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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027386/the-prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-renal-insufficiency-among-korean-hiv-infected-patients-the-korea-hiv-aids-cohort-study
#1
Eun Jin Kim, Jin Young Ahn, Youn Jeong Kim, Seong Heon Wie, Dae Won Park, Joon Young Song, Hee Jung Choi, Hyun Ha Chang, Bo Youl Choi, Yunsu Choi, Ju Yeon Choi, Myung Guk Han, Chun Kang, June Myung Kim, Jun Yong Choi
BACKGROUND: Renal disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, there are very few published studies about renal insufficiency in HIV-infected persons in Asia, especially in South Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of renal insufficiency, defined as <60 mL/min/1.73 m², in subjects in the Korea HIV/AIDS Cohort Study enrolled from 19 institutions between December 2006 and July 2013...
September 2017: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023938/a-pharmacist-led-program-to-evaluate-and-reduce-polypharmacy-and-potentially-inappropriate-prescribing-in-older-hiv-positive-patients
#2
I R McNicholl, M Gandhi, C Bradley Hare, M Greene, E Pierluissi
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this pharmacist-led study was to utilize 2 validated instruments, Beers and Screening Tool of Older Persons' Potentially inappropriate Prescriptions (STOPP), to assess potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP) in older patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and evaluate pharmacist interventions. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, interventional trial. SETTING: Large urban clinic providing interdisciplinary primary and HIV care for approximately 2700 HIV-positive, publically insured patients...
October 10, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994599/a-metabolomics-and-lipidomics-study-of-mouse-models-of-type-1-diabetes-highlights-divergent-metabolism-in-purine-and-tryptophan-metabolism-prior-to-disease-on-set
#3
Steven A Murfitt, Paula Zaccone, Xinzhu Wang, Animesh Acharjee, Yvonne Sawyer, Albert Koulman, Lee D Roberts, Anne Cooke, Julian Griffin
With the increase in incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1DM), particularly in Westernised societies, there is an urgent need to understand the early molecular and metabolic alterations that accompany the autoimmune disease. This is not least because in murine models early intervention can prevent the development of overt disease. In this study we have applied a liquid chromatography (LC-) and gas chromatography (GC-) mass spectrometry (MS) metabolomics and lipidomics analysis of blood plasma and pancreas tissue extracts to follow the progression of disease in three models related to autoimmune diabetes: the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse, which is susceptible to the development of autoimmune diabetes, and the NOD-E (transgenic NOD mice that express the I-E heterodimer of the major histocompatibility complex II) and NOD- severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mouse strains, two models protected from the development of diabetes...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987189/diseases-of-the-peripheral-nerves
#4
Istvan Katona, Joachim Weis
This chapter reviews the diseases of the peripheral nerves from a neuropathologic point of view, with a special focus on specific morphologic changes, and includes a summary of the histopathologic methods available for their diagnosis. As the rate of obesity and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes increase, diabetic neuropathy is the most common cause of peripheral neuropathy. Many systemic disorders with metabolic origin, like amyloidosis, hepatic failure, vitamin deficiencies, uremia, lipid metabolism disorders, and others, can also cause axonal or myelin alterations in the peripheral nervous system...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944509/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-patients-with-prostatic-abscess-in-the-post-antibiotic-era
#5
REVIEW
Anne Lenore Ackerman, Pooja S Parameshwar, Jennifer T Anger
We reviewed the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, treatment options and outcomes of prostatic abscess in the post-antibiotic era, focusing on how patient risk factors and the emergence of multidrug-resistant organisms influence management of the condition. A MEDLINE search for "prostate abscess" or "prostatic abscess" was carried out. Prostate abscess is no longer considered a consequence of untreated urinary infection; now, men with prostatic abscess are typically debilitated or immunologically compromised, with >50% of patients having diabetes...
September 24, 2017: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937523/cytomegalovirus-retinitis-associated-with-occlusive-vasculopathy-in-an-elderly-human-immunodeficiency-virus-negative-man
#6
Kareem Moussa, Thuy Doan, Jay M Stewart, Jessica Shantha, John Gonzales, Nisha Acharya, Emmett T Cunningham
PURPOSE: To present a case of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis associated with occlusive vasculopathy presenting as sudden unilateral loss of vision in a human immunodeficiency virus-negative elderly man. METHODS: Clinical case report and literature review. RESULTS: An 84-year-old Chinese man with diabetes mellitus and primary open-angle glaucoma was seen in consultation by our uveitis service for evaluation of sudden vision loss in the right eye...
September 20, 2017: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931519/beta-cell-replacement-in-mice-using-human-type-1-diabetes-nuclear-transfer-embryonic-stem-cells
#7
Lina Sui, Nichole Danzl, Sean R Campbell, Ryan Viola, Damian Williams, Yuan Xing, Yong Wang, Neil Phillips, Greg Poffenberger, Bjarki Johannesson, Jose Oberholzer, Alvin C Powers, Rudolph L Leibel, Xiaojuan Chen, Megan Sykes, Dieter Egli
Beta cells derived from stem cells hold great promise for cell replacement therapy for diabetes. Here we examine the ability of nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells (NT-ES) derived from a type 1 diabetes patient to differentiate into beta cells, and provide a source of autologous islets for cell replacement. NT-ES cells differentiate in vitro with an average efficiency of 55% into C-peptide-positive cells, expressing markers of mature beta cells, including MAFA and NKX6.1. Upon transplantation in immunodeficient mice, grafted cells form vascularized islet-like structures containing MAFA/C-peptide-positive cells...
September 20, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929188/differential-modulation-of-il-12-family-cytokines-in-autoimmune-islet-graft-failure-in-mice
#8
Feng-Cheng Chou, Heng-Yi Chen, Hsin-Hui Chen, Gu-Jiun Lin, Shih-Hua Lin, Huey-Kang Sytwu
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The relative contribution of T helper (Th)1 and Th17 cells in graft rejection is inconclusive, on the basis of evidence provided by different T cell-related cytokine-deficient animal models and graft types. METHODS: We used novel antigen-presenting-cell-specific Il-12p35 (also known as Il12a)-knockout (KO), IL-23p19-knockdown (KD) and IL-27p28-KD strategies to investigate T cell differentiation in islet graft rejection. RESULTS: In vitro dendritic cell-T cell coculture experiments revealed that dendritic cells from Il-12p35-KO and IL-23p19-KD mice showed reduced ability to stimulate IFN-γ and IL-17 production in T cells, respectively...
September 19, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927110/characteristics-of-primary-side-population-cervical-cancer-cells
#9
Zhen-Tong Wei, Xiao-Wei Yu, Jia-Xue He, Yan Liu, Song-Ling Zhang
The aim of the present study was to identify and characterize side population (SP) cells in primary cervical cancer. A primary culture was successfully established, and the SP cells were isolated via fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Subsequently, in vitro analysis of clonogenic capacity by soft agar assay and in vivo analysis of tumorigenicity were performed. The isolated SP cells accounted for ~4.73% of the total primary culture cells. The SP cells had a decreased proliferation rate and an increased distribution in G0/G1 compared with non-SP (NSP) cells...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927044/isolation-and-characterization-of-adult-mammary-stem-cells-from-breast-cancer-adjacent-tissues
#10
Ai-Ping Shi, Zhi-Min Fan, Ke-Wei Ma, Yan-Fang Jiang, Lei Wang, Ke-Wei Zhang, Shi-Bo Fu, Ning Xu, Zhi-Ru Zhang
Normal adult mammary stem cells (AMSCs) are promising sources for breast reconstruction, particularly following the resection of breast tumors. However, carcinogenic events can potentially convert normal AMSCs to cancer stem cells, posing a safety concern for the use of AMSCs for clinical tissue regeneration. In the present study, AMSCs and autologous primary breast cancer cells were isolated and compared for their ability to differentiate, their gene expression profile, and their potential to form tumors in vivo...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918832/streptococcus-anginosus-group-bacterial-infections
#11
Tasaduq Fazili, Scott Riddell, Deanna Kiska, Tim Endy, Luca Giurgea, Calden Sharngoe, Waleed Javaid
BACKGROUND: The Streptococcus anginosus group (SAG) causes a variety of infections in adults. To better understand the burden of SAG infections and their associated morbidity and mortality, we conducted a retrospective analysis of these infections in adults at a tertiary care center. METHODS: A retrospective review of all cultures positive for SAG in adults and a corresponding review of the patients' medical records were conducted at a tertiary care facility in central New York...
September 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916384/human-immunodeficiency-virus-and-aging-in-the-era-of-effective-antiretroviral-therapy
#12
REVIEW
Puja Van Epps, Robert C Kalayjian
Persons living with HIV (PLWH) have accentuated risks for age-associated comorbidities. Compared to the general population, PLWH have a 2-fold higher risk of cardiovascular disease, a 3-fold increased risk of fracture, and a risk of kidney disease that is comparable to that in diabetes. Some comorbidities may present at younger ages than among the general population, suggesting the possibility of accelerated aging with HIV infection.
September 12, 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914637/signal-transducer-and-activator-of-transcription-gain-of-function-primary-immunodeficiency-immunodysregulation-disorders
#13
Filippo Consonni, Laura Dotta, Francesca Todaro, Donatella Vairo, Raffaele Badolato
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe primary immunodeficiencies caused by gain-of-function (GOF) mutations of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) genes, a group of genetically determined disorders characterized by susceptibility to infections and, in many cases, autoimmune manifestations. RECENT FINDINGS: GOF mutations affecting STAT1 result in increased STAT tyrosine phosphorylation and secondarily increased response to STAT1-signaling cytokines, such as interferons...
September 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906351/prevalence-evolution-and-related-risk-factors-of-kidney-disease-among-spanish-hiv-infected-individuals
#14
Javier Juega-Mariño, Anna Bonjoch, Nuria Pérez-Alvarez, Eugenia Negredo, Beatriu Bayes, Josep Bonet, Buenaventura Clotet, Ramon Romero
Prevalence of kidney disease (KD) is increasing among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected population. Different factors have been related, varying on different published series.The objectives were to study prevalence of KD in those patients, its evolution, and associated risk factors.An observational cohort study of 1596 HIV-positive patients with cross-sectional data collection in 2008 and 2010 was conducted. We obtained clinical and laboratory markers, and registered previous or current treatment with tenofovir (TDF) and indinavir (IDV)...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874533/type-1-diabetes-induction-in-humanized-mice
#15
Shulian Tan, Yang Li, Jinxing Xia, Chun-Hui Jin, Zheng Hu, Gaby Duinkerken, Yuying Li, Mohsen Khosravi Maharlooei, Estefania Chavez, Grace Nauman, Nichole Danzl, Maki Nakayama, Bart O Roep, Megan Sykes, Yong-Guang Yang
There is an urgent and unmet need for humanized in vivo models of type 1 diabetes to study immunopathogenesis and immunotherapy, and in particular antigen-specific therapy. Transfer of patient blood lymphocytes to immunodeficient mice is associated with xenogeneic graft-versus-host reactivity that complicates assessment of autoimmunity. Improved models could identify which human T cells initiate and participate in beta-cell destruction and help define critical target islet autoantigens. We used humanized mice (hu-mice) containing robust human immune repertoires lacking xenogeneic graft-versus-host reactivity to address this question...
September 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813430/reprogramming-human-gallbladder-cells-into-insulin-producing-%C3%AE-like-cells
#16
Feorillo Galivo, Eric Benedetti, Yuhan Wang, Carl Pelz, Jonathan Schug, Klaus H Kaestner, Markus Grompe
The gallbladder and cystic duct (GBCs) are parts of the extrahepatic biliary tree and share a common developmental origin with the ventral pancreas. Here, we report on the very first genetic reprogramming of patient-derived human GBCs to β-like cells for potential autologous cell replacement therapy for type 1 diabetes. We developed a robust method for large-scale expansion of human GBCs ex vivo. GBCs were reprogrammed into insulin-producing pancreatic β-like cells by a combined adenoviral-mediated expression of hallmark pancreatic endocrine transcription factors PDX1, MAFA, NEUROG3, and PAX6 and differentiation culture in vitro...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807658/self-reported-participation-in-voluntary-nonprescription-syringe-sales-in-california-s-central-valley
#17
Robin A Pollini
OBJECTIVES: California Senate Bill 41 (SB41), effective January 2012, is a human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus prevention measure designed to expand syringe access among injection drug users (IDUs) by allowing pharmacies to sell syringes without a prescription. This study assesses self-reported implementation of SB41 and characterizes barriers amenable to intervention. DESIGN: Interviewer-administered survey. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Fresno and Kern Counties, CA...
August 11, 2017: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807057/inhibitory-effects-of-hnf4%C3%AE-on-migration-maltransformation-of-hepatic-progenitors-hnf4%C3%AE-overexpressing-hepatic-progenitors-for-liver-repopulation
#18
Ping Wang, Min Cong, Tianhui Liu, Hufeng Xu, Lin Wang, Guangyong Sun, Aiting Yang, Dong Zhang, Jian Huang, Yameng Sun, Wenshan Zhao, Hong Ma, Jidong Jia, Hong You
BACKGROUND: Although they are expandable in vitro, hepatic progenitors are immature cells and share many immunomarkers with hepatocellular carcinoma, raising potential concerns regarding maltransformation after transplantation. This study investigated the effects of hepatic nuclear factor (HNF) 4α on the proliferation, migration, and maltransformation of hepatic progenitors and determined the feasibility of using these manipulated cells for transplantation. METHODS: The effects of HNF4α on rat hepatic progenitors (i...
August 14, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800593/in-vivo-functional-and-morphological-characterization-of-bone-and-striated-muscle-microcirculation-in-nsg-mice
#19
Haider Mussawy, Lennart Viezens, Gerrit Hauenherm, Malte Schroeder, Christian Schaefer
Organ-specific microcirculation plays a central role in tumor growth, tumor cell homing, tissue engineering, and wound healing. Mouse models are widely used to study these processes; however, these mouse strains often possess unique microhemodynamic parameters, making it difficult to directly compare experiments. The full functional characterization of bone and striated muscle microcirculatory parameters in non-obese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficiency/y-chain; NOD-Prkds IL2rg (NSG) mice has not yet been reported...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793879/septic-arthritis-significantly-increased-the-long-term-mortality-in-geriatric-patients
#20
Chia-Jung Wu, Chien-Cheng Huang, Shih-Feng Weng, Ping-Jen Chen, Chien-Chin Hsu, Jhi-Joung Wang, How-Ran Guo, Hung-Jung Lin
BACKGROUND: The elderly are predisposed to septic arthritis (SA) because of the aging nature and increasing comorbidities. SA may in turn increase the long-term mortality in the geriatric patients; however, it remains unclear. We conducted this prospective nationwide population-based cohort study to clarify this issue. METHODS: Using Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD), we identified 1667 geriatric participants (≥ 65 years) with SA and 16,670 geriatric participants without SA matched at a ratio of 1:10 by age, sex, and index date between 1999 and 2010...
August 9, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
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