a-review-of-antiviral-use-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-pregnant-women
#20
Ariel Jaffe, Robert S Brown
Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains high even with the proper use of active-passive immunoprophylaxis in newborns. Mothers with significant viremia are at a much higher risk of MTCT; therefore, treatments aimed at lowering HBV DNA levels during pregnancy may ultimately decrease global disease burden. The exact threshold for treatment remains controversial; however, most studies have accepted levels greater than 2 × 5 log10 IU/mL as significant viremia. We reviewed the most recent literature on antiviral efficacy, maternal and fetal safety, and viral resistance patterns when used for short-duration therapy in pregnancy...
March 2017: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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