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fastigial nuclei

Vincent Prevosto, Werner Graf, Gabriella Ugolini
Premotor circuits driving extraocular motoneurons and downstream motor outputs of cerebellar nuclei are well known. However, there is, as yet, no unequivocal account of cerebellar output pathways controlling eye movements in primates. Using retrograde transneuronal transfer of rabies virus from the lateral rectus (LR) eye muscle, we studied polysynaptic pathways to LR motoneurons in primates. Injections were placed either into the central or distal muscle portion, to identify innervation differences of LR motoneurons supplying singly innervated (SIFs) or multiply innervated muscle fibers (MIFs)...
February 22, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
Sun-Young Oh, Rainer Boegle, Peter Zu Eulenburg, Matthias Ertl, Ji-Soo Kim, Marianne Dieterich
To investigate structural, metabolic, and functional connectivity changes in visual and oculomotor structures in a patient with paraneoplastic opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome, serial resting-state functional and structural MRI, and FDG-PET data were collected during the acute stage and later on when the opsoclonus had resolved. In the acute stage, an FDG-PET scan demonstrated a substantially increased metabolism in structures around the deep cerebellar nuclei [e.g., fastigial nucleus (FN)] and a relatively reduced metabolism in the bilateral occipital lobes which normalized over 12 months...
March 2017: Journal of Neurology
Shin C Beh, Teresa C Frohman, Elliot M Frohman
BACKGROUND: The cerebellum plays a central role in the online, real-time control, and long-term modulation of eye movements. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We reviewed the latest (fifth) edition of Leigh and Zee's textbook, The Neurology of Eye Movements, and literature in PUBMED using the following terms: cerebellum, flocculus, paraflocculus, vermis, oculomotor vermis, dorsal vermis, caudal fastigial nucleus, fastigial oculomotor region, uvula, nodulus, ansiform lobule, eye movements, saccades, ipsipulsion, contrapulsion, smooth pursuit, vergence, convergence, divergence, gaze-holding, down beat nystagmus, vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), angular VOR, translational VOR, skew deviation, velocity storage...
March 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
Gemma Huguet, Elisabet Kadar, Yasin Temel, Lee Wei Lim
The electrical stimulation of specific brain targets has been shown to induce striking antidepressant effects. Despite that recent data have indicated that cerebellum is involved in emotional regulation, the mechanisms by which stimulation improved mood-related behaviors in the cerebellum remained largely obscure. Here, we investigated the stimulation effects of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and lateral habenular nucleus on the c-Fos neuronal activity in various deep cerebellar and vestibular nuclei using the unpredictable chronic mild stress (CMS) animal model of depression...
April 2017: Cerebellum
Xiao-Yang Zhang, Jian-Jun Wang, Jing-Ning Zhu
Fastigial nucleus (FN) is the phylogenetically oldest nucleus in the cerebellum, a classical subcortical motor coordinator. As one of the ultimate integration stations and outputs of the spinocerebellum, the FN holds a key position in the axial, proximal and ocular motor control by projecting to the medial descending systems and eye movement related nuclei. Furthermore, through topographic connections with extensive nonmotor systems, including visceral related nuclei in the brainstem, hypothalamus, as well as the limbic system, FN has also been implicated in regulation of various nonsomatic functions, such as feeding, cardiovascular and respiratory, defecation and micturition, immune, as well as emotional activities...
2016: Cerebellum & Ataxias
F Vitale, C Mattei, A Capozzo, I Pietrantoni, P Mazzone, E Scarnati
In spite of the existence of pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) projections to cerebellar nuclei, their nature and functional role is unknown. These fibers may play a crucial role in postural control and may be involved in the beneficial effects induced by deep-brain stimulation (DBS) of brainstem structures in motor disorders. We investigated the effects of PPTg microstimulation on single-unit activity of dentate, fastigial and interpositus nuclei. The effects of PPTg stimulation were also studied in rats whose PPTg neurons were destroyed by ibotenic acid and subsequently subjected to iontophoretically applied cholinergic antagonists...
March 11, 2016: Neuroscience
Joaquín Martí, M C Santa-Cruz, José P Hervás
Production and death of deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN) neurons were investigated in the weaver condition at appropriate anatomical levels throughout the mediolateral (medial, intermediate and lateral) and rostrocaudal (rostral, middle and caudal) axes of three DCN-cell groups: the fastigial, the interposed and the dentate nuclei. Current results have denoted that the deficit of DCN neurons is always more important in the homozygous weaver than in the heterozygous weaver mice. No loss of neurons was found in the dentate nucleus...
April 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Ling-Bo Feng, Xiao-Min Pang, Lei Zhang, Jin-Pin Li, Li-Gang Huang, Sheng-You Su, Xia Zhou, Sheng-Hua Li, Hui-Yao Xiang, Chun-Yong Chen, Jing-Li Liu
BACKGROUND: Neurogenic neuroprotection is a promising approach for treating patients with ischemic brain lesions. Fastigial nucleus stimulation (FNS) has been shown to reduce the tissue damage resulting from focal cerebral ischemia in the earlier studies. However, the mechanisms of neuroprotection induced by FNS remain unclear. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a newly discovered group of non-coding small RNA molecules that negatively regulate target gene expression and involved in the regulation of pathological process...
2015: BMC Medical Genomics
David J Herzfeld, Yoshiko Kojima, Robijanto Soetedjo, Reza Shadmehr
Execution of accurate eye movements depends critically on the cerebellum, suggesting that the major output neurons of the cerebellum, Purkinje cells, may predict motion of the eye. However, this encoding of action for rapid eye movements (saccades) has remained unclear: Purkinje cells show little consistent modulation with respect to saccade amplitude or direction, and critically, their discharge lasts longer than the duration of a saccade. Here we analysed Purkinje-cell discharge in the oculomotor vermis of behaving rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and found neurons that increased or decreased their activity during saccades...
October 15, 2015: Nature
Kim Rijkers, Véronique M P Moers-Hornikx, Roelof J Hemmes, Marlien W Aalbers, Yasin Temel, Johan S H Vles, Govert Hoogland
Clinical and experimental evidence suggests a role for the cerebellum in seizure control, while no data are available on cerebellar activity between seizures. We hypothesized that interictal regional activity of the deep cerebellar nuclei is reduced in epilepsy and tested this in an animal model by using ΔFosB and cytochrome oxidase (COX) (immuno)histochemistry. The expression of these two markers of neuronal activity was analysed in the dentate nucleus (DN), interpositus nucleus (IN), and fastigial nucleus (FN) of the cerebellum of fully amygdala kindled rats that were sacrificed 48 hours after their last seizure...
2015: BioMed Research International
Yong-Ying Jiang, Bei-Bei Cao, Xiao-Qin Wang, Yu-Ping Peng, Yi-Hua Qiu
OBJECTIVE: We previously showed that the cerebellum modulates the immune system. Here we determined whether cerebellar ataxia alters immunological function to further demonstrate an involvement of the cerebellum in immune modulation. METHODS: Neurotoxin 3-acetylpyridine (3-AP) was intraperitoneally injected in rats to induce cerebellar ataxia. Behavior and motor coordination were tested on day 7 following 3-AP injection. Nissl staining and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used to determine neuronal loss and neurotransmitter contents, respectively, in all the three cerebellar nuclei, fastigial nucleus (FN), interposed nucleus (IN) and dentate nucleus (DN)...
2015: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Chao Liang, Yuan Wang, Bin Xu, Zhi Yu
OJECTIVE: To explore whether different acupuncture signals were afferent to the cerebellar fastigial nucleus (FN) neuron and to find out their corresponding effect features through observing the effect of spontaneous discharge of cerebellar FN neuron by needling at different acupoints. METHODS: Totally 120 male SD rats were anesthetized by 20% urethane and their right cerebellar FN were positioned (AP 11. 6 mm, RL 1. 0 mm, H 5. 6 mm). Extracelluar discharge was recorded by glass microelectrode (AP: -11...
April 2015: Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine
Stefanie Tellmann, Sebastian Bludau, Simon Eickhoff, Hartmut Mohlberg, Martina Minnerop, Katrin Amunts
The cerebellar nuclei are involved in several brain functions, including the modulation of motor and cognitive performance. To differentiate their participation in these functions, and to analyze their changes in neurodegenerative and other diseases as revealed by neuroimaging, stereotaxic maps are necessary. These maps reflect the complex spatial structure of cerebellar nuclei with adequate spatial resolution and detail. Here we report on the cytoarchitecture of the dentate, interposed (emboliform and globose) and fastigial nuclei, and introduce 3D probability maps in stereotaxic MNI-Colin27 space as a prerequisite for subsequent meta-analysis of their functional involvement...
2015: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Weiju Tang, Weiwei Dong, Peng Xie, Pengfei Cheng, Shunjie Bai, Yifei Ren, Gong Wang, Xiuying Chen, Chun Cui, Yuxiang Zhuang, Wen Huang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of neurogenic neuroprotection conferred by cerebellar fastigial nucleus stimulation (FNS) and the role of PPARγ-mediated inflammation in a rat model of cerebral ischemia reperfusion. METHODS: After a continuous 1 hour fastigial nucleus electric stimulation, the male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were given middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 hours undergoing reperfusion with intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA), while the control group received without FNS...
2015: PloS One
Andrew A McCall, Daniel J Miller, Michael F Catanzaro, Lucy A Cotter, Bill J Yates
Integration of vestibular and proprioceptive afferent information within the central nervous system is a critical component of postural regulation. We recently demonstrated that labyrinthine and hindlimb signals converge onto vestibular nucleus neurons, such that hindlimb movement modulates the activity of these cells. However, it is unclear whether similar convergence of hindlimb and vestibular signals also occurs upstream from the vestibular nuclei, particularly in the rostral fastigial nucleus (rFN). We tested the hypothesis that rFN neurons have similar responses to hindlimb movement as vestibular nucleus neurons...
August 2015: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
A K Samhan-Arias, C López-Sánchez, D Marques-da-Silva, R Lagoa, V Garcia-Lopez, V García-Martínez, C Gutierrez-Merino
Cytochrome b 5 reductase (Cb 5R) and cytochrome b 5 (Cb 5) form an enzymatic redox system that plays many roles in mammalian cells. In the last 15 years, it has been proposed that this system is involved in the recycling of ascorbate, a vital antioxidant molecule in the brain and that its deregulation can lead to the production of reactive oxygen species that play a major role in oxidative-induced neuronal death. In this work, we have performed a regional and cellular distribution study of the expression of this redox system in adult rat brain by anti-Cb 5R isoform 3 and anti-Cb 5 antibodies...
May 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Xiao-Min Pang, Jing-Li Liu, Jin-Pin Li, Li-Gang Huang, Lei Zhang, Hui-Yao Xiang, Ling-Bo Feng, Chun-Yong Chen, Sheng-Hua Li, Sheng-You Su
Previous studies have shown that fastigial nucleus stimulation (FNS) reduces tissue damage resulting from focal cerebral ischemia. Although the mechanisms of neuroprotection induced by FNS are not entirely understood, important data have been presented in the past two decades. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a newly discovered group of non-coding small RNA molecules that negatively regulate target gene expression and are involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and cell apoptosis. To date, no studies have demonstrated whether miRNAs can serve as mediators of the brain's response to FNS, which leads to endogenous neuroprotection...
June 2015: Journal of Neurochemistry
Julie Quinet, Laurent Goffart
The fastigial oculomotor region is the output by which the medioposterior cerebellum influences the generation of saccades. Recent inactivation studies reported observations suggesting an involvement in their dynamics (velocity and duration). In this work, we tested this hypothesis in the head-restrained monkey with the electrical microstimulation technique. More specifically, we studied the influence of duration, frequency, and current on the saccades elicited by fastigial stimulation and starting from a central (straight ahead) position...
May 1, 2015: Journal of Neurophysiology
Li-Gang Huang, Jin-Pin Li, Xiao-Min Pang, Chun-Yong Chen, Hui-Yao Xiang, Ling-Bo Feng, Sheng-You Su, Sheng-Hua Li, Lei Zhang, Jing-Li Liu
AIMS: Studies showed fastigial nucleus stimulation (FNS) reduced brain damage, but the mechanisms of neuroprotection induced by FNS were not entirely understood; MicroRNAs are noncoding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression in a posttranscriptional manner, but their functional consequence in response to ischemia-reperfusion (IR) remains unknown. We investigated the role of microRNA-29c in the neuroprotection induced by FNS in rat. METHODS: The IR rat models were conducted 1 day after FNS...
June 2015: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Bei-Bei Cao, Yan Huang, Yong-Ying Jiang, Yi-Hua Qiu, Yu-Ping Peng
We previously have shown that cerebellar fastigial nucleus (FN) modulates immune function, but pathways or mechanisms underlying this immunomodulation require clarification. Herein, an anterograde and retrograde tracing of nerve tracts between the cerebellar FN and hypothalamus/thalamus was performed in rats. After demonstrating a direct cerebellar FN-hypothalamic/thalamic glutamatergic projection, 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine (DON), an inhibitor of glutaminase that catalyzes glutamate synthesis, was injected bilaterally in the cerebellar FN and simultaneously, D,L-threo-β-hydroxyaspartic acid (THA), an inhibitor of glutamate transporters on cell membrane, was bilaterally injected in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) or the ventrolateral (VL) thalamic nucleus...
March 2015: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
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