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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197929/epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-emt-and-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-nsclc-a-mutual-association-with-airway-disease
#1
Malik Quasir Mahmood, Chris Ward, Hans Konrad Muller, Sukhwinder Singh Sohal, Eugene Haydn Walters
NSCLC is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It includes adeno- and squamous cell carcinoma. In the background, COPD and smoking play a vital role in development of NSCLC. Local progression and metastasis of NSCLC has been associated with various mechanisms, but in particular by a process called epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is implicated in COPD pathogenesis. In this study, we have investigated whether expression of EGFR (activation marker) and S100A4, vimentin and N-cadherin (as EMT) is different both in central and leading edge of NSCLC and to what extent related to EMT activity of both small and large airways, stage and differentiation of NSCLC...
March 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151378/checkpoint-inhibition-new-treatment-options-in-urologic-cancer
#2
Daan Joost De Maeseneer, Brant Delafontaine, Sylvie Rottey
Both urothelial (UC) and renal cell cancer (RCC) are highly immunogenic tumours. Recent advances in cellular immunity understanding have resulted in a successful new class of therapeutic agents. Interaction between the programmed cell death 1 (PD1) on regulatory T-cells (Treg) and programmed cell death 1 ligand (PDL1) on cancer cells inhibits an effective immune response and is an important mechanism for cancer cells to evade the immune system. Monoclonal anti-PD1 and anti-PDL1 antibodies inhibit this interaction and are called checkpoint inhibitors...
February 2017: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122122/the-effect-of-radiation-dose-reduction-on-computer-aided-detection-cad-performance-in-a-low-dose-lung-cancer-screening-population
#3
Stefano Young, Pechin Lo, Grace Kim, Matthew Brown, John Hoffman, William Hsu, Wasil Wahi-Anwar, Carlos Flores, Grace Lee, Frederic Noo, Jonathan Goldin, Michael McNitt-Gray
PURPOSE: Lung cancer screening with low-dose CT has recently been approved for reimbursement, heralding the arrival of such screening services worldwide. Computer-Aided Detection (CAD) tools offer the potential to assist radiologists in detecting nodules in these screening exams. In lung screening, as in all CT exams, there is interest in further reducing radiation dose. However, the effects of continued dose reduction on CAD performance are not fully understood. In this work, we investigated the effect of reducing radiation dose on CAD lung-nodule detection performance in a screening population...
January 25, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101034/a-case-of-poorly-differentiated-large-cell-neuroendocrine-carcinoma-of-the-cecum-a-rare-malignancy-with-review-of-the-literature
#4
Andrew T Mertz, Michelle A Ojemuyiwa
Poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) are rare tumors that can arise anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract. They often present in advanced stage and portend a poor prognosis when compared to adenocarcinomas of the same stage. Characterization of these tumors is best accomplished with tissue biopsy, as peripheral tumor markers commonly used in NECs are of little utility. Therapeutic strategies often involve chemotherapeutic regimens that have been used to treat small-cell lung cancer. Recent studies have shown that programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression within poorly differentiated NECs is a poor prognostic indicator...
September 2016: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048635/su-f-t-184-3d-range-modulator-for-scanned-particle-therapy-development-monte-carlo-simulations-and-measurements
#5
Y Simeonov, P Penchev, T Printz Ringbaek, S Brons, U Weber, K Zink
PURPOSE: Active raster scanning in particle therapy results in highly conformal dose distributions. Treatment time, however, is relatively high due to the large number of different iso-energy layers used. By using only one energy and the so called 3D range-modulator irradiation times of a few seconds only can be achieved, thus making delivery of homogeneous dose to moving targets (e.g. lung cancer) more reliable. METHODS: A 3D range-modulator consisting of many pins with base area of 2...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048525/we-ab-207a-11-respiratory-motion-guided-4dcbct-a-step-towards-controlling-4dcbct-image-quality
#6
R O'Brien, U Stankovic, P Keall, J Sonke
PURPOSE: We have developed a method, called respiratory motion guided 4DCBCT (RMG-4DCBCT), in which the gantry speed and projection frequency are varied in response to the patient's real-time respiratory signal to eliminate streaking artifacts and to suppress duplicate projections in 4DCBCT images. In 2015, we realized RMG-4DCBCT on an Elekta Synergy linear accelerator with a mechanical relay to suppress projections and a potentiometer to adjust the gantry speed in response to the patient's real-time respiratory signal...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046421/su-c-bra-02-a-lung-tumor-autocontouring-algorithm-based-on-particle-filter-for-dynamic-magnetic-resonance
#7
A Bourque, S Bedwani, E Filion, J Carrier
PURPOSE: This study proposes a novel autocontouring algorithm for lung tumors based on particle filter. It is developed in the context of MR-linac treatments and is validated on in-vivo dynamic magnetic resonance images. METHODS: A sequential Monte Carlo method called particle filter is combined with Otsu's thresholding technique to contour lung tumors on dynamic MR images. Four non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients were imaged with a 1.5 T MR (MAGNETOM Aera, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) for one minute at a rate of 4 images per second...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008898/-argon-laser-ablation-is-a-new-method-of-airways-recanalization-for-tumoral-stenosis
#8
A A Rusanov, N V Kazakov, A V Gerasin, M G Kovalev, A L Akopov
AIM: To develop the new method of laser recanalization of airways for tumoral stenosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: It is proposed to conduct laser effect in the gas environment that does not support combustion (argon). Also the device for these AIM: is suggested. The method is called argon-laser ablation (ALA). A comparison of ALA and conventional high-energy laser exposure (LPD) was performed. RESULTS: ALA and LPD were used in 46 patients and 17 patients with non-small cell lung cancer...
2016: Khirurgiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987588/report-of-two-cases-of-pseudoprogression-in-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-treated-with-nivolumab-including-histological-analysis-of-one-case-after-tumor-regression
#9
Junko Tanizaki, Hidetoshi Hayashi, Masatomo Kimura, Kaoru Tanaka, Masayuki Takeda, Shigeki Shimizu, Akihiko Ito, Kazuhiko Nakagawa
The recent approval of nivolumab and other immune-checkpoint inhibitors for the treatment of certain solid tumors including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has transformed cancer therapy. However, it will be important to characterize effects of such agents not seen with classical cytotoxic drugs or other targeted therapeutics. We here report two cases of NSCLC showing so-called pseudoprogression during nivolumab treatment. In both cases, imaging assessment revealed that liver metastatic lesions initially progressed but subsequently shrank during continuous nivolumab administration, with treatment also resulting in a decline in serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen...
December 2016: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922336/abscopal-regression-following-sabr-for-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-case-report
#10
Yang Cong, Ge Shen, Shikai Wu, Ruimin Hao
Out-of-field tumor response, which is also called abscopal effect, bystander effect, or non-target effect, can be regarded as localized irradiation induced systemic antitumorigenic effects, indicating shrinkage of a tumor distant from the irradiated site. Although abscopal effect has been documented in several tumor types, it is a very rare phenomenon which is clinically reported in non-small-cell-lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Herein, we present a rare case of patient with NSCLC with 2 lesions in the upper lobe of left lung who, after receiving stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) to one of the tumors, had an apparent spontaneous regression of the other mass in the lung, suggestive of a radiation-induced abscopal effect...
January 2, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911857/yap1-regulates-abcg2-and-cancer-cell-side-population-in-human-lung-cancer-cells
#11
Yuyuan Dai, Shu Liu, Wen-Qian Zhang, Yi-Lin Yang, Phillip Hang, Hui Wang, Li Cheng, Ping-Chih Hsu, Yu-Chen Wang, Zhidong Xu, David M Jablons, Liang You
A small population of cancer cells called cancer-initiating cells or cancer stem cells (CSCs) are involved in drug resistance, metastasis, and cancer relapse. Finding pathways that regulate CSC is very important for clinical therapy. ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2 (ABCG2) plays a role in side population (SP) cell formation and contributes to chemotherapy resistance in common forms of cancer. Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) is a major transcriptional effector of the Hippo pathway, which plays important roles in organ size control and tumorigenesis...
November 29, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892978/estimating-survival-in-patients-with-lung-cancer-and-brain-metastases-an-update-of-the-graded-prognostic-assessment-for-lung-cancer-using-molecular-markers-lung-molgpa
#12
Paul W Sperduto, T Jonathan Yang, Kathryn Beal, Hubert Pan, Paul D Brown, Ananta Bangdiwala, Ryan Shanley, Norman Yeh, Laurie E Gaspar, Steve Braunstein, Penny Sneed, John Boyle, John P Kirkpatrick, Kimberley S Mak, Helen A Shih, Alex Engelman, David Roberge, Nils D Arvold, Brian Alexander, Mark M Awad, Joseph Contessa, Veronica Chiang, John Hardie, Daniel Ma, Emil Lou, William Sperduto, Minesh P Mehta
Importance: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States and worldwide. As systemic therapies improve, patients with lung cancer live longer and thus are at increased risk for brain metastases. Understanding how prognosis varies across this heterogeneous patient population is essential to individualize care and design future clinical trials. Objective: To update the current Diagnosis-Specific Graded Prognostic Assessment (DS-GPA) for patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and brain metastases...
November 17, 2016: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846725/-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-from-immunobiology-to-immunotherapy
#13
O Bílek, L Bohovicová, R Demlová, A Poprach, R Lakomý, L Zdražilová-Dubská
BACKGROUND: The treatment of early or locally advanced stages of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is based on surgical resection or radiotherapy. Metastatic disease is always incurable, treatment is palliative, systemic based on chemotherapy or target therapy. NSCLC is the most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and new therapeutic approaches are needed. Based on the emerging data on the role of immune system in shaping of tumor outbreak and outcome, immunotherapy is currently in the center of interest of cancer research and therapy of solid cancers including NSCLC...
December 0: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826531/next-generation-sequencing-techniques-in-liquid-biopsy-focus-on-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients
#14
REVIEW
Umberto Malapelle, Pasquale Pisapia, Danilo Rocco, Riccardo Smeraglio, Maria di Spirito, Claudio Bellevicine, Giancarlo Troncone
The advent of genomic based personalized medicine has led to multiple advances in the molecular characterization of many tumor types, such as non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). NSCLC is diagnosed in most cases on small tissue samples that may be not always sufficient for EGFR mutational assessment to select patients for first and second generations' tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) therapy. In patients without tissue availability at presentation, the analysis of cell free DNA (cfDNA) derived from liquid biopsy samples, in particular from plasma, represent an established alternative to provide EGFR mutational testing for treatment decision making...
October 2016: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790117/rapid-response-to-high-dose-pulsatile-erlotinib-in-afatinib-refractory-leptomeningeal-carcinomatosis-from-adenocarcinoma-of-the-lung-a-case-report
#15
Frank S Fan
Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis occurred in an old female patient who was on a standard dose of afatinib for the treatment of her non-small cell lung cancer harboring an epidermal growth factor receptor gene mutation sensitive to tyrosine kinase inhibitors when extracranial lesions were still under control. Shifting to high-dose, pulsatile erlotinib dramatically saved her from the devastating condition in a very short period of time. Inadequate afatinib concentration in cerebrospinal fluid is reasonably suspected, and there is a call for clinical trials testing high-dose afatinib in leptomeningeal carcinomatosis...
September 2016: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717358/smokesalud-exploring-the-effect-of-demographic-change-on-the-smoking-prevalence-at-municipality-level-in-austria
#16
Melanie Tomintz, Bernhard Kosar, Graham Clarke
BACKGROUND: Reducing the smoking population is still high on the policy agenda, as smoking leads to many preventable diseases, such as lung cancer, heart disease, diabetes, and more. In Austria, data on smoking prevalence only exists at the federal state level. This provides an interesting overview about the current health situation, but for regional planning authorities these data are often insufficient as they can hide pockets of high and low smoking prevalence in certain municipalities...
October 7, 2016: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604504/dexamethasone-and-supportive-care-with-or-without-whole-brain-radiotherapy-in-treating-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-with-brain-metastases-unsuitable-for-resection-or-stereotactic-radiotherapy-quartz-results-from-a-phase-3-non-inferiority-randomised
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Paula Mulvenna, Matthew Nankivell, Rachael Barton, Corinne Faivre-Finn, Paula Wilson, Elaine McColl, Barbara Moore, Iona Brisbane, David Ardron, Tanya Holt, Sally Morgan, Caroline Lee, Kathryn Waite, Neil Bayman, Cheryl Pugh, Benjamin Sydes, Richard Stephens, Mahesh K Parmar, Ruth E Langley
BACKGROUND: Whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) and dexamethasone are widely used to treat brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), although there have been no randomised clinical trials showing that WBRT improves either quality of life or overall survival. Even after treatment with WBRT, the prognosis of this patient group is poor. We aimed to establish whether WBRT could be omitted without a significant effect on survival or quality of life. METHODS: The Quality of Life after Treatment for Brain Metastases (QUARTZ) study is a non-inferiority, phase 3 randomised trial done at 69 UK and three Australian centres...
October 22, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597285/current-patterns-of-care-for-patients-with-extensive-stage-small-cell-lung-cancer-survey-of-us-radiation-oncologists-on-their-recommendations-regarding-thoracic-consolidation-radiotherapy
#18
Timur Mitin, Aditya Jain, Catherine Degnin, Yiyi Chen, Mark Henderson, Charles R Thomas
OBJECTIVES: Current National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines recommend thoracic consolidation radiation therapy (TCRT) for patients with Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer (ES-SCLC) with response to systemic chemotherapy, based on two randomized clinical trials, which varied in patient selection and radiation therapy doses administered. The current pattern of practice among US radiation oncologists is unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have surveyed practicing US radiation oncologist via a short online questionnaire...
October 2016: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27587193/-targeted-therapy-and-precision-medicine-more-than-just-words-in-the-treatment-of-lung-cancer
#19
D F Heigener, M Horn, M Reck
Between 10 and 15 % of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) proliferate due to the presence of a so-called driver mutation. This molecular alteration allows the cancer to continue to proliferate and can be deliberately inhibited. In addition to mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR) and translocations between the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 gene (EML 4) and the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene (ALK), this applies to ROS1 gene translocations. For the former two alterations, many inhibitors are already available, whereas for ROS1 and other driving mutations the evidence is sparse due to the rare occurrence of these mutations in NSCLC...
December 2016: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27587046/a-particle-filter-based-autocontouring-algorithm-for-lung-tumor-tracking-using-dynamic-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#20
Alexandra E Bourque, Stéphane Bedwani, Édith Filion, Jean-François Carrier
PURPOSE: This study introduces a novel autocontouring algorithm based on particle filter for lung tumors. It is validated on dynamic magnetic resonance (MR) images and is developed in the context of MR-linac treatments. METHODS: A sequential Monte Carlo method called particle filter is used as the main structure of the algorithm and is combined with Otsu's thresholding technique to contour lung tumors on dynamic MR images. Four non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients were imaged with a 1...
September 2016: Medical Physics
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