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Metabolic and kidney stone

Ryan S Hsi, Thomas Sanford, David S Goldfarb, Marshall L Stoller
PURPOSE: Kidney stone prevention relies on the 24-hour urine collection to diagnose metabolic abnormalities and direct dietary and pharmacologic therapy. While its use is guideline-supported for high risk and interested patients, evidence that the test can accurately predict recurrence or treatment response is limited. We sought to critically reassess the role of the 24-hour urine collection in stone prevention. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In addition to a MEDLINE® search to identify controlled studies of dietary and pharmacologic interventions, evidence supporting the AUA and EAU guidelines for metabolic stone prevention were evaluated...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Urology
Mehmet Taşdemir, Dilara Fuçucuoğlu, Oktay Özman, Lale Sever, Bülent Önal, Ilmay Bilge
BACKGROUND: Urinary silicate calculi in humans are extremely rare. Reported cases of silicate calculi are mostly documented in adults and are commonly related to an excessive intake of magnesium trisilicate in food or drugs. Published studies on the presence of silicate calculi in children are scarce. CASES: Three cases of silicate kidney stones without prior silicate intake are reported. Two patients underwent surgical treatment, and the third patient was treated using conservative methods...
October 5, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Mangesh V Suryavanshi, Shrikant S Bhute, Swapnil D Jadhav, Manish S Bhatia, Rahul P Gune, Yogesh S Shouche
Hyperoxaluria due to endogenously synthesized and exogenously ingested oxalates is a leading cause of recurrent oxalate stone formations. Even though, humans largely rely on gut microbiota for oxalate homeostasis, hyperoxaluria associated gut microbiota features remain largely unknown. Based on 16S rRNA gene amplicons, targeted metagenomic sequencing of formyl-CoA transferase (frc) gene and qPCR assay, we demonstrate a selective enrichment of Oxalate Metabolizing Bacterial Species (OMBS) in hyperoxaluria condition...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
Xingsheng Li, Melissa L Ellis, Alexander E Dowell, Ranjit Kumar, Casey D Morrow, Trenton R Schoeb, John Knight
: Colonization with Oxalobacter formigenes may reduce the risk of calcium oxalate kidney stone disease. To improve our limited understanding of host/O.formigenes and microbe/O.formigenes interactions, germ-free or altered Schaedler flora (ASF) mice were colonized with O.formigenes Germ-free mice were stably colonized with O.formigenes suggesting O.formigenes does not require other organisms to sustain its survival. Examination of intestinal material indicated no viable O.formigenes in the small intestine, ∼4 × 10(6) O...
September 23, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Zarintaj Malihi, Zhenqiang Wu, Alistair W Stewart, Carlene Mm Lawes, Robert Scragg
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D supplementation is increasingly being used in higher doses in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). However, adverse events from very large annual doses of vitamin D have been shown in 2 RCTs, whereas in a third RCT, low-dose vitamin D, with calcium supplements, was shown to increase kidney stone risk. OBJECTIVE: We analyzed the side effects related to calcium metabolism in RCTs, specifically hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, and kidney stones, in participants who were given vitamin D supplements for ≥24 wk compared with in subjects in the placebo arm...
October 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Takahiro Yasui, Atsushi Okada, Shuzo Hamamoto, Ryosuke Ando, Kazumi Taguchi, Keiichi Tozawa, Kenjiro Kohri
Urolithiasis, a complex multifactorial disease, results from interactions between environmental and genetic factors. Epidemiological studies have shown the association of urolithiasis with a number of lifestyle-related diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Elucidation of the mechanisms underlying urinary stone formation will enable development of new preventive treatments. The present article reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology and potential treatment of urolithiasis...
August 18, 2016: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
Alberto Trinchieri, Emanuele Croppi, Emanuele Montanari
There is evidence that obese patients have an increased risk of renal stone formation, although this relationship could be less evident in some populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of overweight and obesity on the risk of renal stone formation in a population consuming a Mediterranean diet and to better elucidate the mechanisms underlying the increased risk of urolithiasis observed in obese subjects. We performed a retrospective review of 1698 stone forming patients (mean age 45.9 ± 14...
August 3, 2016: Urolithiasis
Liangliang Zhang, Long Zhang, Na Nian, Xuen Yu, Yongguang Shi, Yan Yan, Dandan Sun, Nan Cheng, Xun Wang, Renmin Yang
OBJECTIVE: To analyze a case of cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) with mental retardation as the initial neurological symptom. METHODS: Medical imaging, histopathological assay and genetic testing were carried out to analyze the patient. RESULTS: Neurological manifestations of the 27-year-old male patient were initiated by mental retardation and subsequently memory lapses, ataxia, spastic paraplegia and fuzzy language. Other symptoms included cataract, xanthomatosis in Achilles tendon, kidney stones and high arches...
August 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
Songyan Gao, Rui Yang, Zhongjiang Peng, Hongtao Lu, Na Li, Jiarong Ding, Xingang Cui, Wei Chen, Xin Dong
About 80% of kidney stones are composed of calcium oxalate (CaOx) with variable amounts of calcium phosphate, and hyperoxaluria is considered as an important factor of CaOx nephrolithiasis. However, the underlying metabolic mechanisms of CaOx nephrolithiasis remain undefined. In this study, we successfully developed a rat model with hydroxy-L-proline (HLP) -induced CaOx nephrolithiasis. Rats were continuously orally administrated with HLP for 28 days. Urine and blood samples were collected from the rats treated with or without HLP at four different time points...
2016: Scientific Reports
Francesco Berardinelli, Piergustavo De Francesco, Michele Marchioni, Nicoletta Cera, Silvia Proietti, Derek Hennessey, Orietta Dalpiaz, Cecilia Cracco, Cesare Scoffone, Luigi Schips, Guido Giusti, Luca Cindolo
PURPOSE: Retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) is considered a safe procedure; however, infective complications are potentially serious postoperative complications. The aim of this multicentre study was to evaluate prospectively the prevalence of infective complications after RIRS and identify risk factors. METHODS: Baseline data were collected, and patients were questioned regarding postoperative infective complications following RIRS. The Fisher exact test, Student t test, Mann-Whitney U test, and multivariate regression analysis were used for data analysis...
November 2016: International Urology and Nephrology
Grażyna Krzemień, Agnieszka Szmigielska, Katarzyna Jankowska-Dziadak, Małgorzata Pańczyk-Tomaszewska
Urolithiasis in children occurs with the incidence of 0.1-5%. Risk factors such as metabolic disorders, recurrent urinary tract infections and/or congenital abnormalities of urinary tract are detected in 75-85% of children with urolithiasis. Staghorn calculi is associated with delayed diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection caused by specific organisms, which produce the enzyme urease, promoting generation of ammonia and hydroxide from urea. We present two boys with staghorn calculi recognized in 8th and 31st month of age...
January 2016: Developmental Period Medicine
Hnin Yin Yin Nyein, Wei Gao, Ziba Shahpar, Sam Emaminejad, Samyuktha Challa, Kevin Chen, Hossain M Fahad, Li-Chia Tai, Hiroki Ota, Ronald W Davis, Ali Javey
Homeostasis of ionized calcium in biofluids is critical for human biological functions and organ systems. Measurement of ionized calcium for clinical applications is not easily accessible due to its strict procedures and dependence on pH. pH balance in body fluids greatly affects metabolic reactions and biological transport systems. Here, we demonstrate a wearable electrochemical device for continuous monitoring of ionized calcium and pH of body fluids using a disposable and flexible array of Ca(2+) and pH sensors that interfaces with a flexible printed circuit board...
July 26, 2016: ACS Nano
Basri Çakıroğlu, Erkan Eyyupoğlu, Aydin Ismet Hazar, Bekir Sami Uyanik, Bariş Nuhoğlu
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to demonstrate the dominant role of metabolic disorders in the formation of calcium oxalate stones in patients with recurrent urolithiasis, as well as in patients experiencing their first episode of urolithiasis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The records of the patients who attended our kidney stone outpatient clinics between 2008 and 2012 were reviewed, and the data of 318 calcium oxalate stone patients who had undergone a metabolic assessment were retrospectively analysed...
2016: Archivio Italiano di Urologia, Andrologia
Hassan Bouzidi, Ali Majdoub, Michel Daudon, Mohamed Fadhel Najjar
Primary hyperoxalurias (PH) are inborn errors in the metabolism of glyoxalate and oxalate with recessive autosomal transmission. As a result, an increased endogenous production of oxalate leads to exessive urinary oxalate excretion. PH type 1, the most common form, is due to a deficiency of the peroxisomal enzyme alanine: Glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) in the liver. PH type 2 is due to the deficiency of the glyoxylate reductase/hydroxypyruvate réductase, present in the cytosol of hepatocytes and leucocytes...
June 29, 2016: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
Giuseppe Vezzoli, Lorenza Macrina, Alessandro Rubinacci, Donatella Spotti, Teresa Arcidiacono
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Idiopathic hypercalciuria is a frequent defect in calcium kidney stone formers that is associated with high intestinal calcium absorption and osteopenia. Characteristics distinguishing hypercalciuric stone formers from hypercalciuric patients without kidney stone history (HNSFs) are unknown and were explored in our study. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We compared 172 hypercalciuric stone formers with 36 HNSFs retrospectively selected from patients referred to outpatient clinics of the San Raffaele Hospital in Milan from 1998 to 2003...
August 8, 2016: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Valbona Bajrami, Alma Idrizi, Enver Roshi, Myftar Barbullushi
AIM: We aim to define the correlations between nephrolithiasis, hypertension, age and obesity in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in Albania. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We included 100 patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney from 2011 to 2014. The patients underwent X-ray and renal ultrasonography. We performed the metabolic evaluation of blood and urine. RESULTS: The patients with renal stones had a higher level of mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure compared with patients without stones (155 ± 12 mmHg vs...
March 15, 2016: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Saeed R Khan, Margaret S Pearle, William G Robertson, Giovanni Gambaro, Benjamin K Canales, Steeve Doizi, Olivier Traxer, Hans-Göran Tiselius
Kidney stones are mineral deposits in the renal calyces and pelvis that are found free or attached to the renal papillae. They contain crystalline and organic components and are formed when the urine becomes supersaturated with respect to a mineral. Calcium oxalate is the main constituent of most stones, many of which form on a foundation of calcium phosphate called Randall's plaques, which are present on the renal papillary surface. Stone formation is highly prevalent, with rates of up to 14.8% and increasing, and a recurrence rate of up to 50% within the first 5 years of the initial stone episode...
2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
Juthatip Manissorn, Visith Thongboonkerd
UNLABELLED: Heparin-binding proteins (HBPs) are considered as potential modulators of kidney stone formation. However, HBPs had not been characterized in the urine previously. In this study, we applied affinity purification-mass spectrometry (AP-MS) using cellufine sulfate column chromatography and liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF MS/MS) to identify HBPs in normal human urine. Using this approach, 83 HBPs were identified, including those involved in metabolic process, cellular process, immune system, developmental process, response to stimuli, cell communication, transport, cell adhesion and others...
June 16, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
Abdulrahman F Alruwaily, Casey A Dauw, Maggie J Bierlein, Phyllis Yan, John R Asplin, Khurshid R Ghani, J Stuart Wolf, John M Hollingsworth
PURPOSE: During the initial metabolic evaluation the need for 1 vs 2, 24-hour urine collections is debated. While data suggest that mean urine chemistry measures are similar on consecutive samples, it remains unclear how much, if any, information is lost when only 1 sample is collected. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using analytical files from Litholink Corporation® (1995 to 2013) we identified adults with kidney stones who underwent initial metabolic testing. Next we determined the subset of patients who collected 2, 24-hour urine samples with urine creatinine varying by 10% or less during a 7-day time window...
October 2016: Journal of Urology
Yung-Chin Lee, Shu-Pin Huang, Yung-Shun Juan, Tsung-Yi Huang, Chia-Chu Liu
OBJECTIVES: Metabolic syndrome (MtS) and kidney stone are two common aging diseases with male dominant. This is the first study regarding the potential impact of MtS and its components on kidney stone in aging Chinese population. METHODS: A total of 694 males with a mean age of 55.6 years were enrolled. The definition of MtS was according to the modified criteria developed by the Bureau of Health Promotion in Taiwan. Subjects were classified as having a disease of kidney stones according to diagnosis by a physician with available medical records or evidence from ultrasonography judged by an investigator of urologist...
May 3, 2016: Aging Male: the Official Journal of the International Society for the Study of the Aging Male
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