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Microdilution assay

Markus Santhosh Braun, Frank Sporer, Stefan Zimmermann, Michael Wink
The function of uropygial glands (preen glands) has been subject to controversial debates. In this study, we evaluated the antimicrobial potential of preen gland secretions of turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) against 18 microbial strains by means of diffusion tests, broth microdilutions, checkerboard assays, and time-kill curves. Furthermore, we tested the hypothesis that lipids exert direct antimicrobial effects on pathogens. Moreover, we checked for mutualistic relationships between the preen gland bacterium Corynebacterium uropygiale with its hosts...
June 12, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira Brilhante, Maria Gleiciane da Rocha, Glaucia Morgana de Melo Guedes, Jonathas Sales de Oliveira, Géssica Dos Santos Araújo, Jaime David Acosta España, Jamille Alencar Sales, Lara de Aguiar, Manoel de Araújo Neto Paiva, Rossana de Aguiar Cordeiro, Waldemiro de Aquino Pereira-Neto, Adriana de Queiroz Pinheiro, José Júlio Costa Sidrim, Débora de Souza Collares Maia Castelo-Branco, Marcos Fábio Gadelha Rocha
The yeast Malassezia pachydermatis is a component of the microbiota of dogs and cats, however it can cause otitis and seborrheic dermatitis in these animals. The objective of this study was to determine the antifungal susceptibility, and evaluate virulence and pathogenicity of 25 M. pachydermatis strains from animals. Susceptibility to ketoconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, terbinafine, and amphotericin B was evaluated by broth microdilution assay. In addition, biofilm-forming ability, protease, phospholipase, hemolysin and melanin production and adhesion to epithelial cells by this yeast species were assessed...
July 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Camila Rodrigues de Carvalho, Alice Ferreira-D'Silva, David E Wedge, Charles L Cantrell, Luiz H Rosa
In the present study, we evaluated the antifungal potential of cytochalasins produced by Diaporthe taxa against phytopathogenic fungi. Using molecular methods, seven endophytic fungal strains from the medicinal plants Copaifera pubiflora and Melocactus ernestii were identified as D. miriciae, while two isolates were identified to the genus level (Diaporthe sp.). All crude extracts of Diaporthe species produced via solid-state fermentation were evaluated by 1H NMR analyses. Crude extracts of the isolates D. miriciae UFMGCB 6350, 7719, 7646, 7653, 7701, 7772, and 7770 and Diaporthe sp...
June 6, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Fawzi Mahomoodally, Simla Ramcharun, Gokhan Zengin
INTRODUCTION: Onion (Allium cepa L.) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) extracts are traditionally used in many cultures as antimicrobial agents. Nonetheless, there is still a dearth of scientific validation pertaining to the antibacterial and possible antibiotic potentiating activity of these plants. METHODS: Decoction as traditionally used and methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate, and acetone extracts of onion and garlic were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against 15 bacterial strains (6 ATCC strains and 9 clinical isolates) using the broth microdilution method to establish the minimum inhibitory concentration...
June 3, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Cesira Giordano, Elena Piccoli, Veronica Brucculeri, Simona Barnini
Rapid identification of bloodstream pathogens by MALDI-TOF MS and the recently introduced rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing (rAST) directly from positive blood cultures allow clinicians to promptly achieve a targeted therapy, especially for multidrug resistant microorganisms. In the present study, we propose a comparison between phenotypical rASTs performed in light-scattering technology (Alfred 60AST, Alifax®) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (Pheno™, Accelerate) directly from positive blood cultures, providing results in 4-7 hours...
2018: BioMed Research International
Yoon-Kyoung Hong, Ji-Young Lee, Kwan Soo Ko
We investigated the colistin resistance rate among 356 Enterobacter spp. clinical isolates from eight hospitals in Korea. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution. While 51 of 213 (23.9%) Enterobacter cloacae isolates were colistin-resistant, only six of 143 (4.2%) E. aerogenes isolates showed resistance. We also identified the skip well phenotype in eight E. cloacae and three E. aerogenes isolates. Multilocus sequence typing for E. cloacae and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR for E...
June 2018: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
Weifeng Yang, Jueling Liu, Biljana Blažeković, Yanan Sun, Shuhua Ma, Chuanyun Ren, Sanda Vladimir-Knežević, Chaohua Li, Yajun Xing, Guijie Tian, Yi Wang
BACKGROUND: Combining conventional drugs and traditional medicine may represent a useful approach to combating antibiotic resistance, which has become a serious threat to global public health. This study aimed to evaluate the potential synergistic interactions between Tanreqing (TRQ) injection, a commercial traditional Chinese medicine formula used for the treatment of upper respiratory tract infection, and selected antibiotics used against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)...
May 30, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira Brilhante, Jamille Alencar Sales, Maria Lucilene Queiroz da Silva, Jonathas Sales de Oliveira, Lucas de Alencar Pereira, Waldemiro Aquino Pereira-Neto, Rossana de Aguiar Cordeiro, José Júlio Costa Sidrim, Débora de Souza Collares Maia Castelo-Branco, Marcos Fábio Gadelha Rocha
PURPOSE: Antifungal resistance and several putative virulence factors have been associated with the pathogenicity of the Candida parapsilosis species complex. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal susceptibility, the production of virulence factors and the pathogenicity of the C. parapsilosis complex. METHODOLOGY: Overall, 49 isolates of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, 19 C. orthopsilosis and nine C. metapsilosis were used. The planktonic and biofilm susceptibility to fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin was assessed using a broth microdilution assay...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
A L F Procópio, Rafaela Alves da Silva, Janaina Gomes Maciel, Carolina Yoshi Campos Sugio, S Soares, V M Urban, K H Neppelenbroek
The coadjutant method for denture cleansing most used by denture wearers is immersion in chemical agents, which are toxic when in direct contact with cells. However, clinically, the contact between these chemical agents and prosthetic tissues does not occur directly, but rather with what remained impregnated into acrylic bases, even after rinsing the disinfected dentures. This study evaluated the antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of a denture acrylic resin after successive cycles of daily overnight immersion in 1% sodium hypochlorite (1%NaClO) and 2% chlorhexidine digluconate (2%CHX), simulating the periods of 9 months or 1...
May 25, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Rui Kano, Shinichi Yokoi, Naoki Kariya, Karin Oshimo, Hiroshi Kamata
In the case presented here, we describe the isolation of an azole-resistant strain of M. pachydermatis from a canine Malassezia dermatitis. The isolate (NUBS18001) from this case exhibited a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 320 μg/ml to itraconazole (ITZ) by broth microdilution (BM) assay, >32 μg/ml to ITZ by E-test, and >32 μg/ml to KTZ by E-test. Synergistic effects between FK506 and ITZ in the azole-resistant strain was evaluated using the microdilution checker-board method. The ITZ-resistant strain exhibited MICs of 320 μg/mL of ITZ alone and 5 μg/ml of FK506 alone; the addition of FK506 attenuated the ITZ MIC to 2...
May 24, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Mirjana Skočibušić, Renata Odžak, Alma Ramić, Tomislav Smolić, Tomica Hrenar, Ines Primožič
In the search for a new class of potential antimicrobial agents, five novel N -substituted imidazole 2-aldoximes and their six quaternary salts were evaluated. The antimicrobial activity was assessed against a panel of representative Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including multidrug resistant bacteria. All compounds demonstrated potent in vitro activity against the tested microorganisms, with MIC values ranging from 6.25 to 50.0 μg/mL. Among the tested compounds, two quaternary compounds ( N -but-3-enyl- and meta - ( 10 ) or para - N -chlorobenzyl ( 11 ) imidazolium 2-aldoximes) displayed the most potent and broad-spectrum activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains...
May 18, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Evgeny A Idelevich, Dinah A Freeborn, Harald Seifert, Karsten Becker
Automated systems Vitek 2, BD Phoenix, MicroScan WalkAway and gradient diffusion assays Etest and MIC Test Strip were compared against broth microdilution for susceptibility testing of tigecycline against Acinetobacter baumannii. BD Phoenix and MIC Test Strip seemed to provide the most accurate determination of tigecycline susceptibility.
March 24, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Lisa Niemann, Petra Müller, Jasmin Brauns, Rolf Nathaus, Franziska Schäkel, Kerstin Kipschull, Doris Höltig, Michael Wendt, Stefan Schwarz, Kristina Kadlec
The collaboration project VASIB aims at reducing the antibiotic consumption in pig production by integrating information from consulting expertise in clinical inspection, hygiene, epidemiology, microbiology and pharmacology. In this VASIB subproject, we investigated the antimicrobial susceptibility and relatedness of porcine respiratory tract pathogens. Bordetella bronchiseptica (n = 47), Pasteurella multocida (n = 18) and Streptococcus suis (n = 58) were obtained from weaner pigs at two farms. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution according to CLSI standards...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Qiaoling Sun, Yanyan Hu, Hongwei Zhou, Lingbin Shu, Hanyu Wang, Zixian Huang, Rong Zhang
A third plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene, mcr-3 , is increasingly being reported in Enterobacteriaceae and Aeromonas spp. from animals and humans. To investigate the molecular epidemiology of mcr in the gut flora of Chinese outpatients, 152 stool specimens were randomly collected from outpatients in our hospital from May to June, 2017. Stool specimens enriched in alkaline peptone water or Luria-Bertani (LB) broth were screened for mcr-1, mcr-2 , and mcr-3 using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Sarka Pospisilova, Hana Michnova, Tereza Kauerova, Karel Pauk, Peter Kollar, Jarmila Vinsova, Ales Imramovsky, Alois Cizek, Josef Jampilek
A series of 13 salicylamide derivatives was assessed for antibacterial activity against three isolates of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE) and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 as a quality standard. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by the broth microdilution method with subsequent subcultivation of aliquots to assess minimum bactericidal concentration. The growth kinetics was established by the time-kill assay. Ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline and vancomycin were used as the reference antibacterial drugs...
May 14, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Vanessa Fátima Gazoni, Sikiru Olaitan Balogun, Karuppusamy Arunacham, Darley Maria Oliveira, Valdir Cechinel Filho, Samara Rosolem Lima, Edson Moleta Colodel, Ilsamar Mendes Soares, Sérgio Donizeti Ascêncio, Domingos Tabajara de Oliveira Martins
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Simaba ferruginea A. St.-Hil., Simaroubaceae, popularly known as "calunga" is a typical subtropical shrub used in Central Brazil mainly for infection, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and gastric duodenal-ulcers. It presents in its composition the alkaloid canthin-6-one, an alkaloid indole β-carboxylic. AIM: This study aims to investigate the toxicity, antimicrobial activities of methanol extract of Simaba ferruginea (MESf) and canthin-6-one by using different experimental models...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Marion Allaoua, Pierre Etienne, Virginie Noirot, Jean-Luc Carayon, Nathan Téné, Elsa Bonnafé, Michel Treilhou
AIM: In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to test a new carvacrol-based product designed to delay the carvacrol release so that it could reach the caeca of broiler chickens in order to control Campylobacter jejuni. METHODS AND RESULTS: Antimicrobial activity of carvacrol, a constituent of oregano and thyme essential oil, has been demonstrated against C. jejuni in vitro, and this compound was found beneficial for broiler growth. Here, we tested a new liquid formulation that did not change the antibacterial efficacy of carvacrol against C...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Venkatraman Srinivasan Radhakrishnan, Mohana Krishna Reddy Mudiam, Manish Kumar, Surya Prakash Dwivedi, Surinder Pal Singh, Tulika Prasad
Purpose: A significant increase in the incidence of fungal infections and drug resistance has been observed in the past decades due to limited availability of broad-spectrum antifungal drugs. Nanomedicines have shown significant antimicrobial potential against various drug-resistant microbes. Silver nanoparticles (AgNps) are known for their antimicrobial properties and lower host toxicity; however, for clinical applications, evaluation of their impact at cellular and molecular levels is essential...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Cícera Datiane de Morais Oliveira-Tintino, Saulo Relison Tintino, Paulo W Limaverde, Fernando G Figueredo, Fábia F Campina, Francisco A B da Cunha, Roger H S da Costa, Pedro Silvino Pereira, Luciene F Lima, Yedda M L S de Matos, Henrique Douglas Melo Coutinho, José P Siqueira-Júnior, Valdir Q Balbino, Teresinha Gonçalves da Silva
This study was carried out to test the essential oil from C. ambrosioides leaves and its main constituent, α-Terpinene, in an antibacterial activity assay. As well, it was evaluated ability reduce resistance to norfloxacin and ethidium bromide was compared the Staphylococcus aureus 1199B whith 1199 wild type strain. The MIC of the C. ambrosioides essential oil and α-Terpinene were determined by microdilution method. The MIC of the essential oil and α-Terpinene presented a value ≥ 1024 μg/mL. However, when associated with antibacterials, the essential oil from C...
October 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Camila Fonseca Bezerra, Janaína Esmeraldo Rocha, Maria Karollyna do Nascimento Silva, Thiago Sampaio de Freitas, Amanda Karine de Sousa, Antônia Thassya Lucas Dos Santos, Rafael Pereira da Cruz, Maciel Horácio Ferreira, Josefa Carolaine Pereira da Silva, Antonio Judson Targino Machado, Joara Nályda Pereira Carneiro, Débora Lima Sales, Henrique Douglas Melo Coutinho, Paulo Riceli Vasconcelos Ribeiro, Edy Sousa de Brito, Maria Flaviana Bezerra Morais-Braga
Psidium guajava L. is a plant widely used for food and in folk medicine all over the world. Studies have shown that guava leaves have antifungal properties. In this study, Flavonoid and Tannic fractions were tested to investigate their chemical composition and antifungal potential in vitro.21 compounds in the two fractions, presenting a higher content of phenolic compounds. The antifungal assays were performed against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei by microdilution to determine the IC50 and the cell viability curve...
May 8, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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