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Relaxometry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699215/automated-t2-relaxometry-of-the-hippocampus-for-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#1
Gavin P Winston, Sjoerd B Vos, Jane L Burdett, M Jorge Cardoso, Sebastien Ourselin, John S Duncan
OBJECTIVE: Hippocampal sclerosis (HS), the most common cause of refractory temporal lobe epilepsy, is associated with hippocampal volume loss and increased T2 signal. These can be identified on quantitative imaging with hippocampal volumetry and T2 relaxometry. Although hippocampal segmentation for volumetry has been automated, T2 relaxometry currently involves subjective and time-consuming manual delineation of regions of interest. In this work, we develop and validate an automated technique for hippocampal T2 relaxometry...
July 12, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697447/dynamical-regimes-of-lipids-in-additivated-liposomes-with-enhanced-elasticity-a-field-cycling-nmr-relaxometry-approach
#2
Carla C Fraenza, Esteban Anoardo
We study the molecular dynamics of lipids in binary large unilamellar liposomes suspended in D2O composed of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) or soy phosphatidylcholine (SPC) additivated with different percentiles of sodium deoxycholate (SDC). We use the fast field-cycling proton NMR relaxometry technique over a wide timescale and at diverse temperatures. A model previously validated in different formulations is here employed for the relaxometric analysis of elastic vesicles. A new dynamical regime is observed for the first time in additivated DMPC and additivated/non-additivated SPC liposomes...
June 27, 2017: Biophysical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692849/designing-healthier-comminuted-meat-products-effect-of-dietary-fibers-on-water-distribution-and-texture-of-a-fat-reduced-meat-model-system
#3
Minyi Han, Hanne Christine Bertram
Development of healthier meat products is needed to meet consumers' request. The effects of dietary fiber addition on the water distribution, water binding capacity (WBC), and textural properties of a fat-reduced model meat system enriched with inulin, cellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), chitosan, pectin, respectively, were investigated in this study. The fibers were incorporated in powder form to constitute 2% (w/w) of the meat batter. In general, fiber enrichment resulted in significant lower cooking loss and improved WBC, while the impact on texture was dependent on the specific dietary fiber...
July 3, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688198/study-of-the-interactions-between-proximal-femur-3d-bone-shape-cartilage-health-and-biomechanics-in-patients-with-hip-osteoarthritis
#4
Valentina Pedoia, Michael A Samaan, Gaurav Inamdar, Matthew C Gallo, Richard B Souza, Sharmila Majumdar
In this study quantitative MRI and gait analysis were used to investigate the relationships between proximal femur 3D bone shape, cartilage morphology, cartilage biochemical composition, and joint biomechanics in subject with hip Osteoarthritis (OA). Eighty subjects underwent unilateral hip MR-imaging: T1ρ and T2 relaxation times were extracted through voxel based relaxometry and bone shape was assessed with 3D MRI-based statistical shape modeling. In addition, 3D gait analysis was performed in seventy-six of the studied subjects...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687012/value-of-quantitative-magnetic-resonance-imaging-t1-relaxometry-in-predicting-contrast-enhancement-in-glioblastoma-patients
#5
Elke Hattingen, Andreas Müeller, Alina Jurcoane, Burkhard Mädler, Philip Ditter, Hans Schild, Ulrich Herrlinger, Martin Glas, Sied Kebir
The repetitive usage of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCA) is critical for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation of tumor burden in glioblastoma patients. It is also a crucial tool for determination of radiographical response to treatment. GBCA injection, however, comes with a 2.4% rate of adverse events including life-threatening conditions such as nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF). Moreover, GBCA have been shown to be deposited in brain tissue of patients even with an intact blood-brain barrier (BBB)...
June 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684589/imaging-in-metabolic-research-adipose-tissue-and-liver
#6
Jesper Lundbom
Adipose tissue and liver are central tissues in whole body energy metabolism. Their composition, structure and function can be non-invasively imaged using a variety of measurement techniques, which provide a safe alternative to an invasive biopsy. Imaging of adipose tissue is focused on quantitating the distribution of adipose tissue in subcutaneous and intra-abdominal (visceral) adipose tissue depots. Also detailed subdivisions of adipose tissue can be distinguished with modern imaging techniques. Adipose tissue accumulation or infiltration of other organs can also be imaged...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674518/brain-susceptibility-changes-in-a-patient-with-natalizumab-related-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-a-longitudinal-quantitative-susceptibility-mapping-and-relaxometry-study
#7
Giuseppe Pontillo, Sirio Cocozza, Roberta Lanzillo, Pasquale Borrelli, Anna De Rosa, Vincenzo Brescia Morra, Enrico Tedeschi, Giuseppe Palma
BACKGROUND: Brain MRI plays an essential role in both diagnosis and follow-up of the JC virus infection of the brain. Recently, MR studies with susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) sequences have shown hypointensities in U-fibers adjacent to white matter (WM) lesions of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). This finding has been confirmed with the use of quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM), allowing to hypothesize a paramagnetic effect in these regions. Here, we report the first longitudinal assessment of QSM and R2* maps in natalizumab-associated PML to evaluate serial changes in susceptibility contrast images and their role in PML diagnosis and follow-up...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638673/monitoring-of-cellular-changes-in-the-bone-marrow-following-pth-1-34-treatment-of-ovx-rats-using-a-portable-stray-field-nmr-scanner
#8
Inbar Hillel, Itzhak Binderman, Yifat Sarda, Uri Nevo
Osteoporosis is characterized by reduction in trabecular bone in conjunction with increased marrow cell adiposity. While these changes occur within weeks, monitoring of treatment efficacy as performed by DEXA is sensitive only to long-term changes. MRI is sensitive to bone marrow changes but is less affordable. In a recent study, we have shown that a stray-field NMR can monitor bone marrow cellular changes that are related to osteoporosis. Objectives. To demonstrate sensitivity of a low-field tabletop NMR scanner to bone marrow dynamics following hormonal treatment in rats...
2017: Journal of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636349/water-dynamics-from-the-surface-to-the-interior-of-a-supramolecular-nanostructure
#9
Julia H Ortony, Baofu Qiao, Christina J Newcomb, Timothy J Keller, Liam C Palmer, Elad Deiss-Yehiely, Monica Olvera de la Cruz, Songi Han, Samuel I Stupp
Water within and surrounding the structure of a biological system adopts context-specific dynamics that mediate virtually all of the events involved in the inner workings of a cell. These events range from protein folding and molecular recognition to the formation of hierarchical structures. Water dynamics are mediated by the chemistry and geometry of interfaces where water and biomolecules meet. Here we investigate experimentally and computationally the translational dynamics of vicinal water molecules within the volume of a supramolecular peptide nanofiber measuring 6...
June 21, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624093/osmotic-dehydration-of-organic-kiwifruit-pre-treated-by-pulsed-electric-fields-and-monitored-by-nmr
#10
Maria Victoria Traffano-Schiffo, Luca Laghi, Marta Castro-Giraldez, Urszula Tylewicz, Pietro Rocculi, Luigi Ragni, Marco Dalla Rosa, Pedro J Fito
Osmotic dehydration (OD) is a widely used preservation technique that consists in the reduction in food water activity by the immersion of the biological tissue in hypertonic solutions. The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF) in mass transfer as a pre-treatment of the OD using NMR. In this sense, PEF pre-treatments were done using three different voltages (100, 250 and 400V/cm) and 60 number of pulse. The OD of kiwifruit was carried out in 61.5% of sucrose solution at 25°C, for a contact period from 0 to 120min...
December 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624092/study-on-the-effects-of-wheat-bran-incorporation-on-water-mobility-and-biopolymer-behavior-during-bread-making-and-storage-using-time-domain-1-h-nmr-relaxometry
#11
S Hemdane, P J Jacobs, G M Bosmans, J Verspreet, J A Delcour, C M Courtin
Water binding is suggested to be key in the deleterious effect of wheat bran on bread quality. This study investigates water mobility and biopolymer behavior during bran-rich bread making and storage, using (1)H NMR. Coarse, ground, and pericarp-enriched bran were incorporated in bread dough, and their impact on freshly baked and stored bread properties was assessed. Compared to wheat flour control dough, bran incorporation resulted in a progressive immobilization of water during dough resting, which could be linked to changes in evolution of dough height during fermentation and oven rise...
December 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624091/study-of-biopolymer-mobility-and-water-dynamics-in-wheat-bran-using-time-domain-1-h-nmr-relaxometry
#12
S Hemdane, P J Jacobs, G M Bosmans, J Verspreet, J A Delcour, C M Courtin
In this study, the molecular mobility of water and biopolymers in coarse, ground, and pericarp-enriched (PE) wheat bran and refined flour was investigated using time-domain proton nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry, and related to their hydration properties. Several specific proton populations were present in the bran samples but not in flour. These populations were mainly assigned to protons of bran-related compounds such as arabinoxylan, cellulose, and lipids. All bran samples showed similar proton distributions at a 44% moisture level, although the chemical composition of coarse/ground bran and PE bran differed...
December 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620719/large-coverage-mr-neurography-in-cidp-diagnostic-accuracy-and-electrophysiological-correlation
#13
Moritz Kronlage, Philipp Bäumer, Kalliopi Pitarokoili, Daniel Schwarz, Véronique Schwehr, Tim Godel, Sabine Heiland, Ralf Gold, Martin Bendszus, Min-Suk Yoon
The objective of this study was to evaluate large coverage magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). In this prospective study, 18 patients with CIDP and 18 healthy controls were examined by a standardized MRN protocol at 3 T. Lumbosacral plexus was imaged by a T2-weighted 3D sequence and peripheral nerves of the upper and lower extremity by axial T2-weighted turbo spin-echo sequences. Lesions were characterized by nerve cross-sectional area (CSA) and T2-weighted signal (nT2)...
July 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618066/assessment-of-ferritin-content-in-multiple-sclerosis-brains-using-temperature-induced-r-2-changes
#14
Christoph Birkl, Daniele Carassiti, Fariha Hussain, Christian Langkammer, Christian Enzinger, Franz Fazekas, Klaus Schmierer, Stefan Ropele
PURPOSE: Current MRI techniques cannot reliably assess iron content in white matter due to the confounding diamagnetic effect of myelin. The purpose of this study was to validate with histology a novel iron mapping technique that uses the temperature dependency of the paramagnetic susceptibility in multiple sclerosis (MS) brains, where white matter has been reported to show significant variations in iron content. METHODS: We investigated post mortem brain tissue from three MS patients and one control subject...
June 15, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605962/novel-approach-to-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-epileptic-dogs-t2-relaxometry-of-the-brain-with-emphasised-hippocampus
#15
Borbála A Lorincz, Agustina Anson, Péter Csébi, Gábor Bajzik, Gergely Biró, Alexander Tichy, Balázs B Lorincz, Rita Garamvölgyi
Hippocampal sclerosis is the most common imaging finding of intractable human epilepsy, and it may play an important role in canine and feline epileptogenesis and seizure semiology, too. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) criteria of hippocampal sclerosis are T2 hyperintensity, shrinkage and loss of internal structure. The detection of these changes is often challenging by subjective visual assessment of qualitative magnetic resonance (MR) images. The recognition is more reliable with quantitative MR methods, such as T2 relaxometry...
June 2017: Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601058/in-vitro-study-of-spions-c595-as-molecular-imaging-probe-for-specific-breast-cancer-mcf-7-cells-detection
#16
Pegah Moradi Khaniabadi, Daryoush Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Amin Malik Shah Abdul Majid, Mohammad Suhaimi Jaafar, Bita Moradi Khaniabadi, Saghar Shahbazi-Gahrouei
Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an essential role in molecular imaging by delivering the contrast agent into targeted cancer cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the C595 monoclonal antibody-conjugated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs-C595) for the detection of breast cancer cell (MCF-7). Methods: The conjugation of monoclonal antibody and nanoparticles was confirmed using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and photon correlation spectroscopy...
June 11, 2017: Iranian Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597421/nitrogen-deficiency-impacts-on-leaf-cell-and-tissue-structure-with-consequences-for-senescence-associated-processes-in-brassica-napus
#17
Clément Sorin, Laurent Leport, Mireille Cambert, Alain Bouchereau, François Mariette, Maja Musse
Improvement of nutrient use efficiency is a major goal for several crop plants, especially Brassica napus. Indeed, the low nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in this crop results in negative economic and ecological consequences. The low NUE of oilseed rape is mainly due to low remobilization of nitrogen from vegetative parts to growing organs. Remobilization of leaf nitrogen takes place during senescence, a process known to strongly modify cell and tissue structure. This study focused on the impact of moderate N depletion, expected to induce 30 % reduction of seed yield, on these structural modifications...
December 2016: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591831/the-gut-metagenome-changes-in-parallel-to-waist-circumference-brain-iron-deposition-and-cognitive-function
#18
Gerard Blasco, José Maria Moreno-Navarrete, Mireia Rivero, Vicente Pérez-Brocal, Josep Garre-Olmo, Josep Puig, Pepus Daunis-I-Estadella, Carles Biarnés, Jordi Gich, Fernando Fernández-Aranda, Ángel Alberich-Bayarri, Andrés Moya, Salvador Pedraza, Wifredo Ricart, Miguel López, Manuel Portero-Otin, José-Manuel Fernandez-Real
Context: Microbiota perturbations seem to exert modulatory effects on emotional behavior, stress- and pain-modulation systems in adult animals; however, limited information is available in humans. Objective: To study potential relationships among the gut metagenome, brain microstructure and cognitive performance in middle-aged, apparently healthy, obese and nonobese subjects, after weight changes. Design: This is a longitudinal study over a 2-year period...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588270/maternal-placental-fetal-biodistribution-of-multimodal-polymeric-nanoparticles-in-a-pregnant-rat-model-in-mid-and-late-gestation
#19
Diwei Ho, Joan W Leong, Rachael C Crew, Marck Norret, Michael J House, Peter J Mark, Brendan J Waddell, K Swaminathan Iyer, Jeffrey A Keelan
Multimodal polymeric nanoparticles have many exciting diagnostic and therapeutic applications, yet their uptake and passage by the placenta, and applications in the treatment of pregnancy complications have not been thoroughly investigated. In this work, the maternal-fetal-placental biodistribution of anionic and cationic multimodal poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) nanoparticles in pregnant rats at mid (ED10) and late (ED20) gestation was examined. Fluorescently-labelled and superparamagnetic PGMA nanoparticles functionalized with/without poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) were administered to pregnant rats at a clinically-relevant dose and biodistribution and tissue uptake assessed...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574565/molecular-dynamics-of-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium-triflate-ionic-liquid-studied-by-1-h-and-19-f-nuclear-magnetic-resonances
#20
Magdalena Wencka, Tomaž Apih, Romana Cerc Korošec, Jacek Jenczyk, Marcin Jarek, Kosma Szutkowski, Stefan Jurga, Janez Dolinšek
The molecular dynamics of an ionic liquid (IL) composed of a 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium cation and a triflate (trifluoromethanesulfonate) anion, abbreviated as [Emim][TfO], were studied by NMR spectroscopy. By measuring the temperature-dependent high-field 1H and (19)F spin-lattice relaxation (SLR) rates, the frequency-dependent (1)H and (19)F SLR dispersion curves using fast-field-cycling relaxometry, and the temperature-dependent 1H and (19)F diffusion constants, and by utilizing the fact that the primary NMR-active nucleus on the Emim cation is (1)H, whereas on the TfO anion it is (19)F, the cationic and anionic dynamics were studied separately...
June 14, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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