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Metabolic and kidney stone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070668/what-happens-to-asymptomatic-lower-pole-kidney-stones-smaller-than-10%C3%A2-mm-in-children-during-watchful-waiting
#1
Onur Telli, Nurullah Hamidi, Uygar Bagci, Arif Demirbas, Ahmet Metin Hascicek, Tarkan Soygur, Berk Burgu
BACKGROUND: The optimal management of lower pole kidney (LPK) stones in children is controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the outcomes of children with asymptomatic isolated LPK stones smaller than 10 mm during follow-up. METHODS: A total of 242 patients with 284 stones presenting at our institution between June 2004 and December 2014 with an asymptomatic, single LPK stone with a diameter of <10 mm were enrolled in the study. All children were assigned to receive first-line therapy and then categorized according to the need for medical intervention...
January 9, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011229/differential-colony-size-cell-length-and-cellular-proteome-of-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-urine-vs-stone-nidus-of-kidney-stone-patients
#2
Ratree Tavichakorntrakool, Patcharee Boonsiri, Vitoon Prasongwatana, Aroonlug Lulitanond, Chaisiri Wongkham, Visith Thongboonkerd
BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli is associated with kidney stone disease, as a cause or an effect (secondary or recurrent urinary tract infection, UTI). Defining phenotypic or functional differences between E. coli inside stone nidus (ECS, associated with infection-induced stone) and outside the stone (i.e. from urine) (ECU, represented secondary infection) would be helpful to better understand bacterial involvement in this disease. METHODS: ECS and ECU were isolated from 100 stone formers and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility test, ERIC-PCR genotyping, determination of biofilm formation, bacterial colony size on agar plate and cell length in broth, 2-DE, nanoLC-MS/MS, protein network analysis, and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity assay...
December 20, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994857/adenine-phosphoribosyltransferase-deficiency-in-the-united-kingdom-two-novel-mutations-and-a-cross-sectional-survey
#3
Gowrie S Balasubramaniam, Monica Arenas-Hernandez, Emilia Escuredo, Lynette Fairbanks, Tony Marinaki, Sarah Mapplebeck, Michael Sheaff, Michael K Almond
BACKGROUND: Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency is an inborn error of metabolism that can cause kidney disease from crystalline nephropathy or kidney stones. METHODS: We present three cases from a single centre with varied presentations to illustrate how increasing awareness led to better patient identification. We then undertook a cross-sectional survey of all the patients identified from the Purine Research Laboratory in the UK since 1974. RESULTS: Our index case presented with recurrent nephrolithiasis and was diagnosed on stone analysis, the second case presented with acute kidney injury and the third case was identified from a biopsy undertaken for acute on chronic kidney injury...
December 2016: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959841/kidney-stones-composition-frequency-and-relation-to-metabolic-diagnosis
#4
Francisco R Spivacow, Elisa E Del Valle, Ernesto Lores, Paula G Rey
Nephrolithiasis is one of the most frequent urologic diseases. The aim of this paper is to study the composition and frequency of 8854 patient kidney stones and in a subset of them their metabolic risk factors to be related to their type of calculi. Physicochemical and crystallographic methods were used to assess kidney stone composition. In a subset of 715 patients, we performed an ambulatory metabolic protocol with diagnostic purposes. From the total sample 79% of stones were made of calcium salts (oxalate and phosphate), followed by uric acid stones in 16...
2016: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921023/effects-of-hydrophilic-extract-of-nasturtium-officinale-on-prevention-of-ethylene-glycol-induced-renal-stone-in-male-wistar-rats
#5
Sadrollah Mehrabi, Eslam Askarpour, Farhad Mehrabi, Ramin Jannesar
BACKGROUND: Nasturtium officinale is a traditional herb that is used for diuresis. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to determine the effects of hydrophilic extract of Nasturtium officinale on ethylene glycol-induced renal stone in male Wistar rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study 32 male Wistar rats were randomly divided in six groups and studied during 30 days. Two groups of negative and healthy control received 1% ethylene glycol in water respectively...
October 2016: Journal of Nephropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896392/tubular-and-genetic-disorders-associated-with-kidney-stones
#6
REVIEW
Nilufar Mohebbi, Pietro Manuel Ferraro, Giovanni Gambaro, Robert Unwin
This concise review summarizes our current understanding and the recent developments in genetics and related renal tubular disorders that have been linked with, or have been shown to be causal in, renal stone disease. The aim is to provide a readily accessible quick and easy update for urologists, nephrologists and endocrine or metabolic physicians whose practice involves the diagnosis and management of nephrolithiasis. An important message is to always consider a seemingly rare, and usually genetic, cause of kidney stones, since some of these are emerging as more common than originally thought, especially in adult clinical practice in which a family history of stones is a common finding...
November 28, 2016: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856353/urolithiasis-in-renal-transplant-donors-and-recipients-an-update
#7
REVIEW
Ahmed M Harraz, Ahmed I Kamal, Ahmed A Shokeir
Urolithiasis in the context of renal transplant is a quite rare event that requires keeping a higher index of suspicion and vigilance. Donors with incidentally discovered asymptomatic renal stones "donor gifted lithiasis" are potentially considered for donation should they are not recurrent stone formers and in the absence of active biochemical disorders. Stone clearance from the donors can be done before donation using shock wave lithotripsy and/or flexible ureteroscopy. Ex vivo ureteroscopy at time of transplant is equally feasible and safe...
December 2016: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846788/urinary-oxalate-to-creatinine-ratios-in-healthy-turkish-schoolchildren
#8
Ismail Dursun, İlknur Çelik, Hakan M Poyrazoglu, Kader Köse, Esen Tanrıkulu, Habibe Sahin, Kenan Yılmaz, Ahmet Öztürk, Sibel Yel, Zübeyde Gündüz, Ruhan Düşünsel
AIM: we aimed to establish reference values for urinary oxalate to creatinine ratios in healthy children aged 6-15 years and to investigate the relationship between their nutritional habits and oxalate excretion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Random urine specimens from 953 healthy children aged 6-15 years were obtained and analyzed for oxalate and creatinine. Additionally, a 24-h dietary recall form was prepared and given to them. The ingredient composition of the diet was calculated...
November 15, 2016: Renal Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813386/retroperitoneoscopic-pyelolithotomy-a-good-alternative-treatment-for-renal-pelvic-calculi-in-children
#9
Bruno Nicolino Cezarino, Rubens Park, Paulo Renato Marcelo Moscardi, Roberto Iglesias Lopes, Francisco T Denes, Miguel Srougi
INTRODUCTION: Nephrolitiasis, once considered an adult disease, has become increasingly prevalent in children, with na increase from 6% to 10 % annually in past 25 years. Kidney stones in pediatric population can result from metabolic diseases in up to 50% of children affected. Other factors associated with litiasis are infection, dietary factors, and anatomic malformations of urinary tract. Standard treatment procedures for pediatric population are similar to adult population. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), ureterorenoscopy (URS), percutaneous nepfrolithotomy (PCNL), as well as laparoscopic and retroperitoneoscopic approaches can be indicated in selected cases...
November 2016: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781020/stem-cells-in-functional-bladder-engineering
#10
REVIEW
Jakub Smolar, Souzan Salemi, Maya Horst, Tullio Sulser, Daniel Eberli
Conditions impairing bladder function in children and adults, such as myelomeningocele, posterior urethral valves, bladder exstrophy or spinal cord injury, often need urinary diversion or augmentation cystoplasty as when untreated they may cause severe bladder dysfunction and kidney failure. Currently, the gold standard therapy of end-stage bladder disease refractory to conservative management is enterocystoplasty, a surgical enlargement of the bladder with intestinal tissue. Despite providing functional improvement, enterocystoplasty is associated with significant long-term complications, such as recurrent urinary tract infections, metabolic abnormalities, stone formation, and malignancies...
September 2016: Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765695/vitamin-d-repletion-in-kidney-stone-formers-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Matthew C Ferroni, Kevin J Rycyna, Timothy D Averch, Michelle J Semins
PURPOSE: Vitamin D deficiency is often detected during metabolic evaluation in the nephrolithiasis population. Multiple vitamin D repletion protocols exist, however their differing impact on urinary stone formation risk factors is unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with a history of calcium stones and vitamin D deficiency (<30ng/ml) were randomized to receive either 1,000 International Units (IU) daily or 50,000 IU weekly of vitamin D supplementation for 6 weeks...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746283/the-role-of-the-24-hour-urine-collection-in-the-prevention-of%C3%A2-kidney-stone-recurrence
#12
Ryan S Hsi, Thomas Sanford, David S Goldfarb, Marshall L Stoller
PURPOSE: Kidney stone prevention relies on the 24-hour urine collection to diagnose metabolic abnormalities and direct dietary and pharmacological therapy. While its use is guideline supported for high risk and interested patients, evidence that the test can accurately predict recurrence or treatment response is limited. We sought to critically reassess the role of the 24-hour urine collection in stone prevention. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In addition to a MEDLINE® search to identify controlled studies of dietary and pharmacological interventions, evidence supporting the AUA (American Urological Association) and EAU (European Association of Urology) guidelines for metabolic stone prevention were evaluated...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709297/silicate-calculi-a-rare-cause-of-kidney-stones-in-children
#13
Mehmet Taşdemir, Dilara Fuçucuoğlu, Oktay Özman, Lale Sever, Bülent Önal, Ilmay Bilge
BACKGROUND: Urinary silicate calculi in humans are extremely rare. Reported cases of silicate calculi are mostly documented in adults and are commonly related to an excessive intake of magnesium trisilicate in food or drugs. Published studies on the presence of silicate calculi in children are scarce. CASES: Three cases of silicate kidney stones without prior silicate intake are reported. Two patients underwent surgical treatment, and the third patient was treated using conservative methods...
February 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708409/hyperoxaluria-leads-to-dysbiosis-and-drives-selective-enrichment-of-oxalate-metabolizing-bacterial-species-in-recurrent-kidney-stone-endures
#14
Mangesh V Suryavanshi, Shrikant S Bhute, Swapnil D Jadhav, Manish S Bhatia, Rahul P Gune, Yogesh S Shouche
Hyperoxaluria due to endogenously synthesized and exogenously ingested oxalates is a leading cause of recurrent oxalate stone formations. Even though, humans largely rely on gut microbiota for oxalate homeostasis, hyperoxaluria associated gut microbiota features remain largely unknown. Based on 16S rRNA gene amplicons, targeted metagenomic sequencing of formyl-CoA transferase (frc) gene and qPCR assay, we demonstrate a selective enrichment of Oxalate Metabolizing Bacterial Species (OMBS) in hyperoxaluria condition...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663026/response-of-germ-free-mice-to-colonization-with-o-formigenes-and-altered-schaedler-flora
#15
Xingsheng Li, Melissa L Ellis, Alexander E Dowell, Ranjit Kumar, Casey D Morrow, Trenton R Schoeb, John Knight
: Colonization with Oxalobacter formigenes may reduce the risk of calcium oxalate kidney stone disease. To improve our limited understanding of host/O.formigenes and microbe/O.formigenes interactions, germ-free or altered Schaedler flora (ASF) mice were colonized with O.formigenes Germ-free mice were stably colonized with O.formigenes suggesting O.formigenes does not require other organisms to sustain its survival. Examination of intestinal material indicated no viable O.formigenes in the small intestine, ∼4 × 10(6) O...
September 23, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604776/hypercalcemia-hypercalciuria-and-kidney-stones-in-long-term-studies-of-vitamin-d-supplementation-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Zarintaj Malihi, Zhenqiang Wu, Alistair W Stewart, Carlene Mm Lawes, Robert Scragg
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D supplementation is increasingly being used in higher doses in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). However, adverse events from very large annual doses of vitamin D have been shown in 2 RCTs, whereas in a third RCT, low-dose vitamin D, with calcium supplements, was shown to increase kidney stone risk. OBJECTIVE: We analyzed the side effects related to calcium metabolism in RCTs, specifically hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, and kidney stones, in participants who were given vitamin D supplements for ≥24 wk compared with in subjects in the placebo arm...
October 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539983/pathophysiology-based-treatment-of-urolithiasis
#17
REVIEW
Takahiro Yasui, Atsushi Okada, Shuzo Hamamoto, Ryosuke Ando, Kazumi Taguchi, Keiichi Tozawa, Kenjiro Kohri
Urolithiasis, a complex multifactorial disease, results from interactions between environmental and genetic factors. Epidemiological studies have shown the association of urolithiasis with a number of lifestyle-related diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Elucidation of the mechanisms underlying urinary stone formation will enable development of new preventive treatments. The present article reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology and potential treatment of urolithiasis...
August 18, 2016: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27488444/obesity-and-urolithiasis-evidence-of-regional-influences
#18
Alberto Trinchieri, Emanuele Croppi, Emanuele Montanari
There is evidence that obese patients have an increased risk of renal stone formation, although this relationship could be less evident in some populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of overweight and obesity on the risk of renal stone formation in a population consuming a Mediterranean diet and to better elucidate the mechanisms underlying the increased risk of urolithiasis observed in obese subjects. We performed a retrospective review of 1698 stone forming patients (mean age 45.9 ± 14...
August 3, 2016: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27455001/-analysis-of-a-cerebrotendinous-xanthomatosis-case-with-mental-retardation-as-the-initial-symptom
#19
Liangliang Zhang, Long Zhang, Na Nian, Xuen Yu, Yongguang Shi, Yan Yan, Dandan Sun, Nan Cheng, Xun Wang, Renmin Yang
OBJECTIVE: To analyze a case of cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) with mental retardation as the initial neurological symptom. METHODS: Medical imaging, histopathological assay and genetic testing were carried out to analyze the patient. RESULTS: Neurological manifestations of the 27-year-old male patient were initiated by mental retardation and subsequently memory lapses, ataxia, spastic paraplegia and fuzzy language. Other symptoms included cataract, xanthomatosis in Achilles tendon, kidney stones and high arches...
August 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27443631/metabolomics-analysis-for-hydroxy-l-proline-induced-calcium-oxalate-nephrolithiasis-in-rats-based-on-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#20
Songyan Gao, Rui Yang, Zhongjiang Peng, Hongtao Lu, Na Li, Jiarong Ding, Xingang Cui, Wei Chen, Xin Dong
About 80% of kidney stones are composed of calcium oxalate (CaOx) with variable amounts of calcium phosphate, and hyperoxaluria is considered as an important factor of CaOx nephrolithiasis. However, the underlying metabolic mechanisms of CaOx nephrolithiasis remain undefined. In this study, we successfully developed a rat model with hydroxy-L-proline (HLP) -induced CaOx nephrolithiasis. Rats were continuously orally administrated with HLP for 28 days. Urine and blood samples were collected from the rats treated with or without HLP at four different time points...
2016: Scientific Reports
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