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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620971/the-adipokinetic-hormone-of-the-coleopteran-suborder-adephaga-structure-function-and-comparison-of-distribution-in-other-insects
#1
Gerd Gäde, Heather G Marco
The aim of the current study is to identify the adipokinetic hormone(s) (AKHs) of a basal suborder of the species-rich Coleoptera, the Adephaga, and possibly learn more about the ancestral AKH of beetles. Moreover, we wanted to compare the ancestral AKH with AKHs of more advanced beetles, of which a number are pest insects. This would allow us to assess whether AKH mimetics would be suitable as insecticides, that is, be harmful to the pest species but not to the beneficial species. Nine species of the Adephaga were investigated and all synthesize only one octapeptide in the corpus cardiacum, as revealed by Edman degradation sequencing techniques or by mass spectrometry...
June 16, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617610/total-synthesis-of-the-cyclic-dodecapeptides-wewakazole-and-wewakazole-b
#2
Martyn Inman, Hannah L Dexter, Christopher J Moody
The cyclic dodecapeptides wewakazole and wewakazole B have been synthesized by a divergent strategy via a common tris-proline containing oxazole octapeptide and two separate bis-oxazole containing tetrapeptide units, followed by peptide coupling and macrocyclization. The three oxazole amino acid fragments are readily accessible by rhodium(II)-catalyzed amide N-H insertion of diazocarbonyl compounds, or by the cycloaddition of rhodium carbenoids with nitriles.
June 15, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611581/glial-endozepines-inhibit-feeding-related-autonomic-functions-by-acting-at-the-brainstem-level
#3
Florent Guillebaud, Clémence Girardet, Anne Abysique, Stéphanie Gaigé, Rym Barbouche, Jérémy Verneuil, André Jean, Jérôme Leprince, Marie-Christine Tonon, Michel Dallaporta, Bruno Lebrun, Jean-Denis Troadec
Endozepines are endogenous ligands for the benzodiazepine receptors and also target a still unidentified GPCR. The endozepine octadecaneuropeptide (ODN), an endoproteolytic processing product of the diazepam-binding inhibitor (DBI) was recently shown to be involved in food intake control as an anorexigenic factor through ODN-GPCR signaling and mobilization of the melanocortinergic signaling pathway. Within the hypothalamus, the DBI gene is mainly expressed by non-neuronal cells such as ependymocytes, tanycytes, and protoplasmic astrocytes, at levels depending on the nutritional status...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548677/destabilization-of-human-insulin-fibrils-by-peptides-of-fruit-bromelain-derived-from-ananas-comosus-pineapple
#4
Sromona Das, Debasish Bhattacharyya
Deposition of insulin aggregates in human body leads to dysfunctioning of several organs. Effectiveness of fruit bromelain from pineapple in prevention of insulin aggregate was investigated. Proteolyses of bromelain was done as par human digestive system and the pool of small peptides was separated from larger peptides and proteins. Under conditions of growth of insulin aggregates from its monomers, this pool of peptides restricted the reaction upto formation of oligomers of limited size. These peptides also destabilized preformed insulin aggregates to oligomers...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490115/mechanistic-insights-into-tyrosinase-mediated-crosslinking-of-soy-glycinin-derived-peptides
#5
Sivan Isaschar-Ovdat, Ayelet Fishman
Tyrosinase from Bacillus megaterium (TyrBm) was previously used to modulate soy glycinin-based emulsions and gels. To study the crosslinking mechanism, TyrBm oxidation of three tyrosine-containing octapeptides derived from glycinin was analyzed by oxygen consumption measurements, absorbance and mass spectrometry. A significant lag period and lower activity were measured when tyrosine was located in the middle of the peptide chain. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that these peptides are crosslinked via the oxidative quinone ring of the tyrosine residue by aryl-alkylamine addition or aryloxy radical coupling to form di-DOPA (3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine)...
October 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470351/cck1-receptor-is-involved-in-the-regulation-of-protein-lysine-acetylation-in-gbc-sd-cells-and-gallbladder-carcinoma
#6
W Wu, B Ouyang, Z Lu, H Liu, Y Tan, P Cui
BACKGROUND: CCK1 (cholecystokinin receptor 1) and protein lysine acetylation were associated with several cancers, respectively. However, whether they are involved in the alternation of gallbladder carcinoma is unknown. AIMS: This study investigated the characteristics of CCK1 and protein lysine acetylation in GBC-SD cells and carcinoma of gallbladder. METHODS: The expression and localization of CCK1 were detected by western blot analysis and indirect immunofluorescence...
May 3, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400225/pegylated-neuromedin-u-8-shows-long-lasting-anorectic-activity-and-anti-obesity-effect-in-mice-by-peripheral-administration
#7
Yasushi Masuda, Satoshi Kumano, Jiro Noguchi, Kotaro Sakamoto, Hiroshi Inooka, Tetsuya Ohtaki
Neuromedin U (NMU) is a neuropeptide found in the brain and gastrointestinal tract. The NMU system has been shown to regulate energy homeostasis by both a central and a peripheral mechanism. Peripheral administration of human NMU-25 was recently shown to inhibit food intake in mice. We examined the possibility that other NMU-related peptides exert an anorectic activity by intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration. We found that rat NMU-23 and its structurally-related peptide rat neuromedin S (NMS) significantly reduced food intake in lean mice, whereas NMU-8, an active fragment of the octapeptide sequence conserved in porcine, human and mouse NMU, had no effect...
April 8, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378780/a-fluorometric-method-of-measuring-carboxypeptidase-activities-for-angiotensin-ii-and-apelin-13
#8
Pan Liu, Jan Wysocki, Peter Serfozo, Minghao Ye, Tomokazu Souma, Daniel Batlle, Jing Jin
Degradation of the biologically potent octapeptide angiotensin Ang II-(1-8) is mediated by the activities of several peptidases. The conversion of Ang II to the septapeptide Ang-(1-7) is of particular interest as the latter also confers organ protection. The conversion is catalyzed by angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and other enzymes that selectively cleave the peptide bond between the proline and the phenylalanine at the carboxyl terminus of Ang II. The contribution of various enzyme activities that collectively lead to the formation of Ang-(1-7) from Ang II, in both normal conditions and in disease states, remains only partially understood...
April 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371730/systematic-profiling-of-substrate-binding-response-to-multidrug-resistant-mutations-in-hiv-1-protease-implication-for-combating-drug-resistance
#9
Yonglei Lv, Jianbing Li, Jianhua Fang, Xiufeng Jiao, Lumin Yan, Baifeng Shan
Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) protease (PR) represents one of the primary targets for developing antiviral agents for the treatment of HIV-infected patients. However, a number of multidrug-resistant mutations in the enzyme have been observed over the past decades, largely limiting the application of PR inhibitors in antiviral therapy. A systematic investigation of the intermolecular interaction between the multidrug-resistant mutants of HIV-1 PR and its substrates would help to establish a complete profile of substrate response to PR mutations and to design new antiviral agents combating drug resistance...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370688/impact-of-the-amino-acid-sequence-on-the-conformation-of-side-chain-lactam-bridged-octapeptides
#10
Saskia Neukirchen, Viktoria Krieger, Cornelia Roschger, Mario Schubert, Brigitta Elsässer, Chiara Cabrele
Synthetic helical peptides are valuable scaffolds for the development of modulators of protein-protein interactions involving helical motifs. Backbone-to-side chain or side chain-to-side chain constraints have been and still are intensively exploited to stabilize short α-helices. Very often, these constraints have been combined with backbone modifications induced by Cα-tetrasubstituted, β-, or γ-amino acids, which facilitate the α-peptide or α/β/γ-peptide adopting an α-helical conformation. In this work, we investigated the helical character of octapeptides that were cyclized by a Lys-Asp-(i,i + 4)-lactam bridge...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339125/is-cuii-coordinated-to-patellamides-inside-prochloron-cells
#11
Peter Comba, Annika Eisenschmidt, Lawrence R Gahan, Dirk-Peter Herten, Geoffrey Nette, Gerhard Schenk, Martin Seefeld
Dinuclear CuII patellamide complexes (patellamides are naturally occurring cyclic pseudo-octapeptides) are known to be efficient catalysts for hydrolysis reactions of biological importance, e.g. phosphatase, carbonic anhydrase and glycosidase. However, the biological role of patellamides is still not known. Patellamides were originally extracted from the sea squirt L. patella but are now known to be ribosomally expressed by the blue-green algae Prochloron that live in symbiosis with L. patella. In a further step to unravel the metabolic significance of the patellamide complexes, the question as to whether these are also formed inside Prochloron cells is addressed...
March 24, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317767/empirical-and-bioinformatic-characterization-of-buffalo-bubalus-bubalis-colostrum-whey-peptides-their-angiotensin-i-converting-enzyme-inhibition
#12
N R Ashok, H S Aparna
Whey based peptides are well known for their nutritional and multifunctional properties. In this context, whey proteins from buffalo colostrum & milk were digested by in vitro simulation digestion and analyzed by nano-LC-MS/MS. Functional protein association networks, gene annotations and localization of identified proteins were carried out. An ACE inhibitory peptide sorted from the library was custom synthesized and an in vitro ACE assay was performed. The study led to the identification of 74 small peptides which were clustered into 5 gene functional groups and majority of them were secretory proteins...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257938/davunetide-improves-spatial-learning-and-memory-in-alzheimer-s-disease-associated-rats
#13
Jun Zhang, Shu-Yu Wei, Li Yuan, Lin-Lin Kong, Sheng-Xiao Zhang, Zhao-Jun Wang, Mei-Na Wu, Jin-Shun Qi
Memory loss and cognition decline are the main clinical manifestations of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Amyloid β protein (Aβ) aggregated in the brain is one of the key pathological characteristics of AD and responsible for the deficits in learning and memory. It is reported that davunetide, an octapeptide derived from activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP), inhibited Aβ aggregation and Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. To further characterize the neuroprotective roles of davunetide and its possible mechanism, the present study investigated the effects of davunetide on Aβ1-42-induced impairments in spatial memory, synaptic plasticity and hippocampal AKT level...
February 28, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225562/the-adipokinetic-hormone-of-mantodea-in-comparison-to-other-dictyoptera
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Gerd Gäde, Heather G Marco
Six species of the order Mantodea (praying mantises) are investigated for the presence and sequence of putative adipokinetic hormones (AKHs). The selected species span a wide evolutionary range of various families and subfamilies of the clade Mantodea. The corpora cardiaca of the different species are dissected, methanolic extracts prepared, peptides separated by liquid chromatography, and AKHs detected and sequenced by ion trap mass spectrometry. All six species investigated contain an octapeptide with the primary structure pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Thr-Pro-Asn-Trp amide, which is code-named Emppe-AKH and had been found earlier in three other species of Mantodea...
March 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192658/iron-release-from-the-siderophore-pyoverdine-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-involves-three-new-actors-fpvc-fpvg-and-fpvh
#15
Géraldine Ganne, Karl Brillet, Beata Basta, Béatrice Roche, Françoise Hoegy, Véronique Gasser, Isabelle J Schalk
Siderophores are iron chelators produced by bacteria to access iron, an essential nutriment. Pyoverdine (PVDI), the major siderophore produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, consists of a fluorescent chromophore linked to an octapeptide. The ferric form of PVDI is transported from the extracellular environment into the periplasm by the outer membrane transporter, FpvA. Iron is then released from the siderophore in the periplasm by a mechanism that does not involve chemical modification of the chelator but an iron reduction step...
February 23, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192121/convulxin-a-c-type-lectin-like-protein-inhibits-hcasmcs-functions-via-wad-motif-integrin-%C3%AE-v-interaction-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-independent-gene-suppression-of-gro-and-il-8
#16
Chun-Ho Shih, Tin-Bin Chiang, Wen-Jeng Wang
Convulxin (CVX), a C-type lectin-like protein (CLPs), is a potent platelet aggregation inducer. To evaluate its potential applications in angiogenic diseases, the multimeric CVX were further explored on its mode of actions toward human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMCs). The N-terminus of β-chain of CVX (CVX-β) contains a putative disintegrin-like domain with a conserved motif upon the sequence comparison with other CLPs. Importantly, native CVX had no cytotoxic activity as examined by electrophoretic pattern...
March 15, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164758/angiotensin-peptides-as-at2-receptor-agonists
#17
Mathias Hallberg, Jonas Sävmarker, Anders Hallberg
In 2004, the first nonpeptide selective angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) agonist was reported. This nonpeptide (C21), which, exerts anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic actions in vivo, has been extensively explored and is currently in clinical trials. Subsequently, a large number of related drug-like AT2R agonists have been disclosed. Reviews that summarize known structure-activity relationships (SAR) of nonpeptide AT2R agonists have recently appeared in the literature; however, very few reviews discuss the role of angiotensin peptides as AT2R agonists...
2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093944/healing-efficacy-of-fracture-targeted-gsk3%C3%AE-inhibitor-loaded-micelles-for-improved-fracture-repair
#18
Stewart A Low, Chris V Galliford, Yava L Jones-Hall, Jyoti Roy, Jiyuan Yang, Philip S Low, Jindřich Kopeček
AIM: To evaluate the fracture healing capabilities of a GSK3β inhibitor, 6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime, coupled with an aspartic acid octapeptide in a micellar delivery system. MATERIALS & METHODS: The efficacy of the intravenously administered micelles to accelerate healing of femoral fracture in mice was evaluated. Micro-computed tomography analysis was employed to obtain bone density, total volume, relative volume, trabecular thickness and trabecular spacing. RESULTS: Both fracture bone mineral density and volume were significantly higher in the micelle treatment groups when compared with controls...
January 17, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055219/integrating-molecular-networking-and-biological-assays-to-target-the-isolation-of-a-cytotoxic-cyclic-octapeptide-samoamide-a-from-an-american-samoan-marine-cyanobacterium
#19
C Benjamin Naman, Ramandeep Rattan, Svetlana E Nikoulina, John Lee, Bailey W Miller, Nathan A Moss, Lorene Armstrong, Paul D Boudreau, Hosana M Debonsi, Frederick A Valeriote, Pieter C Dorrestein, William H Gerwick
Integrating LC-MS/MS molecular networking and bioassay-guided fractionation enabled the targeted isolation of a new and bioactive cyclic octapeptide, samoamide A (1), from a sample of cf. Symploca sp. collected in American Samoa. The structure of 1 was established by detailed 1D and 2D NMR experiments, HRESIMS data, and chemical degradation/chromatographic (e.g., Marfey's analysis) studies. Pure compound 1 was shown to have in vitro cytotoxic activity against several human cancer cell lines in both traditional cell culture and zone inhibition bioassays...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943639/genetic-prion-disease-experience-of-a-rapidly-progressive-dementia-center-in-the-united-states-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#20
REVIEW
Leonel T Takada, Mee-Ohk Kim, Ross W Cleveland, Katherine Wong, Sven A Forner, Ignacio Illán Gala, Jamie C Fong, Michael D Geschwind
Although prion diseases are generally thought to present as rapidly progressive dementias with survival of only a few months, the phenotypic spectrum for genetic prion diseases (gPrDs) is much broader. The majority have a rapid decline with short survival, but many patients with gPrDs present as slowly progressive ataxic or parkinsonian disorders with progression over a few to several years. A few very rare mutations even present as neuropsychiatric disorders, sometimes with systemic symptoms such as gastrointestinal disorders and neuropathy, progressing over years to decades...
January 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
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