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treatment of contusions

Supinder S Bedi, Benjamin M Aertker, George P Liao, Henry W Caplan, Deepa Bhattarai, Fanni Mandy, Franciska Mandy, Luis G Fernandez, Pamela Zelnick, Matthew B Mitchell, Walter Schiffer, Margaret Johnson, Emma Denson, Karthik Prabhakara, Hasen Xue, Philippa Smith, Karen Uray, Scott D Olson, Robert W Mays, Charles S Cox
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability. TBI results in a prolonged secondary central neuro-inflammatory response. Previously, we have demonstrated that multiple doses (2 and 24 h after TBI) of multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPC) delivered intravenously preserve the blood-brain barrier (BBB), improve spatial learning, and decrease activated microglia/macrophages in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. In order to determine if there is an optimum treatment window to preserve the BBB, improve cognitive behavior, and attenuate the activated microglia/macrophages, we administered MAPC at various clinically relevant intervals...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Chen-Li Ding, Yan-Tao Ma, Qiang-Min Huang, Qing-Guang Liu, Jia-Min Zhao
OBJECTIVE: To attempt to establish an objective quantitative indicator to characterize the trigger point activity, so as to evaluate the effect of dry needling on myofascial trigger point activity. METHODS: Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into blank control group, dry needling (needling) group, stretching exercise (stretching) group and needling plus stretching group ( n =6 per group). The chronic myofascial pain (trigger point) model was established by freedom vertical fall of a wooden striking device onto the mid-point of gastrocnemius belly of the left hind-limb to induce contusion, followed by forcing the rat to make a continuous downgrade running exercise at a speed of 16 m/min for 90 min on the next day which was conducted once a week for 8 weeks...
February 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Takeshi Imai, Hiroyuki Katoh, Kaori Suyama, Masahiro Kuroiwa, Sho Yanagisawa, Masahiko Watanabe
After spinal cord injury (SCI), secondary injury results in an expanding area of glial cell apoptosis. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) actively proliferate after SCI, but many of these cells undergo apoptosis. One of the factors that exacerbates secondary injury is endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In this study, we tested the effects of amiloride treatment on the fate of OPCs during secondary injury in rats. Amiloride is an FDA-approved diuretic for treating hypertension, which in rats enhances ER stress response and suppresses the apoptosis of glial cells after SCI...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Jun-Hui Chen, Pei-Pei Li, Li-Kun Yang, Lei Chen, Jie Zhu, Xu Hu, Yu-Hai Wang
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the clinical efficacy of and optimal therapeutic strategy for ventricular intracranial pressure monitoring (V-ICPM) in patients with traumatic bifrontal contusions (TBCs). METHODS: From 8760 patients with a traumatic brain injury treated between January 2010 and January 2016, a retrospective analysis was performed on 105 patients with TBC who underwent V-ICPM and 282 TBC patients who did not. All patients underwent treatment at the 101st Hospital of the Chinese People's Liberation Army (Wuxi, China)...
February 28, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Jidong Guo, Huadong Wang, Li Li, Yanli Yuan, Xiuxiu Shi, Shuxun Hou
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Interleukin-19 (IL-19) skews the immune response towards a Th2 type and appears to stimulate angiogenesis. In the current study, we tested if IL-19 treatment could reduce secondary injury and improve functional recovery after contusion spinal cord injury (SCI). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Firstly, mice were given a moderate-severe thoracic SCI at the T9-10 level and expression of IL-19 and its receptor was measured in the injured spinal cord. Then, SCI mice were treated with mouse recombinant IL-19 and its blocking antibody to investigate the therapeutic effect of IL-19...
March 3, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Sílvia Castany, Georgia Gris, José Miguel Vela, Enrique Verdú, Pere Boadas-Vaello
Sigma-1 receptor (σ1 R) knockout (KO) CD1 mice, generated by homologous recombination, and separate pharmacological studies in wild type (WT) mice were done to investigate the role of this receptor in the development of pain-related behaviours (thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia) in mice after spinal cord contusion injury (SCI) - a model of central neuropathic pain. The modulatory effect of σ1 R KO on extracellular mediators and signalling pathways in the spinal cord was also investigated. In particular, changes in the expression of inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor TNF-α, interleukin IL-1β) and both the expression and activation (phosphorylation) of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B-NMDA) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) were analysed...
March 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
George Kwok Chu Wong, Karine Ngai, Wai Sang Poon, Vera Zhi Yuan Zheng, Carlos Yu
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the prevalence and pattern of cognitive dysfunction in patients with traumatic bifrontal contusions and their association with functional outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively recruited patients with bifrontal contusions in a regional neurosurgical center in Hong Kong over a 2-year period. Functional outcome was assessed by modified Rankin Scale (mRS), and cognitive outcomes were assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and a comprehensive neuropsychological battery...
2018: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
Louise Vera Hilmer, Kee Bum Park, Iv Vycheth, Michael Wirsching
Introduction: Cerebral contusions are a common type of injury among the Cambodian population, mostly due to road traffic accidents. This article aims to assess various aspects around brain contusion focusing on the condition at admission, residing province, mechanism and time of injury, age and sex distribution with differing helmet wearing, and alcohol consumption patterns. Hospitalization-related data such as treatment and outcome were analyzed. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of 406 cases who have been admitted during the period between May 2013 and May 2016...
January 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Khuram Khan, Saqib Saeed, Alexius Ramcharan, Sanjiv Gray
INTRODUCTION: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in young trauma patients with resultant multi-organ effects. Hypopituitarism following TBI can be debilitating and life threatening. TBI which causes hypopituitarism may be characterized by a single head injury, such as from a motor vehicle accident, or by chronic repetitive head trauma, as seen in combative supports including boxing, kick-boxing, and football. In the majority of cases, a diagnosis of hypopituitarism can be entirely missed resulting in severe neuro-endocrine dysfunction...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
William Gemio Jacobsen Teixeira, Alexandre Fogaça Cristante, Raphael Martus Marcon, Gustavo Bispo, Ricardo Ferreira, Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa de Barros-Filho
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of combined treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and methylprednisolone in rats subjected to experimental spinal cord injury. METHODS: Forty Wistar rats received a moderate spinal cord injury and were divided into four groups: control (no treatment); G-CSF (G-CSF at the time of injury and daily over the next five days); methylprednisolone (methylprednisolone for 24 h); and G-CSF/Methylprednisolone (methylprednisolone for 24 h and G-CSF at the time of injury and daily over the next five days)...
February 19, 2018: Clinics
T Yildirim, O Okutan, E Akpinar, A Yilmaz, H S Isik
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Human serum albumin (HA) is a unique multifunctional protein with neuroprotective properties. We aimed to delineate the mechanisms of HA-induced neuroprotection, supresses inflammatory response and lipid peroxidation after spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Adult female Wistar rats weighing 210-250 g were used for the study. The rats were randomly and blindly allocated into five groups. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for parametric data and Shapiro-Wilk test was used for evaluating the normal distribution of the variables...
2018: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
Tzy Harn Chua, Matin Ly, Senthil Thillainadesan, Katie Wynne
Hyponatraemia is common following major head injury and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. A 20-year-old man presented with reduced consciousness after head trauma and was found to have a fractured skull base with bilateral frontal contusions. On day 3 of his admission, he developed hyponatraemia with raised urine sodium and osmolality, despite receiving dexamethasone and intravenous fluid therapy. His hyponatraemia worsened after the treatment with fluid restriction and oral salt. He was in negative fluid balance suggesting possible renal salt wasting...
February 5, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Colette Widrin
An acute spinal cord injury (SCI) is the result of a traumatic injury to the spinal cord caused by a contusion, compression or severing of the spinal cord. There are approximately 17,000 new cases each year, of which, males account for 80%. Approximately 65% of these injuries cause incomplete, or partial, damage to the spinal cord. Comprehensive treatment is essential to restore maximum function. Surgical procedures, stem cell therapy, pharmaceutical agents and physical therapy are employed to minimize and repair damage done to the nervous system...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies
Yuexing Tu, Qi Jin, Renhua Sun, Qian Li
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides rescue treatment for patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) when conventional management fails. The present study reported ECMO as a life-saving treatment for ARDS due to bilateral pulmonary contusion in a 24-year-old male multiple trauma patient. ECMO therapy lasted 7 days for the patient and was successively stopped without any complications. ECMO modality should be chosen according to the respiratory and circulatory condition of each individual...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Beatrice Sandner, Radhika Puttagunta, Melanie Motsch, Frank Bradke, Jörg Ruschel, Armin Blesch, Norbert Weidner
Following a spinal cord injury (SCI) a growth aversive environment forms, consisting of a fibroglial scar and inhibitory factors, further restricting the already low intrinsic growth potential of injured adult central nervous system (CNS) neurons. Previous studies have shown that local administration of the microtubule-stabilizing drug paclitaxel or epothilone B (Epo B) reduce fibrotic scar formation and axonal dieback as well as induce axonal growth/sprouting after SCI. Likewise, systemic administration of Epo B promoted functional recovery...
February 1, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Takeshi Kondo, Motonori Takahashi, Azumi Kuse, Mai Morichika, Kanako Nakagawa, Yoshihiro Tagawa, Tomoya Taniguchi, Yuji Taguchi, Tomohiro Fujiwara, Junpei Tsuchiya, Masahiko Nakamura, Makoto Sakurada, Migiwa Asano, Yasuhiro Ueno
A crossbow is a bow that shoots an arrow when a gun-like trigger is pulled. Deaths caused by accidental crossbow shootings are extremely rare. Here we describe an autopsy case of a penetrating wound to the left cerebral hemisphere caused by an accidental shooting with a crossbow. A man in his early 60s who lived with his wife and had used crossbows for 20 years as his hobby was found one early morning in the shed of his house, collapsed and bleeding from the head and neck. He was taken to a hospital and died after approximately 3 days of conservative treatment...
February 2, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Anna Greta Barbe, Michael Johannes Noack, Michael Thomas Barbe, Ina Nitschke
OBJECTIVES: It is essential that especially elderly patients are correctly positioned in dental chairs, based on medical history and careful observation. METHOD: We report a case where reclination of the patient's head resulted in weakness of the limbs. RESULTS: Subsequent investigation determined traumatic contusion of the cervical spinal cord. CONCLUSIONS: This case highlights the need for accurate anamnesis, close observation and interdisciplinary communication to determine correct positioning...
March 2018: Gerodontology
M Hässig, C Degen Aguayo Aparicio, K Nuss
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between lameness scoring and clinical findings. The lameness scoring and a gait assessment took place during drying off, the first week after calving and two months after calving in 29 lame and 27 free of lameness cows. In between the farmer scored the lamness. Most of the lameness occurred in the hind limbs and were most frequently caused by dermatitis digitalis, Mortellaro, Limax, and Rusterholz sole ulcer. The mean duration of lameness after treatment was 26 days (median 16 days) and was significantly longer in case of horn lesions than in skin lesions (including interdigital dermatitis)...
February 2018: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
Wang Wei, Chen Shurui, Zhou Zipeng, Dai Hongliang, Wang Hongyu, Li Yuanlong, Zhou Kang, Shen Zhaoliang, Guo Yue, Liu Chang, Xifan Mei
The nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element signaling pathway plays a substantial role in preventing oxidative stress-related diseases. Aspirin has been shown to exert several pharmacological effects by inducing the expression of the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein. However, the effects of aspirin on spinal cord injury (SCI) have rarely been studied. Therefore, we sought to investigate the neuroprotective effects of aspirin after SCI. We employed a spinal cord contusion model in Sprague-Dawley rats, and aspirin was administered intraperitoneally for 7 days...
January 29, 2018: Neuroreport
Janet D Pierce, Raeesa Gupte, Amanda Thimmesch, Qiuhua Shen, John B Hiebert, William M Brooks, Richard L Clancy, Francisco J Diaz, Janna L Harris
Following traumatic brain injury (TBI), there is significant secondary damage to cerebral tissue from increased free radicals and impaired mitochondrial function. This imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the effectiveness of cellular antioxidant defenses is termed oxidative stress. Often there are insufficient antioxidants to scavenge ROS, leading to alterations in cerebral structure and function. Attenuating oxidative stress following a TBI by administering an antioxidant may decrease secondary brain injury, and currently many drugs and supplements are being investigated...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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