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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312560/ultrasound-molecular-imaging-with-crgd-plga-pfob-nanoparticles-for-liver-fibrosis-staging-in-a-rat-model
#1
Jiqing Xuan, Yuli Chen, Leilei Zhu, Yuan Guo, Liming Deng, Yuanyi Zheng, Zhaoxia Wang, Zhigang Wang, Meng Ao
Hepatic fibrosis is the only chronic liver disease process that can be reversed. Developing non-invasive and effective methods to quantitatively assess the degree of liver fibrosis is of great clinical significance and remains a major challenge. The key factors in hepatic fibrosis pathogenesis are the activation and proliferation of hepatic stellate cells that subsequently express integrin αvβ3. An ultrasound (US) agent combined with a targeting peptide may be used for the early and non-invasive diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis...
December 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288684/the-octapetide-nap-alleviates-intestinal-and-extra-intestinal-anti-inflammatory-sequelae-of-acute-experimental-colitis
#2
Markus M Heimesaat, Eliezer Giladi, Anja A Kühl, Stefan Bereswill, Illana Gozes
The octapeptide NAP has been shown to exert neuroprotective properties and reduce neuro-inflammatory responses. The aim of the present study was to investigate if NAP provides anti-inflammatory effects in acute murine colitis. To address this, C57BL/6 j mice were challenged with 3.5% dextran sulfate sodium from day 0 until day 6 to induce colitis, either treated intraperitoneally with NAP or placebo (NaCl 0.9%) from day 1 until day 6 post-induction (p.i.) and subjected to in depth macroscopic, microscopic and immunological evaluations...
December 27, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238473/the-effects-of-cck-8s-on-spatial-memory-and-long-term-potentiation-at-ca1-during-induction-of-stress-in-rats
#3
Malihe Sadeghi, Parham Reisi, Maryam Radahmadi
Objectives: Cholecystokinin (CCK) has been proposed as a mediator in stress. However, it is still not fully documented what are its effects. We aimed to evaluate the effects of systemic administration of CCK exactly before induction of stress on spatial memory and synaptic plasticity at CA1 in rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: the control, the control-CCK, the stress and the stress-CCK. Restraint stress was induced 6 hr per day, for 24 days...
December 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220360/substitutions-of-prp-n-terminal-histidine-residues-modulate-scrapie-disease-pathogenesis-and-incubation-time-in-transgenic-mice
#4
Sabina Eigenbrod, Petra Frick, Uwe Bertsch, Gerda Mitteregger-Kretzschmar, Janina Mielke, Marko Maringer, Niklas Piening, Alexander Hepp, Nathalie Daude, Otto Windl, Johannes Levin, Armin Giese, Vignesh Sakthivelu, Jörg Tatzelt, Hans Kretzschmar, David Westaway
Prion diseases have been linked to impaired copper homeostasis and copper induced-oxidative damage to the brain. Divalent metal ions, such as Cu2+ and Zn2+, bind to cellular prion protein (PrPC) at octapeptide repeat (OR) and non-OR sites within the N-terminal half of the protein but information on the impact of such binding on conversion to the misfolded isoform often derives from studies using either OR and non-OR peptides or bacterially-expressed recombinant PrP. Here we created new transgenic mouse lines expressing PrP with disrupted copper binding sites within all four histidine-containing OR's (sites 1-4, H60G, H68G, H76G, H84G, "TetraH>G" allele) or at site 5 (composed of residues His-95 and His-110; "H95G" allele) and monitored the formation of misfolded PrP in vivo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220182/total-synthesis-of-reniochalistatin-e
#5
Anthony Fatino, Giovanna Baca, Chamitha Weeramange, Ryan J Rafferty
Reniochalistatin E (1) is one of the five related cyclic peptides isolated from the marine sponge Reniochalina stalagmitis. The discovery of these compounds resulted from a screening program directed toward the identification of proline-rich bioactive compounds. Reniochalistatin E is the only member of the family to possess a tryptophan amino acid residue. Given the cytotoxicity observed for 1, efforts were directed toward developing a synthetic route to 1. The first total synthesis of 1 has been accomplished in a 15-step route in an overall 5...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218341/templated-co-assembly-into-nanorods-of-polyanions-and-artificial-virus-capsid-proteins
#6
A Hernandez-Garcia, M A Cohen Stuart, R de Vries
Recombinant triblock polypeptides C-Sn-B, where C is a 400 amino acid long hydrophilic random coil block, Sn is a multimer of the silk-like octapeptide S = (GAGAGAGQ), and B = K12 is an oligolysine, have previously been shown to encapsulate double stranded DNA into rod-shaped, virus-like particles. In order to gain insight of the co-assembly process, and in order to be able to use these proteins for templating other types of nanorods, we here explore their co-assembly with a range of polyanionic templates: poly(acrylic acids) (PAA) of a wide range of lengths, poly(styrene sulphonate) (PSS) and the stiff anionic polysaccharide xanthan...
December 8, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157802/identification-and-in-silico-characterization-of-a-novel-peptide-inhibitor-of-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-from-pigeon-pea-cajanus-cajan
#7
K A Ayub Nawaz, Swapna Merlin David, Easwaran Murugesh, Murugesan Thandeeswaran, Kalarikkal Gopikrishnan Kiran, Ramasamy Mahendran, Muthusamy Palaniswamy, Jayaraman Angayarkanni
BACKGROUND: Plants are important sources of bioactive peptides. Among these, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides have a major focus on their ability to prevent hypertension. Inhibition of ACE has been established as an effective approach for the treatment of ACE associated diseases. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: Some synthetic ACE inhibitory drugs cause side effects and hence there is a constant interest in natural compounds as alternatives. STUDY DESIGN: The study was designed to identify and characterize a peptide molecule from pigeon pea which has the biological property to inhibit ACE and can be developed as a therapeutic approach towards hypertension...
December 1, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155559/crafting-of-neuroprotective-octapeptide-from-taxol-binding-pocket-of-%C3%AE-tubulin
#8
Prasenjit Mondal, Gaurav Das, Juhee Khan, Krishnangsu Pradhan, Surajit Ghosh
Microtubules play crucial role in maintaining the shape and function of neurons. During progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), severe destabilization of microtubule occurs, which leads to the permanent disruption of signal transduction process and memory loss. Thus, microtubule stabilization is one of the key requirements for the treatment of AD. Taxol, a microtubule stabilizing anti-cancer drug has been considered as potential anti-AD drug but never tested in AD patients, likely because of its' toxic nature and poor brain exposure...
November 20, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147935/nucleotide-and-octapeptide-repeat-variations-of-the-prion-protein-coding-gene-prnp-in-anatolian-murrah-and-crossbred-water-buffaloes
#9
Yalçın Yaman, Cemal Ün
Resistance to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) that is significantly associated with insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms at two loci (putative promoter and intron 1) on the prion protein gene (PRNP) in cattle has been well documented. Studies suggest that the insertion alleles are related to BSE resistance. Until recently, BSE has never been reported in water buffaloes (unlike cattle). Previous studies have demonstrated that the PRNP gene in water buffalo consists mostly of insertion alleles at both loci; nevertheless, whether or not water buffaloes are genetically resistant to BSE and the role of indel polymorphisms in their resistance status is not clear...
November 16, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097029/conformational-properties-of-ascydiacyclamide-analogues-with-cyclic-%C3%AE-amino-acids-instead-of-oxazoline-residues
#10
Akiko Asano, Shohei Numata, Takeshi Yamada, Katsuhiko Minoura, Mitsunobu Doi
Ascidiacyclamide [ASC, cyclo(-Ile-oxazoline-d-Val-thiazole-)2] is a cyclic octapeptide isolated from tunicates. We designed ASC analogues [cyclo(-Ile-Xxx-d-Val-thiazole-)2] in which Pro or a homologue was substituted for oxazoline: [Pro]ASC (Xxx: proline), [Aze]ASC (Xxx: (S)-Azetidine-2-carboxylic acid), [Pip]ASC (Xxx: (S)-Piperidine-2-carboxylic acid) and [ΔPro]ASC (Xxx: (S)-3-pyrroline-2-carboxylic acid) to explore their potential to serve as substitutes for the oxazoline ring. The conformations of these analogues were examined using X-ray diffraction, (1)H NMR and CD spectroscopy...
October 26, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092646/synergistic-dual-modified-liposome-improves-targeting-and-therapeutic-efficacy-of-bone-metastasis-from-breast-cancer
#11
Xianzhu Ke, Wen Lin, Xiaokang Li, Hailiang Wang, Xin Xiao, Zheng Guo
Breast cancer frequently metastasizes to bone, where it leads to poor clinical prognosis. Due to the peculiarity of the bone microstructure, the uptake of drugs often happens at non-targeted sites, which produces a similar cytotoxicity in both cancerous and healthy cells. In this study, a rational strategy was implemented to take advantage of a combination of both an octapeptide with eight repeating sequences of aspartate (Asp8) and folate to create a more selective and efficient drug delivery system to target cancer cells in bone tissue...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051075/the-evolution-and-functional-characterization-of-lined-seahorse-hippocampus-erectus-ccks-involved-in-fasting-and-thermal-stress-response
#12
Huixian Zhang, Geng Qin, Jinhui Sun, Bo Zhang, Qiang Lin
The peptide cholecystokinin (CCK) plays an important role in the regulation of vertebrate appetite and feeding behaviour. In the present study, the full-length cDNA and genomic DNA sequences of two CCK precursors were cloned and analysed in the Syngnathidae fish, the lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus). Both CCK1 and CCK2 in the seahorse consist of four exons. The sequence of the octapeptide of seahorse CCK1 (DYMGWMDF) was the same as that of the chicken and human, while the octapeptide of seahorse CCK2 (DYEGWMDF) was unique among vertebrates...
January 1, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046443/prion-protein-devoid-of-the-octapeptide-repeat-region-delays-bse-pathogenesis-in-mice
#13
Hideyuki Hara, Hironori Miyata, Nandita Rani Das, Junji Chida, Tatenobu Yoshimochi, Keiji Uchiyama, Hitomi Watanabe, Gen Kondoh, Takashi Yokoyama, Suehiro Sakaguchi
Conformational conversion of the cellular isoform of prion protein PrP(C), into the abnormally folded, amyloidogenic isoform, PrP(Sc), is a key pathogenic event in prion diseases including Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans and scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in animals. We previously reported that the octapeptide repeat (OR) region could be dispensable for converting PrP(C) into PrP(Sc) after infection with RML prions. We demonstrated that mice transgenically expressing mouse PrP with deletion of the OR region on the PrP-knockout background, designated Tg(PrPΔOR)/Prnp(0/0) mice, did not reduce susceptibility to RML scrapie prions, with abundant accumulation of PrP(Sc)ΔOR in their brains...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915041/preorganized-cyclic-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-disubstituted-%C3%AE-amino-acids-bearing-functionalized-side-chains-that-act-as-peptide-helix-inducers
#14
Hiroyuki Kobayashi, Takashi Misawa, Kenji Matsuno, Yosuke Demizu
Preorganized cyclic α,α-disubstituted α-amino acids (dAA) bearing functionalized side chains that acted as peptide-helix inducers, which could be used for solid-phase peptide synthesis, were designed and synthesized. Furthermore, a helical octapeptide with the following amino acid sequence was prepared, and its preferred conformation was analyzed based on its CD spectra: Ac-X(1)EYSAX(2)KA-NH2 (11: X(1) = Api(C4N3), X(2) = Ac6c). The side-chain azido functional group of peptide 11 was efficiently converted to various 1,2,3-triazole groups via Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions involving different types of alkynes...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889973/origin-of-the-reflectin-gene-and-hierarchical-assembly-of-its-protein
#15
Zhe Guan, Tiantian Cai, Zhongmin Liu, Yunfeng Dou, Xuesong Hu, Peng Zhang, Xin Sun, Hongwei Li, Yao Kuang, Qiran Zhai, Hao Ruan, Xuanxuan Li, Zeyang Li, Qihui Zhu, Jingeng Mai, Qining Wang, Luhua Lai, Jianguo Ji, Haiguang Liu, Bin Xia, Taijiao Jiang, Shu-Jin Luo, Hong-Wei Wang, Can Xie
Cephalopods, the group of animals including octopus, squid, and cuttlefish, have remarkable ability to instantly modulate body coloration and patterns so as to blend into surrounding environments [1, 2] or send warning signals to other animals [3]. Reflectin is expressed exclusively in cephalopods, filling the lamellae of intracellular Bragg reflectors that exhibit dynamic iridescence and structural color change [4]. Here, we trace the possible origin of the reflectin gene back to a transposon from the symbiotic bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri and report the hierarchical structural architecture of reflectin protein...
September 25, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866879/versatility-of-prolyl-oligopeptidase-b-in-peptide-macrocyclization
#16
Robert Michael Sgambelluri, Miranda O Smith, Jonathan D Walton
Cyclic peptides are promising compounds for new chemical biological tools and therapeutics due to their structural diversity, resistance to proteases, and membrane permeability. Amatoxins, the toxic principles of poisonous mushrooms, are biosynthesized on ribosomes as 35-mer precursor peptides which are ultimately converted to hydroxylated bicyclic octapeptides. The initial cyclization steps, catalyzed by a dedicated prolyl oligopeptidase (POPB), involves removal of the 10-amino acid leader sequence from the precursor peptide and transpeptidation to produce a monocyclic octapeptide intermediate...
September 2, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820061/renin-angiotensin-system-and-cytokines-in-chronic-kidney-disease-clinical-and-experimental-evidence
#17
Ariadna Andrade Saldanha da Silva, Thiago Ruiz Prestes, Amanda Oliveira Lauar, Beranardo Bahia Finotti, Ana Cristina Simões e Silva
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become a major public health problem in Brazil and worldwide. There are many causes of CKD, being the congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract and the glomerular diseases very common in pediatric patients, while diabetic nephropathy, CKD due to chronic arterial hypertension and glomerular diseases are predominant in adult patients. Many endogenous mediators have been related to the pathophysiology of CKD, being relevant the effects of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and the immune-inflammatory mediators including cytokines...
August 18, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819428/development-of-a-new-analog-of-sgk1-inhibitor-and-its-evaluation-as-a-therapeutic-molecule-of-colorectal-cancer
#18
Xuchun Liang, Chunling Lan, Jinzhe Zhou, Wencheng Fu, Xuesha Long, Yu An, Guanming Jiao, Kejin Wang, Yongqin Li, Jiahong Xu, Qi Huang, Bin Xu, Junjie Xiao
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. The serum and glucocorticoid inducible kinase SGK1 is highly expressed and involved in several tumors. GSK650394, a SGK1 inhibitor, has been proved to be effective in impeding tumor growth in vitro. In this study, we developed a novel analog of GSK650394, and evaluated its effects on CRC cells and tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo. HCT116 cells were treated with a concentration gradient of new developed compounds and cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) assay was used to calculate the IC50 value of every analog...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790989/a-proposal-for-a-structural-model-of-the-feline-calicivirus-protease-bound-to-the-substrate-peptide-under-physiological-conditions
#19
Masaru Yokoyama, Tomoichiro Oka, Hirotaka Takagi, Hirotatsu Kojima, Takayoshi Okabe, Tetsuo Nagano, Yukinobu Tohya, Hironori Sato
Feline calicivirus (FCV) protease functions to cleave viral precursor proteins during productive infection. Previous studies have mapped a protease-coding region and six cleavage sites in viral precursor proteins. However, how the FCV protease interacts with its substrates remains unknown. To gain insights into the interactions, we constructed a molecular model of the FCV protease bound with the octapeptide containing a cleavage site of the capsid precursor protein by homology modeling and docking simulation...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757640/effects-of-peripheral-administration-of-a-neuromedin-u-receptor-2-selective-agonist-on-food-intake-and-body-weight-in-obese-mice
#20
T Kaisho, H Nagai, T Asakawa, N Suzuki, H Fujita, K Matsumiya, N Nishizawa, Y Kanematsu-Yamaki, K Dote, J-I Sakamoto, T Asami, S Takekawa
BACKGROUND: Neuromedin U (NMU) is a neuropeptide with various physiological functions including regulation of smooth-muscle contraction, blood pressure, stress responses, and feeding behaviors. NMU activates two distinct receptors, NMUR1 and NMUR2, which are predominantly expressed in peripheral tissues and the central nervous system, respectively. It is reported that the NMU signaling system regulates food intake and body weight via NMUR2, suggesting that an NMUR2 agonist exhibiting anorectic effects would be a potential therapy for obesity...
July 31, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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