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Cancer prostatic

Nilantha Bandara, Tamila J Stott Reynolds, Rebecca Schehr, Rajendra P Bandari, Philipp J Diebolder, Stephanie Krieger, Jingli Xu, Yubin Miao, Buck E Rogers, Charles J Smith
INTRODUCTION: In this study, we describe development of a true matched-pair theranostic agent that is able to target the αV β3 integrin and the gastrin releasing peptide receptor (GRPR). We herein describe methods to metallate and characterize the new conjugate and to validate its biological efficacy by in vitro and in vivo methods. METHODS: We have previously described the development of [RGD-Glu-6Ahx-RM2] (where RGD: Arg-Gly-Asp; Glu: glutamic acid; 6-Ahx: 6-amino hexanoic acid; RM2: (D-Phe-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-Gly-His-Sta-Leu-NH2)) that has been conjugated to a DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) bifunctional chelating agent (BFCA) to afford [RGD-Glu-[DO3A]-6-Ahx-RM2] peptide...
June 8, 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
Todd K Parsons, Rachel N Pratt, Li Tang, Yue Wu
Steroid hormones play important roles in normal physiological functions and diseases. Sex steroids hormones are important in the biology and treatment of sex hormone-related cancer such as prostate cancer and breast cancer. Cells may take up steroids using multiple mechanisms. The conventionally accepted hypothesis that steroids cross cell membrane through passive diffusion has not been tested rigorously. Experimental data suggested that cells may take up sex steroid using an active uptake mechanism. 3 H-testosterone uptake by prostate cancer cells showed typical transporter-mediated uptake kinetic...
June 18, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Panagiota S Filippou, Annie H Ren, Sudarshan Bala, Michail-Dimitrios Papaioannou, Davor Brinc, Ioannis Prassas, Theano Karakosta, Eleftherios P Diamandis
OBJECTIVE: Human tissue kallikrein 15 (KLK15) is the last cloned member of the KLK-related gene family. Despite being implicated in multiple cancers, its pathophysiological role remains unknown. We aimed to biochemically characterize KLK15 and preliminarily study its role in cancer. DESIGN & METHODS: Recombinant KLK15 protein was produced, purified to homogeneity and quantified by mass spectrometry (parallel reaction monitoring analysis). We profiled the enzymatic activity of KLK15 using fluorogenic peptide substrates, and performed kinetic analysis to discover the cleavage sites...
June 18, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
Amarnath Challapalli, Steve M Edwards, Paul Abel, Stephen A Mangar
Background & purpose: The impact of vasomotor symptoms (VMS) occurring in prostate cancer (PC) patients whilst on androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has not been extensively researched. This longitudinal study sought to assess the VMS and identify any predictive factors. Material & methods: Data from 250 PC patients on ADT were prospectively evaluated between January 10 and August 13 using a physician-directed questionnaire, to assess the impact of VMS. Parameters including height, weight, body surface area (BSA), body mass index (BMI), duration/type of ADT, co-morbidities and ethnicity were recorded...
March 2018: Clinical and Translational Radiation Oncology
Anna Wilkins, Christine Stuttle, Shama Hassan, Claire Blanchard, Clare Cruickshank, Clare Griffin, Jake Probert, Catherine M Corbishley, Chris Parker, David Dearnaley, Emma Hall
Background: This article presents the methodology for tissue sample collection in Trans-CHHiP, the main translational study within the CHHiP (Conventional or Hypofractionated High dose intensity modulated radiotherapy in Prostate cancer, ISRCTN 97182923) trial. The CHHiP trial randomised 3216 men with localised prostate cancer to 3 different radiotherapy fractionation schedules. Trans-CHHiP aims to identify biomarkers of fraction sensitivity. Methods: We outline the process of tissue collection, including central review by a study-specific specialist uropathologist and comparison of the centrally-assigned Gleason grade group with that assigned by the recruiting-centre pathologist...
March 2018: Clinical and Translational Radiation Oncology
Suryakant Niture, Malathi Ramalinga, Habib Kedir, Dorrelyn Patacsil, Samiksha S Niture, James Li, Haresh Mani, Simeng Suy, Sean Collins, Deepak Kumar
Tumor necrosis factor-α-inducible protein 8 (TNFAIP8) is a TNF-α inducible anti-apoptotic protein with multiple roles in tumor growth and survival. Mechanisms of cell survival by TNFAIP8 remain elusive. We investigated the role of TNFAIP8 in the regulation of the cell cycle, autophagy, cell survival and neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate cancer cells. We showed that TNFAIP8 dysregulates cell-cycle-related proteins, in PC3 cells. Oncogenic cell survival, drug resistance and dysregulation of cell cycle-related proteins are often associated with autophagy...
June 1, 2018: Oncotarget
Gagandeep Kaur, Caiyun Grace Li, Andrew Chantry, Cherie Stayner, Julia Horsfield, Michael R Eccles
Canonical TGF-β1 signalling promotes tumor progression by facilitating invasion and metastasis, whereby release of TGF-β1, by (for example) infiltrating immune cells, induces epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). PAX2, a member of the Paired box family of transcriptional regulators, is normally expressed during embryonic development, including in the kidney, where it promotes mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET). PAX2 expression is silenced in many normal adult tissues. However, in contrast, PAX2 is expressed in several cancer types, including kidney, prostate, breast, and ovarian cancer...
June 1, 2018: Oncotarget
Jiukai Wan, Jun Zhang, Junqiang Zhang
The present study aimed to investigate the expression of tumor protein p53 (p53), and its mechanism of function, in prostate cancer (PC). Small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to interfere with p53 expression in the PC cell line, DU145. Cell viability and p53 expression were analyzed using cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and western blotting. The effects of p53 expression on the proliferation, migration and adhesion abilities of PC cells were analyzed using Cell Counting kit-8, Transwell and adhesion assays. Changes in cell proliferation, migration and adhesion ability were observed following treatment with extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor, PD184352, and janus kinase (JNK) inhibitor, SP60012...
July 2018: Oncology Letters
Juan Yao, Shutao Zheng, Baiyan Li, Xinxin Li, Wenya Liu
Lysine demethylase 3A (KDM3A), also known as JMJD1A, has been associated with metastasis and poor prognosis in several cancer types, including renal cell carcinoma, prostate cancer and Ewing sarcoma. However, little is known regarding the clinicopathological significance of KDM3A expression in breast cancer (BCa). To investigate the clinical relevance of KDM3A expression in the setting of BCa, immunohistochemistry was performed on a tissue microarray consisting of 150 commercially available BCa samples. No significant correlation was identified between KDM3A expression and various clinicopathological variables, including clinical stage, pathological grade, tumor size and the expression statuses of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor...
June 2018: Oncology Letters
Tongwen Ou, Michael Lilly, Wei Jiang
Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 is expressed on normal and malignant prostate epithelial cells. The TLR4 and its downstream signaling pathways mediate innate immune responses in the host against invading pathogens. However, multiple lines of evidence shows that TLR4 expression is increased in prostate tissues from prostate cancer patients, and altered TLR4 signals may promote cancer development, as well as antitumor effects. In this review, we have summarized key features of the TLR4 signaling pathway and its associated immune responses and focused on the pathologic role of TLR4 in prostate carcinogenesis and tumor progression...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
M A Bakarev, V P Levin, I V Kachesov, A I Neimark
OBJECTIVE: To investigate structural changes in the tumor and nontumor tissues of the prostate in patients with its cancer (PC) after treatment with high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) in combination with androgen deprivation to clarify criteria for evaluating the efficiency of treatment. SUBJECT AND METHODS: Comparative morphological, immunohistochemical, and morphometric analyses were carried out to examine 253 pre- and postoperative biopsy specimens, as well as transurethral resection specimens from 32 patients with localized PC and with or without a local recurrence within 3 years after a HIFU session...
2018: Arkhiv Patologii
Gianluca Civenni, Giuseppina M Carbone, Carlo V Catapano
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignant visceral neoplasm in males in Western countries. Despite progress made in the early treatment of localized malignancies, there remains a need for therapies effective against advanced forms of the disease. Genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models are valuable tools for addressing this issue, particularly in defining the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for tumor initiation and progression. While cell and tissue culture systems are important models for this purpose as well, they cannot recapitulate the complex interactions within heterotypic cells and the tumor microenvironment that are crucial in the initiation and progression of prostate tumors...
June 7, 2018: Current Protocols in Pharmacology
Keefe Murphy, Brendan T Murphy, Susie Boyce, Louise Flynn, Sarah Gilgunn, Colm J O'Rourke, Cathy Rooney, Henning Stöckmann, Anna L Walsh, Stephen Finn, Richard J O'Kennedy, John O'Leary, Stephen R Pennington, Antoinette S Perry, Pauline M Rudd, Radka Saldova, Orla Sheils, Denis C Shields, R William Watson
INTRODUCTION: Classifying indolent prostate cancer represents a significant clinical challenge. We investigated whether integrating data from different omic platforms could identify a biomarker panel with improved performance compared to individual platforms alone. METHODS: DNA methylation, transcripts, protein, and glycosylation biomarkers were assessed in a single cohort of patients treated by radical prostatectomy. Novel multi-block statistical data integration approaches were used to deal with missing data and modelled via stepwise multinomial logistic regression, or LASSO...
June 21, 2018: Molecular Oncology
Sabrina L Dickey, Motolani E Ogunsanya
The purpose of this integrative review was to explore the impact of prostate cancer (PCa) on the quality of life (QoL) and factors that contribute to the QoL for Black men with PCa. Prostate is recognized as the prevalent cancer among men in the United States. Compared to other men, Black men are diagnosed more frequently and with more advanced stages of PCa. Black men also experience disproportionately higher morbidity and mortality rates of PCa, among all racial and ethnic groups. The initial diagnosis of PCa is often associated with a barrage of concerns for one's well-being including one's QoL...
June 1, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
Lucile Noyer, Guillaume P Grolez, Natalia Prevarskaya, Dimitra Gkika, Loic Lemonnier
While originally cloned from the prostate in 2001, transient receptor potential, melastatin member 8 (TRPM8) has since been identified as the cold/menthol receptor in the peripheral nervous system. This discovery has led to hundreds of studies regarding the role of this channel in pain and thermosensation phenomena, while relegating TRPM8 involvement in cancer to a secondary role. Despite these findings, there is growing evidence that TRPM8 should be carefully studied within the frame of carcinogenesis, especially in the prostate, where it is highly expressed and where many teams have confirmed variations in its expression during cancer progression...
June 20, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Clayton P Smith, Marcin Czarniecki, Sherif Mehralivand, Radka Stoyanova, Peter L Choyke, Stephanie Harmon, Baris Turkbey
Radiomics and radiogenomics are attractive research topics in prostate cancer. Radiomics mainly focuses on extraction of quantitative information from medical imaging, whereas radiogenomics aims to correlate these imaging features to genomic data. The purpose of this review is to provide a brief overview summarizing recent progress in the application of radiomics-based approaches in prostate cancer and to discuss the potential role of radiogenomics in prostate cancer.
June 20, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Satoshi Katayama, Tadasu Takenaka, Aya Nakamura, Sinichi Sako, Akihiro Bessho, Nobuya Ohara
Pulmonary tumor thrombotic microangiopathy (PTTM) is a fatal, malignancy-related respiratory complication; we herein report a PTTM case induced by metastatic prostate cancer. An 81-year-old Japanese man developed dyspnea. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) revealed ground-glass opacities spread across bilateral lung fields. Pulmonary microvascular aspiration cytology detected prostate cancer cells. As PTTM was highly suspected, docetaxel chemotherapy was performed immediately. His respiratory condition and HRCT findings improved temporarily, but he died approx...
June 2018: Acta Medica Okayama
Kazuhiro Kitajima, Shingo Yamamoto, Soichi Odawara, Kaoru Kobayashi, Masayuki Fujiwara, Norihiko Kamikonya, Kazuhito Fukushima, Yukako Nakanishi, Takahiko Hashimoto, Yusuke Yamada, Toru Suzuki, Akihiro Kanematsu, Michio Nojima, Koichiro Yamakado
We compared 11C-choline and FDG PET/CT scan findings for the staging and restaging of prostate cancer. Twenty Japanese prostate cancer patients underwent 11C-choline and FDG PET/CT before (n=5) or after (n=15) treatment. Using a five-point scale, we compared these scanning modalities regarding patient- and lesion-based diagnostic performance for local recurrence, untreated primary tumor, and lymph node and bony metastases. Of the 20 patients, documented local lesions, and node and bony metastases were present in 11 (55...
June 2018: Acta Medica Okayama
Emelie Berglund, Jonas Maaskola, Niklas Schultz, Stefanie Friedrich, Maja Marklund, Joseph Bergenstråhle, Firas Tarish, Anna Tanoglidi, Sanja Vickovic, Ludvig Larsson, Fredrik Salmén, Christoph Ogris, Karolina Wallenborg, Jens Lagergren, Patrik Ståhl, Erik Sonnhammer, Thomas Helleday, Joakim Lundeberg
Intra-tumor heterogeneity is one of the biggest challenges in cancer treatment today. Here we investigate tissue-wide gene expression heterogeneity throughout a multifocal prostate cancer using the spatial transcriptomics (ST) technology. Utilizing a novel approach for deconvolution, we analyze the transcriptomes of nearly 6750 tissue regions and extract distinct expression profiles for the different tissue components, such as stroma, normal and PIN glands, immune cells and cancer. We distinguish healthy and diseased areas and thereby provide insight into gene expression changes during the progression of prostate cancer...
June 20, 2018: Nature Communications
Jin-Man Kim, Yonghwan Shin, Sunyoung Lee, Mi Yeong Kim, Vasu Punj, Hong-In Shin, Kyunghwan Kim, Jung-Min Koh, Daewon Jeong, Woojin An
Osteoclasts are multinuclear bone-resorbing cells that differentiate from hematopoietic precursor cells. Prostate cancer cells frequently spread to bone and secrete soluble signaling factors to accelerate osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. However, processes and mechanisms that govern the expression of osteoclastogenic soluble factors secreted by prostate cancer cells are largely unknown. MacroH2A (mH2A) is a histone variant that replaces canonical H2A at designated genomic loci and establishes functionally distinct chromatin regions...
June 20, 2018: Oncogene
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